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Sample records for experiment fordetermining hysteretic

  1. Finite versus zero-temperature hysteretic behavior of spin glasses: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Hérisson, Didier; Östh, Michael; Nordblad, Per; Ito, Atsuko; Katori, Hiroko Aruga

    2007-09-01

    We present experimental results attempting to fingerprint nonanalyticities in the magnetization curves of spin glasses found by Katzgraber [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257202 (2002)] via zero-temperature Monte Carlo simulations of the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass. Our results show that the singularities at zero temperature due to the reversal-field memory effect are washed out by the finite temperatures of the experiments. The data are analyzed via the first order reversal curve (FORC) magnetic fingerprinting method. The experimental results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at finite temperatures which agree qualitatively very well with the experimental results. This suggests that the hysteretic behavior of real Ising spin-glass materials is well described by the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass. Furthermore, reversal-field memory is a purely zero-temperature effect.

  2. Cyclic hysteretic flow in porous medium column: model, experiment, and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2001-01-01

    A periodic vertical movement of the groundwater table results in a subsequent cyclic response of the water content and pressure profiles in the vadose zone. The sequence of periodic wetting and drying processes can be affected by hysteresis effects in this zone. A one-dimensional saturated/unsaturated flow model based on Richards' equation and the Mualem (Soil Sci. 137 (1984) 283) hysteresis model is formulated which can take into account multi-cycle hysteresis effects in the relation between capillary pressure and water content. The numerical integration of the unsaturated flow equation is based on a Galerkin-type finite element method. The flow domain is discretised by finite elements with linear shape functions. Simulations start with static water content and pressure profiles, which correspond to either a boundary drying or wetting retention curve. To facilitate the numerical solution of the hysteretic case an implicit non-iterative procedure was chosen for the solution of the nonlinear differential equation. Laboratory experiments were performed with a vertical sand column by imposing a high frequency periodic pressure head at the lower end of the column. The total water volume in the column, and the periodic water content profile averaged over time were measured. The boundary drying and wetting curves of the relation between water content and capillary pressure were determined by independent experiments. The simulations of the experimental conditions show a clear effect of the hysteresis phenomenon on the water content profile. The simulations with hysteresis agree well with the measurements. Computed dimensionless water content profiles are presented for different oscillation frequencies with and without consideration of hysteresis.

  3. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  4. The hysteretic Hopfield neural network.

    PubMed

    Bharitkar, S; Mendel, J M

    2000-01-01

    A new neuron activation function based on a property found in physical systems--hysteresis--is proposed. We incorporate this neuron activation in a fully connected dynamical system to form the hysteretic Hopfield neural network (HHNN). We then present an analog implementation of this architecture and its associated dynamical equation and energy function.We proceed to prove Lyapunov stability for this new model, and then solve a combinatorial optimization problem (i.e., the N-queen problem) using this network. We demonstrate the advantages of hysteresis by showing increased frequency of convergence to a solution, when the parameters associated with the activation function are varied. PMID:18249816

  5. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  6. Time delay control of hysteretic composite plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long-Xiang; Li, Shi-Hong; Liu, Kun; Cai, Guo-Ping; Li, Hong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Due to boosting usage of flexible and damping materials, it is of great significance for both science and engineering to explore active control methods for vibration within time-delayed hysteretic structures. This paper conducts theoretical and experimental research on a time-delayed controller for a flexible plate with a single-layer rubber glued on its back. First of all, the dynamic equation for a composite plate is given on the base of the Kirchhoff-Love assumption, where damping-restoring force is described by the Bouc-Wen hysteresis model. Then, the influence of time delay is taken into account and the state equation of the plate with time delay is obtained. Next, a standard state equation, with implicit time delay, is derived using one specific form of integral transformation and vector augmentation. Finally, an instantaneous optimal control method is used to design an active controller. This controller does not only involve state feedback of the current step, but also a linear addition of former state feedbacks within several steps. In order to verify this method, experimental work is conducted. Problems encountered like differential computation and lifting of displacement signal are also handled. According to a comparison between simulations and experiments, the control method given in this paper is feasible and valid, and it is available for both small and large time delay.

  7. Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison ofnon-hysteretic and hysteretic characteristic curves

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2006-07-17

    Numerical models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2)in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent theinteractions of non-wetting-phase CO2 and wetting-phase brine. When aproblem includes both injection of CO2 (a drainage process) and itssubsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage andwetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctlycapture the behavior of the CO2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation,capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on thecurrent grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturationin the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or onlywetting, a non-hysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure andrelative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-blocksaturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robustcomputationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability ofthe characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-pointsaturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Twoexample problems involving geologic CO2 storage are simulated withTOUGH2, a multiphase, multicomponent code for flow and transport codethrough geological media. Both non-hysteretic and hysteretic formulationsare used, to illustrate the applicability and limitations ofnon-hysteretic methods.The first application considers leakage of CO2from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the secondexamines the role of heterogeneity within the storageformation.

  8. Adaptive control design for hysteretic smart systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Smith, Ralph C.

    2011-04-01

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic actuators are being considered for a range of industrial, aerospace, aeronautic and biomedical applications due to their unique transduction capabilities. However, they also exhibit hysteretic and nonlinear behavior that must be accommodated in models and control designs. If uncompensated, these effects can yield reduced system performance and, in the worst case, can produce unpredictable behavior of the control system. In this paper, we address the development of adaptive control designs for hysteretic systems. We review an MRAC-like adaptive control algorithm used to track a reference trajectory while computing online estimates for certain model parameters. This method is incorporated in a composite control algorithm to improve the tracking capabilities of the system. Issues arising in the implementation of these algorithms are addressed, and a numerical example is presented, comparing the results of each method.

  9. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    DOE PAGES

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-11

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. In conclusion, we propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  10. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-01

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  11. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low-temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We suggest that both hysteretic MR and AHE arise from the formation of complex non-coplanar structures at magnetic domain walls. Current address: Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University.

  12. Tracking Control of Hysteretic Piezoelectric Actuator using Adaptive Rate-Dependent Controller.

    PubMed

    Tan, U-Xuan; Latt, Win Tun; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Riviere, Cameron N; Ang, Wei Tech

    2009-03-16

    With the increasing popularity of actuators involving smart materials like piezoelectric, control of such materials becomes important. The existence of the inherent hysteretic behavior hinders the tracking accuracy of the actuators. To make matters worse, the hysteretic behavior changes with rate. One of the suggested ways is to have a feedforward controller to linearize the relationship between the input and output. Thus, the hysteretic behavior of the actuator must first be modeled by sensing the relationship between the input voltage and output displacement. Unfortunately, the hysteretic behavior is dependent on individual actuator and also environmental conditions like temperature. It is troublesome and costly to model the hysteresis regularly. In addition, the hysteretic behavior of the actuators also changes with age. Most literature model the actuator using a cascade of rate-independent hysteresis operators and a dynamical system. However, the inertial dynamics of the structure is not the only contributing factor. A complete model will be complex. Thus, based on the studies done on the phenomenological hysteretic behavior with rate, this paper proposes an adaptive rate-dependent feedforward controller with Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis operators for piezoelectric actuators. This adaptive controller is achieved by adapting the coefficients to manipulate the weights of the play operators. Actual experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive controller. The main contribution of this paper is its ability to perform tracking control of non-periodic motion and is illustrated with the tracking control ability of a couple of different non-periodic waveforms which were created by passing random numbers through a low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 20Hz.

  13. Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Claudio

    2008-07-08

    The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.

  14. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Campo, Miguel Angel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within landscapes. This information is valuable for land managers to be able to take appropriate action at the correct place. Hysteresis between sediment and water discharge can give important information about the sources , pathways and conditions of sediment that arrives at the outlet of a catchment. "Hysteresis" happens when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed -towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. This phenomenon to some extent reflects the way in which the runoff generation processes are conjugated with those of the production and transport of sediments, hence the usefulness of hysteresis as a diagnostic hydrological parameter. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine hysteresis make its interpretation uncertain or, at the very least, problematic. Many types of hysteretic loops have been described as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly describing the origin of the sediments. In this study, several measures to objectively classify hysteretic loops in an automated way were developed. These were consecutively used to classify several hundreds of loops from several agricultural catchments in Northern Spain. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz "principal", Op, and Oskotz "woodland", Ow). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds, located in the Central Western part of Navarre, are roughly similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine texture topsoil), climate (humid sub Mediterranean) and land use (80-90% cultivated with winter grain crops

  15. The hysteretic evapotranspiration - vapor pressure deficit relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Yang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal hysteresis between evapotranspiration (ET) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was reported in many ecosystems but justification for its onset and magnitude remain incomplete with biotic and abiotic factors invoked as possible explanations. To place these explanations within a mathematical framework, ';rate-dependent' hysteresis originating from a phase angle difference between periodic input and output time series is first considered. Lysimeter evaporation (E) measurements from wet bare soils and model calculations using the Penman equation demonstrate that the E-VPD hysteresis emerges without any biotic effects due to a phase angle difference (or time lag) between net radiation the main driver of E, and VPD. Modulations originating from biotic effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis were then considered. The phase angle difference representation earlier employed was mathematically transformed into a storage problem and applied to the soil-plant system. The transformed system shows that soil moisture storage within the root zone can produce an ET-VPD hysteresis prototypical of those generated by phase-angle differences. To explore the interplay between all the lags in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and phase angle differences among forcing and response variables, a detailed soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) model was developed and applied to a grassland ecosystem. The results of the SPAC model suggest that the hysteresis magnitude depends on the radiation-VPD lag. The soil moisture dry-down simulations also suggest that modeled root water potential and leaf water potential are both better indicators of the hysteresis magnitude than soil moisture, suggesting that plant water status is the main factor regulating the hysteretic relation between ET and VPD. Hence, the genesis and magnitude of the ET-VPD hysteresis are controlled directly by both biotic factors and abiotic factors such as time lag between radiation and VPD originating from boundary layer processes

  16. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Shuying Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei

    2015-05-07

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.

  17. Hysteretic behavior of prestressed concrete bridge pier with fiber model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-li; Feng, Guang-qi; Qin, Si-feng

    2014-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop "pinching effect," smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier. PMID:24578635

  18. Hysteretic behavior of prestressed concrete bridge pier with fiber model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-li; Feng, Guang-qi; Qin, Si-feng

    2014-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop "pinching effect," smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier.

  19. Hysteretic Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Pier with Fiber Model

    PubMed Central

    Hui-li, Wang; Guang-qi, Feng; Si-feng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop “pinching effect,” smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier. PMID:24578635

  20. Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field

    PubMed Central

    Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of

  1. Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field.

    PubMed

    Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of

  2. Fragility and hysteretic creep in frictional granular jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, M. M.; Rivera, M. K.; Krzakala, F.; Ecke, R. E.

    2013-04-01

    The granular jamming transition is experimentally investigated in a two-dimensional system of frictional, bidispersed disks subject to quasistatic, uniaxial compression without vibrational disturbances (zero granular temperature). Three primary results are presented in this experimental study. First, using disks with different static friction coefficients (μ), we experimentally verify numerical results that predict jamming onset at progressively lower packing fractions with increasing friction. Second, we show that the first compression cycle measurably differs from subsequent cycles. The first cycle is fragile—a metastable configuration with simultaneous jammed and unjammed clusters—over a small packing fraction interval (ϕ1<ϕ<ϕ2) and exhibits simultaneous exponential rise in pressure and exponential decrease in disk displacements over the same packing fraction interval. This fragile behavior is explained through a percolation mechanism of stressed contacts where cluster growth exhibits spatial correlation with disk displacements and contributes to recent results emphasizing fragility in frictional jamming. Control experiments show that the fragile state results from the experimental incompatibility between the requirements for zero friction and zero granular temperature. Measurements with several disk materials of varying elastic moduli E and friction coefficients μ show that friction directly controls the start of the fragile state but indirectly controls the exponential pressure rise. Finally, under repetitive loading (compression) and unloading (decompression), we find the system exhibits pressure hysteresis, and the critical packing fraction ϕc increases slowly with repetition number. This friction-induced hysteretic creep is interpreted as the granular pack's evolution from a metastable to an eventual structurally stable configuration. It is shown to depend on the quasistatic step size Δϕ, which provides the only perturbative mechanism in the

  3. Studying the hysteretic behaviour of unconsolidated sediments using an electroencephalography apparatus: a laboratory study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Jougnot, Damien; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Brandner, Catherine; del Rocio Millán Ruiz, José; Linde, Niklas

    2015-04-01

    In soil science, the hysteretic nature of the water retention curve plays an important role in describing a soil's propensity to retain water and conduct fluid flow. However, hysteresis effects remain difficult to study and to quantify. Geophysical methods provide suitable and non-invasive tools that could be used for this purpose. For example, the degree of water saturation in a soil can be determined by measuring its electrical resistivity, while a water flux through a soil generates a measureable electrical potential difference (streaming potential). The objective of this work is to study the hysteretic behaviour of unconsolidated sediments during repeated drainage and imbibition cycles under well-constrained laboratory conditions. Monitoring was performed using a 32-electrode electroencephalography (EEG) apparatus (Biosemi) coupled with a current injection system. We used a 150 cm high sand-filled column in which we monitored self-potential (SP) signals using 15 electrodes in direct contact with the medium (so-called "naked" electrodes), and 15 electrodes that were inserted in small porous pots that were filled with water of the same conductivity and chloride concentration as the water saturating the sand (so-called "chamber" electrodes). For both electrode types, the electrodes were placed between 5 and 145 cm height with an electrode spacing of 10 cm. Pressure (10 tensiometers) and mass, together with the temperature and the relative humidity in the room, were constantly monitored for the entire duration of the experiments. We performed ten cycles of drainage and imbibition by changing the water level of an external reservoir connected to the column. Each drainage and imbibition cycle took approximately 25 and 17 hours, respectively, for a total duration of the experiment of 24 days. After each imbibition and drainage cycle, we performed complex conductivity measurements by injecting a known electric current at two electrodes using a sine wave with varying

  4. Classical phase diffusion in small hysteretic Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinis, J.M.; Kautz, R.L. )

    1989-10-02

    The existence of classical phase diffusion in hysteretic junctions is demonstrated by quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated {ital I}-{ital V} curves. The simulations are based on a circuit that accurately models both the junction and its external shunting impedance at microwave frequencies. We show that the bias current at which the junction switches from the phase diffusion state to the voltage state is sensitive to dissipation at microwave frequencies.

  5. Investigating catchment-scale hysteretic behaviour of nutrients at annual and individual storm time-resolutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charlotte; Freer, Jim; Johnes, Penny; Collins, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all water bodies should be maintained at, or raised to, good ecological status, driven by improved integrated catchment management. Therefore, it is necessary to implement cost-effective mitigation strategies to reduce pollution from nutrients and improve overall water quality. If successful mitigation strategies are to be designed then it is imperative that catchment scale responses to environmental and anthropogenic changes are better understood. Against this background, this presentation investigates changes in hysteretic behaviours of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers using high resolution monitoring techniques. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant flow pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting regime differences or changes within and between catchments. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to monitor evidence for improving water quality problems arising specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture using targeted mitigation experiments and high resolution monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, as well as how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as sediment from a number of storm events of varying magnitudes throughout the 2011-2012 monitoring period in the Hampshire Avon catchment as part of the DTC programme. The investigation focuses

  6. Plane stress problems using hysteretic rigid body spring network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christos, Sofianos D.; Vlasis, Koumousis K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a discrete numerical scheme is presented capable of modeling the hysteretic behavior of 2D structures. Rigid Body Spring Network (RBSN) models that were first proposed by Kawai (Nucl Eng Des 48(1):29-207, 1978) are extended to account for hysteretic elastoplastic behavior. Discretization is based on Voronoi tessellation, as proposed specifically for RBSN models to ensure uniformity. As a result, the structure is discretized into convex polygons that form the discrete rigid bodies of the model. These are connected with three zero length, i.e., single-node springs in the middle of their common facets. The springs follow the smooth hysteretic Bouc-Wen model which efficiently incorporates classical plasticity with no direct reference to a yield surface. Numerical results for both static and dynamic loadings are presented, which validate the proposed simplified spring-mass formulation. In addition, they verify the model's applicability on determining primarily the displacement field and plastic zones compared to the standard elastoplastic finite element method.

  7. Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Simona; Navas, Adrian; Boccaletti, Stefano; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    We report finite-size numerical investigations and mean-field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine, for a gaussian distribution of the frequencies, the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic, and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean-field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi [Physica D 100, 279 (1997)] allows us to derive the synchronization curve associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size, and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of whirling oscillators. The presence of these groups of coherently drifting oscillators induces oscillations in the order parameter. We have shown that the transition remains hysteretic even for randomly diluted networks up to a level of connectivity corresponding to a few links per oscillator. Finally, an application to the Italian high-voltage power grid is reported, which reveals the emergence of quasiperiodic oscillations in the order parameter due to the simultaneous presence of many competing whirling clusters.

  8. Principle and validation of modified hysteretic models for magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Chen, Peng; Qian, Li-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers, semi-active actuators for vibration and shock control systems, have attracted increasing attention during the past two decades. However, it is difficult to establish a precise mathematical model for the MR dampers and their control systems due to their intrinsic strong nonlinear hysteretic behavior. A phenomenological model based on the Bouc-Wen model can be used to effectively describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the MR dampers, but the structure of the phenomenological model is complex and the Bouc-Wen model is functionally redundant. In this paper, based on the phenomenological model, (1) a normalized phenomenological model is derived through incorporating a ‘normalization’ concept, and (2) a restructured model, also incorporating the ‘normalization’ concept, is proposed and realized. In order to demonstrate this, a multi-islands genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to identify the parameters of the restructured model, the normalized phenomenological model, and the phenomenological model. The performance of the three models for describing and predicting the damping force characteristics of the MR dampers are compared and analyzed using the identified parameters. The research results indicate that, as compared with the phenomenological model and the normalized phenomenological model, (1) the restructured model can not only effectively decrease the number of the model parameters and reduce the complexity of the model, but can also describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of MR dampers more accurately, and (2) the meanings of several model parameters of the restructured model are clearer and the initial ranges of the model parameters are more explicit, which is of significance for parameter identification.

  9. Fast, Low-Power, Hysteretic Level-Detector Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arditti, Mordechai

    1993-01-01

    Circuit for detection of preset levels of voltage or current intended to replace standard fast voltage comparator. Hysteretic analog/digital level detector operates at unusually low power with little sacrifice of speed. Comprises low-power analog circuit and complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) digital circuit connected in overall closed feedback loop to decrease rise and fall times, provide hysteresis, and trip-level control. Contains multiple subloops combining linear and digital feedback. Levels of sensed signals and hysteresis level easily adjusted by selection of components to suit specific application.

  10. Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Olmi, Simona; Navas, Adrian; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    We report finite size numerical investigations and mean field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi allows to derive the synchronization curve associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of coherently drifting oscillators. Financial support has been provided by the Italian Ministry of University and Research within the project CRISIS LAB PNR 2011-2013.

  11. Identification of an extended Bouc-Wen model with application to seismic protection through hysteretic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sireteanu, Tudor; Giuclea, M.; Mitu, A. M.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper is proposed an extended Bouc-Wen model for improving its capability to approximate experimental symmetric hysteretic loops. On the basis of the generalized equation there are defined integral and differential conditions that describe the essential geometric properties of a hysteretic curve. Next, a new method based on Genetic Algorithms is developed to identify the Bouc-Wen model parameters from experimental hysteretic loops obtained from periodic loading tests. The performance of presented approach is illustrated for two types of seismic protection devices with hysteretic characteristics: elastomeric base isolators and buckling restrained dissipative braces. The applicability of proposed method is highlighted by using the derived models to analyse by numerical simulation the efficiency of these devices for reducing seismic response of a three stories civil structure.

  12. Hysteretic memory and end plate effects on the response of a flexible cylinder undergoing Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedikli, Ersegun Deniz; Dahl, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    The response of rigid cylinders undergoing VIV has been observed to be hysteretic with respect to the nominal reduced velocity, as transition of the wake is delayed dependent on whether the flow has been slowed down or sped up. In the present study, a similar behavior is observed for a flexible, tension-dominated cylinder, however the hysteretic behavior is shown to affect the transition between excited modes. The test cylinder has diameter of 6.35 mm, aspect ratio of 40 and mass ratio of 3.76. The dynamic response of the cylinder is measured visually, by tracking 26 dots along the span of the cylinder using two high-speed cameras between the Reynolds number of 1080 and 4660. It is observed that a clear memory effect exists, where the speed at which transition between the first mode and second mode excitation in the cross-flow direction changes dependent on whether the flow is increasing or decreasing in speed. A second series of experiments is conducted to investigate end plate effects on the flexible cylinder. Experiments are conducted with and without an end plate located at the end pivot point on the cylinder. Clear differences are observed between each condition illustrating the strong three-dimensional behavior of vortex shedding behind the flexible cylinder.

  13. The hysteretic evapotranspiration—Vapor pressure deficit relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan; Manzoni, Stefano; Katul, Gabriel; Porporato, Amilcare; Yang, Dawen

    2014-02-01

    Diurnal hysteresis between evapotranspiration (ET) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was reported in many ecosystems, but justification for its onset and magnitude remains incomplete with biotic and abiotic factors invoked as possible explanations. To place these explanations within a holistic framework, the occurrence of hysteresis was theoretically assessed along a hierarchy of model systems where both abiotic and biotic components are sequentially added. Lysimeter evaporation (E) measurements and model calculations using the Penman equation were used to investigate the effect of the time lag between net radiation and VPD on the hysteresis in the absence of any biotic effects. Modulations from biotic effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis were then added using soil-plant-atmosphere models of different complexities applied to a grassland ecosystem. The results suggest that the hysteresis magnitude depends on the radiation-VPD lag, while the plant and soil water potentials are both key factors modulating the hysteretic ET-VPD relation as soil moisture declines. In particular, larger hysteresis magnitude is achieved at less negative leaf water potential, root water potential, and soil water potential. While plant hydraulic capacitance affects the leaf water potential-ET relation, it has negligible effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis. Therefore, the genesis and magnitude of the ET-VPD hysteresis are controlled directly by both abiotic factors such as soil water availability, biotic factors (leaf and root water potentials, which in turn depend on soil moisture), and the time lag between radiation and VPD.

  14. Domain switching mechanisms in polycrystalline ferroelectrics with asymmetric hysteretic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Eva-Maria; García, R. Edwin; Key, Thomas S.; Blendell, John E.; Bowman, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to predict the effect of microstructure on the local polarization switching of bulk ferroelectric ceramics. The model shows that a built-in electromechanical field develops in a ferroelectric material as a result of the spatial coupling of the grains and the direct physical coupling between the thermomechanical and electromechanical properties of a bulk ceramic material. The built-in fields that result from the thermomechanically induced grain-grain electromechanical interactions result in the appearance of four microstructural switching mechanisms: (1) simple switching, where the c-axes of ferroelectric domains will align with the direction of the applied macroscopic electric field by starting from the core of each grain; (2) grain boundary induced switching, where the domain's switching response will initiate at grain corners and boundaries as a result of the polarization and stress that is locally generated from the strong anisotropy of the dielectric permittivity and the local piezoelectric contributions to polarization from the surrounding material; (3) negative poling, where abutting ferroelectric domains of opposite polarity actively oppose domain switching by increasing their degree of tetragonality by interacting with the surrounding domains that have already switched to align with the applied electrostatic field. Finally, (4) domain reswitching mechanism is observed at very large applied electric fields, and is characterized by the appearance of polarization domain reversals events in the direction of their originally unswitched state. This mechanism is a consequence of the competition between the macroscopic applied electric field, and the induced electric field that results from the neighboring domains (or grains) interactions. The model shows that these built-in electromechanical fields and mesoscale mechanisms contribute to the asymmetry of the macroscopic hysteretic behavior in poled samples. Furthermore, below a

  15. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  16. Research on strip hysteretic behavior and mill vertical vibration system nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zang, Yong; Jin, Ke

    2016-10-01

    Rolling mill vibration is a technical problem in the iron and steel industry for many years and has serious impact and harm on production. There were serious vibrations in the middle mills when rolling thin container strip for the compact strip production (CSP) strip hot rolling process. This paper studied the hysteretic characteristic of rolled strip and established the vertical vibration system single-degree-of-freedom dynamics model of the F3 mill rollers. The influence of parameters on the system characteristics was studied, such as the linear damping coefficient, linear stiffness coefficient, nonlinear displacement coefficient, nonlinear velocity coefficient and exciting force, and then, the vibration source and vibration-restraining measure were studied from the roll gap. The results show that with increasing linear stiffness, damping and hysteresis coefficient, it can reduce the possibility of chaotic system; the linear stiffness coefficient had the greatest influence, and hysteresis damping coefficient had minimal influence on chaotic threshold. In order to reduce rolling mill vibration amplitude, we should reduce the external excitation force firstly, and in order to improve the dynamic performance of the system, we should control the speed of nonlinear coefficient values. The contrast experiments were carried out at the production scene finally.

  17. User's Guide for Hysteretic Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Functions in iTOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.A.

    2009-08-01

    The precursor of TOUGH2, TOUGH, was originally developed with non-hysteretic characteristic curves. Hysteretic capillary pressure functions were implemented in TOUGH in the late 1980s by Niemi and Bodvarsson (1988), and hysteretic capillary pressure and relative permeability functions were added to iTOUGH2 about ten years later by Finsterle et al. (1998). Recently, modifications were made to the iTOUGH2 hysteretic formulation to make it more robust and efficient (Doughty, 2007). Code development is still underway, with the ultimate goal being a hysteretic module that fits into the standard TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1991) framework. This document provides a user's guide for the most recent version of the hysteretic code, which runs within iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 1999a,b,c). The current code differs only slightly from what was presented in Doughty (2007), hence that document provides the basic information on the processes being modeled and how they are conceptualized. This document focuses on a description of the user-specified parameters required to run hysteretic iTOUGH2. In the few instances where the conceptualization differs from that of Doughty (2007), the features described here are the current ones. Sample problems presented in this user's guide use the equation-of-state module ECO2N (Pruess, 2005). The components present in ECO2N are H{sub 2}O, NaCl, and CO{sub 2}. Two fluid phases and one solid phase are considered: an aqueous phase, which primarily consists of liquid H2O and may contain dissolved NaCl and CO{sub 2}; a supercritical phase which primarily consists of CO{sub 2}, but also includes a small amount of gaseous H{sub 2}O; and a solid phase consisting of precipitated NaCl. Details of the ECO2N formulation may be found in Pruess (2005). The aqueous phase is the wetting phase and is denoted ''liquid'', whereas the supercritical phase is the non-wetting phase and is denoted ''gas''. The hysteretic formalism may be applied to other iTOUGH2 equation

  18. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  19. Spatial, Hysteretic, and Adaptive Host-Guest Chemistry in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Watson-Crick Sites.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Li, Mian; Lin, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Wei; Chen, Guang-Hui; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Biological and artificial molecules and assemblies capable of supramolecular recognition, especially those with nucleobase pairing, usually rely on autonomous or collective binding to function. Advanced site-specific recognition takes advantage of cooperative spatial effects, as in local folding in protein-DNA binding. Herein, we report a new nucleobase-tagged metal-organic framework (MOF), namely ZnBTCA (BTC=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl, A=adenine), in which the exposed Watson-Crick faces of adenine residues are immobilized periodically on the interior crystalline surface. Systematic control experiments demonstrated the cooperation of the open Watson-Crick sites and spatial effects within the nanopores, and thermodynamic and kinetic studies revealed a hysteretic host-guest interaction attributed to mild chemisorption. We further exploited this behavior for adenine-thymine binding within the constrained pores, and a globally adaptive response of the MOF host was observed.

  20. Damping force control of a vehicle MR damper using a Preisach hysteretic compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Min-Sang; Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents damping force control performances of a magnetorheological (MR) damper via a new control strategy considering hysteretic behavior of the field-dependent damping force. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR damper, Delphi Magneride™ which is applicable to a high-class passenger vehicle is adopted and its field-dependent damping force is experimentally evaluated. The MR damper has two types of damping force hysteretic behavior. The first is velocity-dependent hysteresis and the other is field-dependent hysteresis. Since the magnetic field is directly connected with control input, the field-dependent hysteresis largely affects the control performances of the MR damper system. To consider the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper, a Preisach hysteresis model is established and its first-order descending (FOD) curves are experimentally identified. Subsequently, a feedforward hysteretic compensator associated with the biviscous model and inverse Bingham model is formulated to achieve the desired damping force. The control algorithm is experimentally implemented and damping force controllability for sinusoidal and arbitrary trajectories is evaluated in terms of accuracy and input magnitude. In addition, vibration control performances of the MR suspension system are experimentally evaluated with a quarter-vehicle test facility.

  1. COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...

  2. A quasi-modal parameter based system identification procedure with non-proportional hysteretic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minli; Hahn, Eric J.; Liu, Jike; Lu, Zhongrong

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduced a modal parameter based identification procedure to identify the equivalent system of structures under harmonic excitations. The developed identification technique assumed non-proportional hysteretic damping in the equivalent system, which would be applicable in identifying more general structures. By introducing quasi-modal parameter, modal analysis equation was decoupled under physical coordinate; hence, the modal parameters of each vibration mode are identified independently. Double iteration algorithm was developed to solve the derived non-linear identification equation with complex unknowns. The developed identification procedure was applied to identify the equivalent system of a numerical model in order to evaluate the feasibility of the technique in practice. The identification procedure was also applied to identify an experimental mass and bar rig for validation purpose. Identification results showed that the identification procedure could identify accurately and robustly the equivalent system with non-proportional hysteretic damping assumption; hence, it is likely to be applicable in the field.

  3. An investigation on the field strength and loading rate dependences of the hysteretic dynamics of magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Zhangwei; Wang, Linxiang

    2015-02-01

    This paper is an extended study on the model of the hysteretic dynamics of magnetorheological dampers based on a phenomenological phase transition theory (Wang and Kamath in Smart Mater. Struct. 15(6):1725-1733, 2006). It is demonstrated that, by appropriately choosing model parameters, the frequency dependence of the hysteretic dynamics can be captured very well by the model based on phase transition theory. Whilst by introducing an appropriate rescaling coefficient to account for the strength of the magnetized particle chains with various magnetic field strengths, the field strength dependence of the hysteretic dynamics can also be captured very well by the same differential equation with the same set of model parameters. There are in total eight model parameters introduced for capturing the hysteretic dynamics, including its dependence on the loading rate and field strength.

  4. Ac Josephson effect in hysteretic junctions: Range and stability of phase lock

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, R.L.

    1981-05-01

    The rf-induced constant voltage steps generated by the ac Josephson effect are studied within the context of the Stewart-McCumber model. Simulations are used to determine the range of current bias over which phase lock occurs for model parameters appropriate to hysteretic tunnel junctions. The effect of noise on phase lock is also considered. The results are applied to a zero-bias voltage standard proposed by Levinsen et al.

  5. User's Guide for Hysteretic Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Functions in TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    This document provides a user’s guide for the most recent version of the hysteretic code, which runs within iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 1999a,b,c) or TOUGH2 V2.1 (Pruess et al., 2012). The usage of the hysteretic module is the same in both codes, which for brevity here are both referred to simply as TOUGH2. The current code differs only slightly from what was presented in Doughty (2007), hence that document provides the basic information on the processes being modeled and how they are conceptualized. This document focuses on a description of the user-specified parameters required to run hysteretic TOUGH2. In the few instances where the conceptualization differs from that of Doughty (2007), the features described here are the current ones. Sample problems presented in this user’s guide use the equation-of-state module ECO2N (Pruess, 2005). The components present in ECO2N are H{sub 2}O, NaCl, and CO{sub 2}. Two fluid phases and one solid phase are considered: an aqueous phase, which primarily consists of liquid H{sub 2}O and may contain dissolved NaCl and CO{sub 2}; a supercritical phase which primarily consists of CO{sub 2}, but also includes a small amount of gaseous H{sub 2}O; and a solid phase consisting of precipitated NaCl. Details of the ECO2N formulation may be found in Pruess (2005). The aqueous phase is the wetting phase and is denoted ‘liquid’, whereas the supercritical phase is the non-wetting phase and is denoted ‘gas’. The hysteretic formalism may be applied to other TOUGH2 equation-of-state modules that consider two fluid phases, as long as the liquid phase is the wetting phase and the gas phase is the non-wetting phase.

  6. Novel hysteretic noisy chaotic neural network for broadcast scheduling problems in packet radio networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Zhao, Lin; Cao, Wei; Xu, Yaoqun; Dai, Xuefeng; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2010-09-01

    Noisy chaotic neural network (NCNN), which can exhibit stochastic chaotic simulated annealing (SCSA), has been proven to be a powerful tool in solving combinatorial optimization problems. In order to retain the excellent optimization property of SCSA and improve the optimization performance of the NCNN using hysteretic dynamics without increasing network parameters, we first construct an equivalent model of the NCNN and then control noises in the equivalent model to propose a novel hysteretic noisy chaotic neural network (HNCNN). Compared with the NCNN, the proposed HNCNN can exhibit both SCSA and hysteretic dynamics without introducing extra system parameters, and can increase the effective convergence toward optimal or near-optimal solutions at higher noise levels. Broadcast scheduling problem (BSP) in packet radio networks (PRNs) is to design an optimal time-division multiple-access (TDMA) frame structure with minimal frame length, maximal channel utilization, and minimal average time delay. In this paper, the proposed HNCNN is applied to solve BSP in PRNs to demonstrate its performance. Simulation results show that the proposed HNCNN with higher noise amplitudes is more likely to find an optimal or near-optimal TDMA frame structure with a minimal average time delay than previous algorithms.

  7. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H_{\\infty } controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions.

  8. Observation of hysteretic magnetic phase transitions coupled with orientation motion of ions and dielectric relaxation in a one-dimensional nickel-bis-dithiolene molecule solid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan-Rong; Ning, Wei-Hua; Yang, Hao; Liu, Jian-Lan; Xuan, Fang; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2014-04-28

    The second polymorph, the β-crystal, of the nickel-bis-dithiolene compound [4'-CF3bzPy][Ni(mnt)2], where 4'-CF3bzPy = 1-(4'-trifluoromethylbenzyl)pyridinium and mnt(2-) = maleonitriledithiolate, was obtained. The variable-temperature single crystal structures, magnetic behavior in 1.8-300 K and dielectric nature in 123-373 K have been investigated for the β-crystal. This polymorph experiences two hysteretic magnetic phase transitions in a narrow temperature region (190-217 K) with the thermal hysteresis loops ca. 6 K and ca. 11 K. The two hysteretic magnetic phase transitions are coupled with two isostructural phase transitions (IPTs), respectively, which are driven by the novel step-wise dynamic orientation motion of the anion and cation in the β-crystal. There is an absence of a dielectric anomaly in the structural transformation temperature interval. However, a dielectric relaxation, related to the dipole motion of polar CF3 groups in the cations under an ac electrical field, emerges in the high-temperature phase.

  9. A proposed model to include a residual NAPL saturation in a hysteretic capillary pressure-saturation relationship.

    PubMed

    Van Geel, P J; Roy, S D

    2002-09-01

    A residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) present in the vadose zone can act as a contaminant source for many years as the compounds of concern partition to infiltrating groundwater and air contained in the soil voids. Current pressure-saturation-relative permeability relationships do not include a residual NAPL saturation term in their formulation. This paper presents the results of series of two- and three-phase pressure cell experiments conducted to evaluate the residual NAPL saturation and its impact on the pressure-saturation relationship. A model was proposed to incorporate a residual NAPL saturation term into an existing hysteretic three-phase parametric model developed by Parker and Lenhard [Water Resour. Res. 23(12) (1987) 2187], Lenhard and Parker [Water Resour. Res. 23(12) (1987) 2197] and Lenhard [J. Contam. Hydrol. 9 (1992) 243]. The experimental results indicated that the magnitude of the residual NAPL saturation was a function of the maximum total liquid saturation reached and the water saturation. The proposed model to incorporate a residual NAPL saturation term is similar in form to the entrapment model proposed by Parker and Lenhard, which was based on an expression presented by Land [Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (June 1968) 149]. PMID:12236556

  10. Negative differential conductance and hysteretic current switching of benzene molecular junction in a transverse electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Huan; Ding, Guo-Hui; Dong, Bing

    2014-11-01

    We study charge transport through single benzene molecular junction (BMJ) directly sandwiched between two platinum electrodes by using a tight-binding model and the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Pronounced negative differential conductance is observed at finite bias voltage, resulting from charge redistribution in BMJ and a Coulomb blockade effect at the interface of molecule-electrode contacts. In the presence of a transverse electric field, hysteretic switching behavior and large spin-polarization of current are obtained, indicating the potential application of BMJ for acting as a nanoscale current modulator or spintronic molecular device.

  11. Using high-resolution water quality monitoring to investigate hysteretic behaviour of nutrients at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changing climate and a growing population are increasing pressures on the world's water bodies. Maintaining food security has resulted in changes in agricultural practices, leading to adverse impacts on water quality. To address this problem robust evidence is needed to determine which on-farm mitigation strategies are likely to be most effective in reducing pollutant impacts. The introduction of in-situ quasi-continuous monitoring of water quality provides the means to improve the characterisation of pollutant behaviour and gain new understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring within catchments. Here we use a suite of in-situ monitoring sensors to investigate changes in hysteretic patterns of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant transport pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting catchment change. Such data also improves the quantification of pollutant loads and concentration dynamics. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) programme has been established to deliver evidence for improvements in water quality arising specifically from the deployment of measures to mitigate diffuse pollution from agriculture using high resolution in-situ monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, and determine how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought in WY2011, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK in WY2012 and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as turbidity from a

  12. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping.

  13. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. PMID:25937493

  14. Spatially Extended Avalanches in a Hysteretic Capillary Condensation System: Superfluid {sup {bold 4}}He in Nuclepore

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, M.P.; Wootters, A.H.; Hallock, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    Capacitive studies of hysteretic capillary condensation of superfluid {sup 4}He in Nuclepore have shown that the initial draining of the pores occurs over a small range of the chemical potential with avalanches present as groups of pores drain. In the work reported here, the avalanches in this system are shown to be nonlocal events which involve pores distributed at low density across the entire sample. The nonlocal avalanche behavior is shown to be enabled by the presence of a superfluid film connection among the pores. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor subjected to oscillating magnetic fields: ferromagnetic effect and frequency dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang-Tong

    2014-06-01

    Numerical simulations of the hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor with a more realistic version of the architecture were performed via the finite-element technique in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The coated superconductor was electromagnetically modeled by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with nonlinear descriptions of the superconducting layer and the ferromagnetic substrate therein by a power-law model and the Langevin equation, respectively. A diverse effect of the ferromagnetic substrate on the hysteretic ac loss, depending on the strength of the applied magnetic field, was displayed, and its underlying cause was identified. The dependence of the hysteretic ac loss on the applied frequency is found to be related to a critical amplitude of the applied magnetic field, and the eddy-current loss dissipated in the metal coatings becomes prominent as the frequency increases only at high applied magnetic fields.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Hysteretic Live Load Effect in a Soil-Steel Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobótka, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation of hysteretic live load effect in a soil-steel bridge. The effect was originally identified experimentally by Machelski [1], [2]. The truck was crossing the bridge one way and the other in the full-scale test performed. At the same time, displacements and stress in the shell were measured. The major conclusion from the research was that the measured quantities formed hysteretic loops. A numerical simulation of that effect is addressed in the present work. The analysis was performed using Flac finite difference code. The methodology of solving the mechanical problems implemented in Flac enables us to solve the problem concerning a sequence of load and non-linear mechanical behaviour of the structure. The numerical model incorporates linear elastic constitutive relations for the soil backfill, for the steel shell and the sheet piles, being a flexible substructure for the shell. Contact zone between the shell and the soil backfill is assumed to reflect elastic-plastic constitutive model. Maximum shear stress in contact zone is limited by the Coulomb condition. The plastic flow rule is described by dilation angle ψ = 0. The obtained results of numerical analysis are in fair agreement with the experimental evidence. The primary finding from the performed simulation is that the slip in the interface can be considered an explanation of the hysteresis occurrence in the charts of displacement and stress in the shell.

  17. Calorie restriction hysteretically primes aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae toward more effective oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Erich B; Cunha, Fernanda M; Basso, Thiago O; Della Bianca, Bianca E; Gombert, Andreas K; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is an intervention known to extend the lifespan of a wide variety of organisms. In S. cerevisiae, chronological lifespan is prolonged by decreasing glucose availability in the culture media, a model for CR. The mechanism has been proposed to involve an increase in the oxidative (versus fermentative) metabolism of glucose. Here, we measured wild-type and respiratory incompetent (ρ(0)) S. cerevisiae biomass formation, pH, oxygen and glucose consumption, and the evolution of ethanol, glycerol, acetate, pyruvate and succinate levels during the course of 28 days of chronological aging, aiming to identify metabolic changes responsible for the effects of CR. The concomitant and quantitative measurements allowed for calculations of conversion factors between different pairs of substrates and products, maximum specific substrate consumption and product formation rates and maximum specific growth rates. Interestingly, we found that the limitation of glucose availability in CR S. cerevisiae cultures hysteretically increases oxygen consumption rates many hours after the complete exhaustion of glucose from the media. Surprisingly, glucose-to-ethanol conversion and cellular growth supported by glucose were not quantitatively altered by CR. Instead, we found that CR primed the cells for earlier, faster and more efficient metabolism of respiratory substrates, especially ethanol. Since lifespan-enhancing effects of CR are absent in respiratory incompetent ρ(0) cells, we propose that the hysteretic effect of glucose limitation on oxidative metabolism is central toward chronological lifespan extension by CR in this yeast.

  18. Hysteretic behavior of special shaped columns composed of steel and reinforced concrete (SRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zongping; Xu, Jinjun; Xue, Jianyang

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a series of experimental investigations on seventeen specimens of steel reinforced concrete special shaped (SRCSS) columns under low cyclic reversed loading using parallel crosshead equipment. Nine T-shaped SRC columns, four L-shaped SRC columns and four +-shaped SRC columns were tested to examine the effects of shape steel configuration, loading angle, axial compressive ratio and shear-span ratio on the behavior (strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility, etc.) of SRCSS column specimens. The failure modes and hysteretic performance of all the specimens were obtained in the tests. Test results demonstrate that the shear-span ratio is the main parameter affecting the failure modes of SRCSS columns. The specimens with small shear-span ratio are prone to shear failure, and the primary failure planes in SRCSS columns are parallel to the loading direction. As a result, there is a symmetry between positive and negative loading directions in the hysteretic curves of the SRCSS columns. The majority of displacement ductility coefficients for all the specimens are over 3.0, so that the SRCSS columns demonstrate a better deformation capacity. In addition, the equivalent viscous damping coefficients of all the specimens are greater than 0.2, indicating that the seismic behavior of SRCSS columns is adequate. Finally, the superposition theory was used to calculate the limits of axial compressive ratio for the specimens, and it is found that the test axial compressive ratio is close to or smaller than the calculated axial compressive ratio limit.

  19. Hysteretic Behavior of Proprotein Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3)

    PubMed Central

    Icimoto, Marcelo Y.; Barros, Nilana M.; Ferreira, Juliana C.; Marcondes, Marcelo F.; Andrade, Douglas; Machado, Mauricio F.; Juliano, Maria A.; Júdice, Wagner A.; Juliano, Luiz; Oliveira, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) are calcium-dependent proteases responsible for processing precursor proteins into their active forms in eukariotes. The PC1/3 is a pivotal enzyme of this family that participates in the proteolytic maturation of prohormones and neuropeptides inside the regulated secretory pathway. In this paper we demonstrate that mouse proprotein convertase 1/3 (mPC1/3) has a lag phase of activation by substrates that can be interpreted as a hysteretic behavior of the enzyme for their hydrolysis. This is an unprecedented observation in peptidases, but is frequent in regulatory enzymes with physiological relevance. The lag phase of mPC1/3 is dependent on substrate, calcium concentration and pH. This hysteretic behavior may have implications in the physiological processes in which PC1/3 participates and could be considered an additional control step in the peptide hormone maturation processes as for instance in the transformation of proinsulin to insulin. PMID:21935423

  20. Modeling of hysteretic behavior of the levitation force between superconductor and permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-da; Xu, Ke-Xi; Cao, Yue; Hu, Shun-bo; Zuo, Peng-xiang; Li, Guan-dong

    2013-03-01

    The hysteretic behavior of the levitation force between a permanent magnet and a melt-textured-growth YBCO bulk has been investigated under both zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) processes. It is found that both in ZFC and FC measurements, the hysteresis loop for the first descent/ascent cycle of magnet is relatively larger than that for the second or third cycle, and the hysteresis loops for Cycle 2-4 have the same area. These results can be qualitatively understood in terms of the critical state model. To describe these experimental results, we develop an updated frozen-image model, which is obtained by modifying the change rules of the vertical movement image in the advanced frozen-image model proposed by Yang et al. Comparing with the advanced frozen-image model proposed by Yang et al., our model cannot only give the hysteretic characteristic in the first descent-ascent cycle of magnet, but also show the hysteresis loops with the same area for the second and subsequent cycles.

  1. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  2. Giant relaxation oscillations in a very strongly hysteretic superconductive quantum interference device ring-tank circuit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. D.; Prance, R. J.; Whiteman, R.; Prance, H.; Everitt, M. J.; Bulsara, A. R.; Ralph, J. F.

    2001-09-01

    In this article, we show that the radio frequency (rf) dynamical characteristics of a very strongly hysteretic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) ring, coupled to a rf tank circuit resonator, display relaxation oscillations. We demonstrate that the overall form of these characteristics, together with the relaxation oscillations, can be modeled accurately by solving the quasiclassical nonlinear equations of motion for the system. We suggest that in these very strongly hysteretic regimes, SQUID ring-resonator systems may find application in logic and memory devices.

  3. On Response of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Oscillator with Constant Hysteretic Damping Under Arbitrary Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Goutam

    2016-05-01

    The simple constant hysteretic damping model is known to be non-causal although it is used often in diverse branches of engineering. In this paper the response of a single degree of freedom oscillator having linear hysteretic damping under arbitrary force excitation has been studied after deriving the impulse response function of the system. Some shortcomings of the results available in literature have been pointed out. It has been shown that the damping model can be practically used for calculating the response of a physical system when the damping is small and the force has small duration.

  4. Modeling the nonlinear hysteretic response in DAE experiments of Berea sandstone: A case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecorari, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows probing the instantaneous state of a material while the latter slowly and periodically is changed by an external, dynamic source. In DAE investigations of geo-materials, hysteresis of the material's modulus defect displays intriguing features which have not yet been interpreted in terms of any specific mechanism occurring at atomic or mesoscale. Here, experimental results on dry Berea sandstone, which is the rock type best investigated by means of a DAE technique, are analyzed in terms of three rheological models providing simplified representations of mechanisms involving dislocations interacting with point defects which are distributed along the dislocations' core or glide planes, and microcracks with finite stiffness in compression. Constitutive relations linking macroscopic strain and stress are derived. From the latter, the modulus defect associated to each mechanism is recovered. These models are employed to construct a composite one which is capable of reproducing several of the main features observed in the experimental data. The limitations of the present approach and, possibly, of the current implementation of DAE are discussed.

  5. Modeling the nonlinear hysteretic response in DAE experiments of Berea sandstone: A case-study

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorari, Claudio

    2015-03-31

    Dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows probing the instantaneous state of a material while the latter slowly and periodically is changed by an external, dynamic source. In DAE investigations of geo-materials, hysteresis of the material's modulus defect displays intriguing features which have not yet been interpreted in terms of any specific mechanism occurring at atomic or mesoscale. Here, experimental results on dry Berea sandstone, which is the rock type best investigated by means of a DAE technique, are analyzed in terms of three rheological models providing simplified representations of mechanisms involving dislocations interacting with point defects which are distributed along the dislocations' core or glide planes, and microcracks with finite stiffness in compression. Constitutive relations linking macroscopic strain and stress are derived. From the latter, the modulus defect associated to each mechanism is recovered. These models are employed to construct a composite one which is capable of reproducing several of the main features observed in the experimental data. The limitations of the present approach and, possibly, of the current implementation of DAE are discussed.

  6. Amplitude-dependent internal friction, hysteretic nonlinearity, and nonlinear oscillations in a magnesite resonator.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, V E; Kolpakov, A B; Radostin, A V

    2012-07-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of low-frequency nonlinear acoustics phenomena (amplitude-dependent loss, resonance frequency shifts, and a generation of second and third harmonics) in a magnesite rod resonator are presented. Acceleration and velocity oscillograms of vibrations of the free boundary of the resonator caused by harmonic excitations were measured and analyzed. A theoretical description of the observed amplitude dependences was carried out within the framework of the phenomenological state equations that contain either of the two types of hysteretic nonlinearity (elastic and inelastic). The type of hysteresis and parameters of acoustic nonlinearity of magnesite were established from comparing the experimental measurements with the theoretical dependences. The values of the parameters were anomalously high even when compared to those of other strongly nonlinear polycrystalline materials such as granite, marble, limestone, sandstone, etc.

  7. Ground state search, hysteretic behaviour, and reversal mechanism of skyrmionic textures in confined helimagnetic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Marijan; Carey, Rebecca; Wang, Weiwei; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Vousden, Mark; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Hovorka, Ondrej; Stamps, Robert L.; Fangohr, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions have the potential to provide solutions for low-power, high-density data storage and processing. One of the major challenges in developing skyrmion-based devices is the skyrmions’ magnetic stability in confined helimagnetic nanostructures. Through a systematic study of equilibrium states, using a full three-dimensional micromagnetic model including demagnetisation effects, we demonstrate that skyrmionic textures are the lowest energy states in helimagnetic thin film nanostructures at zero external magnetic field and in absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. We also report the regions of metastability for non-ground state equilibrium configurations. We show that bistable skyrmionic textures undergo hysteretic behaviour between two energetically equivalent skyrmionic states with different core orientation, even in absence of both magnetocrystalline and demagnetisation-based shape anisotropies, suggesting the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-based shape anisotropy. Finally, we show that the skyrmionic texture core reversal dynamics is facilitated by the Bloch point occurrence and propagation. PMID:26601904

  8. Nonlinear coda wave analysis of hysteretic elastic behavior in strongly scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouarabi, M. Ait; Boubenider, F.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Scalerandi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Strongly scattering elastic media, such as consolidated granular materials, respond to ultrasonic pulse excitations with a long response signal with peculiar properties. The portion of the signal at late times, termed coda, is due to multiple scattering. It contains information about the elastic properties of the material, and it has been proven to be very sensitive to small variations in the modulus. Here we propose a technique based on a nonlinear analysis of the coda of a signal, which might be applied to quantify the nonlinear elastic response in consolidated granular media exhibiting a hysteretic elastic behavior. The method proposed allows for an intrinsic definition of the reference signal which is normally needed for applying coda-based methods.

  9. Hysteretic configurations in a rotating U-tube with capped ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of air trapped above the liquid columns in a U-tube rotating about an axis offset from the axis of symmetry is investigated. This extends the work of Denardo, Barber, Folley and Wright (Am. J. Phys., 57, 1989) who investigated the same problem for an open-ended U-tube for which no air is trapped. They found that, owing to a combination of gravitational, centrifugal and constraint forces on the liquid, the position of the liquid-air interfaces can be hysteretic as the angular velocity is varied. The existence and strength of the hysteresis loop depends on the dimensionless offset parameter δ and the dimensionless initial liquid height γ . Associated with the hysteresis is an instability in which the liquid jumps from one equilibrium state to another, herein defined as configuration I and configuration II. With the ends of the U-tube capped, the stable liquid configurations depend on two additional parameters defined for a stationary U-tube: α , the initial ratio of trapped air to liquid volume in each U-tube column and β , the normalized pressure of air trapped above the liquid in each column. In this study β is taken at the constant value corresponding to atmospheric pressure and, based on a previous study, we adopt Boyle’s law for determining the expansion/compression of air in a rotating U-tube. A parametric study varying α shows that a critical value occurs marking the threshold between hysteretic and nonhysteretic states. A parametric study of the effect of δ is also presented.

  10. Dynamics of hysteretic resistive-SQUIDs: Catastrophe and confusion in the quest for the Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, Susanne Lyn

    We have designed and constructed a primary thermometry system which is capable of operating at milliKelvin temperatures. Our system is composed of thin-film Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs); the thermometer is a thin-film resistive-SQUID, whose signal is coupled to, and amplified by, a dc-SQUID on the same integrated circuit chip. The dc-SQUID is configured in a direct-readout flux-locked loop (FLL) which maintained a bandwidth in excess of 1 MHz with a white noise level less than 1.5 muphi√Hz over the temperature range of operation: from 4.2 K down to 1.4 K. The resistive-SQUID is composed of a Josephson junction shunted by a resistor and inductor in series, which when current-biased above the critical current is driven to oscillate at a frequency proportional to the voltage across the junction. Thermal voltage fluctuations in the junction shunt resistor, due to Johnson noise, give rise to a broadening of the central frequency peak. This device operates as a primary thermometer because all the parameters connecting the temperature with the frequency spectrum are derived from the frequency measurement itself. The resistive-SQUID was designed to operate in the hysteretic regime where the parameter betaL ≡ 2piLIc/phi 0 is greater than unity. We incorporated an integrated on-chip critical current (Ic) control line over the Josephson junction so that beta L could be changed in-situ. The central frequency and variance were measured over a range of temperatures. We observed that the central frequency as a function of bias current did not follow the simple resistively-shunted junction model. For a set frequency, we observed quasiperiodic noise peaks as a function of betaL, with a noise floor consistent with thermal noise. In addition, we measured an increase in noise with decreasing temperature. Numerical simulations of the hysteretic resistive-SQUID equation of motion enabled a more accurate understanding of the device behavior. These simulations

  11. Mutually induced variations in dissipation and elasticity for oscillations in hysteretic materials: non-simplex interaction regimes.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, V Yu; Gusev, V E; Zaytsev, Yu V

    2005-08-01

    Self-action and effects mutually induced by oscillations interacting in hysteretic media are investigated analytically and numerically. Special attention is paid to non-simplex processes for which presence of intermediate extrema results in appearance of minor nested loops inside the main hysteretic stress-strain loop. Non-simplex regimes are typical of interaction of excitations having different frequencies and amplitudes, but comparable strain rates. It is found that, due to transition between the regimes, frequency and amplitude dependencies of the variations in elasticity and dissipation induced by one wave for another one may become non-monotonous. Either additional dissipation or induced transparency may occur in different regimes. The results obtained are important for correct interpretation of experimental data on nonlinear acoustic interactions in rocks and many other microstructured (mesoscopic) solids that are known to exhibit elastic hysteresis and memory properties.

  12. Hysteretic magneto-transport of a High- Tc superconducting/ferromagnetic multilayer with tunable magnetic domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier E.; Visani, Cristina; Metaxas, Peter J.; Collaudin, Aurelie; Calvet, Baptiste; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bouzehouane, Karim

    2011-03-01

    The magneto-transport of a hybrid heterostructure combining a YBaCu O7 - δ thin film and a Co/Pt superlattice shows an unusual hysteretic behavior. Depending on the angle between the external applied field and the film plane, and on the magnetic history, either a increase or a decrease of the mixed-state resistance is observed. The combination of magneto-transport, magnetic force microscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements allows us to correlate these effects to the magnetic domain structures in the Co/Pt superlattice. We unequivocally prove that the hysteretic magneto-transport is induced by the stray magnetic fields from tunable magnetic domain structures, which may induce vortices or produce vortex pinning, leading to the increase/decrease of the mixed-state resistance. Work supported by French ANR ``Superhybrids-II'' and RTRA ``Supraspin'' grants.

  13. Vibration of Timoshenko beam on hysteretically damped elastic foundation subjected to moving load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, WeiLi; Xia, Yong; Weng, Shun

    2015-08-01

    The vibration of beams on foundations under moving loads has many applications in several fields, such as pavements in highways or rails in railways. However, most of the current studies only consider the energy dissipation mechanism of the foundation through viscous behavior; this assumption is unrealistic for soils. The shear rigidity and radius of gyration of the beam are also usually excluded. Therefore, this study investigates the vibration of an infinite Timoshenko beam resting on a hysteretically damped elastic foundation under a moving load with constant or harmonic amplitude. The governing differential equations of motion are formulated on the basis of the Hamilton principle and Timoshenko beam theory, and are then transformed into two algebraic equations through a double Fourier transform with respect to moving space and time. Beam deflection is obtained by inverse fast Fourier transform. The solution is verified through comparison with the closed-form solution of an Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation. Numerical examples are used to investigate: (a) the effect of the spatial distribution of the load, and (b) the effects of the beam properties on the deflected shape, maximum displacement, critical frequency, and critical velocity. These findings can serve as references for the performance and safety assessment of railway and highway structures.

  14. Impact of Capacitive Effect and Ion Migration on the Hysteretic Behavior of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Yang, Mengjin; Zheng, Xiaojia; Wu, Congcong; Li, Wenle; Yan, Yongke; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Zhu, Kai; Priya, Shashank

    2015-12-01

    In the past five years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organometal halide perovskite have exhibited extraordinary photovoltaic (PV) performance. However, the PV measurements of PSCs have been widely recognized to depend on voltage scanning condition (hysteretic current density-voltage [J-V] behavior), as well as on voltage treatment history. In this study, we find that varied PSC responses are attributable to two causes. First, capacitive effect associated with electrode polarization provides a slow transient non-steady-state photocurrent that modifies the J-V response. Second, modification of interfacial barriers induced by ion migration can modulate charge-collection efficiency so that it causes a pseudo-steady-state photocurrent, which changes according to previous voltage conditioning. Both phenomena are strongly influenced by ions accumulating at outer interfaces, but their electrical and PV effects are different. The time scale for decay of capacitive current is on the order of seconds, whereas the slow redistribution of mobile ions requires several minutes.

  15. Attenuation due to hysteretic damage in the free vibration of a beam

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, Daniel A.; Pecorari, Claudio

    2014-02-18

    We present an asymptotic analysis of nonlinear free vibration of a beam with a damage plane represented by nonlinear hysteretic bending and shear springs. The perturbation parameter is the product of the ratio of the nonlinear to linear parts of the stiffness times the amplitude of the free vibration. The loss of energy and ensuing attenuation due to hysteresis is accounted for by reducing the amplitude of vibration after each cycle by an amount such that the loss in total system energy equals the work done to traverse the hysteresis loop. A new Fourier representation for each cycle of the hysteresis and the deflection solution is used for this purpose and leads to higher harmonics, an evolving complex stiffness and corrected natural frequency that are linked to the attenuation. The frequency increases to its linear value from an initially reduced value. The damage parameter, frequency shift and fundamental amplitudes are presented as functions of the initial damage parameter and time (cycles of vibration). The amplitudes of several of the higher harmonics are also presented as functions of time. Many of the results exhibit sufficient sensitivity with respect to the damage parameter that they should be able to be used to characterize the damage.

  16. Impact of Capacitive Effect and Ion Migration on the Hysteretic Behavior of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Yang, Mengjin; Zheng, Xiaojia; Wu, Congcong; Li, Wenle; Yan, Yongke; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Zhu, Kai; Priya, Shashank

    2015-12-01

    In the past five years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organometal halide perovskite have exhibited extraordinary photovoltaic (PV) performance. However, the PV measurements of PSCs have been widely recognized to depend on voltage scanning condition (hysteretic current density-voltage [J-V] behavior), as well as on voltage treatment history. In this study, we find that varied PSC responses are attributable to two causes. First, capacitive effect associated with electrode polarization provides a slow transient non-steady-state photocurrent that modifies the J-V response. Second, modification of interfacial barriers induced by ion migration can modulate charge-collection efficiency so that it causes a pseudo-steady-state photocurrent, which changes according to previous voltage conditioning. Both phenomena are strongly influenced by ions accumulating at outer interfaces, but their electrical and PV effects are different. The time scale for decay of capacitive current is on the order of seconds, whereas the slow redistribution of mobile ions requires several minutes. PMID:26550850

  17. Hysteretic Behavior of Ligaments and Tendons: Microstructural Analysis of Damage, Softening and Non-Recoverable Stra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Amar, M. Ben

    A microstructural analysis of the hysteretic behavior of ligaments and tendons is proposed from the interaction of their extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components. The tensile response of the tissues during cyclic loading is modeled through a viscoelastic strain energy function. A transition-state theory is used to define the cooperative behavior of the temporary fibrillar network. The viscoelastic model incorporates four internal variables, describing the kinetics of two kinds of adaptive junctions in the ECM microstructure. Two softening variables ξ m , ξ f account for the number density of active matter that is actively connected in the rearranging network of temporary junctions. Conversely, two damage variables η m , η f provide the number density of matter that have been damaged and cannot be rearranged. A dissipation energy functionΦ(t) is linked to the internal variables by thermodynamically consistent evolution equations, describing the irreversible energy dissipation in the tensile cycle of loading and unloading. The model demonstrates the fundamental role of the ECM interactions in determining the time-dependent storage and release of elastic strain energy in ligaments and tendons.

  18. Hyperfine-induced hysteretic funnel structure in spin blockaded tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots at low magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A.; Payette, C.; Austing, D. G.

    2013-12-04

    We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ∼3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from 'low' to 'high' as the bias is increased.

  19. Ceramic problems/challenges in high temperature oxide superconductors - Hysteretic force measurements as a new analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P. E. D.; Ratto, J. J.; Housley, R. M.; Porter, J. R.; Marshall, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is presented for analyzing high-temperature oxide superconductors using hysteretic magnetic force/distance measurements. Emphasis is placed on developing low weight, highly robust superconducting materials for space applications. Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu superconductors are prepared and characterized by standard techniques. It is found that standard techniques such as XRD, SEM, and TEM are insufficient to completely characterize superconductors. The magnetic properties of the superconductors are studied with the new technique, based on measuring the force between a magnet and the superconductor as a function of their separation.

  20. Efficiency studies of hysteretic and PWM boost converters: Controller- and battery-type effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Juan Herminio, III

    A continuous conduction boost converter is studied as a function of four battery types and two controllers. The battery types are alkaline, NiCd, NiMH, and sealed lead-acid. The controllers implement voltage-mode pulse-width modulation (PWM) and hysteretic current-mode (HCM) control schemes, respectively. The boost converter is designed to produce an output of 3W at 12V DC with battery voltages ranging from 6V to 3V. The study focuses on converter efficiency as affected by battery type, controller type, and the combined effects of battery type and controller type. Computer simulations predict and experimental results verify that differences in converter efficiency between the different battery types are due to differences in capacity, current-handling capabilities, and sustained voltage levels. The HCM controller uses a control scheme, in which the switching frequency decreases as battery voltage decreases, resulting in lower MOSFET switching losses. This effect partially compensates for the increased conduction losses in converter components as more current is drawn from batteries at lower input voltages. The PWM controller has a fixed switching frequency (50 kHz) and both its switching and conduction losses increase with decreasing input voltage. Efficiency levels of 88% are achieved for higher battery voltages, decreasing to 80% for lower voltages. A difference of up to 2% higher efficiency is observed in the HCM over the PWM. The major power losses are due to the combination of the inductor's ESR and the resistance of the wire used to increase the Hall-effect current sensor turns-ratio (increasing from 400mW to 1.2W). Simulations predict that in the absence of this resistance, efficiency levels of 95% can be achieved. Conduction losses through the rectifier are in the range of 40mW to 50mW for both controllers. MOSFET switching losses amount to 50mW for both controllers at high input voltages, increasing to 100mW for the PWM, but only to 65mW for the HCM at

  1. Theory of non-collinear interactions of acoustic waves in an isotropic material with hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi

    2002-01-01

    A particular form of the energy potential (cubic in strains) is proposed, which leads to the bow-tie behavior of the nonlinear modulus in an isotropic material with hysteresis of quadratic nonlinearity. The nonlinear scattering of a weak probe wave in the field of a strong pump wave is analyzed. It is demonstrated that collinear interactions of the shear waves are allowed in materials with nonlinearity hysteresis. Both in collinear and non-collinear frequency-mixing processes the combination frequency is composed of the probe wave frequency and one of the even harmonics of the pump wave. In general, the developed theory predicts that in the presence of the hysteretic nonlinearity the number of possible resonant scattering processes increases. In particular, if frequency-mixing processes are forbidden in the material with the elastic quadratic nonlinearity (for a fixed ratio of primary frequencies), they may be allowed in the materials with hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity. Moreover, in materials with hysteresis of the nonlinearity the resonant frequency mixing for a fixed ratio of primary frequencies may be allowed for multiple mutual orientations of the primary wave vectors. PMID:11831826

  2. Gaussian closure technique applied to the hysteretic Bouc model with non-zero mean white noise excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waubke, Holger; Kasess, Christian H.

    2016-11-01

    Devices that emit structure-borne sound are commonly decoupled by elastic components to shield the environment from acoustical noise and vibrations. The elastic elements often have a hysteretic behavior that is typically neglected. In order to take hysteretic behavior into account, Bouc developed a differential equation for such materials, especially joints made of rubber or equipped with dampers. In this work, the Bouc model is solved by means of the Gaussian closure technique based on the Kolmogorov equation. Kolmogorov developed a method to derive probability density functions for arbitrary explicit first-order vector differential equations under white noise excitation using a partial differential equation of a multivariate conditional probability distribution. Up to now no analytical solution of the Kolmogorov equation in conjunction with the Bouc model exists. Therefore a wide range of approximate solutions, especially the statistical linearization, were developed. Using the Gaussian closure technique that is an approximation to the Kolmogorov equation assuming a multivariate Gaussian distribution an analytic solution is derived in this paper for the Bouc model. For the stationary case the two methods yield equivalent results, however, in contrast to statistical linearization the presented solution allows to calculate the transient behavior explicitly. Further, stationary case leads to an implicit set of equations that can be solved iteratively with a small number of iterations and without instabilities for specific parameter sets.

  3. Tracing the characteristics of a flux qubit with a hysteretic dc-superconducting quantum interference device comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M. G.; Chiarello, F.; Leoni, R.; Simeone, D.; Torrioli, G.; Cosmelli, C.; Buttiglione, R.; Poletto, S.; Carelli, P.

    2003-12-01

    A hysteretic dc-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is used to trace the flux characteristic of a tunable rf-SQUID, the basic element for the realization of superconducting flux qubits. This allows important simplifications of circuitry and electronics in developing devices for quantum computing, by eliminating the necessity of more complex magnetometers. A hysteretic dc-SQUID is usually operated as a comparator, distinguishing only which one of two adjacent flux states is occupied by the rf-SQUID. The necessary sensitivity, moreover, is usually reached only at temperatures in the mK range. However, by exploiting the statistical properties of the current-voltage curve in the region where the switching from the zero-voltage state occurs, it is possible to obtain an accurate tracing of the input flux, even at a relatively high temperature (a few Kelvin). In our case, the input signal is given by the internal flux of a tunable rf-SQUID, the building block of a flux qubit.

  4. Evidence for Hysteretic Substrate Channeling in the Proline Dehydrogenase and Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate Dehydrogenase Coupled Reaction of Proline Utilization A (PutA)*

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Michael A.; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Krishnan, Navasona; Tanner, John J.; Becker, Donald F.

    2014-01-01

    PutA (proline utilization A) is a large bifunctional flavoenzyme with proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains that catalyze the oxidation of l-proline to l-glutamate in two successive reactions. In the PRODH active site, proline undergoes a two-electron oxidation to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxlylate, and the FAD cofactor is reduced. In the P5CDH active site, l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde (the hydrolyzed form of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate) undergoes a two-electron oxidation in which a hydride is transferred to NAD+-producing NADH and glutamate. Here we report the first kinetic model for the overall PRODH-P5CDH reaction of a PutA enzyme. Global analysis of steady-state and transient kinetic data for the PRODH, P5CDH, and coupled PRODH-P5CDH reactions was used to test various models describing the conversion of proline to glutamate by Escherichia coli PutA. The coupled PRODH-P5CDH activity of PutA is best described by a mechanism in which the intermediate is not released into the bulk medium, i.e., substrate channeling. Unexpectedly, single-turnover kinetic experiments of the coupled PRODH-P5CDH reaction revealed that the rate of NADH formation is 20-fold slower than the steady-state turnover number for the overall reaction, implying that catalytic cycling speeds up throughput. We show that the limiting rate constant observed for NADH formation in the first turnover increases by almost 40-fold after multiple turnovers, achieving half of the steady-state value after 15 turnovers. These results suggest that EcPutA achieves an activated channeling state during the approach to steady state and is thus a new example of a hysteretic enzyme. Potential underlying causes of activation of channeling are discussed. PMID:24352662

  5. Hysteretic properties of Nd2Fe14B-based permanent magnets: First principles and micromagnetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, Aleksander; Kukusta, Denis; Ke, Liqin; Antropov, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    We combine ab initio electronic structure calculations with micromagnetic simulations to investigate permanent magnet properties of Nd2Fe14B-based systems. First, magnetic moments, anisotropy constants and exchange interactions of bulk Nd2Fe14B are calculated from first principles. These parameters are then used to construct a micromagnetic model for realistic samples and evaluate hysteresis loop at finite temperatures using Monte Carlo method. Several generic microstructures are considered including randomly oriented grains, hard/soft multilayers, and core/shell geometries. We find optimal grain sizes and hard phase/soft phase volume ratio which maximize maximum energy products of the systems. Further, we discuss the nature of the thermal spin reorientation effect in the bulk material and how it affects the finite temperature hysteretic properties.

  6. On the continuum-scale simulation of gravity-driven fingers with hysteretic Richards equation: Trucation error induced numerical artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    ELIASSI,MEHDI; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.

    2000-03-08

    The authors consider the ability of the numerical solution of Richards equation to model gravity-driven fingers. Although gravity-driven fingers can be easily simulated using a partial downwind averaging method, they find the fingers are purely artificial, generated by the combined effects of truncation error induced oscillations and capillary hysteresis. Since Richards equation can only yield a monotonic solution for standard constitutive relations and constant flux boundary conditions, it is not the valid governing equation to model gravity-driven fingers, and therefore is also suspect for unsaturated flow in initially dry, highly nonlinear, and hysteretic media where these fingers occur. However, analysis of truncation error at the wetting front for the partial downwind method suggests the required mathematical behavior of a more comprehensive and physically based modeling approach for this region of parameter space.

  7. Hygromorphic behaviour of cellular material: hysteretic swelling and shrinkage of wood probed by phase contrast X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derome, Dominique; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Patera, Alessandra; Guyer, Robert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Wood is a hygromorphic material, meaning it responds to changes in environmental humidity by changing its geometry. Its cellular biological structure swells during wetting and shrinks during drying. The origin of the moisture-induced deformation lies at the sub-cellular scale. The cell wall can be considered a composite material with stiff cellulose fibrils acting as reinforcement embedded in a hemicellulose/lignin matrix. The bulk of the cellulose fibrils, forming 50% of the cell wall, are oriented longitudinally, forming long-pitched helices. Both components of cell wall matrix are displaying swelling. Moisture sorption and, to a lesser degree, swelling/shrinkage are known to be hysteretic. We quantify the affine strains during the swelling and shrinkage using high resolution images obtained by phase contrast synchrotron X-ray tomography of wood samples of different porosities. The reversibility of the swelling/shrinkage is found for samples with controlled moisture sorption history. The deformation is more hysteretic for high than for low density samples. Swelling/shrinkage due to ad/desorption of water vapour displays also a non-affine component. The reversibility of the swelling/shrinkage indicates that the material has a structural capacity to show a persistent cellular geometry for a given moisture state and a structural composition that allows for moisture-induced transitional states. A collection of qualitative observations of small subsets of cells during swelling/shrinkage is further studied by simulating the observed behaviour. An anisotropic swelling coefficient of the cell wall is found to emerge and its origin is linked to the anisotropy of the cellulose fibrils arrangement in cell wall layers.

  8. Hysteretic melting and freezing of nanoscale indium islands using local thermal cycling for phase-change memory nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brintlinger, Todd; Hussain Baloch, Kamal; Qi, Yi; Cullen, William G.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cumings, John

    2007-03-01

    Using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating in dark-field mode, the melting and freezing transition in nanoscale (approximately 20-200nm diameter) metal islands can be imaged at video rates (33ms/frame). The metal, typically indium, islands are thermally evaporated on one side of a 100nm thick SiN membrane. Local thermal gradients produced by Joule heating of lithographically defined electrodes on the opposite side of the membrane show a hysteretic effect in the melting/freezing of the metal islands. Read and write cycles are accomplished with 5-10 microW power, while a quiescent power of 80-100 microW is required to keep an island near its melting point. The hysteresis indicates a finite nucleation energy during freezing of individual islands. While TEM is not a practical readout mechanism, the behavior suggests a type of phase-change memory node on an inherently nanometer scale. Results for all the aforementioned will be shown, including micrographs, video, and related discussion.

  9. Investigation of Deterioration Behavior of Hysteretic Loops in Nonlinear Static Procedure Analysis of Concrete Structures with Shear Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Amidi, S.; Khorasani, M.

    2008-07-08

    In the recent years, scientists developed the seismic rehabilitation of structures and their view points were changed from sufficient strength to the performance of structures (Performance Base Design) to prepare a safe design. Nonlinear Static Procedure analysis (NSP) or pushover analysis is a new method that is chosen for its speed and simplicity in calculations. 'Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings' and FEMA 356 considered this method. Result of this analysis is a target displacement that is the base of the performance and rehabilitation procedure of the structures. Exact recognition of that displacement could develop the workability of pushover analysis. In these days, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (NDP) is only method can exactly apply the seismic ground motions. In this case because it consumes time, costs very high and is more difficult than other methods, is not applicable as much as NSP. A coefficient used in NSP for determining the target displacement is C2 (Stiffness and Strength Degradations Coefficient) and is applicable for correcting the errors due to eliminating the stiffness and strength degradations in hysteretic loops. In this study it has been tried to analysis three concrete frames with shear walls by several accelerations that scaled according to FEMA 273 and FEMA 356. These structures were designed with Iranian 2800 standard (vers.3). Finally after the analyzing by pushover method and comparison results with dynamic analysis, calculated C2 was comprised with values in rehabilitation codes.

  10. Evolution of water repellency of organic growing media used in Horticulture and consequences on hysteretic behaviours of the water retention curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Charles; Qi, Guifang; Charpentier, Sylvain; Boivin, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Most of growing media used in horticulture (particularly peat substrates) shows hysteresis phenomena during desiccation and rehydration cycles, which greatly affects their hydraulic properties. The origins of these properties have often been related to one or several of the specific mechanisms such as the non-geometrical uniformity of the pores (also called ‘ink bottle' effect), presence of trapped air, shrinkage-swelling phenomena, and changes in water repellency. However, recent results showed that changes in wettability during desiccation and rehydration could be considered as one of the main factors leading to hysteretic behaviour in these materials with high organic matter contents (Naasz et al., 2008). The general objective was to estimate the evolutions of changes in water repellency on the water retention properties and associated hysteresis phenomena in relation to the intensity and the number of drying/wetting cycles. For this, simultaneous shrinkage/swelling and water retention curves were obtained using method previously developed for soil shrinkage analysis by Boivin (2006) that we have adapted for growing media and to their physical behaviours during rewetting. The experiment was performed in a climatic chamber at 20°C. A cylinder with the growing medium tested was placed on a porous ceramic disk which is used to control the pressure and to full/empty water of the sample. The whole of the device was then placed on a balance to record the water loss/storage with time; whereas linear displacement transducers were used to measure the changes in sample height and diameter upon drying and wetting in the axial and radial directions. Ceramic cups (2 cm long and 0.21 cm diameter) connected to pressure transducers were inserted in the middle of the samples to record the water pressure head. In parallell, contact angles were measured by direct droplet method at different steps during the drying/rewetting cycles. First results obtained on weakly decomposed

  11. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Hysteretic losses in the MgB2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field.

  12. Noise-affected I - V curves in small hysteretic Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, R.L.; Martinis, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    We investigate the noise-affected {ital I}-{ital V} curves of small-area Josephson junctions through experiment, simulation, and theory. In particular, we consider {ital I}-{ital V} curves in which two different states of finite voltage coexist at the same dc bias: a high-voltage state that corresponds to the usual quasiparticle branch and a low-voltage state that is characterized by thermally activated phase diffusion. The observed hysteresis between the phase-diffusion and quasiparticle branches cannot be explained within the context of the simple resistively and capacitively shunted junction (RCSJ) model but is explained by extended models in which the damping increases with frequency. Frequency-dependent damping is shown to produce a qualitative change in the attractors of the noise-free system which allows the two voltage states to be simultaneously stable. This picture is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations which accurately reproduce the experimental {ital I}-{ital V} curves of two different samples over a wide range of temperatures. In addition we develop analytic expressions for three key parameters of the {ital I}-{ital V} curve of junctions displaying hysteresis between the phase-diffusion and quasiparticle branches: the initial slope of the phase-diffusion branch, the bias level at which the junction switches from the phase-diffusion branch to the quasiparticle branch, and the bias level at which it returns to the phase-diffusion branch.

  13. Selective All-Wet Metallization of Silicon for Hysteretic Power Microswitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uncuer, Muhammet

    electroless Au-to-Au contact from the source to the drain has been characterized. It has been found that the current-voltage (Ids-Vds) curves show ohmic characteristics with modest contact resistance of 5 kΩ. Moreover, the fabricated devices display over-damped behavior with a switching time of around 80 µs and squeeze-film damping of 0.0023 N-s/m². Lifetime/reliability experiments have shown promising results (exceeding 2000 stable hot cycling with a current load of 1 mA); however more improvement is necessary for an eventual marketable product. What is more, intentional stress-imbalance is induced on the fabricated micro-structures to determine thin-film stresses for the electroless Cu (tensile stress of 45 MPa for 100 nm thick film) and Au/Cu (tensile stress of 56 MPa for 100 nm thick film) for the material characterization purposes.

  14. On the identification of Hammerstein systems in the presence of an input hysteretic nonlinearity with nonlocal memory: Piezoelectric actuators - an experimental case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Mark; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The identification problem of the linear dynamic part of piezo based actuators is addressed in this paper, exploiting the use of binary signals, specifically the pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS). Due to the presence of nonlocal memory hysteretic behavior in piezoelectric active materials, the dependence of the identification results on this strongly nonlinear effect is analyzed and useful guidelines for the design of the PRBS stimulating signal are derived. Moreover, some properties of hysteresis like cancellation and congruency are experimentally analyzed and their effects on the identification process are discussed. Finally, the use of a hysteresis compensation strategy in the identification process is evaluated and discussed.

  15. Collisions, Cannibals, and the Memory of Long-lost Bed Forms: The Hyster(et)ical Story Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Sandy river-bed morphology often lags changes in water discharge, producing hysteresis in the relation between discharge and bed-form geometry. While this effect is well known, its origins are not. In this talk we present experimental and field results that reveal these origins. We show that the primary mechanism of bed form growth in a rising flood is merger induced by collisions, which occur due to a dispersion in migration rates. At the start of a flood the bed forms are small and transport rate is high, so growth is rapid. Conversely, on the falling limb of a flood the bed forms are large while the transport rate is small. If the flood recedes rapidly enough, the large bed forms cease migrating and small, secondary bed forms emerge on their backs. These smaller features cannibalize the original, relict structures which slowly diffuse away. (We do not distinguish between ripples and dunes, the data do not indicate any reason to do so, and we therefore recuse ourselves from discussing that tiring topic.). The timescale of decay is much larger than growth, leaving a memory of peak-flood conditions that may persist until the next flood. Thus, the timescales of both growth (Tg) and decay (Td) are related to a simple bed form turnover time - the time to displace a bed form's volume by transport - however, the turnover time is different for growth vs. decay. This reveals three different regimes for the response of bed forms to a flood: (1) a slow flood with a timescale Tf > Td > Tg is quasi-steady, i.e., bed forms grow and shrink with no lag between morphology and flow; (2) an intermediate flood with Td > Tf > Tg exhibits quasi-steady growth, but decay lags the flow; and (3) a fast flood with Td > Tg > Tf produces a lag between morphology and flow over the entire hydrograph. Regimes 2 and 3 produce hysteretical behavior, with 3 being the most extreme. We discuss the implications of these results for: predicting stage-discharge relations, anticipating and understanding

  16. Hysteretic Faraday waves.

    PubMed

    Périnet, Nicolas; Falcón, Claudio; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon

    2016-06-01

    We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate subcritically toward highly nonlinear ones with twice their amplitude. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results.

  17. Hysteretic Faraday waves.

    PubMed

    Périnet, Nicolas; Falcón, Claudio; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon

    2016-06-01

    We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate subcritically toward highly nonlinear ones with twice their amplitude. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results. PMID:27415365

  18. Low Temperature Hysteretic Behavior of the Interpenetrating 3-D Network Structured [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6] Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, F.; Del barco, Enrique; Fishman, Randy Scott; Miller, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    The low temperature hysteretic behavior between 40 mK and 4.8 K was obtained for [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6]. The unusual constricted hysteretic behavior reported for isomorphous [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] was not observed. Instead, the [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3-[Fe(CN)6] exhibits a single hysteresis loop and a temperature dependence of the coercivity atypical for a ferrimagnetic ordering transition. The coercive field, constant below ~0.3 K (1.06 kOe), shows a rapid initial decrease below 1 K, to continue decreasing at a slower rate up to at least 4.8 K. In contrast to [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] which has antiferromagnetic coupling of the ferrimagnetic lattices, due to the reduced spin on the [FeIII(CN)6]3-, [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6] ferromagnetic coupling of the ferrimagnetic lattices dominates for [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Fe(CN)6].

  19. Positive exchange-bias and giant vertical hysteretic shift in La0.3Sr0.7FeO3/SrRuO3 bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Rakesh; Pandey, Parul; Singh, R. P.; Rana, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The exchange-bias effects in the mosaic epitaxial bilayers of the itinerant ferromagnet (FM) SrRuO3 and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) charge-ordered La0.3Sr0.7FeO3 were investigated. An uncharacteristic low-field positive exchange bias, a cooling-field driven reversal of positive to negative exchange-bias and a layer thickness optimised unusual vertical magnetization shift were all novel facets of exchange bias realized for the first time in magnetic oxides. The successive magnetic training induces a transition from positive to negative exchange bias regime with changes in domain configurations. These observations are well corroborated by the hysteretic loop asymmetries which display the modifications in the AFM spin correlations. These exotic features emphasize the key role of i) mosaic disorder induced subtle interplay of competing AFM-superexchange and FM double exchange at the exchange biased interface and, ii) training induced irrecoverable alterations in the AFM spin structure. PMID:24569516

  20. The impact of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-ZnO interface quality on the hysteretic properties of a metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintilie, I.; Pasuk, I.; Ibanescu, G. A.; Negrea, R.; Chirila, C.; Vasile, E.; Pintilie, L.

    2012-11-01

    The hysteretic properties of metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structures based on Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) and ZnO films were studied with respect of the quality of the PZT-ZnO interface. The films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on platinized silicon (Pt/Si) substrate and on single crystal, (001) oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The structural analysis has revealed that the PZT-ZnO stack grown on single crystal STO is epitaxial, while the structure grown on Pt/Si has columnar texture. The temperature change of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis direction, from clockwise at low temperatures to counter clockwise at high temperatures, was observed at around 300 K in the case of the MFS structure grown by PLD on Pt/Si substrate. This temperature is lower than the one reported for the case of the PZT-ZnO structure grown by sol-gel on Pt/Si substrate (Pintilie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 012903 (2010)). In the fully epitaxial structures the C-V hysteresis is counter clockwise even at 100 K. These findings strongly points out that the quality of the PZT-ZnO interface is essential for having a C-V hysteresis of ferroelectric nature, with negligible influence from the part of the interface states and with a memory window of about 5 V at room temperature.

  1. Hysteretic behavior of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} spin-transition microparticles vs. the environment: A huge reversible component resolved by first order reversal curves

    SciTech Connect

    Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-20

    We discuss the influence of the embedding matrix on the thermal hysteretic behavior of spin transition microparticles of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} by using a series of experimental first order reversal curves (FORCs). The shape of FORCs supports the hypothesis considering additional interactions between the spin-transition microparticles and the embedding matrix, which compares to a negative pressure on the particles. A mean-field approach based on negative variable external pressures, together with a cut off/switch on of particles-matrix interactions accounts for the experimental features.

  2. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  3. The uncoupled ATPase activity of the ABC transporter BtuC2D2 leads to a hysteretic conformational change, conformational memory, and improved activity

    PubMed Central

    Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; I. Gilson, Amy; Ben-Tal, Nir; Lewinson, Oded

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters comprise a large and ubiquitous family of proteins. From bacteria to man they translocate solutes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Unlike other enzymes that use ATP as an energy source, ABC transporters are notorious for having high levels of basal ATPase activity: they hydrolyze ATP also in the absence of their substrate. It is unknown what are the effects of such prolonged and constant activity on the stability and function of ABC transporters or any other enzyme. Here we report that prolonged ATP hydrolysis is beneficial to the ABC transporter BtuC2D2. Using ATPase assays, surface plasmon resonance interaction experiments, and transport assays we observe that the constantly active transporter remains stable and functional for much longer than the idle one. Remarkably, during extended activity the transporter undergoes a slow conformational change (hysteresis) and gradually attains a hyperactive state in which it is more active than it was to begin with. This phenomenon is different from stabilization of enzymes by ligand binding: the hyperactive state is only reached through ATP hydrolysis, and not ATP binding. BtuC2D2 displays a strong conformational memory for this excited state, and takes hours to return to its basal state after catalysis terminates. PMID:26905293

  4. Robust estimate of dynamo thresholds in the von Kármán sodium experiment using the extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Miralles, Sophie; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2014-08-01

    We apply a new threshold detection method based on the extreme value theory (EVT) to the von Kármán sodium (VKS) experiment data. The VKS experiment is a successful attempt to get a dynamo magnetic field in a laboratory liquid-metal experiment. We first show that the dynamo threshold is associated with a change of the probability density function of the extreme values of the magnetic field. This method does not require the measurement of response functions from applied external perturbations and thus provides a simple threshold estimate. We apply our method to different configurations in the VKS experiment, showing that it yields a robust indication of the dynamo threshold as well as evidence of hysteretic behaviors. Moreover, for the experimental configurations in which a dynamo transition is not observed, the method provides a way to extrapolate an interval of possible threshold values.

  5. Probing quantum and classical turbulence analogy in von Kármán liquid helium, nitrogen, and water experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Michel, B.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Lehner, Th.

    2014-12-15

    We report measurements of the dissipation in the Superfluid helium high REynold number von Kármán flow experiment for different forcing conditions. Statistically steady flows are reached; they display a hysteretic behavior similar to what has been observed in a 1:4 scale water experiment. Our macroscopical measurements indicate no noticeable difference between classical and superfluid flows, thereby providing evidence of the same dissipation scaling laws in the two phases. A detailed study of the evolution of the hysteresis cycle with the Reynolds number supports the idea that the stability of the steady states of classical turbulence in this closed flow is partly governed by the dissipative scales. It also supports the idea that the normal and the superfluid components at these temperatures (1.6 K) are locked down to the dissipative length scale.

  6. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  7. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  8. Art Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents four articles that examine the role of art experiences in early childhood education: "Educationally Appropriate Art Activities for Young Children," by Bernard Spodek; "Teachers and Children Together: Constructing New Learning," by Lella Gandini; "Fostering Experiences between Young Children and Clay," by Cathy Weisman Topal; and…

  9. TRIO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  10. Mixture Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  11. Hydronuclear experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, R.N.; Westervelt, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    Hydronuclear experiments, a method for assessing some aspects of nuclear weapon safety, were conducted at Los Alamos during the 1958 to 1961 moratorium on nuclear testing. The experiments resulted in subcritical multiplying assemblies or a very slight degree of supercriticality and, in some cases, involved a slight, but insignificant, fission energy release. These experiments helped to identify so-called one-point safety problems associated with some of the nuclear weapons systems of that time. The need for remedial action was demonstrated, although some of the necessary design changes could not be made until after the resumption of weapons testing at the end of 1961.

  12. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  13. Ultrasensitive hysteretic force sensing with parametric nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Eichler, Alexander; Chitra, R

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method for linear detection of weak forces using parametrically driven nonlinear resonators. The method is based on a peculiar feature in the response of the resonator to a near resonant periodic external force. This feature stems from a complex interplay among the parametric drive, external force, and nonlinearities. For weak parametric drive, the response exhibits the standard Duffing-like single jump hysteresis. For stronger drive amplitudes, we find a qualitatively new double jump hysteresis which arises from stable solutions generated by the cubic Duffing nonlinearity. The additional jump exists only if the external force is present and the frequency at which it occurs depends linearly on the amplitude of the external force, permitting a straightforward ultrasensitive detection of weak forces. With state-of-the-art nanomechanical resonators, our scheme should permit force detection in the attonewton range. PMID:27627292

  14. Ultrasensitive hysteretic force sensing with parametric nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Eichler, Alexander; Chitra, R.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method for linear detection of weak forces using parametrically driven nonlinear resonators. The method is based on a peculiar feature in the response of the resonator to a near resonant periodic external force. This feature stems from a complex interplay among the parametric drive, external force, and nonlinearities. For weak parametric drive, the response exhibits the standard Duffing-like single jump hysteresis. For stronger drive amplitudes, we find a qualitatively new double jump hysteresis which arises from stable solutions generated by the cubic Duffing nonlinearity. The additional jump exists only if the external force is present and the frequency at which it occurs depends linearly on the amplitude of the external force, permitting a straightforward ultrasensitive detection of weak forces. With state-of-the-art nanomechanical resonators, our scheme should permit force detection in the attonewton range.

  15. Electromagnetic hysteretic response calculation for superconductors in demagnetizing geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, L.S.; Telschow, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    A method has been outlined for calculating the flux front profile for a superconducting sample in either a uniform or nonuniform applied magnetic field possessing azimuthal symmetry. This technique relies upon finding a surface with zero vector potential. This surface is determined by simple integration of its derivative with respect to the external field, found by resolving a linear integral equation of the first kind. Measurement induced voltages and the entire hysteresis loop response can be found by extension of the ZFC magnetization response with increasing external field. Other experimentally measured quantities relating to the critical state can be calculated directly from the hysteresis loop if the time dependence of the external field is known. The technique shown in this report for solving the critical state model in the Bean approximation can be extended to field-dependent critical currents and other azimuthally symmetrical external fields. This work is presently in progress.

  16. The Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  17. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  18. HEGRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The La Palma cosmic-ray observatory HEGRA (High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy) is an air shower experiment, located at the OBSERVATORIO DEL ROQUE DE LOS MUCHACHOS (2200 m above sea level, 28.75°N, 17.89°W) on the Canary island of La Palma, and is operated by institutes from Germany, Spain and Yerevan....

  19. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  20. XMASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Ko

    2016-06-01

    XMASS is a single phase liquid xenon scintillator detector. The project is designed for multi purposes, dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and 7Be/pp solar neutrino. As the first step of project, XMASS-I detector with 832kg sensitive volume started operation from Dec. 2010. In this paper, recent obtained physics results from commissioning data, refurbishment of detector and future step of experiment are presented.

  1. Multiwell experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Hart, C.M.; Branagan, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Multiwell Experiment is a research-oriented field laboratory. Its overall objectives are to characterize lenticular, low-permeability gas reservoirs and to develop technology for their production. This field laboratory has been established at a site in the east-central Piceance basin, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. Field work began in late 1981 and is scheduled through mid-1988. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. Accomplishments of the past year are listed. 4 refs.

  2. Ecosystem experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, H.A.; Medina, E.; Schindler, D.W.; Schulze, E.D.; Walker, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    Large scale, human-induced modifications to terrestrial and hydrological systems have been a major factor in contributing to global change. The objective of this book is to explore the potential of ecosystem experimentation as a tool to understanding and predicting more precisely the consequences of our changing biosphere. The papers in this book are the result of two SCOPE workshops to evaluated understanding of the response of ecosystems to large scale perturbations and to design ecosystem experiments to study the impace of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on ecosystem processes. The general topics addressed include the following: how changes in driving variables affect different biotic interactions within ecosystems; the human role in modifying forest structure and the resulting ecosystem processes; the role of ecosystem experiments in the study of controlling factors such as hydrological controls, temperature, and biotic controlles; analysis of ecosystem dynamics as a complex and chaotic system; role of ecosystem experiments in the study of the impact of acid deposition; role of ecosystem experimentation in the study of global change impace on the biosphere and the biospheric feedbacks to global environmental change.

  3. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  4. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  5. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment - Experiment Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) is a candidate experiment competitively peer reviewed and selected for flight definition from the 1996 Fundamental Physics NASA Research Announcement (NRA).

  6. G254 undergraduate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Doran; Bogh, Karilyn; Evans, Brett; Folkman, Steve; Hammond, Marc; Hatch, Casey; Herr, Neva; Hubble, Tina; Humpherys, Jeff; Johnson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experiments on payload G254. Each experiment is accommodated in a spacepak and six experiments fly in a full canister. One of the experiments will be housed in a new Isospacepak structure, which will be described briefly. Five of the six experiments have dedicated controllers. The objective of each experiment is discussed. In addition, the operational scenario is provided.

  7. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

  8. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  9. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  10. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  11. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  12. Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

    1972-01-01

    The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

  13. Motional EMF demonstration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingman, Robert; Popescu, Sabin

    2001-03-01

    A simple quantitative motional emf experiment. The induced voltage is recorded in this computer-based experiment as a coil is moved through the field of a permanent magnet. Results compare closely with predicted values.

  14. Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses several science experiments/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), experiment demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)

  15. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  16. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  17. Literature or Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dennis

    1978-01-01

    Shows that the need to choose between literature-centered or experience-centered English instruction is a delusion, because instruction in literature also adds to the child's experience of language. (RL)

  18. Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prive, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). The components of an OSSE are described, along with discussion of the process for validating, calibrating, and performing experiments. a.

  19. Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

  20. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes apparatus needed and instructions for conducting four experiments. Experiments focus on light waves, measurement of contact resistance, demonstration of longitudinal waves, and a simple method of measuring the refractive indices of transparent plates and liquids. (JM)

  1. More Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)

  2. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  3. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  4. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  5. The ITALSAT experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paraboni, A.

    1989-01-01

    Some information is given on the ITALSAT millimetric waves propagation experiment, which is to be conducted with the ITALSAT satellite, whose launch is foreseen for the middle of 1990. The purpose of the experiment is one of experimenting with advanced technologies and techniques employing the 20/30 GHz bands in wideband telecommunications. Among the most qualified features of this system are the multispot antenna and the exchange function performed directly onboard. Details of the experiment are given.

  6. Rethinking Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; And Others

    This book on work experience programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work experience in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work Experience" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…

  7. Basic Experiments in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, S. G.

    Presented is a set of laboratory experiments developed to provide students with demonstrations and hands-on experiences with a variety of basic communications methods. These experiments may be used with students who have training in engineering, as well as those with social sciences who have no engineering background. Detailed exercises dealing…

  8. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  9. Future Outlook: Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoichiro

    2008-11-01

    The personal view for the next to the next neutrino detector, the ultimate experiment, is discussed. Considering the size, cost and head winds against the basic science, the ultimate experiment will be the only experiment in the world. Here two such experiments one for the neutrino oscillation and the other for the double beta decay were discussed. The ultimate experiment needs to include a bread and butter science and to have a discovery potential for an unexpected phenomenon. There are many technical challenges and international co-operations are absolutely necessary.

  10. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  11. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  12. Mystical experience and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Buckley, P

    1981-01-01

    Autobiographical accounts of acute mystical experience and schizophrenia are compared in order to examine the similarities between the two states. The appearance of a powerful sense of noesis, heightening of perception, feelings of communion with the "divine," and exultation may be common to both. The disruption of thought seen in the acute psychoses is not a component of the accounts of mystical experience reviewed by the author, and auditory hallucinations are less common than visual hallucinations in the mystical state. The ease with which elements of the acute mystical experience can be induced in possession cults or in an experimental situation suggests that the capacity for such an altered state experience may be latently present in many people. It is postulated that there is a limited repertoire of response within the nervous system for altered state experiences such as acute psychosis and mystical experience, even though the precipitants and etiology may be quite different. PMID:7280578

  13. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  14. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  15. Future reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-15

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  16. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  17. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  18. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia.

  19. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:24294729

  20. Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

  1. SEDS experiment design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

  2. Exploring Sensory Neuroscience Through Experience and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions — color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  3. On the Poggendorff Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes; Silva, P. A. S.; Borges, Paulo de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Poggendorff showed experimentally, in the middle of the 19th century, that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. His experiment has been revisited from time to time, making use of instrumentation that reflects the technological development of the moment. In this paper, the evolution of the experiment is briefly…

  4. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  5. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  6. Play as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  7. Experiments in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the role of experiments in science teaching, and applies this analysis to the teaching of Millikan's experiment in physics. Critically examines an article written by T. J. Harvey entitled Millikan made easy'' which was previously published in The School Science Review. (JR)

  8. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  9. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)

  10. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  11. Experience with MODSIM II

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project.

  12. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-02-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct.

  13. Fluorescence Experiments with Quinine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, James E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments which illustrate the analytical capabilities of fluorescence, and outlines two straightforward analyses involving real analyses. These experiments are suitable for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course and require approximately six to seven hours of laboratory time. (MLH)

  14. The Student Athlete Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

  15. Ball Collision Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, R.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.

  16. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  17. Shusterman on Somatic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2010-01-01

    Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

  18. Nonparametric identification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung

    1988-01-01

    The following constitutes a summary of this paper: on-orbit identification methodology starts with nonparametric techniques for a priori system identification; development of the nonparametric identification and model determination experiment software has been completed; the validation experiments to be performed on the JPL Control and Identification Technology Validation Laboratory have been designed.

  19. Peak Experience Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  20. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) two experiments using a laser (resonant cavity for light and pinhole camera effect with a hologram); (2) optical differaction patterns displayed by microcomputer; and (3) automating the Hall effect (with comments on apparatus needed and computer program used); and (4) an elegant experiment in mechanical equilibrium. (JN)

  1. Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

  2. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  3. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  4. A Column Dispersion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

  5. MSFC Skylab corollary experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of the development and integration of Skylab experiments from initial concepts through mission operations is documented. All experiment systems are covered as well as management controls which were developed and exercised to assure acceptable operational capability and optimize data acquisition for final scientific results.

  6. The Student Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselgrove, Susanne, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses the experience of students in the United Kingdom's new, mass higher education system. The papers are viewed as dispatches from the "front line" rather than conventional analyses by education researchers. The organization of the papers mirrors the stages of students' experience of higher education--getting in,…

  7. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  8. Health education telecommunications experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment (HET) was conducted jointly by NASA and HEW on NASA's ATS-6 communications satellite. This experiment actually consisted of six experiments testing health and education applications of a communication spacecraft producing a broadcast of color television directly from space to over 120 low-cost receivers located in remote rural areas throughout the U.S. (including Alaska). The experiments were conducted over the period from 2 July 1974 to 20 May 1975 and operated on an almost daily basis. The overall telecommunications system to support these experiments consisted of many elements: The ATS-6 spacecraft; five different types of earth stations consisting of 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony tranceivers and eight video originating terminals of three different types. Actual performance of the equipment as measured in the field was shown to equal or exceed predicted values.

  9. Hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2013-02-01

    The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  10. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  11. USML-1 Glovebox experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

  12. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  13. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  14. Drexhage's Experiment for Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langguth, Lutz; Fleury, Romain; Alò, Andrea; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2016-06-01

    Drexhage's seminal observation that spontaneous emission rates of fluorophores vary with distance from a mirror uncovered the fundamental notion that a source's environment determines radiative linewidths and shifts. Further, this observation established a powerful tool to determine fluorescence quantum yields. We present the direct analogue for sound. We demonstrate that a Chinese gong at a hard wall experiences radiative corrections to linewidth and line shift, and extract its intrinsic radiation efficiency. Beyond acoustics, our experiment opens new ideas to extend the Drexhage experiment to metamaterials, nanoantennas, and multipolar transitions.

  15. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  16. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

  17. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  18. Experiments and rights.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, John

    1989-04-01

    William Fletcher's 1905-1906 beriberi experiment with residents of the Kuala Lumpur Lunatic Asylum is the focus of Vollrath's essay on the moral obligations of the scientist. If an experiment harms some subjects (several of Fletcher's patients died), is the scientific integrity of the research consistent with the scientist's moral obligations to those subjects? Do the subjects have the moral right not to be harmed? What are the subjects' moral rights in this context? The author argues that, aside from the issue of using nonconsenting institutionalized subjects, Fletcher's experiment did not violate a moral right of the subjects; moral right is determined prospectively by anticipating risks, not retrospectively by calculating known harms.

  19. The GBAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The classical Weak Equivalence Principle has not yet been tested using antimatter in matter gravitational fields. The GBAR (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest) experiment, recently approved by CERN, proposes to measure the free-fall acceleration of antihydrogen. In this experiment, positive antihydrogen ions will be produced, and subsequently cooled down using laser cooled Be+ ions. Then, when a temperature of around 20 μK has been reached, the excess positron will be detached and the free-fall time will be measured using the antiproton annihilation products. An overview of the experiment will be given together with its present status.

  20. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  1. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM) methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  2. The monsoon experiment MONEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon Experiment program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.

  3. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  4. Status of RENO Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jee-Seung

    2011-10-01

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is under construction to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 using anti-neutrinos emitted from the Yonggwang nuclear power plant in Korea. The experiment is planning to start data-taking in early 2011 with two identical 16-ton Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator detectors located near and far from the center of the reactor array. The estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%. Based on three years of data, the expected statistical error is about 0.3% and it would be sensitive to measure the neutrino mixing angle in the range, sin2(2θ13)> 0.02. In this talk, the overview and status of RENO experiment are described.

  5. Solar wind composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.; Cerutti, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Filleux, C.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 SWC experiment is a continuation of the earlier experiments; however, an essential change was introduced in the solar wind particle collection technique. Platinum surfaces were incorporated in the collector foil, and use was made of a layer technique for distinguishing particles of different energies and different directions of arrival. The improvements and the expanded scope of the Apollo 16 experiment, relative to the earlier SWC experiments, can be summarized as follows: elimination of possible residual dust contamination by treating the platinum foil sections with dilute hydrofluoric acid before analysis; increased accuracy of solar wind argon abundance; determination of solar wind albedo; and search for helium in the energy range above approximately 40 KeV/nucleon.

  6. Experiment design and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Markham, B. J.; Wang, J. R.; Strebel, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives, design, and field operations of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are described. The simultaneous acquisition of satellite, atmosphere, and surface data, and the understanding of the processes governing surface energy and mass exchange and how these are manifested in satellite-resolution radiometric data are identified as the specific objectives of the field-phase experiment. The central issues concerning the design of the field experiment are considered: the size of the site, the duration of the experiment, and the location of the site; it is noted that the Konza Prairie National Reserve was selected as the focus of the study. Field operations in 1987 and 1989 are discussed, and it is pointed out that a data set is available now from a single combined repository to all FIFE investigators, and that scientists can test models and algorithms on scales consistent with satellite observations and with enough supporting data on finer scales.

  7. Foraging Experiences with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    1976-01-01

    Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

  8. CCF Experiment #1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from CCF camera during Experiment #1, or EU#1, square groove geometry operations. The free surface, or gas/liquid interface, assumes a curved shape under subcritical flow conditions as its m...

  9. Electrophoresis experiment for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

  10. Experimenting with Minnaert's Cigar.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J O; Bärring, L; Almqvist, E

    2000-07-20

    We have studied the seldom-seen halo phenomenon that can arise in divergent light, Minnaert's Cigar, which we produced in laboratory experiments and computer simulation. In the laboratory experiments halos or transections were produced in clouds of alum crystals precipitated in a solution of ethyl alcohol or in alum crystals deposited upon glass plates. The three-dimensional cigar form was less pronounced in our small-scale experiments than when the form was observed over several meters. In our experiments and simulations transections through Minnaert's Cigar include different halo forms that may arise on window panes or windshields covered with halo-active ice crystals or as horizontal halos on glittering frost-covered ground.

  11. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes three experiments: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)

  12. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

  13. Experimenting with Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

  14. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)

  15. A Colorful Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, C. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)

  16. Quantum ghost imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

    2009-08-01

    Since the first experiment achieving quantum ghost imaging of an opaque object, performed by the authors at the Army Research Laboratory, ghost imaging research has increased. That physics experiment resulting in the image of toy soldier created a new imaging paradigm. Prior to that all images of opaque objects were made by receiving patterns of the object from reflection and scattering of the light into a camera. In the ghost imaging experiment light patterns only came from the light source and the image was made from coincidences of those and photon counts of reflected and scattered photons received from the object. Since that original ghost imaging experiment, approximately thirteen years after ghost imaging of transmissive objects was introduced, ghost imaging is providing a new and proweful quantum tool for future improved imaging missions in the environment.

  17. Experimenting with Apostatic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J. A.; Cooper, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is some of the experimental evidence for apostatic selection from work with artificial prey. Guidelines for further experiments are suggested including experimental design, analysis, variables, and selection in the wild. (Author/CW)

  18. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  19. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  20. Celestial mechanics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, J.; Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    The efforts and accomplishments of the CME Team are summarized. The objectives and experiment status, gravity field of Mars, test of general relativity, and the generation of normal points are discussed.

  1. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

  2. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  3. Experiments with a sunbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Valiente, R.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2003-12-01

    A theoretical description of the sunbird, a drinking bird without any external liquid, is compared with experiment. The transient times and the periods of oscillation given by a simulation of the dynamics agree with the measured values.

  4. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  5. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  6. Experiment-o-mania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Every 21st century student is expected to develop science literacy skills. As this is not part of Serbian national curriculum yet, we decided to introduce it with this project. Experiment-o-mania provides students to experience science in different and exciting way. It makes opportunity for personalized learning offering space and time to ask (why, where, how, what if) and to try. Therefore, we empower young people with skills of experimenting, and they love science back. They ask questions, make hypothesis, make problems and solve them, make mistakes, discuss about the results. Subsequently this raises the students' interest for school curriculum. This vision of science teaching is associated with inquiry-based learning. Experiment-o-mania is the unique and recognizable teaching methodology for the elementary school Drinka Pavlović, Belgrade, Serbia. Experiment-o-mania implies activities throughout the school year. They are held on extra class sessions, through science experiments, science projects or preparations for School's Days of science. Students learn to ask questions, make observations, classify data, communicate ideas, conduct experiments, analyse results and make conclusions. All science teachers participate in designing activities and experiments for students in Experiment-o-mania teaching method. But they are not alone. Teacher of fine arts, English teachers and others also take part. Students have their representatives in this team, too. This is a good way to blend knowledge among different school subject and popularize science in general. All the experiments are age appropriate and related to real life situations, local community, society and the world. We explore Fibonacci's arrays, saving energy, solar power, climate change, environmental problems, pollution, daily life situations in the country or worldwide. We introduce great scientists as Nikola Tesla, Milutin Milanković and sir Isaac Newton. We celebrate all relevant international days, weeks

  7. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  8. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  9. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  10. The ATHENA antihydrogen experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, K. S.

    1999-12-10

    The ATHENA experiment is being built at CERN to produce and trap neutral antihydrogen. Here we give an overview of the plans to produce antihydrogen. The experiment must 1) trap the antiprotons produced by the CERN accelerators, 2) produce and trap positrons, 3) combine the two charge species into antihydrogen, and finally 4) detect the presence of the antihydrogen. In this paper we discuss how we intend to accomplish each of these steps.

  11. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  12. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  13. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  14. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  15. LACE flight dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1989-01-01

    The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

  16. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

  17. Dual-domain mass-transfer parameters from electrical hysteresis: theory and analytical approach applied to laboratory, synthetic streambed, and groundwater experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2014-01-01

    Models of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.

  18. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

  19. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  20. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  1. Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET

    SciTech Connect

    Wessling, F.C.; Robinson, M.; Martinez, R.S.; Gallimore, T.; Combs, N.

    1994-09-01

    A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery system. The service module provides space for 68 kg (150 lb) of experiments plus telemetry services, attitude control, and power and uses no consumables to maintain attitude. Consequently, the service module can maintain orbit attitude for years. Power of 400 W is supplied by solar cells and batteries for both experiment operation and housekeeping. The recovery system houses an experiment carrier for 136 kg (300 lb) of experiments, a retro rocket, a heat shield, and a parachute. An orbital operations control center provides tracking, telemetry, and commanding for the satellite. The payloads are also briefly described. The first launch was scheduled for 1995.

  2. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  3. Experiments in Computing: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moisseinen, Nella

    2014-01-01

    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general. PMID:24688404

  4. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  5. Future Experiments in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement methodologies of astrophysics experiments reflect the enormous variation of the astrophysical radiation itself. The diverse nature of the astrophysical radiation, e.g. cosmic rays, electromagnetic radiation, and neutrinos, is further complicated by the enormous span in energy, from the 1.95 Kappa relic neutrino background to cosmic rays with energy greater than 10(exp 20)eV. The measurement of gravity waves and search for dark matter constituents are also of astrophysical interest. Thus, the experimental techniques employed to determine the energy of the incident particles are strongly dependent upon the specific particles and energy range to be measured. This paper summarizes some of the calorimetric methodologies and measurements planned by future astrophysics experiments. A focus will be placed on the measurement of higher energy astrophysical radiation. Specifically, future cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino experiments will be discussed.

  6. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  7. An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

  8. Results of space experiments.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

    1995-08-01

    Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

  9. Results of space experiments.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

    1995-08-01

    Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program.

  10. Skylab experiments on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Materials Processing Facility is described. Eight experiments on metal processing under near-zero-gravity conditions were performed in this facility. Three of these involved metals and procedures of potential application to fabrication in space. A Multipurpose electric furnace within the Materials Processing Facility was employed to heat three ampoules of samples for each of the other five experiments. These five investigations cover diffusion versus convection rates in molten zinc, several immiscible alloy compositions, a whisker-reinforced silver-based composite, heat treating of porous silver samples, and a copper-aluminum eutectic.

  11. Microwave PASER Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-22

    The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

  12. Chondrule Crystallization Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hweins, R. H.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lofgren, G. E.; Libourel, G.

    2004-01-01

    Given the great diversity of chondrules, laboratory experiments are invaluable in yielding information on chondrule formation process(es) and for deciphering their initial conditions of formation together with their thermal history. In addition, they provide some critical parameters for astrophysical models of the solar system and of nebular disk evolution in particular (partial pressures, temperature, time, opacity, etc). Most of the experiments simulating chondrules have assumed formation from an aggregate of solid grains, with total pressure of no importance and with virtually no gain or loss of elements from or to the ambient environment. They used pressed pellets attached to wires and suffered from some losses of alkalis and Fe.

  13. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying.

  14. NOSL experiment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, M.

    1986-01-01

    An optical lightning detector was constructed and flown, along with Vinton cameras and a Fairchild Line Scan Spectrometer, on a U-2 during the summer of 1979. The U-2 lightning data was obtained in daylight, and was supplemented with ground truth taken at Langmuir Laboratory. Simulations were prepared as required to establish experiment operating procedures and science training for the astronauts who would operate the Night/Day Optical Survey of Thunderstorm Lightning (NOSL) equipment during the STS-2 NOSL experiment on the Space Shuttle. Data was analyzed and papers were prepared for publication.

  15. Divertor bias experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.

    1994-06-01

    Electrical biasing of the divertor target plates has recently been implemented on several tokamaks. The results of these experiments to date will be reviewed in this paper. The bias electrode configuration is unique in each experiment. The effects of biasing on the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma also differ. By comparing results between machines, and using theoretical models, an understanding of the basic physics of biasing begins to emerge. Divertor biasing has been demonstrated to have a strong influence on the particle and energy transport within the SOL. The ability to externally control the SOL plasma with biasing has promising applications to future tokamak reactors.

  16. The Archimedes experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloni, E.; Caprara, S.; Laurentis, M. De; Esposito, G.; Grilli, M.; Majorana, E.; Pepe, G. P.; Petrarca, S.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Rosa, L.; Rovelli, C.; Ruggi, P.; Saini, N. L.; Stornaiolo, C.; Tafuri, F.

    2016-07-01

    Archimedes is an INFN-funded pathfinder experiment aimed at verifying the feasibility of measuring the interaction of vacuum fluctuations with gravity. The final experiment will measure the force exerted by the gravitational field on a Casimir cavity whose vacuum energy is modulated with a superconductive transition, by using a balance as a small force detector. Archimedes is two-year project devoted to test the most critical experimental aspects, in particular the balance resonance frequency and quality factor, the thermal modulation efficiency and the superconductive sample realization.

  17. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  18. Halogen lamp experiment, HALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, G.; Stapelmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the Halogen Lamp Experiment (HALEX) was to investigate the operation of a halogen lamp during an extended period in a microgravity environment and to prove its behavior in space. The Mirror Heating Facilities for Crystal Growth and Material Science Experiments in space relies on one or two halogen lamps as a furnace to melt the specimens. The HALEX aim is to verify: full power operation of a halogen lamp for a period of about 60 hours; achievement of about 10% of its terrestrial life span; and operation of the halogen lamp under conditions similar to furnace operation.

  19. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaulov, S. B.; Besshapov, S. P.; Kabanova, N. V.; Sysoeva, T. I.; Antonov, R. A.; Anyuhina, A. M.; Bronvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-12-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10-10 eV.

  20. Balancing Computation and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, Rob

    2007-04-01

    How do you know when the science being performed on a supercomputer reflects what actually occurs inside a test tube, or in real life? The answer can be stated simply enough: “run the model on the computer, get the result, and then perform an experiment to test the result”. The adage “easier said than done” truly applies – especially when the focus is on innovative science to benefit government and industry. The trick in this case is to find the right balance of science-driven computing integrated with experiment.

  1. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  2. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A. |

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  3. Experiments with nonneutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Selected experiments with nonneutral plasmas are discussed. These include the laser cooling of a pure ion plasma to a crystalline state, a measurement of the Salpeter enhancement factor for fusion in a strongly correlated plasma and the measurement of thermally excited plasma waves. Also, discussed are experiments that demonstrate Landau damping, trapping and plasma wave echoes in the 2D ExB drift flow of a pure electron plasma, which is isomorphic to the 2D ideal flow (incompressible and inviscid flow) of a neutral fluid.

  4. Ti Hemi boombox experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Phillip Isaac; Hull, Lawrence Mark

    2015-05-14

    Previous deformation experiments in which IR imaging was used pointed to a correlation in between IR signature in areas where heat was expected to be. The surface is not uniform during deformation experiments which cause cracks in the image in areas with increased temperature. To measure temperature under dynamic conditions, simultaneous reflectivity and radiance measurement under events of interest is needed. To measure a temperature measurement, a Reflectance measurement taken by framing camera at the edge of the camera sensitivity (700nm). Allows relative measurement at this wavelength. At reasonable temperatures the spectral radiance should peak near 2u and be 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than at 700 nm.

  5. Experiments with RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Gary D.

    2000-12-31

    Experiments with the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will begin in December 1999. RHIC consists of two superconducting rings capable of accelerating and storing Au beams of 100 GeV/nucleon and proton beams of 250 GeV. Four experiments are being prepared for RHIC: STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and BRAHMS. These detector systems are designed to search for signals of the quark gluon plasma in Au-Au collisions. A spin physics program using polarized protons will also be carried out at RHIC.

  6. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  7. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  8. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  9. An NMR Kinetics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Don; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of…

  10. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Described are the purposes, laboratory set-ups, and procedures of four classroom experiments: ultrasound speedometer; vibrating-bar depth gauge; folding three-dimensional model of equipotential surfaces; and a simple optical system for the reconstruction of images from computer-generated holograms. Diagrams and pictures are provided. (YP)

  11. Virtual Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

  12. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-11-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  13. Experiments with Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, George P.; Weber, Arnold R.

    When Armour and Company faced a shutdown of six plants, it joined in a cooperative program of vocational retraining with two labor unions; an Automation Fund Committee was formed, with representation from management, the unions, and "public" (college professors); and an experimental program in Oklahoma City provided experience which was applied in…

  14. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  15. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  16. Permeable membrane experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Thomas J.; Cao, Tuan Q.; Kliss, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Permeable Membrane Experiment is to gather flight data on three areas of membrane performance that are influenced by the presence of gravity. These areas are: (1) Liquid/gas phase separation, (2) gas bubble interference with diffusion through porous membranes and (3) wetting characteristics of hydrophilic membrane surfaces. These data are important in understaning the behavior of membrane/liquid/gas interfaces where surface tension forces predominate. The data will be compared with 1-g data already obtained and with predicted micrograviity behavior. The data will be used to develop designs for phase separation and plant nutrient delivery systems and will be available to the life support community for use in developing technologies which employ membranes. A conceptual design has been developed to conduct three membrane experiments, in sequence, aboard a single Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) carrier to be carried in the Shuttle Orbiter payload bay. One experiment is conducted for each of the three membrane performance areas under study. These experiments are discussed in this paper.

  17. Carbon monoxide pollution experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortner, M. H.; Dick, R.; Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment is designed to obtain data for the investigation of mechanisms by which CO is removed from the earth's atmosphere. The approach uses an orbiting platform to remotely map global CO concentrations and determine vertical CO profiles using a correlation interferometer measurement technique. The instrument is capable of measuring CO over the range of expected atmospheric burdens and of measuring trace atmospheric constituents.

  18. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  19. Experiments with Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a hands-on experiment that covers many areas of high school mathematics. Included are the notions of patterns, proof, triangular numbers and various aspects of problem solving. The problem involves the arrangements of a school of fish using split peas or buttons to represent the fish. (Contains 4 figures.)

  20. [Near-death experiences].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2011-03-01

    Near-death experiences (NDE) are lucid events that take place when a person is so physically compromised that he would die if its condition does not improve. He is unconscious, without heartbeats and breath, and with a flat-line electroencephalogram. NDE may include some of the following elements: Out of the body experiences or separation of consciousness from the physical body, increase in sensory perception and intense emotions, travel into or through a tunnel, encounter with a brilliant light and mystical beings, deceased relatives or friends, a sense of alteration in time and space, visualization of unworldly realms and a special knowledge, encounter with a barrier or boundary, and a return to the body, either voluntary or involuntary. The fact that children NDE are similar to adult NDE is an evidence that these experiences are real and not due to pre-existing beliefs, cultural influences or previous experiences in the present life. The characteristics of NDE are similar worldwide. No evidence supports the physiological, psychological, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical hypothesis proposed to explain the NDE. Multifactorial models, based on the combination of all of them (brain anoxia or hypoxia, release of serotonin, endorphins and ketamine-like compounds) have also been proposed. Although physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors could interact in the NDE, the hypothesis proposed consist essentially in unsupported speculations about what might be happening during the NDE.

  1. The Experience of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

  2. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional…

  3. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  4. NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, C. Reid

    1992-01-01

    From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real potential…

  5. [Environmental Education Experiences].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke County Board of Education, Morganton, NC.

    Environmental/ecological experiences, appropriate for elementary grades, are presented in this compilation. Designed as individual units of study, they consider components of the natural environment and in particular the local environment of Burke County, North Carolina. Units are titled: Burke County in a Nutshell, Our Culture, A Tour of the…

  6. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  7. Personal Experiences of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    2010-01-01

    This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

  8. Examining Latina College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…

  9. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  10. Kelp growth experiments

    SciTech Connect

    North, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

  11. A Horrible Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    A patient presented to my office who had been tortured in the course of a wartime medical experiment many years ago. Seeing him prompted me to explore my personal reaction to his case and to reflect on the history of the ethics of medical experimentation in the 20th century. PMID:25855417

  12. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  13. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  14. Respiration: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes how a gas chromatograph may be used to determine the amount of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. The experiment has been used as part of a demonstration exercise at a local science fair and proved of interest to all age groups. (Author/BB)

  15. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  16. The Ninth Grade Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Several districts have taken a radical approach to middle/high school transitions, removing ninth-graders from the mix to give them the attention needed to succeed in high school. Three ninth-grade-only schools with 720 to 750 students in Virginia, Texas, and Pennsylvania are profiled. Students experience less social pressure from upper-classmen.…

  17. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a non-mathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  18. Caretaker's Experiences of RPL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of prior learning (RPL) involves an idea of "making learning visible"--of valuing knowledge irrespective of how, when and where it is learnt. This is a phenomenographic analysis of how a group of caretakers from a Swedish property management company experience participation in an RPL initiative focusing on their vocational competence.…

  19. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  20. A Vibrating String Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…

  1. Walkabout: An Educational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copen, Peter; And Others

    The Walkabout program is an optional senior-year educational experience in which New York high school students can acquire the basic skills and confidence to take charge of their lives and contribute to the world. The year-long program is divided into 5 "challenge environments": wilderness (5 weeks); applied academics (18 weeks of health and…

  2. Experiments in ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Stephen M.; Guerin, Clark L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a phenomenon called Extrasensory Perception (ESP) whereby information is gained directly by the mind without the use of the ordinary senses. Experiments in ESP and the basic equipment and methods are presented. Statistical evaluation of ESP experimental results are also included. (HM)

  3. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  4. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  5. The Airplane Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

  6. The ALARM Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Ira

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

  7. My experience with helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oemichen, Etienne

    1923-01-01

    The author recounts his experiments with helicopters. The object of his investigations was to remain stationary in the air for five minutes and to make a closed flight at low altitude. Some of the topics discussed include stabilization, horizontal flight, and directional control.

  8. Experiences in Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott; Clem, Joe; Battino, Wendy; Richter, Kurt; Reigeluth, Charles; Doll, Marcelle; Moore, Julie; Hoo, Janet; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This section describes the systemic change experiences in Norfolk Public Schools, Chugach School District, Indianapolis Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Ditmas Educational Complex, Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program, Sun Microsystems, and Azerbaijan. It provides a description of the change process and discusses the…

  9. Ice forming experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.

    1982-01-01

    A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

  10. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  11. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  12. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An experiment on cooling by convection, holographic processes achieved using optical fibers and observation of magnetic domains are described. Also describes four demonstrations: mechanical resonance on air track, independence of horizontal/vertical motion, motion of sphere in fluid medium, and light scattering near the critical point. (JN)

  13. A Descriptive Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Josef

    1979-01-01

    In this experiment in description, students in a high school honors English class were asked to select a surrealistic painting and capture it in writing. Their compositions were given to art students who tried to reproduce the paintings from the written descriptions. (SJL)

  14. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, P. H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces three physics experiments for high school and college classes. Topics include measuring the ratio of heat capacities using a microcomputer and a glass syringe, producing large electric sparks using a variation of a Leyden bucket, and observing transmission line behavior using television signals. Includes descriptions of materials and…

  15. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

  16. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  17. Demonstration Experiments in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    This book represents a "cookbook" for teachers of physics, a book of recipes for the preparation of demonstration experiments to illustrate the principles that make the subject of physics so fascinating. Illustrations and explanations of each demonstration are done in an easy-to-understand format. Each can be adapted to be used as a demonstration…

  18. Experiments on ferrimagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-03-01

    Ferrimagnetism undoubtedly deserves a proper place in the undergraduate laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Four student experiments on ferrimagnetism are considered: (i) the hysteresis loops and permeability of a ‘soft’ ferrite; (ii) the differential permeability versus a dc bias; (iii) the frequency dependence of the complex permeability and (iv) the electromagnetic interference suppression by ferrite chokes and beads. Two ferrite cores taken off a low-frequency choke and a power cord are used. The measurements are simple and straightforward and show the important properties of ferrites and their applications. The values of the permeability of the ferrite core determined in experiments (i)-(iii) are in reasonable agreement. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrites is similar to that given by the manufacturers. The capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves in a definite frequency range shown in experiment (iv) demonstrates one of the principles of Stealth technology. The equipment necessary for the experiments can be found in many student laboratories.

  19. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  20. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  1. Microheater Array Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

  2. Experimenting with Liquid Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, J. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Outlined are two experiments using liquid membranes that illustrate carrier-facilitated transport, where chemical species are ushered across the membrane by selective "carrier" molecules residing in the membrane. The use of liquid membranes as models for studying and describing biological transport mechanisms is explored. (CS)

  3. Microcomputer Controlled Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, John; Knaggs, David

    1982-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-controlled system which determines the current/voltage characteristics of a resistor, lamp, and diode, detailing system elements, construction, and providing printout of the program developed to provide control and arithmetic functions necessary to complete the experiment. (SK)

  4. Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

  5. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  6. Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

  7. The OLYMPUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, R.; Hasell, D. K.; Kohl, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Andreev, V. A.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Buck, B.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; De Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hauschildt, J.; Henderson, B. S.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ice, L. D.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Khaneft, D.; Klassen, P.; Kiselev, A.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; O'Connor, C.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Russell, R. L.; Schmidt, A.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.

    2014-03-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross-sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross-section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, μpGEp/GMp, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately 25°-75°. Symmetric Møller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29° and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at 12° served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5 fb-1 was collected over two running periods in 2012. This paper provides details on the accelerator, target, detectors, and operation of the experiment.

  8. Experiments on Photoconductivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain…

  9. Enhance Your Twitter Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shannon McClintock

    2010-01-01

    The author has been encouraging teachers, students, and others to join Twitter and build their personal learning networks (PLNs) ever since she delved into this great social networking site. In this article, she offers a few other tools and tips that can improve the Twitter experience of those who have opened up an account and dabbled a bit but…

  10. Experiments with Aspirin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

  11. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  12. Experiment with Conical Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tongaonkar, S. S.; Khadse, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Conical pendulum is similar to simple pendulum with the difference that the bob, instead of moving back and forth, swings around in a horizontal circle. Thus, in a conical pendulum the bob moves at a constant speed in a circle with the string tracing out a cone. This paper describes an experiment with conical pendulum, with determination of g from…

  13. Invisalign: early experiences.

    PubMed

    Joffe, L

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the Invisalign technique. It is based on the author's personal experience of over 60 cases started in the private practice setting. The technology behind Invisalign and its development is reviewed. The Invisalign clinical technique is described, and the advantages and disadvantages of using Invisalign are highlighted.

  14. The Information Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Diane

    1997-01-01

    The author argues that, in a team-based business culture where good service is a minimum and professionalism is a given, information experts need to move beyond the service era and distinguish themselves by creating an "information experience." Describes how corporate information experts can adapt to what John Naisbitt has called the "experience…

  15. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, V.E.; Keller, C.; Mei, D-M; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, G.; Thomas, K.; Xiang, W.; Zhang, C.; Aalseth, C.E.; Aguayo, E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J.E.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Keillor, M.; Kephart, J.D.; Kouzes, R.; Miley, H.S.; Mizouni, L.; Myers, A.W.; Reid, D.; Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J.A.; Loach, J.C.; Luke, P.N.; Martin, R.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Vetter, K.; Yaver, H.; Avignone, F.T. III; Creswick, R.; Farach, H.; Mizouni, L.; Avignone, Frank Titus; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Capps, Gregory L; Cooper, Reynold J; Radford, David C; Varner Jr, Robert L; Wilkerson, John F; Yu, Chang-Hong; Back, H.O.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.R.; Back , H.O.; Bai, X.; Hong, H.; Howard, S.; Medlin, D.; Sobolev, V.; Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V.; Barbeau, P.S.; Collar, J.I.; Fields, N.; Boswell , M.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, M.; Burritt , T.H.; Burritt , T.H.; Busch, M.; Esterline, J.; Swift, G.; Tornow, W.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, M.; Shima, T.; Finnerty , P.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  16. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

    2011-08-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  17. Work Experience Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program provides supervised vocational personnel with work experience opportunities. The primary function and purpose of this program is the development and/or refinement of vocational competencies in occupational careers. In the introduction, the first of seventeen sections, course options and requirements are outlined. Criteria for the…

  18. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

  19. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  20. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the

  1. Finite-size effects of hysteretic dynamics in multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric

    DOE PAGES

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Pusenkova, Anastasiia S.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Strikha, Maxym V.

    2015-06-11

    The origin and influence of finite-size effects on the nonlinear dynamics of space charge stored by multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric and resistivity of graphene channel were analyzed. In this paper, we develop a self-consistent approach combining the solution of electrostatic problems with the nonlinear Landau-Khalatnikov equations for a ferroelectric. The size-dependent behaviors are governed by the relations between the thicknesses of multilayer graphene, ferroelectric film, and the dielectric layer. The appearance of charge and electroresistance hysteresis loops and their versatility stem from the interplay of polarization reversal dynamics and its incomplete screening in an alternating electric field. These featuresmore » are mostly determined by the dielectric layer thickness. The derived analytical expressions for electric fields and space-charge-density distribution in a multilayer system enable knowledge-driven design of graphene-on-ferroelectric heterostructures with advanced performance. We further investigate the effects of spatially nonuniform ferroelectric domain structures on the graphene layers’ conductivity and predict its dramatic increase under the transition from multi- to single-domain state in a ferroelectric. Finally, this intriguing effect can open possibilities for the graphene-based sensors and explore the underlying physical mechanisms in the operation of graphene field-effect transistor with ferroelectric gating.« less

  2. Non-hysteretic superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor with enhanced responsivity

    SciTech Connect

    Jabdaraghi, R. N.; Meschke, M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2014-02-24

    This Letter presents fabrication and characterization of an optimized superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor. The present device, characterized by reduced tunnel junction area and shortened normal-metal section, demonstrates no hysteresis at low temperatures as we increased the Josephson inductance of the weak link by decreasing its cross section. It has consequently almost an order of magnitude improved magnetic field responsivity as compared to the earlier design. The modulation of both the current and the voltage across the junction have been measured as a function of magnetic flux piercing the superconducting loop.

  3. Finite-size effects of hysteretic dynamics in multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Pusenkova, Anastasiia S.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Strikha, Maxym V.

    2015-06-11

    The origin and influence of finite-size effects on the nonlinear dynamics of space charge stored by multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric and resistivity of graphene channel were analyzed. In this paper, we develop a self-consistent approach combining the solution of electrostatic problems with the nonlinear Landau-Khalatnikov equations for a ferroelectric. The size-dependent behaviors are governed by the relations between the thicknesses of multilayer graphene, ferroelectric film, and the dielectric layer. The appearance of charge and electroresistance hysteresis loops and their versatility stem from the interplay of polarization reversal dynamics and its incomplete screening in an alternating electric field. These features are mostly determined by the dielectric layer thickness. The derived analytical expressions for electric fields and space-charge-density distribution in a multilayer system enable knowledge-driven design of graphene-on-ferroelectric heterostructures with advanced performance. We further investigate the effects of spatially nonuniform ferroelectric domain structures on the graphene layers’ conductivity and predict its dramatic increase under the transition from multi- to single-domain state in a ferroelectric. Finally, this intriguing effect can open possibilities for the graphene-based sensors and explore the underlying physical mechanisms in the operation of graphene field-effect transistor with ferroelectric gating.

  4. Role of open boundary conditions on the hysteretic behaviour of one-dimensional spin crossover nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chiruta, Daniel; Linares, Jorge E-mail: miya@spin.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Miyashita, Seiji E-mail: miya@spin.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-05-21

    In order to explain clearly the role of the open boundary conditions (OBCs) on phase transition in one dimensional system, we consider an Ising model with both short-range (J) and long-range (G) interactions, which has allowed us to study the cooperative nature of spin-crossover (SCO) materials at the nanometer scale. At this end, we developed a transfer-matrix method for one-dimensional (1D) SCO system with free boundary conditions, and we give numerical evidences for how the thermal spin transition curves vary as a function of the physical parameters (J, G) or an applied pressure. Moreover for OBCs case, we have derived the bulk, surface and finite-size contributions to the free energy and we have investigated the variation of these energies as function of J and system size. We have found that the surface free energy behaves like J〈σ〉{sup 2}, where 〈σ〉 is the average magnetization per site. Since the properties of the nanometric scale are dramatically influenced by the system's size (N), our analytical outcomes for the size dependence represent a step to achieve new characteristic of the future devices and also a way to find various novel properties which are absent in the bulk materials.

  5. An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Mark; Davino, Daniele; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.

  6. Hydrology in a peaty high marsh: hysteretic flow and biogeochemical implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial nutrient input to coastal waters is a critical water quality problem worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer (either by removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs) between terrestrial sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. One of the major...

  7. Hysteretic magnetic pinning and reversible resistance switching in high-temperature superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visani, C.; Metaxas, P. J.; Collaudin, A.; Calvet, B.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Deranlot, C.; Bouzehouane, K.; Villegas, J. E.

    2011-08-01

    We study a high-critical temperature superconducting (YBa2Cu3O7-δ)/ferromagnetic (Co/Pt multilayer) hybrid that exhibits resistance switching driven by the magnetic history: depending on the direction of the external field, a pronounced decrease or increase of the mixed-state resistance is observed as magnetization reversal occurs within the Co/Pt multilayer. We demonstrate that stray magnetic fields cause these effects via (i) creation of vortices/antivortices and (ii) magnetostatic pinning of vortices that are induced by the external field.

  8. Micromagnetic model for the influence of biaxial stress on hysteretic magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, M. J.; Riley, L. A.; Burkhardt, G. L.; Kwun, H.; Cannell, P. Y.; Watts, K. T.; Langman, R. A.

    1994-05-01

    A micromagnetic formulation has been developed for modeling the effect of biaxial stress on magnetoelastic processes in polycrystalline steels. In particular, the formulation employs the Schneider-Cannell-Watts model and involves substitution of an effective stress equal to one of the deviatoric (i.e., distortional) normal stress components, depending on whether the field is parallel to a tensile or compressive axis or to the third axis perpendicular to the plane of biaxial stress. Computer results are compared to experimental results on the effects of biaxial stress on magnetic properties in mild steel and in SAE-4130 steel. Good qualitative agreement is found in almost all cases, in that in going from one biaxial stress case to the next, the same kinds of changes are seen magnetically. It is also shown from the model and the data that a method can be formulated to nondestructively determine the difference in biaxial stresses.

  9. Micromagnetic model for the influence of biaxial stress on hysteretic magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sablik, M.J.; Riley, L.A.; Burkhardt, G.L.; Kwun, H. ); Cannell, P.Y.; Watts, K.T. ); Langman, R.A. )

    1994-05-15

    A micromagnetic formulation has been developed for modeling the effect of biaxial stress on magnetoelastic processes in polycrystalline steels. In particular, the formulation employs the Schneider--Cannell--Watts model and involves substitution of an effective stress equal to one of the deviatoric (i.e., distortional) normal stress components, depending on whether the field is parallel to a tensile or compressive axis or to the third axis perpendicular to the plane of biaxial stress. Computer results are compared to experimental results on the effects of biaxial stress on magnetic properties in mild steel and in SAE-4130 steel. Good qualitative agreement is found in almost all cases, in that in going from one biaxial stress case to the next, the same kinds of changes are seen magnetically. It is also shown from the model and the data that a method can be formulated to nondestructively determine the difference in biaxial stresses.

  10. Converting HAZUS capacity curves to seismic hazard-compatible building fragility functions: effect of hysteretic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryu, Hyeuk; Luco, Nicolas; Baker, Jack W.; Karaca, Erdem

    2008-01-01

    A methodology was recently proposed for the development of hazard-compatible building fragility models using parameters of capacity curves and damage state thresholds from HAZUS (Karaca and Luco, 2008). In the methodology, HAZUS curvilinear capacity curves were used to define nonlinear dynamic SDOF models that were subjected to the nonlinear time history analysis instead of the capacity spectrum method. In this study, we construct a multilinear capacity curve with negative stiffness after an ultimate (capping) point for the nonlinear time history analysis, as an alternative to the curvilinear model provided in HAZUS. As an illustration, here we propose parameter values of the multilinear capacity curve for a moderate-code low-rise steel moment resisting frame building (labeled S1L in HAZUS). To determine the final parameter values, we perform nonlinear time history analyses of SDOF systems with various parameter values and investigate their effects on resulting fragility functions through sensitivity analysis. The findings improve capacity curves and thereby fragility and/or vulnerability models for generic types of structures.

  11. Highly cooperative and hysteretic response of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor to changes in proton concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J; Zhao, J

    1994-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors are key molecules in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. They form the pore of the calcium release channel, which is regulated by Ca and ATP. Multiple proton titration sites are involved in controlling the different open states of the channel, as indicated by the following: i) the channel had a biphasic response to changes in proton concentrations around neutral pH; ii) the activities of the channel were inhibited by acidic pHs in a highly cooperative manner; and iii) the channel exhibited pronounced hysteresis to changes in pH. Four distinct conductance states can be identified in the single ryanodine-activated calcium release channel. The distribution of the multiple conductance states depends on the level of [Ca], ATP, and pH in the recording solution. The data are consistent with the multimeric structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:7948677

  12. Influence of the diffusion current on the hysteretic behavior in the system of coupled Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Rahmonov, I. R.

    2010-09-01

    The detailed investigation of the phase dynamics and the I-V curves in the system of coupled Josephson junctions have been carried out. The superconducting, quasiparticle, diffusion, and displacement currents have been calculated as functions of the total current through the system. The role of the diffusion current in the formation of the I-V curves has been studied and the influence of this quantity on the I-V curve branching and the magnitude of the return current has been revealed. The calculation results agree qualitatively with the experimental data.

  13. Real space mapping of oxygen vacancy diffusion and electrochemical transformations by hysteretic current reversal curve measurements

    DOEpatents

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Jesse, Stephen; Maksymovych, Petro; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2014-06-10

    An excitation voltage biases an ionic conducting material sample over a nanoscale grid. The bias sweeps a modulated voltage with increasing maximal amplitudes. A current response is measured at grid locations. Current response reversal curves are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Reversal curves are averaged over the grid for each bias cycle and mapped over maximal bias amplitudes for each bias cycle. Average reversal curve areas are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Thresholds are determined for onset and ending of electrochemical activity. A predetermined number of bias sweeps may vary in frequency where each sweep has a constant number of cycles and reversal response curves may indicate ionic diffusion kinetics.

  14. Butyrylcholinesterase for protection from organophosphorus poisons; catalytic complexities and hysteretic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a promiscuous enzyme that displays complex kinetic behavior. It is toxicologically important because it detoxifies organophosphorus poisons (OP) by making a covalent bond with the OP. The OP and the butyrylcholinesterase are both inactivated in the process. Inactivation of butyrylcholinesterase has no adverse effects. However inactivation of acetylcholinesterase in nerve synapses can be lethal. OP-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase can be reactivated with oximes provided the OP has not aged. Strategies for preventing the toxicity of OP include a) treatment with an OP scavenger, b) reaction of nonaged enzyme with oximes, c) reactivation of aged enzyme, d) slowing down aging with peripheral site ligands, and e) design of mutants that rapidly hydrolyze OP. Option (a) has progressed through phase I clinical trials with human butyrylcholinesterase. Option (b) is in routine clinical use. The others are at the basic research level. Butyrylcholinesterase displays complex kinetic behavior including activation by positively charged esters, ability to hydrolyze amides, and a lag time (hysteresis) preceding hydrolysis of benzoylcholine and N-methyl indoxyl acetate. Mass spectrometry has identified new OP binding motifs on tyrosine and lysine in proteins that have no active site serine. It is proposed, but not yet proven, that low dose exposure involves OP modification of proteins that have no active site serine. PMID:20004171

  15. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin

  16. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  17. The ISPM dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, L. D.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ISPM Dust Experiment observes particulate matter with masses between 10 to the minus 19th power and 10 to the minus 10th power kg in the solar system; investigates its physical and dynamical properties as a function of ecliptic latitude and heliocentric distance; and studies its interaction with solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurement of the three dimensional spatial distribution of cosmic dust particles and their dynamics allows the relative significance of their probable sources (comets, asteroids and interstellar dust) to be determined. An instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles is used. It is a multicoincidence detector with a sensitivity 100,000 times higher than that of previous experiments. The instrument weighs 3.750 kg, consumes 2.0 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bit/sec in spacecraft tracking mode.

  18. The deconstructive experience.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Logocentrism was conceptualized by Jacques Derrida as connoting the assertion within Western philosophical traditions of certain assumed truths and the exclusion of alternative perspectives. In this paper, the author proposes that the concept of logocentrism may be usefully applied within the clinical situation to enrich understanding of splitting between idealized and devalued perceptions of self and others. He presents a case of a woman with borderline personality disorder to illustrate a logocentric self-structure, as well as how common psychotherapeutic models inadvertently risk reinforcing such structures through the hierarchical nature of the patient-therapist relationship. The process of deconstructing logocentric self-structures is facilitated by the patient experiencing the therapist paradoxically as an extension of the self that sometimes behaves contrary to expectations. Such a deconstructive experience challenges reified perceptions of self and others, serves to broaden the experience of self, and enhances qualities of self-reflection and empathy. PMID:16555459

  19. Health Education Telecommunications Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment carried out with Applications Technology Satellite-6 is described. The experiment tested the effectiveness of color television broadcasts to over 120 low-cost receivers in rural areas. Five types of earth stations were involved: receive-only terminals (ROT), an intensive terminal consisting of the ROT plus a VHF transmitter and receiver; comprehensive S and C-band terminals having the capability of transmitting the video signal plus four audio channels; and the main originating stations. Additional supporting elements comprise 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony transceivers, and 8 video originating terminals of 3 different parts. Technical parameters were measured to within 1 dB of the calculated values.

  20. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  1. Future flavour physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  2. Computer Experience of Nurses.

    PubMed

    Schleder Gonçalves, Luciana; Cândida Castro, Talita; Fialek, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the computing experience of nurses in southern Brazil, through exploratory survey research. The results, which were obtained from the application of The Staggers Nursing Computer Experience Questionnaire®, were analyzed by statistical tests. The survey was conducted with nurses working both in hospitals, as in public health, in a capital in southern Brazil. There is the predominance of novice nurses in the application of computer tools in their practices but most often declare the use the computers to develop their professional and also personal life activities. We conclude that the computer and health information systems are part of the working reality of the participants, being considered indispensable resources his activity, while noting limitations on the potential use of these tools. This study reflects on how the issue has been addressed in educational schools and the challenges of inclusion of the theme of Nursing Informatics in the curricula in Brazil. PMID:26262313

  3. Chemical Kiloton Experiment schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

  4. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  5. Timing in Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Jozefowiez, Jeremie; Cerutti, Daniel T.; Staddon, John E. R.

    2005-01-01

    In Experiment 1, pigeons chose between variable- and fixed-interval schedules. The timer for 1 schedule was reset by a reinforcement on that schedule or on either schedule. In both cases, the pigeons timed reinforcement on each schedule from trial onset. The data further suggest that their behavior reflects 2 independent processes: 1 deciding when a response should be emitted and responsible for the timing of the overall activity, and the other determining what this response should be and responsible for the allocation of behavior between the 2 response keys. Results from Experiment 2, which studied choice between 2 fixed-interval schedules, support those 2 conclusions. These results have implications for the study of operant choice in general. PMID:15839777

  6. Antimatter gravity experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  8. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  9. Return flux experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  10. The GLORIA demonstrator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcher, A.; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    GLORIA stands for "GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array" and it is the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes on the world. Based on a Web 2.0 environment amateur and professional users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases. GLORIA project develops free standards, protocols and tools for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical data. This contribution summarizes the implementation and results from the first research level off-line demonstrator experiment implemented in GLORIA, which was base on the data collected with the "Pi of the Sky" telescope in Chile.

  11. Electronics for Satellite Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-05-16

    The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

  12. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  13. The gravitational wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.

  14. The PHOBOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    PHOBOS is an experiment designed to study Au-Au collisions at RHIC. The apparatus consists of a 4{pi} multiplicity array and two spectrometer arms. The experiment is designed to measure the polar and azimuthal angles of most particles produced in the collisions and whether they are charged particles or photons. For approximately 1% of these particles, the two spectrometer arms will measure their properties in great detail. This includes many of the particles near mid-rapidity which are expected to show the most striking effects of any new physics which may occur. PHOBOS has proceeded from the Letter of Intent stage through Proposal and Conceptual Design Review to Construction Approval. It is anticipated that data taking will commence in 1999 when RHIC first provides beam.

  15. Experimenting with Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth M.

    1998-04-01

    What questions come about as learners explore physical materials? How does their learning deepen through inventing experiments and making and testing their own interpretations? I present episodes from the investigatory work of three adult learners who met regularly with me to explore batteries, bulbs and wires. I taught by engaging the learners' interest in these materials and by interactively researching their developing understandings. As both teacher and researcher, I used what I learned about their understandings to support their efforts to extend the body of experimental knowledge they were developing. Development is evident in experimental details. Initially, by hand-holding, they light a bulb with a wire and battery. Later, in soldering connections, they wonder about the bulb's internal structure. They research thoughts about this through dissecting a bulb -- and lighting its exposed filament. Such experimenting changed thinking: from imagining sequential loops, to questioning electrical contacts, to inferring circuital paths.

  16. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  17. NPB Cesium Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, George M., III

    1992-01-01

    Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

  18. The LUX experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-03-24

    We present the status and prospects of the LUX experiment, which employs approximately 300 kg of two-phase xenon to search for WIMP dark matter interactions. The LUX detector was commissioned at the surface laboratory of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD, between December 2011 and February 2012 and the detector has been operating underground since January, 2013. These proceedings review the results of the commissioning run as well as the status of underground data-taking.

  19. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  20. Holodeck-ISS Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbolt, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    For the duration of my internship here at JSC for the summer 2016 session, the main project that I worked on dealt with hybrid reality simulations of the ISS. As an ER6 intern for the spacecraft software division, the main project that I worked alongside others was with regards to the Holodeck Virtual Reality Project, specifically with the ISS experience, with the use of the HTC Vive and controllers.

  1. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  2. Experimenting cavitation measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    1988-09-01

    A calibrating method for measuring the volume of cavitation bubbles is presented and the results of open air experiments are given. The bubbles appearing on the surface of a marine rotating propeller are measured using CCD cameras and optical procedures. Square bubble section first approximations is used. The performance of cameras equipped with light amplifiers is studied in order to use them for real bubble cross section measurements.

  3. The CKM Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan H. Nguyen

    2002-10-25

    I describe the CKM experiment, a new initiative using the Fermilab Main Injector to obtain {approx} 100 events of the ultra-rare decay mode K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. The branching ratio will be used to extract |V*{sub ts}V{sub td}|. Due to the decay mode's theoretical cleanliness, it plays a key role in over-constraining the Standard Model description of CP violation.

  4. An analemma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dan M.

    2000-12-01

    I describe here a very simple experiment that allows a science class to measure the latitude of their school, determine the inclination of the Earth's axis to the ecliptic, and demonstrate the noncircularity of our orbit around the Sun. The only tools needed are: something tall and pointed (a flagpole will do), paint and a paint brush, a tape measure, a watch, and an accurate way of finding the time (such as a radio).

  5. Multiphase-flowmeter experience

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Multiphase-flowmeters (MPFM`s) are finding increasing acceptance offshore, where operators are becoming more comfortable with the technology after several years of familiarization. Meters are being used in well testing, well management, and allocation of production. Since the first deliveries of the Framo engineering A/S meter in 1993, significant experience has been gained in both topside and subsea applications of the devices. The paper describes purposes, technology, Framo`s meter, applications, performance verification, and operational problems.

  6. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  7. Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.

  8. Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinova, Evdokiya; Forest, C.; Cooper, C.; Coquerel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is investigating the self-generation of magnetic fields and related processes in a large, weakly magnetized, fast flowing, and hot (conducting) plasma. The dynamo re-creates conditions highly similar to many astrophysical plasmas. Stars and other planets have dynamos, and so do galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which makes it extremely crucial for researchers in the field to carry out experiments in this previously uninvestigated plasma regime, which will help for the development of a comprehensive theory of how magnetic fields are generated in planets, the Sun and other stars. MPDX is a laboratory astrophysical experiment where 200,000-degree Fahrenheit plasma is confined within a three-meter diameter spherical aluminum vacuum chamber with the help of multiple tracks of cusp magnets covering the inside shell. The dynamo utilizes six robotic insertion sweep probes that are programmed to find any point inside the sphere by given radial and angular coordinates. This innovative mechanical system allows us to take measurements of the state variables in key points in the plasma flow and to better investigate its cosmic-like plasma behavior. The probes are able to autonomously calculate coordinate transformations, move in a two dimensional plane, and return information about their relative position. This makes them an extremely useful, highly accurate, and easily controlled tool for plasma analysis.

  9. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive nonzero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference \\vertΔ m2ee\\vert\\big (2.59+0.19-0.20\\big )×10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  10. Critical experiment data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L. ); Clayton, E.D.; Doherty, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Critical experiment facilities produced a large number of important data during the past 45 years; however, many useful data remain unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters' logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc., This data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. Obviously, this will not be possible indefinitely. Most of the US critical experiment facilities are now closed, and the experimenters are moving to other jobs, retiring, or otherwise becoming unavailable for this informal assistance. Also, the records are in danger of being discarded or lost during facility closures, cleanup activities, or in storage. A project was begun in 1989 to ensure that important unpublished data from critical experiment facilities in the United States are archived and made available as a resource of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS). The objective of this paper is to summarize the project accomplishments to date and bring these activities to the attention of those who might be aware of the location of source information needed for archiving and could assist in getting the materials included in the archive.

  11. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  12. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-09-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (106 - 107 yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  13. CEAREX Drift Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CEAREX Drift Group

    The Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX) was conducted to study the processes regulating eastern Arctic Ocean exchange of momentum, heat, and biomass. The primary CEAREX objectives were to understand the structure and function of mesoscale (order 10 km) and submesoscale processes in the transport of heat northward, and to understand the ice behavior and associated acoustic ambient noise and coherence. The Drift Experiment described here was one part of the comprehensive CEAREX program. It focused on the transition period during freeze up and on the dark winter period. The Drift Experiment was designed to observe atmosphere, ice, and ocean behavior simultaneously. Specific observations were carried out under independent research programs by investigators from a number of organizations. The concurrent information provided an opportunity to measure and understand the relationship between stresses observed in individual ice floes and the geophysical driving forces and overall ice conditions, and to identify and describe noise generated by different processes. The coordinated effort has resulted in a complete set of data for helping to understand the dynamic interactions among ice, ocean, and atmosphere. This large, valuable, and unique data set will be archived by the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. Some subsets will be available on CD-ROM for simple and inexpensive use on personal computers.

  14. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a) enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b) variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c) distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present some key features of REP based on case studies which include trigger optimization and physics analysis studies at the LHCb experiment.

  15. ACTS broadband aeronautical experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Estabrook, Polly; Agan, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, the demand for reliable data, voice, and video satellite communication links between aircraft and ground to improve air traffic control, airline management, and to meet the growing demand for passenger communications has increased significantly. It is expected that in the near future, the spectrum required for aeronautical communication services will grow significantly beyond that currently available at L-band. In anticipation of this, JPL is developing an experimental broadband aeronautical satellite communications system that will utilize NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as a satellite of opportunity and the technology developed under JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) Task to evaluate the feasibility of using K/Ka-band for these applications. The application of K/Ka-band for aeronautical satellite communications at cruise altitudes is particularly promising for several reasons: (1) the minimal amount of signal attenuation due to rain; (2) the reduced drag due to the smaller K/Ka-band antennas (as compared to the current L-band systems); and (3) the large amount of available bandwidth. The increased bandwidth available at these frequencies is expected to lead to significantly improved passenger communications - including full-duplex compressed video and multiple channel voice. A description of the proposed broadband experimental system will be presented including: (1) applications of K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite technology to U.S. industry; (2) the experiment objectives; (3) the experiment set-up; (4) experimental equipment description; and (5) industrial participation in the experiment and the benefits.

  16. The QUIJOTE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Caniego, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint Tenerife) CMB Experiment is observing the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background and other Galactic and extragalactic signals at medium and large angular scales in the frequency range of 10-40 GHz. This experiment will provide valuable information about the polarization properties of synchrotron and anomalous microwave emission at these frequencies. The maps obtained with the multi-frequency instrument (10-20 GHz), in combination with data from other experiments like Planck and the VLA, will be used to clean the diffuse and compact foreground emission at 30 and 40 GHz, the cosmological channels. After three years of effective observations we expect to reach the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r = 0.05. At the moment we have completed the Wide Survey with the multi-frequency instrument, covering 20.000 square degrees of the Northern hemisphere. In addition, we have deep integrations of our main calibrators Taurus A, Cassiopea A, Jupiter and of the Perseus molecular complex region, where we have measured the spectrum of the anomalous microwave emission. We also have observed several regions of interest for our science program where we plan to study the compact and diffuse polarized emission.

  17. Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, David E. W.

    2003-01-01

    The "raw data" that aesthetics is meant to explain is the aesthetic experience. People have experiences that they class off from other experiences and label, as a class, the aesthetic ones. Aesthetic experience is basic, and all other things aesthetic--aesthetic properties, aesthetic objects, aesthetic attitudes--are secondary in their importance…

  18. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  19. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  20. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  1. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life.

  2. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

  3. Experience the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  4. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  5. Multiwell experiment: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.; Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Thorne, B.J.; Branagan, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This field laboratory has been established about 7 mi southwest of Rifle, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Their 110 to 215 ft separation at depth is less than the nominal dimensions of the lenses in the area. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. Comprehensive logging and core analysis programs were conducted. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. These definitions are further enhanced by the fact that most data will come from closely spaced wells. Thus, spatial variations in reservoir properties can be quantified. 10 refs.

  6. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  7. Drift Chamber Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walenta, A. H.; ćonka Nurdan, T.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a laboratory course held at ICFA 2002 Regional Instrumentation School in Morelia, Mexico. This course intends to introduce drift chambers, which play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. The experimental setup consists of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber, a plastic scintillator detector and a collimated 90Sr source. The measurements on the drift velocity of electrons, its change as a function of a drift field, gas gain and diffusion are performed at this laboratory course.

  8. S band transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Muller, P. M.; Wollenhaupt, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    It is reported that this experiment measures the lunar gravitational field, which in turn provides information on the distribution of lunar mass and its correlation with surface features such as craters, mountains, and maria. The lunar gravitational field is measured by observing the dynamical motion of spacecraft in free-fall orbits. Effective detection of mass variations is greatly enhanced by low-altitude trajectories, such as the eccentric orbits during revolutions 3 to 16 of the Apollo 16 spacecraft and the 11 km periapsis of the Apollo 16 subsatellite during May 1972. The observational data are the precise earth-based radio tracking measurements initially used for real-time navigation.

  9. Rotational fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

  10. Soil mechanics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Bromwell, L. G.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 soil-mechanics experiment has offered greater opportunity for study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil than previous missions, not only because of the extended lunar-surface stay time and enhanced mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (rover), but also because four new data sources were available for the first time. These sources were: (1) the self-recording penetrometer (SRP), (2) new, larger diameter, thin-walled core tubes, (3) the rover, and (4) the Apollo lunar-surface drill (ALSD). These data sources have provided the best bases for quantitative analyses thus far available in the Apollo Program.

  11. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  12. Materials Adherence Experiment: Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.P.; Landis, G.A.; Oberle, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    NASA`s Mars Pathfinder mission, launched December 4, 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. Pathfinder will demonstrate a variety of new technologies aimed at reducing the cost of Mars exploration. Chief among these will be the demonstration of a solar-powered spacecraft on the surface of Mars. The Materials Adherence Experiment on Pathfinder was designed to measure the degradation of solar arrays due to dust settling out of the atmosphere and blocking light to the solar array, lowering the array power output.

  13. Integrated Immune Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Integrated Immune Experiment. The objectives include: 1) Address significant lack of data regarding immune status during flight; 2) Replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; 3) Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation; 4) Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and 5) Determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  15. NASA's supercomputing experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. Ron

    1990-01-01

    A brief overview of NASA's recent experience in supercomputing is presented from two perspectives: early systems development and advanced supercomputing applications. NASA's role in supercomputing systems development is illustrated by discussion of activities carried out by the Numerical Aerodynamical Simulation Program. Current capabilities in advanced technology applications are illustrated with examples in turbulence physics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, chemistry, and structural mechanics. Capabilities in science applications are illustrated by examples in astrophysics and atmospheric modeling. Future directions and NASA's new High Performance Computing Program are briefly discussed.

  16. Fundamental experiments in velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth; Hull, Larry; Shinas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

  17. The OLYMPUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Richard G.; Olympus Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    OLYMPUS is an experiment mounted by an international collaboration at DESY, Hamburg, Germany to provide a ±1% measurement of the cross section ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering in the range 0.6 < Q2 < 2.2 (GeV/c)2. The goal is to provide a definitive experimental verification of the generally accepted explanation of the discrepancy between cross-section and recoil polarization techniques in determination of the form factor ratio GEp(Q2)/GMp(Q2).

  18. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-09-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does not fly a significant distance. When the starting point is closer to the lips, the straw is projected 2-3 m. If two or three straws are connected to form a longer blowgun, the cotton swab flies even farther.

  19. The Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Park, Jae H.; Drayson, S. R.; Hesketh, W. D.; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Frederick, John E.; Harries, John E.; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) uses solar occultation to measure vertical profiles of O3, HCl, HF, CH4, H2O, NO, NO2, aerosol extinction, and temperature versus pressure with an instantaneous vertical field of view of 1.6 km at the earth limb. Latitudinal coverage is from 80 deg S to 80 deg N over the course of 1 year and includes extensive observations of the Antarctic region during spring. The altitude range of the measurements extends from about 15 km to about 60-130 km, depending on channel. Experiment operations have been essentially flawless, and all performance criteria either meet or exceed specifications. Internal data consistency checks, comparisons with correlative measurements, and qualitative comparisons with 1985 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) results are in good agreement. Examples of pressure versus latitude cross sections and a global orthographic projection for the September 21 to October 15, 1992, period show the utility of CH4, HF, and H2O as tracers, the occurrence of dehydration in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, the presence of the water vapor hygropause in the tropics, evidence of Antarctic air in the tropics, the influence of Hadley tropical upwelling, and the first global distribution of HCl, HF, and NO throughout the stratosphere. Nitric oxide measurements extend through the lower thermosphere.

  20. The Nucifer Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cucoanes, A.S.

    2014-06-15

    In nuclear reactors, a large number of antineutrinos are generated in the decay chains of the fission products; thus a survey of the antineutrino flux could provide valuable information related to the uranium and plutonium content of the core. This application generated interest by the IAEA in using antineutrino detectors as a potential safeguard tool. Here we present the Nucifer experiment, developed in France, by CEA and CNRS/IN2P3. The design of this new antineutrino detector has focused on safety, size reduction, reliability and high detection efficiency with a good background rejection. The Nucifer detector is currently taking data at the OSIRIS research reactor, inside CEA-Saclay. Presently, the ongoing analyses are considering the main sources of background for the antineutrino detection; the first antineutrino result is expected in 2013. A possible contribution to the understanding of the so called “reactor antineutrino anomaly” is also discussed. Finally, we present a brief description of the proposed experiments at very short baselines (VSBL) from reactors in France.

  1. GPS Moving Vehicle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaks, O. J.; Reid, Wilson; Wright, James; Duffey, Christopher; Williams, Charles; Warren, Hugh; Zeh, Tom; Buisson, James

    1996-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the development of timing systems for remote locations, had a technical requirement for a Y code (SA/AS) Global Positioning System (GPS) precise time transfer receiver (TTR) which could be used both in a stationary mode or mobile mode. A contract was awarded to the Stanford Telecommunication Corporation (STEL) to build such a device. The Eastern Range (ER) als had a requirement for such a receiver and entered into the contract with NRL for the procurement of additional receivers. The Moving Vehicle Experiment (MVE) described in this paper is the first in situ test of the STEL Model 5401C Time Transfer System in both stationary and mobile operations. The primary objective of the MVE was to test the timing accuracy of the newly developed GPS TTR aboard a moving vessel. To accomplish this objective, a joint experiment was performed with personnel from NRL and the er at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) test range at Andros Island. Results and discussion of the test are presented in this paper.

  2. Transpiration Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

    1997-01-01

    The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

  3. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  4. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  5. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  6. POLARBEAR CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, H.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapmann, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Fuller, G.; Ghribi, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaffe, A.; Jaehnig, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Kimura, N.; Kisner, T.; Lee, A. T.; Le Jeune, M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; O'Brient, R.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Quealy, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Shimizu, A.; Shimon, M.; Shimmin, C.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Tucker, C.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

    POLARBEAR is a ground-based experiment in the Atacama desert in hile, measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. One of the science goals of POLARBEAR is to detect the B-mode polarization pattern of the CMB produced by primordial gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation. The detection of the B-mode polarization provides strong evidence for inflationary cosmological models. POLARBEAR is expected to reach a sensitivity to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.025 at 95% confidence level, using the data from two years of observation. With a beam size of 3.5 arcminutes, POLARBEAR is also sensitive to B-mode polarization signals at small-angular scales produced by weak gravitational lensing of large-scale structure. POLARBEAR is expected to provide a constraint on the sum of neutrino masses because of their effect on the large-scale structure. POLARBEAR was deployed in late 2011 and started observing in early 2012 at 150 GHz with an array of 1,274 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The current status of the POLARBEAR experiment is reported.

  7. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  8. The majorana experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith R; Elliott, Steven R; Boswell, Melissa; Gehman, Victor M; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, Mary F; La Roque, Benjamin H; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, Michael C; Salazar, Harry; Steele, David

    2010-12-13

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, MAJORANA aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype DEMONSTRATOR module are presented. Our proposed method uses the well-established technique of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in high purity Ge-diode radiation detectors that play both roles of source and detector. The use of P-PC Ge detectors present advances in background rejection and a Significantly lower energy threshold than conventional Ge detector technologies. The lower energy threshold opens up a broader and exciting physics program including searches for dark matter and axions concurrent with the double-beta decay search. The DEMONSTRATOR should establish that the backgrounds are low enough to justify scaling to tonne-scale experiment, probe the neutrino effective mass region above 100 meV, and search the low energy region with a sensitivity to dark matter. The DEMONSTRATOR will be sited at the 4850-ft level (4200 m.w.e) of the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake and preparations for construction are currently underway.

  9. The EBEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, P.; Ade, P.; Baccigalupi, C.; deBernardis, P.; Cho, H-M.; Devlin, M.J.; Hanany, S.; Johnson, B.R.; Jones, T.; Lee, A.T.; Matsumura,T.; Miller, A.D.; Milligan, M.; Renbarger, T.; Spieler, H.G.; Stompor,R.; Tucker, G.S.; Zaldarriaga, M.

    2005-01-06

    EBEX is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to measure the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The measurements would probe the inflationary epoch that took place shortly after the big bang and would significantly improve constraints on the values of several cosmological parameters. EBEX is unique in its broad frequency coverage and in its ability to provide critical information about the level of polarized Galactic foregrounds which will be necessary for all future CMB polarization experiments. EBEX consists of a 1.5 m Dragone-type telescope that provides a resolution of less than 8 arcminutes over four focal planes each of 4. diffraction limited field of view at frequencies up to 450 GHz. The experiment is designed to accommodate 330 transition edge bolometric detectors per focal plane, for a total of up to 1320 detectors. EBEX will operate with frequency bands centered at 150, 250, 350, and 450 GHz. Polarimetry is achieved with a rotating achromatic half-wave plate. EBEX is currently in the design and construction phase, and first light is scheduled for 2008.

  10. An Experiment in Synchronicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, S.; Dunseath, W. J. R.

    Click here and insert your abstract text. Possible states theory generalizes about the process of change within a finite and discrete model of the universe. The possible states consist of all interactions between objects, including past, future and possible interactions. The theory posits a non-electromagnetic model of change in which change propagates without reference to space-time. The theory delivers verifiable predictions and is generally consistent with quantum theory. It offers the prospect of nonlocal connections between objects and change that is not constrained by conservation laws. The value of the concept as a basis for technology development depends upon the ability to manipulate the possible states, specifically to produce coherence in selected collections of states. An experiment is devised in which a coherent state path is created between the experimental components and loaded through interaction with non-coherent states. Discharge of coherence results in a burst of synchronistic events compatible with theoretical expectations. The experiment validates a specific control strategy and yields a large timewise anomaly. The results shed light on a potential sentient intelligence and upon the development of coherence in the possible states and enable a major advance in the control of change.

  11. Visual Experiences during Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitham, Emma M.; Fitzgibbon, Sean P.; Lewis, Trent W.; Pope, Kenneth J.; DeLosAngeles, Dylan; Clark, C. Richard; Lillie, Peter; Hardy, Andrew; Gandevia, Simon C.; Willoughby, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Paralyzed human volunteers (n = 6) participated in several studies the primary one of which required full neuromuscular paralysis while awake. After the primary experiment, while still paralyzed and awake, subjects undertook studies of humor and of attempted eye-movement. The attempted eye-movements tested a central, intentional component to one’s internal visual model and are the subject of this report. Methods: Subjects reclined in a supportive chair and were ventilated after paralysis (cisatracurium, 20 mg intravenously). In illumination, subjects were requested to focus alternately on the faces of investigators standing on the left and the right within peripheral vision. In darkness, subjects were instructed to look away from a point source of light. Subjects were to report their experiences after reversal of paralysis. Results: During attempted eye-movement in illumination, one subject had an illusion of environmental movement but four subjects perceived faces as clearly as if they were in central vision. In darkness, four subjects reported movement of the target light in the direction of attempted eye-movements and three could control the movement of the light at will. Conclusion: The hypothesis that internal visual models receive intended ocular-movement-information directly from oculomotor centers is strengthened by this evidence. PMID:22162967

  12. Student Beam Chopping Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brincat, Joseph; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2001-10-01

    Physics students who are early in their programs of study may not yet be prepared to understand the concepts underlying more advanced physics research. Nonetheless, it is possible to design projects that do not require a great deal of prerequisite knowledge and that are successful in developing important skills such as theoretical modeling, computation, experimentation, and data analysis. We present a beam-chopping project with the purpose of developing such skills. This project first requires the student to devise a theoretical model of a complete chopping cycle for a perfectly collimated, circular beam of uniform intensity. Then the student implements the model by writing a C language program that calculates the area of the transmitted beam. After setting up and acquiring data from an actual beam-chopping experiment, the student compares the theoretical results to the experimental data. Any observed differences provide impetus to refine the model, thereby illustrating the complementary roles of theory and experiment. We present this challenging yet realistic project as an example for introducing beginning students to research.

  13. Rapid Decisions From Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zeigenfuse, Matthew D.; Pleskac, Timothy J.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50 ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141

  14. PHOBOS experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniak, K.; PHOBOS Collaboration

    1995-12-01

    The study of relativistic heavy nuclei collisions at RHIC opens a new area of physics--the physics of hadronic matter at very high energy densities. The conditions necessary to create a new state of matter, never before seen in the laboratory, may be reached. It gives a chance to study the quantum chromodynamics predictions of the phase transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. The PHOBOS experiment will investigate almost all predicted signals of the QGP formation. General event properties (angular distribution of charged particles, total multiplicity) will be combined with detailed information on particles emitted in the central rapidity region (particle ratios {pi}/K/p, p{sub t} spectra, correlations, {phi} meson properties). Similar studies will be done also in the other three experiments at RHIC, but there are many important observables for which PHOBOS will provide unique information. The multiplicity detector covers almost a full phase space, recording all charged particles with pseudorapidities {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {le} 5.4. In the PHOBOS spectrometer particles emitted in the central rapidity region will be measured and identified starting from lowest transverse momenta (20 MeV/c for pions). The high rate unbiased trigger gives a chance to see unpredicted phenomena and enables the study of very rare processes that require large statistics. The measurements of the converting photons planned for some runs will be used to study the {pi}{sup 0}/({pi}{sup +} + {pi}{sup {minus}}) ratio in selected phase space intervals.

  15. Experimenting model deconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel; Wirtz, Stefan; Ali, Mazhar

    2013-04-01

    Physical soil erosion models describe erosion and transport of solids by flowing water as the interaction of the soils' resistivity to be eroded, the force of the water to entrain particles and its capacity to transport them in suspension. This has lead to concepts in which hydraulic parameters as flow velocity or composite parameters such as shear stress, stream power etc. are set into a direct relation to erosion and sediment transport. Soils' resistivity to erosion is in general represented as a threshold problem, in which a critical force is trespassed and the following increase of erosion depends on the characteristics of the sediments and the flowing water. Despite considerable efforts, these model concepts have not been able to produce more reliable and accurate reproduction and forecast of soil erosion than "simple" empirical models such as the USLE and its derivates. And there is still a lack in knowledge about the reasons for this failure. A considerable number of studies have addressed the following questions: 1) What are the main parameters of soils and flowing water influencing soil erosion?, 2) What relationship do these parameters have with the intensity and different types of soil erosion?, but only few researchers have faced the consequence: 3) Are the present concepts suitable to describe and quantify soil erosion accurately? Similar to other studies, we investigated the influence of basic parameters as grain size, slope, discharge and flow velocity on sediment transport by shallow flowing water in laboratory experiments. Variable flow was applied under different slopes on non-cohesive mobile beds. But in addition, field experiments were designed to quantify the hydraulic and erosive effects of small rills in the field. Here, small existing rills were flushed with defined flows, and flow velocity as well as transported sediments was quantified. The laboratory flume experiments clearly show a strong interaction of flow velocity, the size of the

  16. The Virtual Arizona Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

    2012-12-01

    To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and

  17. The trapped human experiment.

    PubMed

    Huo, R; Agapiou, A; Bocos-Bintintan, V; Brown, L J; Burns, C; Creaser, C S; Devenport, N A; Gao-Lau, B; Guallar-Hoyas, C; Hildebrand, L; Malkar, A; Martin, H J; Moll, V H; Patel, P; Ratiu, A; Reynolds, J C; Sielemann, S; Slodzynski, R; Statheropoulos, M; Turner, M A; Vautz, W; Wright, V E; Thomas, C L P

    2011-12-01

    This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO(2) and O(2) monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO(2), NH(3) and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH(3

  18. Spanish experience with cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Marcén, R; Burgos, F J; Villafruela, J J; Teruel, J L; Mampaso, F; Quereda, C; Ortuño, J

    2004-03-01

    Our experience with cyclosporine (CsA) in de novo renal transplantation (RT) may be systematized in four consecutive periods. From February 1986 to December 1989, patient survival was higher among 128 consecutive CsA-prednisone-treated cadaver allograft recipients than in previous patients on azathioprine. One-year graft survival was significantly higher in CsA patients, a difference that was thereafter progressively reduced: at 10 years graft survivals were 50% versus 45%, and at 15 years 37% versus 35%, respectively. The most frequent cause of graft loss was death with a functioning graft. Acute rejection caused more graft losses among Aza-treated patients than CsA-treated ones. However, chronic allograft nephropathy produced more graft losses in CsA patients. After this initial experience with CsA-based immunosuppression we developed a second phase in which better results were obtained in 209 first cadaveric RT recipients. The use of lower initial CsA doses, more rapid steroid tapering, and a better approach to CsA nephrotoxicity or chronic nephropathy by substantial reductions in CsA exposure and delayed azathioprine addition, lead to these improvements. From March 1995 through 2000, we used the new microemulsion CsA formulation (Neoral) with steroids or azathioprine in 110 first de novo RT recipients. Mean donor and recipient ages were significantly higher in this phase than in previous ones; consequently, survival and function results were slightly worse. Blood CsA concentrations measured 2 hours after administration represent a more precise predictor of exposure than trough concentrations. The last step in optimizing Neoral use in RT on our service was application of reduced-dosage with C2 monitoring instead of classical C0 testing. Acute rejection and treatment failure rates were low and renal allograft function improved with respect to previous full-dose C0 experiences. CsA use has evolved in these two decades in four consecutive phases. Short-term results

  19. Experience Report for WOPR

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G

    2010-04-06

    One of the purposes of the SQA effort at LLNL is to attempt to determine the 'goodness' of the research codes used for various scientific applications. Typically these are two and three dimensional multi-physics simulation and modeling codes. These legacy research codes are used for applciations such as atmospheric dispersion modeling and analysis and prediction of the performance of engineered systems. These codes are continually subjected to automated regression test suites consisting of verified and validated expected results. Code is managed in repositories. Experience level of developers is high in the knowledge domain, platforms, and languages used. Code size of the multi-physics code used in this study was 578,242 lines excluding comment and blank lines or 5538.7 function points. Languages were 70% C++, 20% C, and 10% Fortran. The code has 130 users and a development team of 14 and an embedded SQE. The code has achieved 100% prime feature test coverage, 73.6% functional test coverage, and 71.5% statement test coverage. The average cyclomatic complexity of the code was 6.25. The codes have evolved over 10 years. Research codes are challenging because there is a desire to balance agility with discipline as well as compliance with DOE standards. Agility is important to allow experimentation with new algorithms and addition of the latest physics features. Discipline is important to increase the quality of the codes. Automation of processes and defect prevention/detection are deployed throughout the software development process. Since resarch codes are a small segment of the software industry, not much information exists in terms of reliability studies on these types of codes. This paper describes attempts to determine the goodness of these research codes. Goodness defined as both correctness of the codes and their fault densities. Correctness is determined by user interviews, peer review; feature based automated testing, and coverage measurement. This paper

  20. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [international cooperation zero g experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Harwell, W.

    1976-01-01

    The aims of the experiment are outlined. Flight experiments included in this program were provided by NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, ESA (European Space Agency), the German Ministry of Technology, Hughes Aircraft Company and NASA, Ames Research Center.

  1. Investigating pristine inner experience: implications for experience sampling and questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We argue that inquiring about directly apprehended ("pristine") inner experience requires four overlapping methodological characteristics: effectively limiting investigation to specific, clearly identified moments; effectively limiting investigation to pristine experience; bracketing presuppositions; and iteratively acquiring skills. We compare and contrast Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), other (non-DES) experience sampling methods, and questionnaires and conclude that whereas non-DES sampling methods and questionnaires appear to inquire about pristine inner experience, they fall short on all four methodological counts and therefore might be better understood as investigating an ill-defined mixture of presuppositions, judgments about experience, and pristine experience itself. Typical experience sampling studies and questionnaires can be valid and useful, but their validity and utility does not (or at least does not necessarily) arise from their phenomenological fidelity.

  2. ARC EMCS Experiments (Seedling Growth-2) Experiment Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, David; Steele, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of the status of the ARC ISS (International Space Station) Experiment, Seedling Growth-2 to the Payload Operations Investigator Working Group meeting at MSFC, Huntsville AL. The experiment employs the European Modular Cultivation System (ECMS).

  3. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  4. Tribology theory versus experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1987-01-01

    Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

  5. DEWFALL validation experiment designs

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, B.; Walsh, B.

    1989-09-30

    Three experiments are proposed as tests to validate the DEWFALL analysis model for the large vessel project. This document is a very brief record of the techniques and test designs that could be used for validation of the model. Processes of the model which require validation include: (1) vaporization and recondensation of the vessel wall material due to energy transfer from the source, (2) melt and refreeze of vessel wall material, and (3) condensation and solidification of the source material. A methodology was developed to analyze the maximum thickness of material melted and vaporized with given experimental configurations and initial energies. DEWFALL reference calculations are included in an appendix to the document. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  7. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

  8. The HOLMES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faverzani, M.; Alpert, B.; Backer, D.; Bennet, D.; Biasotti, M.; Brofferio, C.; Ceriale, V.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Day, P. K.; De Gerone, M.; Dressler, R.; Ferri, E.; Fowler, J.; Fumagalli, E.; Gard, J.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Heinitz, S.; Hilton, G.; Köster, U.; Lusignoli, M.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Nisi, S.; Nizzolo, R.; Nucciotti, A.; Orlando, A.; Parodi, L.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Puiu, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Reintsema, C.; Ribeiro-Gomez, M.; Schmidt, D.; Schuman, D.; Siccardi, F.; Sisti, M.; Swetz, D.; Terranova, F.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The determination of the neutrino mass is an open issue in modern particle physics and astrophysics. The direct mass measurement is the only theory-unrelated experimental tool capable to probe such quantity. The HOLMES experiment will measure the end-point energy of the electron capture decay of ^{163}Ho, aiming at a statistical sensitivity on the neutrino mass around 1 eV/c^2. In order to acquire the large needed statistics by keeping the pile-up contribution as low as possible, 1000 transition edge sensors will be readout simultaneously with the frequency domain readout, a multiplexing technique where the multiplex factor is only limited by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. We outline here the HOLMES project with its technical challenges, and its status and perspectives.

  9. Water Mist Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  10. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  11. CRRES plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Odem, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    The CRRES plasma wave experiment is designed to provide information on the plasma wave environment and the total plasma density in the Earth's radiation belts and throughout the CRRES orbit. This information is valuable both for studying the naturally occurring wave-particle interactions affecting the plasma and particle environment in the plasmasphere and magnetosphere as well as for studying the chemical releases. The electric field sensors for this instrument consist of two long electric dipole antennas (about 100 m tip-to-tip), and the magnetic field sensor is a search coil magnetometer mounted at the end of a 6-m boom. The instrument has a 14-channel spectrum analyzer covering the frequency range from 5.6 Hz to 10 kHz, and a 128-step sweep frequency receiver covering the frequency range from 100 Hz to 400 kHz.

  12. The 'DANTE' experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Ray; Morris, Gareth A.

    2011-12-01

    The selective excitation scheme known as 'DANTE' emerged from a confluence of several ideas for new NMR experiments, some more fanciful than others. DANTE offers a simple and effective way to restrict excitation to a very narrow frequency band, usually that of a single resonance line. Initially applied to the study of individual proton-coupled carbon-13 spin multiplets, the method has been extended to water presaturation, relaxation measurements, and chemical exchange studies. Through the imposition of a magnetic field gradient it offers a simple method to enhance resolution by restricting the effective volume of the sample. Multiple DANTE excitation (with Hadamard encoding) can speed up multidimensional spectroscopy by orders of magnitude. Applied to magnetic resonance imaging, the DANTE sequence has been used to superimpose a rectangular grid onto a cardiac image, permitting motional distortions to be monitored in real time.

  13. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  14. New radiative shocks experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leygnac, S.; Bouquet, S.; Stehlé, C.; Benuzzi, A.; Boireau, J.-P.; Chièze, J.-P.; Grandjouan, N.; Huser, G.; Koenig, M.; Malka, V.; Merdji, H.; Michaut, C.; Thais, F.; Vinci, T.

    2002-06-01

    An experimental study of shocks with astrophysical relevance is performed with the high energy density laser of the LULI, at the Ecole Polytechnique. The peculiarity of these shocks is the strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. A new experiment has been performed this year where we have observed shocks identified as radiative shocks. We study them in various experimental configurations (several speeds and geometries of the medium where the shock propagates, allowing a quasi-planar or a quasi-spherical expansion). From the measurements it is possible to infer several features of the shock such as the speed, the electronic density, the geometrical shape and spectroscopic informations. The results will be studied with numerical simulations.

  15. The UOSAT magnetometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnetometer aboard the University of Surrey satellite (UOSAT) and its associated electronics are described. The basic fluxgate magnetometer employed has a dynamic range of plus or minus 8000 nT with outputs digitized by a 12-bit successive approximation A-D converter having a resolution of plus or minus 2 nT. Noise in the 3-13 Hz bandwidth is less than 1 nT. A bias field generator extends the dynamic range to plus or minus 64,000 nT with quantization steps of 8000 nT. The magnetometer experiment is expected to provide information on the secular variation of the geomagnetic field, and the decay rate of the dipole term. Special emphasis will be placed on the acquisition of real time and memory data over the poles which can be correlated with that from Magsat.

  16. Spherical torus experiment (STX)

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The principal engineering features of the proposed Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) are described. Design is dominated by the small bore available for the ohmic heating (OH) solenoid and structural considerations for a situation in which B/sub p/ is approximately equal to B/sub t/. Unique features of a spherical torus plasma include large elongations without shaping fields; an exceptionally high ratio of plasma current to toroidal field, giving the potential for stability at very high beta; strong paramagnetism; and a variety of configurations, ranging from tokamak (q/sub a/) to revised-field pinch (RFP) (q/sub a/ < 1). Access to this regime requires aspect ratios less than 2. A feasibility study has been done for a beam-heated device with A = 1.67, R0 = 0.45, and K = 2. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Nelson, Anthony; Salazar, Anthony; Roussel - Dupre, Diane; Katko, Kim; Palmer, Joseph; Robinson, Scott; Wirthlin, Michael; Howes, William; Richins, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  19. Experience with IPNS targets

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.; Hins, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    Three targets have operated in the IPNS Neutron Scattering Facility. The first, a depleted Uranium target, served from 1981 until it was replaced in 1988 by the Enriched Uranium Booster Target. The Booster Target had operated for nearly three years when it suffered a cladding leak and was replaced with the retired depleted Uranium target. That target reached its end-of-life after less than one year`s further operation, and was replaced with an identical one newly assembled from spare components, which is still operating satisfactorily. This paper reviews the operating history of the IPNS targets and the findings reached during analysis of the failures. Similarities with ISIS target experience, preliminary conclusions and plans for providing spares and improved targets are discussed. We present some preliminary results from the hot cell examination of the failed depleted Uranium target.

  20. Teneriffe, an Astronomer's Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzi Smyth, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Part I. The Voyage and the Climb: 1. Sailing in the Trades; 2. Santa Cruz; 3. Orotava; 4. Begin the ascent; 5. Arrival on Guajara; Part II. On the Crater of Elevation: 1. Securing the station; 2. South-west alarm; 3. Term-day work; 4. The great crater; 5. Solar radiation; 6. Whirlwinds and visitors; 7. Drought and light; 8. End of Guajara; Part III. On the Crater of Eruption: 1. Scaling the central cone; 2. Early experiences of Alta Vista; 3. Bringing up the telescope; 4. Battle of the clouds; 5. Summit of the peak; 6. Autumn in excelsis; 7. The reiterated question; 8. The ice cavern; 9. Last of the mountain; Part IV. Lowlands of Teneriffe: 1. Seasons and plants; 2. Dracoena Draco; 3. Adieu.

  1. Information sciences experiment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Murray, Nicholas D.; Benz, Harry F.; Bowker, David E.; Hendricks, Herbert D.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid expansion of remote sensing capability over the last two decades will take another major leap forward with the advent of the Earth Observing System (Eos). An approach is presented that will permit experiments and demonstrations in onboard information extraction. The approach is a non-intrusive, eavesdropping mode in which a small amount of spacecraft real estate is allocated to an onboard computation resource. How such an approach allows the evaluation of advanced technology in the space environment, advanced techniques in information extraction for both Earth science and information science studies, direct to user data products, and real-time response to events, all without affecting other on-board instrumentation is discussed.

  2. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood.

  3. How experience confronts ethics.

    PubMed

    Hoffmaster, Barry; Hooker, Cliff

    2009-05-01

    Analytic moral philosophy's strong divide between empirical and normative restricts facts to providing information for the application of norms and does not allow them to confront or challenge norms. So any genuine attempt to incorporate experience and empirical research into bioethics--to give the empirical more than the status of mere 'descriptive ethics'--must make a sharp break with the kind of analytic moral philosophy that has dominated contemporary bioethics. Examples from bioethics and science are used to illustrate the problems with the method of application that philosophically prevails in both domains and with the conception of rationality that underlies this method. Cues from how these problems can be handled in science then introduce summaries of richer, more productive naturalist and constructivist accounts of reason and normative knowledge. Liberated by a naturalist approach to ethics and an enlarged conception of rationality, empirical work can be recognized not just as essential to bioethics but also as contributing to normative knowledge.

  4. The interstellar gas experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, D. L.; Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.; Eugster, O.

    1992-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils to collect neutral interstellar gas particles. These particles penetrate the solar system due to their motion relative to the sun. Thus, it is possible to entrap them in the collecting foils along with precipitating magnetospheric and perhaps some ambient atmospheric particles. For the entire duration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission, seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft. In the mass spectroscopic analysis of the noble gas component of these particles, we have detected the isotopes of He-3, He-4, Ne-20, and Ne-22. In the foil analyses carried out so far, we find a distribution of particle arrival directions which shows that a significant part of the trapped particles are indeed interstellar atoms. The analysis needed to subtract the competing fluxes of magnetospheric and atmospheric particles is still in progress.

  5. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

  6. Voyager imaging experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Briggs, G.A.; Danielson, G.E.; Cook, A.F.; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Owen, T.C.; Sagan, C.; Suomi, V.E.

    1977-01-01

    The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives: Observe and characterize the global circulation of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; Determine the horizontal and vertical structure of the visible clouds and establish their relationship to the belted appearance and dynamical properties of the planetary atmospheres; Determine the vertical structure of high, optically-thin, scattering layers on Jupiter and Saturn; Determine the nature of anomalous features such as the Great Red Spot, South Equatorial Belt disturbances, etc.; Characterize the nature of the colored material in the clouds of Jupiter and Saturn, and identify the nature and sources of chromophores on Io and Titan; Perform comparative geologic studies of many satellites at less than 15-km resolution; Map and characterize the geologic structure of several satellites at high resolution (???1 km); Investigate the existence and nature of atmospheres on the satellites; Determine the mass, size, and shape of many of the satellites by direct measurement; Determine the direction of the spin axes and periods of rotation of several satellites, and establish coordinate systems for the larger satellites; Map the radial distribution of material in Saturn's rings at high resolution; Determine the optical scattering properties of the primaries, rings, and satellites at several wavelengths and phase angles; Search for novel physical phenomena, e.g., phenomena associated with the Io flux tube, meteors, aurorae, lightning, or satellite shadows. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  7. The Armstrong experiment revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C.; Wexler, Adam D.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Agostinho, Luewton L. F.; Yntema, Doekle; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2014-04-01

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with water or polar liquid dielectrica, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. This experiment was first carried out by Lord Armstrong in 1893 and then forgotten until recently. Such bridges are stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) forces caused by electric field gradients counteracting gravity. Due to these gradients a permanent pumping of liquid from one beaker into the other is observed. At macroscopic scale several of the properties of a horizontal water bridge can be explained by modern electrohydrodynamics, analyzing the motion of fluids in electric fields. Whereas on the molecular scale water can be described by quantum mechanics, there is a conceptual gap at mesoscopic scale which is bridged by a number of theories including quantum mechanical entanglement and coherent structures in water - theories that we discuss here. Much of the phenomenon is already understood, but even more can still be learned from it, since such "floating" liquid bridges resemble a small high voltage laboratory of their own: The physics of liquids in electric fields of some kV/cm can be studied, even long time experiments like neutron or light scattering are feasible since the bridge is in a steady-state equilibrium and can be kept stable for hours. It is also an electro-chemical reactor where compounds are transported through by the EHD flow, enabling the study of electrochemical reactions under potentials which are otherwise not easily accessible. Last but not least the bridge provides the experimental biologist with the opportunity to expose living organisms such as bacteria to electric fields without killing them, but with a significant influence on their behavior, and possibly, even on their genome.

  8. Programs for Assembling SBH Experiments

    1995-11-28

    DB EXP ASSEMBLY is a suite of programs that enable selection of bundles of data, which are referred to as experiments, from the DB SBH archival database. In other words, an experiment is a bundle of data which is analyzed as a unit. Program DBJ creates raw experiments based on initial specification. Program DBK then tests the experiments for a number of consistemcy and completeness criteria, reports bugs in the experiment and recommends solutions, andmore » performs the desired corrections. An experiment that has passed the final DBK test is ready for analysis by the DB DISCOVERY programs.« less

  9. Rethinking Experience: What Do We Mean by This Word "Experience"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses autoethnography to reassess the concept "experience" and the lack of theoretical frameworks within experiential education for delimiting experience within the practices and research around experiential, adventure, and outdoor education. Although a pivotal and essential part of practice, theoretical understandings of experience have…

  10. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  11. The Cool Flames Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to

  12. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  13. The TOYSAT structural control experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. A.; Chambers, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Lockheed TOYSAT experiment is described. The experiment was designed to test hypothesis concerning the application of optimal control theory to flexible spacecraft. The theory is presented, and results described.

  14. Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, G. T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lists five experiments or demonstrations involving hypodermic syringes. The titles of experiments are Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Expansion of Gases, and Boiling at Reduced Pressure. Provides a list of materials, the typical data, and graphs where appropriate. (YP)

  15. Partnership in Undergraduate Research Experience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Practical laboratory and work experience has been helpful in reinforcing the undergraduate educational experience. With limited resources, individual organizations may struggle to give a student a well rounded opportunity. Most undergraduates work within internships or cooperative educational fram...

  16. Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, J. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

  17. The Nepal experience.

    PubMed

    Kaikobad, N F

    1977-01-01

    Nepal's panchayat system of partyless democracy with 5 class organizations of peasants, youth, women, labor, and ex-servicemen, is an effort in community development. Panchayat training centers train panchayat secretaries and women workers. The government tried out the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) methodology to train panchayat training center instructors in 1974-75 when 5 courses were given for 76 participants. The MTS methodology included several new assumptions: the necessity of knowing the field situation, a realistic problem solving orientation, learning by actual field experience, and interdependence rather than teacher dependence. The multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was studied and clarified. Role performance led to the development of a realistic job description from which a task-focused curriculum could be developed. Field work tools included maintaining a daily diary, collecting information and developing a present and past project history, and compiling a village profile. The trainees played the roles of front line workers in the field when they returned from the villages played the roles of supervisors and trainers. The key concept in the multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was collaboration. The panchayat secretary-trainee had to understand the social roles in the community, and work within the social context to get cooperation from other agencies, village and informal organizations, in order to fulfill their role. Tutorial and team teaching methods were used to provide partnership in learning; the old roles of lecturer and lectured were seen as ineffective when actual field experience was the criteria. The role performing and role analysis group analyzed the front line workers' roles and evolved job descriptions which led to course outlines. The teaching methods and materials group produced indigenous teaching materials for classroom use based on problems faced in the field. The action research and technical collaboration groups

  18. Innovative Science Experiments Using Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, B. P. Ajith; Satyanarayana, V. V. V.; Singh, Kundan; Singh, Parmanand

    2009-01-01

    A simple, flexible and very low cost hardware plus software framework for developing computer-interfaced science experiments is presented. It can be used for developing computer-interfaced science experiments without getting into the details of electronics or computer programming. For developing experiments this is a middle path between…

  19. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  20. Element material experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Masaaki; Takei, Mitsuru; Torii, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) is planning to perform Element Material Exposure Experiment using Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). Several materials which will be used on JEM (Japanese Experiment Module for the space station) will be exposed. Space environment monitoring is also planned in this experiment. Several ground based tests are now being performed and getting useful data.

  1. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  2. The Experience of Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    "Experience" is a healthy-sounding word, but what do educators really mean by it? And how do educators persuade people that higher education fosters important forms of experience, that "experience" is an integral part of any vital liberal learning? The author suggests that educators might begin by getting clearer in their own minds just what they…

  3. Young Workers: Varieties of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barling, Julian, Ed.; Kelloway, E. Kevin, Ed.

    This book contains nine papers devoted to the psychological experience of youth employment and its role in shaping future employment experiences and expectations. "Introduction" (Julian Barling, E. Kevin Kelloway) emphasizes the diversity of young people as a group and the diversity of individual youth's employment experience. "The Nature of Youth…

  4. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  5. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and technology to practical systems antennas and bounded wave developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > Khz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  6. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  7. Commissioning Experience of SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H{sup -} front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. The linac was commissioned in five discrete runs, starting in 2002 and completed in 2005. The accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines were commissioned in two runs in January-February and April 2006. With the completed commissioning of the SNS accelerator, the facility has begun initial low-power operations. In the course of beam commissioning, most beam performance parameters and beam intensity goals have been achieved at low duty factor. A number of beam dynamics measurements have been performed, including emittance evolution, transverse coupling in the ring, beam instability thresholds, and beam distributions on the target. The commissioning results, achieved beam performance and initial operating experience of the SNS linac will be presented.

  8. Plasma stabilization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziklas, E. A.; Fader, W. J.; Jong, R. A.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1980-07-01

    The plasma stabilization experiment is an effort to enhance stability in a mirror-confined plasma by trapping cold ions with rf fields applied near the mirror throats. Nagoya Type 3 antennas, coupled to a 60 kW rf power supply are mounted in the throats of the UTRC baseball magnet. An external washer gun provides a source of plasma for both streaming and confined plasma tests. Results show a strong stoppering effect on streaming plasmas and a marginal effect on confined plasmas. Theoretical calculations provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The field generates a ponderomotive force acting on the electrons. The resultant improvement in electron confinement changes the ambipolar potential and inhibits the flow of ions through the mirror throat. Criteria are derived for the validity of this trapping concept. The requisite field strengths are significantly lower than those required to trap ions directly. Scaling laws are developed for application of cold ion trapping to large mirror devices containing dense plasmas. The use of slow-wave antenna structures operated at frequencies above the lower hybrid frequency is recommended for these applications.

  9. Subterranean stress engineering experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Colgate, S.A.; Wheat, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The state of stress in a subterranean rock mass has classically been assumed to be constant at best. In soil with a high clay content, preconsolidation and drainage methods can lead to more stable foundation material, but methods for engineering the stresses in large masses of rock are not well known. This paper shows the results from an experiment designed to alter the in situ rock stress field in an oil shale mine. This was done by hydrofracturing the rock by use of a packed-well injection system and then propping the crack open with a thixotropic gel, which slowly hardened to the consistency of cement. Successive hydrofracture and high-pressure grouting resulted in an overstressed region. Well-head injection pressures, surface tilts, injection rates, and subterranean strains were measured and recorded on floppy disk by a Z-80 microprocessor. The results were then transmitted to the large computer system at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). To put the data in a more useful form, computer-generated movies of the tilts and strains were made by use of computer graphics developed at LASL. The purpose of this paper is to present results from the Single Large Instrumented Test conducted in the Colony Oil Shale Mine near Rifle, Colorado. 13 figures.

  10. The 'Patient experience' revolution.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Doug; Zavadsky, Matt

    2014-02-01

    We're arguably at the most pivotal time in our young profession. The ACA has provided EMS an unprecedented opportunity to become a part of the healthcare system, a move that many of us have dreamed about for decades. We need to pay attention to the changing dynamics of the environment in which we operate. The factors that currently impact hospitals, doctors and other healthcare providers will also impact us sooner than we think. Take the time to help shape our future and how we participate in this new healthcare system. It's time to focus on the patient and the patient's experience with our service. Wayne Gretzky said two important things during an interview when he was asked what makes him such a great hockey player. One was, "You miss 100% of the shots you don't take." The other was, "A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be. I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been." Our advice to you is to go ahead, take the shot, get ahead of the other team and focus on improved customer satisfaction sooner rather than later.

  11. Experiments on hydrogen deflagration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Iwabuchi, H.; Groethe, M.; Merilo, E.; Chiba, S.

    Deflagrations of hydrogen mixed with air have been studied in an open space and inside a shock tube to provide fundamental data needed for safety evaluations and validation of computer models. The open space tests were performed in 5.2- and 37-m 3 rectangular tents and in a 300-m 3 hemispherical tent that were filled with quiescent, homogenous mixtures ranging from 15 to 57% hydrogen by volume. The mixture was contained by a very thin plastic membrane that was cut just prior to igniting the mixture with a spark at the bottom center to prevent confinement of the mass flow. The information collected included flame front propagation monitored with ionization probes, the pressure-time histories of the resulting blast, and radiated heat obtained from thermal flux sensors. In these experiments the following results were obtained. (i) Deflagration of 30% hydrogen generated a much higher overpressure than deflagration of 9.5% natural gas. (ii) The flame propagation velocity and generated pressure were remarkably influenced by the hydrogen concentration. (iii) Turbulence caused by obstacles within the gas mixture and increasing the gas mixture volume increased the speed of the flame propagation and the overpressure. (iv) The combustion inside a tube also showed a high-speed deflagration. These results are useful to re-examine the existing codes and standards.

  12. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

  13. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  14. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  15. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  16. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  17. First experiments with POWERPLAY.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rupesh Kumar; Steunebrink, Bas R; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    Like a scientist or a playing child, POWERPLAY (Schmidhuber, 2011) not only learns new skills to solve given problems, but also invents new interesting problems by itself. By design, it continually comes up with the fastest to find, initially novel, but eventually solvable tasks. It also continually simplifies or compresses or speeds up solutions to previous tasks. Here we describe first experiments with POWERPLAY. A self-delimiting recurrent neural network SLIM RNN (Schmidhuber, 2012) is used as a general computational problem solving architecture. Its connection weights can encode arbitrary, self-delimiting, halting or non-halting programs affecting both environment (through effectors) and internal states encoding abstractions of event sequences. Our POWERPLAY-driven SLIM RNN learns to become an increasingly general solver of self-invented problems, continually adding new problem solving procedures to its growing skill repertoire. Extending a recent conference paper (Srivastava, Steunebrink, Stollenga, & Schmidhuber, 2012), we identify interesting, emerging, developmental stages of our open-ended system. We also show how it automatically self-modularizes, frequently re-using code for previously invented skills, always trying to invent novel tasks that can be quickly validated because they do not require too many weight changes affecting too many previous tasks.

  18. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  19. Enthusiastic Teachers, Vivid Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-04-01

    ascination with materials and chemical change is a hallmark of chemists, and it is also an important pedagogical tool. A fringe benefit of editing JCE is that I encounter so many nice people who send interesting and helpful communications. One of the first of these to cross my desk this year was from E. J. Behrman, who recommended that I read and call to your attention "Brilliant Light: A Chemical Boyhood" by Oliver Sacks, noted neurologist and author. It appeared in the December 20, 1999, issue of The New Yorker and is well worth your time and effort to find and read. Sacks's reminiscence of his boyhood interest in chemistry is fascinating. His obvious love of our science is inspiring. And he has expressed both in words that are brilliantly chosen and a joy to read. In a profile of Sacks that appeared in Chemical and Engineering News (January 10, 2000), Madeleine Jacobs relates that he is writing a book on his boyhood encounters with chemistry (to be published by Alfred A. Knopf). I am looking forward to that with great anticipation. During 1999 he also wrote an article on the periodic table in the New York Times Magazine (April 18) and an op-ed piece on chemistry sets in the New York Times (May 13). In the latter he describes how hard it is these days for a nonchemist, especially a young one, to obtain chemicals to experiment with. Chemistry sets are not what they used to be! Sacks's writings contain important messages for all of us who teach chemistry and all who are involved in piquing students' interest in our subject. A brief excerpt from his New Yorker article illustrates my point.

    I knew zinc--the dull, slightly bluish birdbath in the garden was made of zinc--and tin, from the heavy tinfoil in which sandwiches were wrapped for a picnic. My mother showed me that when tin or zinc was bent it uttered a special "cry." "It's due to deformation of the crystal structure," she said, forgetting that I was five and could not understand her

  20. Experience with ultrasonic flowmeters

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, E.A.

    1986-06-01

    Ultrasonic flowmeters have been around since the 1960s and were used for oceanographic and military applications before they were introduced to the process industries. There are several different kinds of ultrasonic flowmeters, but they all work on the principle of frequency shift due to velocity. The purpose of this article is to review experiences, both good and bad, with both Doppler and transit time ultrasonic flowmeters. The most common type of ultrasonic flowmeter is the Doppler meter. The Doppler meter signal is reflected by particles, bubbles, or other discontinuities in the liquid, and the frequency is shifted by velocity of these discontinuities. This frequency shift renders a signal proportional to velocity. Another common type of ultrasonic flowmeter is the ''time-of-flight'' or transit time meter. This meter uses two sensors that are lined up at an angle to the direction of flow, and that pulse alternately. A time-differential relationship proportional to the flow is calculated. In this case, the fluid must be free of entrainment or else scattering of the signal may induce an error.