Science.gov

Sample records for experiment module extreme

  1. U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Mark

    This is the lead Institution proposal submitted by the University of Chicago (Angela Olinto, PI) for the U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module. We propose to discover the origin of extreme energy cosmic rays, those with energies in excess of 60 EeV, produced by the most powerful cosmic accelerators in the universe. We will use the Extreme-Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) instrument, which is to be attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). JEM-EUSO is being developed by an international collaboration for launch on the Japanese H2 Transfer Vehicle in 2017. This proposal is for the US contribution to the mission which consists of monitoring and calibration with a Global Light System (GLS) of lasers and xenon light sources, data acquisition and analysis software, data archiving, and science results for the first year of the mission. We also propose that NASA make a contribution to the upmass needed to launch JEM-EUSO and attachment point resources. The GLS for JEM-EUSO will be located at 12 sites around the world, supplemented with an aircraft system. The calibrated UV lasers and Xenon flash lamps will generate calibrated optical signatures in the atmosphere within the field of view of JEM-EUSO with similar characteristics to the optical signals of cosmic ray extensive air showers. Throughout its pioneering mission, JEM-EUSO will reconstruct the pointing directions of the lasers and the energy of the lasers and flash lamps to monitor the detector s triggers, and accuracy of energy and direction reconstruction. These are the critical parameters for identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays and for evaluating the scientific performance of this pioneering instrument. Starting in 2014, a prototype of the JEM-EUSO instrument will be flown on a balloon to test its design. We propose to build prototypes of the GLS and use them to test and calibrate the

  2. Trigger and Reconstruction Algorithms for the Japanese Experiment Module- Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Andreev, Valeri; Christl, M. J.; Cline, David B.; Crawford, Hank; Judd, E. G.; Pennypacker, Carl; Watts, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO collaboration intends to study high energy cosmic ray showers using a large downward looking telescope mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station. The telescope focal plane is instrumented with approx.300k pixels operating as a digital camera, taking snapshots at approx. 1MHz rate. We report an investigation of the trigger and reconstruction efficiency of various algorithms based on time and spatial analysis of the pixel images. Our goal is to develop trigger and reconstruction algorithms that will allow the instrument to detect energies low enough to connect smoothly to ground-based observations.

  3. Extreme Modulation Properties of Aromatic Fluorine

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Michael N; Gakh, Andrei A

    2011-01-01

    Thorough examination of the current literature as well as publicly available databases allowed us to qualify aromatic fluorine as a unique modulator of biological properties of organic compounds. In some rare cases, introduction of fluorine increased biological activity 100,000 times and even higher. We have also identified several examples where aromatic fluorine substantially reduced biological activity. Selected individual cases of extreme modulation are presented and discussed in the paper.

  4. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  5. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  6. Extreme Events: The Indian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, K. S.

    2008-05-01

    The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, extreme and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other extreme natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, extreme rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though

  7. Extreme waves generated by modulational instability on adverse currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuxiang; Ma, Xiaozhou; Perlin, Marc; Dong, Guohai

    2013-11-01

    Physical experiments focusing on the propagation of gravity waves of finite depth on adverse currents were implemented to examine their effect on the development of the modulational instability and to study the geometric characteristics of extreme waves. A series of wave trains with varying initial steepness, perturbation frequency, and initial perturbed strength were mechanically generated in a wave-current flume. The present results show that opposing currents can speed the growth of the modulational instability, verifying the previous theory qualitatively. A current-modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation can predict the measured sideband growth rates well for wave trains with lower perturbation frequencies, but overestimated those with higher perturbation frequencies. On the other hand, the limiting steepness of extreme waves measured in the presence of opposing currents was smaller than that measured in quiescent water. Additionally, current strength was found to have limited influence on the geometric properties of extreme waves as well as on their limiting steepness.

  8. Upper extremity replantation: three-year experience.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zárate, J L; Pastrana-Figueroa, J M; Granados-Martínez, R

    2000-01-01

    Microsurgery in Mexico was initiated in 1967, when the first report of the subspecialty was published. At our hospital, we have had a well-organized microsurgery department since 1995. This has improved our management of patients with amputations of the upper extremity. This article presents our experience with upper extremity replantation, including hand and fingers. During the first 3 years, we managed 55 patients, 42 male and 13 female, aged 2-52 years, who had suffered amputations of some part of their upper extremity or even of the complete limb. These patients underwent surgical exploration for replantation. We analyzed 103 amputations in the 55 patients operated. The amputated parts are summarized as follows: 11 thumbs, 25 index, 24 middle, 22 ring, and 12 little fingers; 5 hands, 5 forearms, and 2 arms. The average hospital stay was 10 days. The follow-up was 6-24 months. Replantation success was 82%, with 18% failure for survival of the replanted part. Functional recovery was satisfactory in the 50% of cases, and sensitive recovery was satisfactory in 75% of cases. We conclude that although our experience on upper extremity replantation is not so large, our results are similar to those from other series. We discussed our results.

  9. On the design of experiments to study extreme field limits

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Chen, M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Chen, P.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Popov, V. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Korn, G.

    2012-12-21

    We propose experiments on the collision of high intensity electromagnetic pulses with electron bunches and on the collision of multiple electromagnetic pulses for studying extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves. The effects of nonlinear QED will be revealed in these laser plasma experiments.

  10. Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments. An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031010. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  11. Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Scholl, Harland F.

    1966-01-01

    An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined.

  12. Telescience testbed result for Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Higuchi, K.; Kimura, H.; Takeda, N.; Matsubara, S.; Izumita, M.; Toyama, Y.; Kato, M.; Kato, H.

    1990-10-01

    The first telescience testbed experiments for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the Space Station Freedom, conducted after the three year studies of its system requirements, are described. Three experiment themes of the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) of the Japanese Spacelab Mission are chosen for estimating communications requirements between the JEM and a ground station. A paper folding experiment is used to examine instruction aspects of onboard manual processing and onboard coaching. More than 10 principal investigators partipated in the experiments and were requested to answer a rating questionnaire for data acquisition. The results extracted from the questionnaire are summarized.

  13. Status of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The current status of the JEM activities are presented in graphic form. The JEM spacecraft configuration is presented. The JEM configuration consist of the Pressurized Module, the Exposed Facility, the Experiment Logistics Module which consist of a pressurized section and an exposed section; and the Remote Manipulator System. The master schedule of the space station is given. Also the development tests of the structure and mechanism, the electrical power system, the data management system, the thermal control system, the environment control system, the experiment support system, and the remote manipulator system are listed.

  14. Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Coronal Spectroheliograph - Experiment S082A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes Skylab's Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Coronal Spectroheliograph, one of the eight Apollo Telescope Mount facilities. It was designed to sequentially photograph the solar chromosphere and corona in selected ultraviolet wavelengths . The instrument also obtained information about composition, temperature, energy conversion and transfer, and plasma processes of the chromosphere and lower corona. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  15. Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Coronal Spectroheliograph - Experiment S082A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This photograph shows Skylab's Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Spectroheliograph during an acceptance test and checkout procedures in April 1971. The unit was an Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) instrument designed to sequentially photograph the solar chromosphere and corona in selected ultraviolet wavelengths. The instrument also obtained information about composition, temperature, energy conversion and transfer, and plasma processes of the chromosphere and lower corona. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  16. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  17. Regional-scale jet waviness modulates the occurrence of midlatitude weather extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röthlisberger, Matthias; Pfahl, Stephan; Martius, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have attributed the occurrence of recent weather extremes to an amplified waviness of the upper tropospheric jet stream. Although trends in jet waviness are still under discussion, it is crucial to better understand the mechanisms through which jet waviness affects weather extremes. Here we show that variations in jet waviness on regional scales effectively modulate the occurrence of daily weather extremes but in regionally different ways. The jet waviness over the North Atlantic and the North Pacific mainly affects where wind, precipitation and cold extremes occur, while a wavy jet over Eurasia strongly favors the occurrence of hot extremes in summer. This is because regional variations of jet waviness are intrinsically linked to the occurrence and tracks of synoptic-scale weather systems, which can trigger the extremes. We conclude that potential jet waviness changes would affect the occurrence of weather extremes differently depending on where these changes occur.

  18. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Although impending Arctic climate change is widely recognized, a wild card in its expression is how extreme weather events in this region will respond to greenhouse warming. Intense polar cyclones represent one type of high-latitude phenomena falling into this category, including very deep synoptic-scale cyclones and mesoscale polar lows. These systems inflict damage through high winds, heavy precipitation, and wave action along coastlines, and their impact is expected to expand in the future, when reduced sea ice cover allows enhanced wave energy. The loss of a buffering ice pack could greatly increase the rate of coastal erosion, which has already been increasing in the Arctic. These and related threats may amplify if extreme Arctic cyclones become more frequent and/or intense in a warming climate with much more open water to fuel them. This possibility has merit on the basis of GCM experiments, which project that greenhouse forcing causes lower mean sea level pressure (SLP) in the Arctic and a strengthening of the deepest storms over boreal high latitudes. In this study, the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate model output is used to investigate the following questions: (1) What are the spatial and seasonal characteristics of extreme Arctic cyclones? (2) How well do GCMs simulate these phenomena? (3) Are Arctic cyclones already showing the expected response to greenhouse warming in climate models? To address these questions, a retrospective analysis is conducted of the transient 20th century simulations among the CMIP5 GCMs (spanning years 1850-2005). The results demonstrate that GCMs are able to reasonably represent extreme Arctic cyclones and that the simulated characteristics do not depend significantly on model resolution. Consistent with observational evidence, climate models generate these storms primarily during winter and within the climatological Aleutian and Icelandic Low regions. Occasionally the cyclones remain very intense

  19. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA)

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Dotter, Aaron; Herwig, Falk; Lesaffre, Pierre; Timmes, Frank

    2011-01-15

    Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source, robust, efficient, thread-safe libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESAstar, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESAstar solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. State-of-the-art modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, element diffusion data, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own explicitly defined public interface to facilitate independent development. Several detailed examples indicate the extensive verification and testing that is continuously performed and demonstrate the wide range of capabilities that MESA possesses. These examples include evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets to very old ages; the complete evolutionary track of a 1 M {sub sun} star from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to a cooling white dwarf; the solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate-mass stars through the He-core burning phase and thermal pulses on the He-shell burning asymptotic giant branch phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; the complete evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the PMS to the onset of core collapse; mass transfer from stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and the evolution of helium accretion onto a neutron star. MESA can be downloaded from the project Web site (http://mesa.sourceforge.net/).

  20. Annual modulation experiments, galactic models and WIMPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Robert G.

    Our task in the paper is to examine some recent experiments (in the period 1996-2002) bearing on the issue of whether there is dark matter in the universe in the form of neutralino WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). Our main focus is an experiment performed by the DAMA group that claims to have found an 'annual modulation signature' for the WIMP. DAMA's result has been hotly contested by two other groups, EDELWEISS and CDMS, and we study the details of the experiments performed by all three groups. Our goal is to investigate the philosophic and sociological implications of this controversy. Particularly, using an innovative theoretical strategy suggested by (Copi, C. and L. M. Krauss (2003). Comparing interaction rate detectors for weakly interacting massive particles with annual modulation detectors. Physical Review D, 67, 103 507), we suggest a new way of resolving discordant experimental data (extending a previous analysis by (Franklin, A. (2002). Selectivity and discord. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press). In addition, we are in a position to contribute substantively to the debate between realists and constructive empiricists. Finally, from a sociological standpoint, we remark that DAMA's work has been valuable in mobilizing other research teams and providing them with a critical focus.

  1. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Boris; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2013-11-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  2. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Boris; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  3. Extreme weather and experience influence reproduction in an endangered bird.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Brian E; Cattau, Christopher E; Fletcher, Robert J; Kendall, William L; Kitchens, Wiley M

    2012-12-01

    Extreme weather events, such as droughts and heat waves, are expected to become more severe and more frequent in the coming years, and understanding their impacts on demographic rates is of increasing interest to both evolutionary ecologists and conservation practitioners. An individual's breeding probability can be a sensitive indicator of the decision to initiate reproductive behavior under varying environmental conditions, has strong fitness consequences, and can be considered the first step in a life history trade-off between allocating resources for breeding activities or self-survival. Using a 14-year time series spanning large variation in climatic conditions and the entirety of a population's breeding range, we estimated the effects of extreme weather conditions (drought) on the state-specific probabilities of breeding and survival of an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus). Our analysis accounted for uncertainty in breeding status assignment, a common source of uncertainty that is often ignored when states are based on field observations. Breeding probabilities in adult kites (> 1 year of age) decreased during droughts, whereas the probability of breeding in young kites (1 year of age) tended to increase. Individuals attempting to breed showed no evidence of reduced future survival. Although population viability analyses of this species and other species often implicitly assume that all adults will attempt to breed, we find that breeding probabilities were significantly < 1 for all 13 estimable years considered. Our results suggest that experience is an important factor determining whether or not individuals attempt to breed during harsh environmental conditions and that reproductive effort may be constrained by an individual's quality and/or despotic behavior among individuals attempting to breed.

  4. Extreme weather and experience influence reproduction in an endangered bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichert, Brian E.; Cattau, Christopher E.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Kendall, William L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a 14-year time series spanning large variation in climatic conditions and the entirety of a population's breeding range, we estimated the effects of extreme weather conditions (drought) on the state-specific probabilities of breeding and survival of an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus). Our analysis accounted for uncertainty in breeding status assignment, a common source of uncertainty that is often ignored when states are based on field observations. Breeding probabilities in adult kites (>1 year of age) decreased during droughts, whereas the probability of breeding in young kites (1 year of age) tended to increase. Individuals attempting to breed showed no evidence of reduced future survival. Although population viability analyses of this species and other species often implicitly assume that all adults will attempt to breed, we find that breeding probabilities were significantly <1 for all 13 estimable years considered. Our results suggest that experience is an important factor determining whether or not individuals attempt to breed during harsh environmental conditions and that reproductive effort may be constrained by an individual's quality and/or despotic behavior among individuals attempting to breed.

  5. Modeling extreme wave heights from laboratory experiments with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    name prefix surname suffix, given; Zhang, H. D.; Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; Onorato, M.

    2013-10-01

    Spatial variation of nonlinear wave groups with different initial envelope shapes is theoretically studied first, confirming that the simplest nonlinear theoretical model is capable of describing the evolution of propagating wave packets in deep water. Moreover, three groups of laboratory experiments run in the wave basin of CEHIPAR are systematically compared with the numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although a small overestimation is detected, especially in the set of experiments characterized by higher initial wave steepness, the numerical simulations still display a high degree of agreement with the laboratory experiments. Therefore, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation catches the essential characteristics of the extreme waves and provides an important physical insight into their generation. The modulation instability, resulted by the quasi-resonant four wave interaction in a unidirectional sea state, can be indicated by the coefficient of kurtosis, which shows an appreciable correlation with the extreme wave height and hence is used in the modified Edgeworth-Rayleigh distribution. Finally, some statistical properties on the maximum wave heights in different sea states have been related with the initial Benjamin-Feir Index.

  6. Modeling extreme wave heights from laboratory experiments with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. D.; Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; Onorato, M.

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variation of nonlinear wave groups with different initial envelope shapes is theoretically studied first, confirming that the simplest nonlinear theoretical model is capable of describing the evolution of propagating wave packets in deep water. Moreover, three groups of laboratory experiments run in the wave basin of CEHIPAR (Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinámicas de El Pardo, known also as El Pardo Model Basin) was founded in 1928 by the Spanish Navy. are systematically compared with the numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although a little overestimation is detected, especially in the set of experiments characterized by higher initial wave steepness, the numerical simulation still displays a high degree of agreement with the laboratory experiments. Therefore, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation catches the essential characteristics of the extreme waves and provides an important physical insight into their generation. The modulation instability, resulting from the quasi-resonant four-wave interaction in a unidirectional sea state, can be indicated by the coefficient of kurtosis, which shows an appreciable correlation with the extreme wave height and hence is used in the modified Edgeworth-Rayleigh distribution. Finally, some statistical properties on the maximum wave heights in different sea states have been related with the initial Benjamin-Feir index.

  7. Laser space communication experiment: Modulator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a contractual program to develop the modulator technology necessary for a 10.6 micron laser communication system using cadmium telluride as the modulator material. The program consisted of the following tasks: (1) The growth of cadmium telluride crystals of sufficient size and purity and with the necessary optical properties for use as laser modulator rods. (2) Develop a low loss antireflection coating for the cadmium telluride rods. (3) Design and build a modulator capable of 300 MHz modulation. (4) Develop a modulator driver capable of a data rate of 300 MBits/sec, 12 W rms output power, and 40 percent efficiency. (5) Assemble and test the modulator system. All design goals were met and the system was built and tested.

  8. Development of Japanese experiment module remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsueda, Tatsuo; Kuwao, Fumihiro; Motohasi, Shoichi; Okamura, Ryo

    1994-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), as its contribution to the International Space Station. The JEM consists of the pressurized module (PM), the exposed facility (EF), the experiment logistics module pressurized section (ELM-PS), the experiment logistics module exposed section (ELM-ES) and the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The JEMRMS services for the JEM EF, which is a space experiment platform, consists of the Main Arm (MA), the Small Fine Arm (SFA) and the RMS console. The MA handles the JEM EF payloads, the SFA and the JEM element, such as ELM-ES.

  9. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Ata-ur-; Kerr, Michael Mc Kourakis, Ioannis; El-Taibany, Wael F.; Qamar, A.

    2015-02-15

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  10. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    of the current generation of global climate models (GCMs) to simulate extreme Arctic cyclones and identify changes in the characteristics of these...2011). 5. The CCSM4 simulations show an interesting shift in the location of extreme Arctic cyclones as a function of greenhouse warming (Figure 1...preferred track over the North Atlantic-Barents Sea. However, this change is not effected by the modest greenhouse warming between 1850-2000, when

  11. VME Data Acquisition Modules for MINERvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; /fermilab

    2010-01-01

    This document describes two VME modules developed for MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The Chain ReadOut Controller (CROC) module has four serial data channels and can interface with up to 48 front-ends using standard CAT5e networking cable. The data transmission rate of each channel is 160 Mbit/s. The maximum data transmission rate via VME bus is {approx}18 MB/s. The Chain Readout Interface Module (CRIM) is designed to provide various interface functions for the CROC module. It is compatible with MINOS MTM timing module and can be used to distribute timing signals to four CROC modules. The CRIM module also has a data port compatible with the CROC serial data interface. The data port can be used for diagnostic purpose and can generate triggers from front-end events. The CRIM module is a standard D08(O) interrupter module.

  12. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Modules for Probing Gold Nanoparticle Interfacial Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Gunatilake, Sameera R.; Ameer, Fathima S.; Gadogbe, Manuel; Smith, Laura; Mlsna, Deb; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-01-01

    Three gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) undergraduate experiment modules that are focused on nanoparticles interfacial phenomena have been developed. Modules 1 and 2 explore the synthesis and characterization of AuNPs of different sizes but with the same total gold mass. These experiments enable students to determine how particle size affects the AuNP…

  13. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The minimum number of standardized (common) module concepts that will satisfy the experiment program for manned space stations at least cost is investigated. The module interfaces with other elements such as the space shuttle, ground stations, and the experiments themselves are defined. The total experiment module program resource and test requirements are also considered. The minimum number of common module concepts that will satisfy the program at least cost is found to be three, plus a propulsion slice and certain experiment-peculiar integration hardware. The experiment modules rely on the space station for operational, maintenance, and logistic support. They are compatible with both expendable and shuttle launch vehicles, and with servicing by shuttle, tug, or directly from the space station. A total experiment module program cost of approximately $2319M under the study assumptions is indicated. This total is made up of $838M for experiment module development and production, $806M for experiment equipment, and $675M for interface hardware, experiment integration, launch and flight operations, and program management and support.

  14. Detection of rotational modulation in the coronal extreme-ultraviolet emission from V711 Tauri?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Brown, Alex; Patterer, Robert J.; Vedder, Peter W.; Bowyer, Stuart; Guinan, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    The RS CVn binary V711 Tauri was observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) twice during the latter half of 1992, for periods lasting several days. Light curves for the waveband 60-180 A derived from the all-sky survey scanning in August and from a pointed calibration observation made in October both exhibit a modulation of about 40%. The modulation in both data sets is very similar, with minimum flux occurring near orbital phase phi = 0.5. Analysis using a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model reveals that most of the detected extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux emanates from hot (approximately 10(exp 7) K) coronal plasma. The modulation is probably mostly due to either flare-like activity or to rotational occultation of a long-lived, compact, and especially bright coronal structure on the more active star of the system. The phased data support the latter hypothesis. This coronal structure is then likely to be associated with the presistent spot patterns seen on V711 Tau when using Doppler and photometric surface imaging techniques. Comparison with contemporaneous Stroemgren b-band photometry indicates that the optical minimum light leads the EUV maximum light by 90 deg in phase.

  15. Detection of rotational modulation in the coronal extreme-ultraviolet emission from V711 Tauri?

    PubMed

    Drake, J J; Brown, A; Patterer, R J; Vedder, P W; Bowyer, S; Guinan, E F

    1994-01-20

    The RS CVn binary V711 Tauri was observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) twice during the latter half of 1992, for periods lasting several days. Light curves for the waveband 60-180 angstroms derived from the all-sky survey scanning in August and from a pointed calibration observation made in October both exhibit a modulation of about 40%. The modulation in both data sets is very similar, with minimum flux occurring near orbital phase phi=0.5. Analysis using a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model reveals that most of the detected extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux emanates from hot (approximately 10(7) K) coronal plasma. The modulation is probably mostly due to either flare-like activity or to rotational occultation of a long-lived, compact, and especially bright coronal structure on the more active star of the system. The phased data support the latter hypothesis. This coronal structure is then likely to be associated with the persistent spot patterns seen on V711 Tau when using Doppler and photometric surface imaging techniques. Comparison with contemporaneous Stromgren b-band photometry indicates that the optical minimum light leads the EUV maximum light by 90 degrees in phase.

  16. Single, stretched membrane, structural module experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes tests done on stretched-membrane heliostats used to reflect solar radiation onto a central receiver. The tests were used to validate prior analysis and mathematical models developed to describe module performance. The modules tested were three meters in diameter and had reflective polymer film laminated to the membrane. The frames were supported at three points equally spaced around the ring. Three modules were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended at the bottom support, two were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended from the upper mounts, and one was rigidly attached with its weight suspended at the bottom mount. By varying the membrane tension we could simulate a uniform wind loading normal to the mirror's surface. A video camera 15+ meters away from the mirror recorded the virtual image of a target grid as reflected by the mirrors' surface. The image was digitized and stored on a microcomputer. Using the law of reflection and analytic geometry, we computed the surface slopes of a sampling of points on the surface. The dominant module response was consistent with prior SERI analyses. The simple analytical model is quite adequate for designing and sizing single-membrane modules if the initial imperfections and their amplification are appropriately controlled. To avoid potential problems resulting from the fundamentally n = 2 deformation phenomena, we advise using either relatively stiffer ring frames or more than three support points.

  17. Diagnostics modules for tokamak disruption experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, M.L.; Buchanan, C.D.; Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1994-11-01

    Diagnostic modules equipped with various sensors can provide useful information on key parameters for disruption events, e.g. energy deposition, vapor shielding effect, plasma pressure and force distribution. The modules are, basically, DIMES samples (Divertor Materials Evaluation System) equipped with sensors, coupled to digitizing units and interfaced to a data acquisition system. The DIMES samples are part of the lower diverter diagnostics on the DIII-D tokamak. Three top-cap prototype diagnostics modules have been designed and fabricated. The initial testing and calibration have been performed using the SIRENS plasma gun at an energy deposition of 1 to 12 MJ/m{sup 2} over 0.1 to 1.0 ms, with a plasma pressure >100 MPa.

  18. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    cyclones and identify changes in the characteristics of these storms caused by greenhouse -forced climate change to present. OBJECTIVES These goals...How well do state-of-the-art GCMs simulate them? (3) Are extreme Arctic cyclones already showing a response to greenhouse forcing? APPROACH These...study used 14 GCMs with widely varying horizontal and vertical resolutions and physics packages. These simulations were compared with an atmospheric

  19. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  20. High heat flux experiments of saddle type divertor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Araki, Masanori; Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Dairaku, Masayuki

    1994-09-01

    JAERI has been extensively developing plasma facing components for next tokomak devices. The authors have developed a saddle type divertor module which consists of saddle-shaped armor tiles brazed on metal heat sink. This paper presents the experimental and analytical results of thermal cycling experiments of the saddle type divertor module. The divertor module has unidirectional CFC armor tiles brazed on OFHC copper heat sink. A twisted tape was inserted in the cooling tube to enhance the heat transfer. In the experiments, thermal response of the divertor module was monitored by an infrared camera and thermocouples. The maximum incident heat flux was 24.5 MW/m 2 for a duration of 30 s. No degradation of thermal response was observed during the experiment. As a result, the saddle type divertor module successfully endured at an incident heat flux of over 20 MW/m 2 under steady state conditions for 1000 cycles.

  1. Power-Stepped HF Cross Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.; Langston, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. In this paper, we apply experimental observations of HF cross-modulation to the related problem of ELF/VLF wave generation. HF cross-modulation measurements are used to evaluate the efficiency of ionospheric conductivity modulation during power-stepped modulated HF heating experiments. The results are compared to previously published dependencies of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF peak power. The experiments were performed during the March 2013 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory. HAARP was operated in a dual-beam transmission format: the first beam heated the ionosphere using sinusoidal amplitude modulation while the second beam broadcast a series of low-power probe pulses. The peak power of the modulating beam was incremented in 1-dB steps. We compare the minimum and maximum cross-modulation effect and the amplitude of the resulting cross-modulation waveform to the expected power-law dependence of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF power.

  2. Microwave frequency modulation for improving polarization transfer in DNP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Mallory; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a driven process that transfers the inherently high electron polarization to surrounding nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at or near the electron Larmor frequency. In a typical DNP experiment, the amplitude and frequency of the applied microwaves are constant. However, by adding time dependence in the form of frequency modulation, the electron excitation bandwidth is increased, thereby increasing the number of electron spins active in the polarization transfer process and improving overall efficiency. Both triangular and sinusoidal modulation show a 3 fold improvement over monochromatic irradiation. In the present study, we compare the nuclear spin polarization after DNP experiments with no modulation of the applied microwaves, triangular and sinusoidal modulation, and modulation schemes derived from the sample's ESR spectrum. We characterize the polarization as a function of the modulation amplitude and frequency and compare the optimal results from each modulation scheme. Working at a field of 3.34 T and at a temperature of 4 K, we show that by using a modulation scheme tailored to the electronic environment of the sample, polarization transfer is improved over other modulation schemes. Small-scale simulations of the spin system are developed to gain further insight into the dynamics of this driven open system. This understanding could enable the design of modulation schemes to achieve even higher polarization transfer efficiencies. With support from NSF (CHE-1410504) and by NIH (U19-A1091173).

  3. Characterizing differences in precipitation regimes of extreme wet and dry years: implications for climate change experiments.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Hoover, David L; Wilcox, Kevin R; Avolio, Meghan L; Koerner, Sally E; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Loik, Michael E; Luo, Yiqi; Sala, Osvaldo E; Smith, Melinda D

    2015-02-03

    Climate change is intensifying the hydrologic cycle and is expected to increase the frequency of extreme wet and dry years. Beyond precipitation amount, extreme wet and dry years may differ in other ways, such as the number of precipitation events, event size, and the time between events. We assessed 1614 long-term (100 year) precipitation records from around the world to identify key attributes of precipitation regimes, besides amount, that distinguish statistically extreme wet from extreme dry years. In general, in regions where mean annual precipitation (MAP) exceeded 1000 mm, precipitation amounts in extreme wet and dry years differed from average years by ~40% and 30%, respectively. The magnitude of these deviations increased to >60% for dry years and to >150% for wet years in arid regions (MAP<500 mm). Extreme wet years were primarily distinguished from average and extreme dry years by the presence of multiple extreme (large) daily precipitation events (events >99th percentile of all events); these occurred twice as often in extreme wet years compared to average years. In contrast, these large precipitation events were rare in extreme dry years. Less important for distinguishing extreme wet from dry years were mean event size and frequency, or the number of dry days between events. However, extreme dry years were distinguished from average years by an increase in the number of dry days between events. These precipitation regime attributes consistently differed between extreme wet and dry years across 12 major terrestrial ecoregions from around the world, from deserts to the tropics. Thus, we recommend that climate change experiments and model simulations incorporate these differences in key precipitation regime attributes, as well as amount into treatments. This will allow experiments to more realistically simulate extreme precipitation years and more accurately assess the ecological consequences.

  4. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-04-01

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  5. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings.

    PubMed

    Bencivenga, F; Cucini, R; Capotondi, F; Battistoni, A; Mincigrucci, R; Giangrisostomi, E; Gessini, A; Manfredda, M; Nikolov, I P; Pedersoli, E; Principi, E; Svetina, C; Parisse, P; Casolari, F; Danailov, M B; Kiskinova, M; Masciovecchio, C

    2015-04-09

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  6. Effect of gravitational focusing on annual modulation in dark-matter direct-detection experiments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Samuel K; Lisanti, Mariangela; Peter, Annika H G; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-10

    The scattering rate in dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to Earth's orbit around the Sun. The rate is typically thought to be extremized around June 1, when the relative velocity of Earth with respect to the dark-matter wind is maximal. We point out that gravitational focusing can alter this modulation phase. Unbound dark-matter particles are focused by the Sun's gravitational potential, affecting their phase-space density in the lab frame. Gravitational focusing can result in a significant overall shift in the annual-modulation phase, which is most relevant for dark matter with low scattering speeds. The induced phase shift for light O(10)  GeV dark matter may also be significant, depending on the threshold energy of the experiment.

  7. Effect of Gravitational Focusing on Annual Modulation in Dark-Matter Direct-Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Peter, Annika H. G.; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    The scattering rate in dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to Earth's orbit around the Sun. The rate is typically thought to be extremized around June 1, when the relative velocity of Earth with respect to the dark-matter wind is maximal. We point out that gravitational focusing can alter this modulation phase. Unbound dark-matter particles are focused by the Sun's gravitational potential, affecting their phase-space density in the lab frame. Gravitational focusing can result in a significant overall shift in the annual-modulation phase, which is most relevant for dark matter with low scattering speeds. The induced phase shift for light O(10) GeV dark matter may also be significant, depending on the threshold energy of the experiment.

  8. Harmonic minimization waveforms for modulated heating experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-11-01

    Modulated High Frequency (few MHz) heating of the D-region ionosphere under the auroral electrojet is capable of generating extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves in the few kilohertz range by affecting the conductivity of the D-region. The HF heating is nonlinear and results in the generation of harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency with ∼1% of the total power outside the fundamental when sinusoidal amplitude modulation is applied to the HF carrier. For the purpose of harmonic minimization, we present a modulation scheme designed to create a sinusoidal change in the Hall conductivity at a particular altitude in the ionosphere. The modulation waveform is generated by inverting a numerical HF heating model, starting from the desired conductivity time series, and obtaining the HF power envelope at the bottom of the ionosphere. The inverted envelopes (referred to as inv-sin waveforms) are highly sensitive to the assumed ionospheric density profile and simulations indicate that these waveforms have less harmonic distortion compared to sinusoidal modulation when the actual ionospheric density is similar to or less dense than the one assumed. Experimental results indicate that sinusoidal amplitude modulation may still be preferred since it is more robust to the highly variable ionospheric profile while square wave modulation is more efficient in generation of ELF waves when harmonic distortion is not important. The inv-sin waveforms are more efficient than sinusoidal modulation while still suffering from less harmonic distortion than square wave modulation suggesting a tradeoff between harmonic distortion and ELF generation efficiency.

  9. LH power modulation experiment on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Y.; Kirov, K.; Goniche, M.; Mailloux, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Ongena, J.; Nave, F.

    2009-11-01

    LH power modulation was recently used at JET to quantify experimentally the LH current drive efficiency and power deposition. A new approach was applied for the analysis of the amplitude and phase of electron temperature Te perturbations δTe(kωo) at different harmonics k of the modulation frequency ωo. A solution of the Fokker-Planck equation combined with heat transport modelling was used to study the dependence of the ratio of the perturbation of different harmonics k and n, δTe(kωo)/δTe(nωo), and the phase shift of the harmonics δφ(kωo) on the plasma parameters and electron distribution function plateau width, which is directly connected to the current drive efficiency. The results of the modelling were compared with the experimental data to estimate the current drive efficiency. In addition, LH power deposition profiles were deduced from the radial dependence of δφ(ωo). The maximum of the LH power deposition becomes more peripheral and with a reduced current drive efficiency at higher densities. In H-Mode plasmas, at pedestal densities above the LH accessibility limit, a large fraction of the power is absorbed beyond the separatrix. Finally, the experimental power deposition profiles are more peripheral than the calculated ones obtained from combined ray tracing and Fokker-Planck Plank modelling. The experimental results indicate that the LH power spectrum in the plasma is modified, with more power in the high N// components.

  10. How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2009-01-01

    Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions. PMID:20160935

  11. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE): Technical requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a NASA shuttle space flight experiment scheduled for launch in early 1994. The SAMPIE experiment will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems in low earth orbit. Solar cell modules, representing several technologies, will be biased to high voltages to characterize both arcing and plasma current collection. Other solar modules, specially modified in accordance with current theories of arcing and breakdown, will demonstrate the possibility of arc suppression. Finally, several test modules will be included to study the basic nature of these interactions. The science and technology goals for the project are defined in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD) which is presented here.

  12. The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Jong, Jonathan; Buhrmester, Michael D.; Gómez, Ángel; Bastian, Brock; Kavanagh, Christopher M.; Newson, Martha; Matthews, Miriam; Lanman, Jonathan A.; McKay, Ryan; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Willingness to lay down one’s life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces “identity fusion” – a visceral sense of oneness – which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict. PMID:28290499

  13. The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Jong, Jonathan; Buhrmester, Michael D; Gómez, Ángel; Bastian, Brock; Kavanagh, Christopher M; Newson, Martha; Matthews, Miriam; Lanman, Jonathan A; McKay, Ryan; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2017-03-14

    Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces "identity fusion" - a visceral sense of oneness - which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict.

  14. LH power modulation experiment on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Y.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nave, F.; Ongena, J.

    2009-11-26

    LH power modulation was recently used at JET to quantify experimentally the LH current drive efficiency and power deposition. A new approach was applied for the analysis of the amplitude and phase of electron temperature T{sub e} perturbations {delta}T{sub e}(k{omega}{sub o}) at different harmonics k of the modulation frequency {omega}{sub o}. A solution of the Fokker-Planck equation combined with heat transport modelling was used to study the dependence of the ratio of the perturbation of different harmonics k and n, {delta}T{sub e}(k{omega}{sub o})/{delta}T{sub e}(n{omega}{sub o}), and the phase shift of the harmonics {delta}{phi}(k{omega}{sub o}) on the plasma parameters and electron distribution function plateau width, which is directly connected to the current drive efficiency. The results of the modelling were compared with the experimental data to estimate the current drive efficiency. In addition, LH power deposition profiles were deduced from the radial dependence of {delta}{phi}({omega}{sub o}). The maximum of the LH power deposition becomes more peripheral and with a reduced current drive efficiency at higher densities. In H-Mode plasmas, at pedestal densities above the LH accessibility limit, a large fraction of the power is absorbed beyond the separatrix. Finally, the experimental power deposition profiles are more peripheral than the calculated ones obtained from combined ray tracing and Fokker-Planck Plank modelling. The experimental results indicate that the LH power spectrum in the plasma is modified, with more power in the high N// components.

  15. Four wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    PubMed Central

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-01-01

    Four wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order non-linear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enables to explore dynamics inaccessible by linear methods.1-7 The coherent and multi-wave nature of FWM approach has been crucial in the development of cutting edge technologies, such as silicon photonics,8 sub-wavelength imaging9 and quantum communications.10 All these technologies operate with optical wavelengths, which limit the spatial resolution and do not allow probing excitations with energy in the eV range. The extension to shorter wavelengths, that is the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-x-ray (SXR) range, will allow to improve the spatial resolution and to expand the excitation energy range, as well as to achieve elemental selectivity by exploiting core resonances.5-7,11-14 So far FWM applications at these wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and suitable experimental setups. Our results show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent EUV pulses delivered by the FERMI free electron laser (FEL),15 can be used to stimulate FWM processes at sub-optical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility to read the time evolution of the FWM signal, which embodies the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the perspective for FWM with nanometer spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics.5-7 The theoretical possibility to realize these applications have already stimulated dedicated and ongoing FEL developments;16-20 today our results show that FWM at sub-optical wavelengths is feasible and would be the spark to the further advancements of the present and new sources. PMID:25855456

  16. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremity: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Alektiar, Kaled M. . E-mail: alektiak@mskcc.org; Hong, Linda; Brennan, Murray F.; Della-Biancia, Cesar; Singer, Samuel

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary results on using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as an adjuvant treatment in primary soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremity. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and March 2005, 31 adult patients with primary STS of the extremity were treated with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. Tumor size was >10 cm in 74% of patients and grade was high in 77%. Preoperative IMRT was given to 7 patients (50 Gy) and postoperative IMRT (median dose, 63 Gy) was given to 24 patients. Complete gross resection including periosteal stripping or bone resection was required in 10, and neurolysis or nerve resection in 20. The margins were positive or within 1 mm in 17. Complications from surgery and radiation therapy (RT) were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grading system. Results: Median follow-up time was 23 months. Grade 1 RT dermatitis developed in 71% of patients, Grade 2 in 16%, and Grade 3 in 10%. Infectious wound complications developed in 13% and noninfectious complications in 10%. Two patients (6.4%) developed fractures. Grade 1 neuropathy developed in 28% of patients and Grade 2 in 5%. The rates of Grade 1 and 2 joint stiffness were each 19%. Grade 1 edema was observed in 19% of patients and Grade 2 in 13%. The 2-year local control, distant control, and overall survival were 95%, 65%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusion: Intensity modulated RT appears to provide excellent local control in a difficult group of high-risk patients. The morbidity profile is also favorable, but longer follow-up is needed to confirm the results from this study.

  17. Approaches and Recommendations for Simulating Extreme Precipitation Years in Multi-site Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, A.; Collins, S. L.; Dukes, J.; Loik, M. E.; Phillips, R.; Sala, O. E.; Smith, M.

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide, human activities are exposing all ecosystems to increases in atmospheric CO2, N and temperature. Precipitation also is being altered globally, but increases in precipitation variability and extremes are expected to have greater impacts on ecosystem function than changes in means. Determining how and why ecosystems differ in their sensitivity to precipitation extremes (i.e., drought) is key to forecasting future ecosystem structure and function at the global scale. Coordinated multi-site experiments can be invaluable for assessing differential sensitivity of ecosystems (deserts, grasslands, forests, etc.) to precipitation extremes. However, determining treatment levels in these experiments presents unique problems because extremes in precipitation are defined statistically, based on historical context, and thus can differ dramatically among sites. Therefore, while multi-site experiments with fixed treatment levels may be appropriate for assessing ecosystem sensitivity to CO2 or warming, they may provide less mechanistic insight for studying extremes. We propose that for multi-site experiments focused on variability and extremes, the amount of precipitation removed or added to impose precipitation extremes should be site-specific (not fixed across sites) and matched to the historical climate record. Further, because extreme wet and dry years differ from each other in other attributes (event size, number of events, consecutive dry days, etc.) treatments should incorporate realistic alterations in these precipitation attributes as well. We show that for most ecosystem types globally, experimental infrastructure that passively reduces each rainfall event can realistically simulate drought, with the addition of a few large precipitation events realistically simulating extreme wet years. Thus, while treatment levels required to impose extreme precipitation years should vary among ecosystems, alterations in precipitation attributes can be imposed uniformly.

  18. Phase Quantization Study of Spatial Light Modulator for Extreme High-contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing

    2016-11-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10-10. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10-10 in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  19. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  20. Expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extreme clinical and immunological states

    PubMed Central

    Furman, David; Chang, Junlei; Lartigue, Lydia; Bolen, Christopher R; Haddad, François; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Spitzer, Matthew H; Douchet, Isabelle; Daburon, Sophie; Moreau, Jean-François; Nolan, Garry P; Blanco, Patrick; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Dekker, Cornelia L; Jojic, Vladimir; Kuo, Calvin J; Davis, Mark M; Faustin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade, chronic inflammation has been associated with many diseases of aging, but the mechanisms responsible for producing this inflammation remain unclear. Inflammasomes can drive chronic inflammation in the context of an infectious disease or cellular stress, and they trigger the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Here we find that the expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extremes: those with constitutive expression of IL-1β, nucleotide metabolism dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, high rates of hypertension and arterial stiffness; and those without constitutive expression of IL-1β, who lack these characteristics. Adenine and N4-acetylcytidine, nucleotide-derived metabolites that are detectable in the blood of the former group, prime and activate the NLRC4 inflammasome, induce the production of IL-1β, activate platelets and neutrophils and elevate blood pressure in mice. In individuals over 85 years of age, the elevated expression of inflammasome gene modules was associated with all-cause mortality. Thus, targeting inflammasome components may ameliorate chronic inflammation and various other age-associated conditions. PMID:28092664

  1. Expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extreme clinical and immunological states.

    PubMed

    Furman, David; Chang, Junlei; Lartigue, Lydia; Bolen, Christopher R; Haddad, François; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Spitzer, Matthew H; Douchet, Isabelle; Daburon, Sophie; Moreau, Jean-François; Nolan, Garry P; Blanco, Patrick; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Dekker, Cornelia L; Jojic, Vladimir; Kuo, Calvin J; Davis, Mark M; Faustin, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Low-grade, chronic inflammation has been associated with many diseases of aging, but the mechanisms responsible for producing this inflammation remain unclear. Inflammasomes can drive chronic inflammation in the context of an infectious disease or cellular stress, and they trigger the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Here we find that the expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extremes: those with constitutive expression of IL-1β, nucleotide metabolism dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, high rates of hypertension and arterial stiffness; and those without constitutive expression of IL-1β, who lack these characteristics. Adenine and N(4)-acetylcytidine, nucleotide-derived metabolites that are detectable in the blood of the former group, prime and activate the NLRC4 inflammasome, induce the production of IL-1β, activate platelets and neutrophils and elevate blood pressure in mice. In individuals over 85 years of age, the elevated expression of inflammasome gene modules was associated with all-cause mortality. Thus, targeting inflammasome components may ameliorate chronic inflammation and various other age-associated conditions.

  2. Global analysis of frequency modulation experiments in a vortex oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. Y.; Thirion, C.; Hoarau, C.; Baraduc, C.; Diény, B.

    2016-02-01

    Frequency modulation is performed on a vortex oscillator at various modulation frequencies and powers. A global analysis of the whole set of data is proposed, so that all experimental curves are described with the same four parameters. Three of these parameters describe the dependence of the instantaneous frequency with modulating current. This dependence appears significantly different from the frequency-current dependence observed in a quasi-static experiment. The discrepancy is ascribed to the different time scales involved, compared to the relaxation time of the vortex oscillator.

  3. Pushing precipitation to the extremes in distributed experiments: Recommendations for simulating wet and dry years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, Alan K.; Avolio, Meghan L.; Beier, Claus; Carroll, Charles J.W.; Collins, Scott L.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Fraser, Lauchlan H.; Griffin-Nolan, Robert J.; Hoover, David L.; Jentsch, Anke; Loik, Michael E.; Phillips, Richard P.; Post, Alison K.; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Slette, Ingrid J.; Yahdjian, Laura; Smith, Melinda D.

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of the global hydrological cycle, ranging from larger individual precipitation events to more extreme multiyear droughts, has the potential to cause widespread alterations in ecosystem structure and function. With evidence that the incidence of extreme precipitation years (defined statistically from historical precipitation records) is increasing, there is a clear need to identify ecosystems that are most vulnerable to these changes and understand why some ecosystems are more sensitive to extremes than others. To date, opportunistic studies of naturally occurring extreme precipitation years, combined with results from a relatively small number of experiments, have provided limited mechanistic understanding of differences in ecosystem sensitivity, suggesting that new approaches are needed. Coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs) arrayed across multiple ecosystem types and focused on water can enhance our understanding of differential ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation extremes, but there are many design challenges to overcome (e.g., cost, comparability, standardization). Here, we evaluate contemporary experimental approaches for manipulating precipitation under field conditions to inform the design of ‘Drought-Net’, a relatively low-cost CDE that simulates extreme precipitation years. A common method for imposing both dry and wet years is to alter each ambient precipitation event. We endorse this approach for imposing extreme precipitation years because it simultaneously alters other precipitation characteristics (i.e., event size) consistent with natural precipitation patterns. However, we do not advocate applying identical treatment levels at all sites – a common approach to standardization in CDEs. This is because precipitation variability varies >fivefold globally resulting in a wide range of ecosystem-specific thresholds for defining extreme precipitation years. For CDEs focused on precipitation extremes, treatments should be based

  4. Pushing precipitation to the extremes in distributed experiments: recommendations for simulating wet and dry years.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Avolio, Meghan L; Beier, Claus; Carroll, Charles J W; Collins, Scott L; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Griffin-Nolan, Robert J; Hoover, David L; Jentsch, Anke; Loik, Michael E; Phillips, Richard P; Post, Alison K; Sala, Osvaldo E; Slette, Ingrid J; Yahdjian, Laura; Smith, Melinda D

    2017-05-01

    Intensification of the global hydrological cycle, ranging from larger individual precipitation events to more extreme multiyear droughts, has the potential to cause widespread alterations in ecosystem structure and function. With evidence that the incidence of extreme precipitation years (defined statistically from historical precipitation records) is increasing, there is a clear need to identify ecosystems that are most vulnerable to these changes and understand why some ecosystems are more sensitive to extremes than others. To date, opportunistic studies of naturally occurring extreme precipitation years, combined with results from a relatively small number of experiments, have provided limited mechanistic understanding of differences in ecosystem sensitivity, suggesting that new approaches are needed. Coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs) arrayed across multiple ecosystem types and focused on water can enhance our understanding of differential ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation extremes, but there are many design challenges to overcome (e.g., cost, comparability, standardization). Here, we evaluate contemporary experimental approaches for manipulating precipitation under field conditions to inform the design of 'Drought-Net', a relatively low-cost CDE that simulates extreme precipitation years. A common method for imposing both dry and wet years is to alter each ambient precipitation event. We endorse this approach for imposing extreme precipitation years because it simultaneously alters other precipitation characteristics (i.e., event size) consistent with natural precipitation patterns. However, we do not advocate applying identical treatment levels at all sites - a common approach to standardization in CDEs. This is because precipitation variability varies >fivefold globally resulting in a wide range of ecosystem-specific thresholds for defining extreme precipitation years. For CDEs focused on precipitation extremes, treatments should be based on

  5. Monthly modulation in dark matter direct-detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Vivian; Meyers, Joel E-mail: jmeyers@cita.utoronto.ca

    2015-11-01

    The signals in dark matter direct-detection experiments should exhibit modulation signatures due to the Earth's motion with respect to the Galactic dark matter halo. The annual and daily modulations, due to the Earth's revolution about the Sun and rotation about its own axis, have been explored previously. Monthly modulation is another such feature present in direct detection signals, and provides a nearly model-independent method of distinguishing dark matter signal events from background. We study here monthly modulations in detail for both WIMP and WISP dark matter searches, examining both the effect of the motion of the Earth about the Earth-Moon barycenter and the gravitational focusing due to the Moon. For WIMP searches, we calculate the monthly modulation of the count rate and show the effects are too small to be observed in the foreseeable future. For WISP dark matter experiments, we show that the photons generated by WISP to photon conversion have frequencies which undergo a monthly modulating shift which is detectable with current technology and which cannot in general be neglected in high resolution WISP searches.

  6. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy using multicriteria optimization for body and extremity sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael R; Craft, David L; Colbert, Caroline M; Remillard, Kyla; Vanbenthuysen, Liam; Wang, Yi

    2016-11-08

    This study evaluates the implementation of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using multicriteria optimization (MCO) in the RayStation treatment planning system (TPS) for complex sites, namely extremity and body sarcoma. The VMAT-MCO algorithm implemented in RayStation is newly developed and requires an integrated, comprehensive analysis of plan generation, delivery, and treatment efficiency. Ten patients previously treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MCO were randomly selected and replanned using VMAT-MCO. The plan quality was compared using homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the planning target volume (PTV) and dose sparing of organs at risk (OARs). Given the diversity of the tumor location, the 10 plans did not have a common OAR except for skin. The skin D50 and Dmean was directly compared between VMAT-MCO and IMRT-MCO. Additional OAR dose points were compared on a plan-by-plan basis. The treatment efficiency was compared using plan monitor units (MU) and net beam-on time. Plan quality assurance was performed using the Sun Nuclear ArcCHECK phantom and a gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm. No statistically significant differences were found between VMAT- and IMRT-MCO for HI and CI of the PTV or D50 and Dmean to the skin. The VMAT-MCO plans showed general improvements in sparing to OARs. The VMAT-MCO plan set showed statistically significant improvements over the IMRT-MCO set in treatment efficiency per plan MU (p < 0.05) and net beam-on time (p < 0.01). The VMAT-MCO plan deliverability was validated. Similar gamma passing rates were observed for the two modalities. This study verifies the suitability of VMAT-MCO for sarcoma cancer and highlighted the comparability in plan quality and improve-ment in treatment efficiency offered by VMAT-MCO as compared to IMRT-MCO.

  7. Averaging of nuclear modulation artefacts in RIDME experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Katharina; Doll, Andrin; Qi, Mian; Godt, Adelheid; Jeschke, Gunnar; Yulikov, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    The presence of artefacts due to Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) complicates the analysis of dipolar evolution data in Relaxation Induced Dipolar Modulation Enhancement (RIDME) experiments. Here we demonstrate that averaging over the two delay times in the refocused RIDME experiment allows for nearly quantitative removal of the ESEEM artefacts, resulting in potentially much better performance than the so far used methods. The analytical equations are presented and analyzed for the case of electron and nuclear spins S = 1 / 2, I = 1 / 2 . The presented analysis is also relevant for Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) and Chirp-Induced Dipolar Modulation Enhancement (CIDME) techniques. The applicability of the ESEEM averaging approach is demonstrated on a Gd(III)-Gd(III) rigid ruler compound in deuterated frozen solution at Q band (35 GHz).

  8. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  9. Teaching Assembly for Disassembly; An Under-Graduate Module Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandri, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about the experience of teaching Assembly for Disassembly to fourth year architect students within the module of sustainable design. When designing a sustainable building one should take into consideration the fact that the building is going to be demolished in some years; thus the materials should be assembled in such a way so that…

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Emma Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.

  11. Space product development experiment module utilizing the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Christine; Lundquist, Charles; Wessling, Francis; Smith, James; Naumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Furnace facilities for materials processing on the International Space Station (ISS) will include the Space Product Development Experiment Module (SPDEM) which includes a transparent Furnace module and an opaque Furnace Module. The SPDEM is scheduled currently for UF-3 aboard the Materials Science Research Rack(MSRR). Various commercial interests can be satisfied sequentially by scheduled employment of the SPDEM. The CMDS will be the facility manager through whom arrangements can be made for SPDEM access. The ISS should provide long growth periods which are needed to grow large single crystals in microgravity. A typical area of commercial interest is acousto-optic filters (AOTF) based on mercurous halide research which would continue on the ISS, research begun on the STS-77 mission. Another area of commercial interest planned for implementation on ISS is liquid metal sintering of composites to further improve techniques for making better quality materials.

  12. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy using multicriteria optimization for body and extremity sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael R; Craft, David L; Colbert, Caroline M; Remillard, Kyla; Vanbenthuysen, Liam; Wang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the implementation of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using multicriteria optimization (MCO) in the RayStation treatment planning system (TPS) for complex sites, namely extremity and body sarcoma. The VMAT-MCO algorithm implemented in RayStation is newly developed and requires an integrated, comprehensive analysis of plan generation, delivery, and treatment efficiency. Ten patients previously treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MCO were randomly selected and replanned using VMAT-MCO. The plan quality was compared using homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the planning target volume (PTV) and dose sparing of organs at risk (OARs). Given the diversity of the tumor location, the 10 plans did not have a common OAR except for skin. The skin D50 and Dmean was directly compared between VMAT-MCO and IMRT-MCO. Additional OAR dose points were compared on a plan-by-plan basis. The treatment efficiency was compared using plan monitor units (MU) and net beam-on time. Plan quality assurance was performed using the Sun Nuclear ArcCHECK phantom and a gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm. No statistically significant differences were found between VMAT- and IMRT-MCO for HI and CI of the PTV or D50 and Dmean to the skin. The VMAT-MCO plans showed general improvements in sparing to OARs. The VMAT-MCO plan set showed statistically significant improvements over the IMRT-MCO set in treatment efficiency per plan MU (p<0.05) and net beam-on time (p<0.01). The VMAT-MCO plan deliverability was validated. Similar gamma passing rates were observed for the two modalities. This study verifies the suitability of VMAT-MCO for sarcoma cancer and highlighted the comparability in plan quality and improvement in treatment efficiency offered by VMAT-MCO as compared to IMRT-MCO. PACS number(s): separated by commas 87.55.D, 87.55.de, 87.55.Qr.

  13. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: a synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Katarina Gilgen, Anna; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-04-02

    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased inter-annual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses versus the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  14. Electrical conductivity imaging of lower extremities using MREIT: postmortem swine and in vivo human experiments.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyung Joong; Minhas, Atul S; Kim, Young Tae; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kwon, O

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sectional conductivity images of lower extremities were reconstructed using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) techniques. Carbon-hydrogel electrodes were adopted for postmortem swine and in vivo human imaging experiments. Due to their large surface areas and good contacts on the skin, we could inject as much as 10 mA into the lower extremities of human subjects without producing a painful sensation. Using a 3T MREIT system, we first performed a series of postmortem swine experiments and produced high-resolution conductivity images of swine legs. Validating the experimental protocol for the lower extremities, we revised it for the following human experiments. After the review of the Institutional Review Board (IRB), we conducted our first MREIT experiments of human subjects using the same 3T MREIT system. Collecting magnetic flux density data inside lower extremities subject to multiple injection currents, we reconstructed cross-sectional conductivity images using the harmonic B(z) algorithm. The conductivity images very well distinguished different parts of muscles inside the lower extremities. The outermost fatty layer was clearly shown in each conductivity image. We could observe severe noise in the outer layer of the bones primarily due to the MR signal void phenomenon there. Reconstructed conductivity images indicated that the internal regions of the bones have relatively high conductivity values. Future study is desired in terms of the conductivity image reconstruction algorithm to improve the image quality. Further human imaging experiments are planned and being conducted to produce high-resolution conductivity images from different parts of the human body.

  15. Self-Recovery Experiments in Extreme Environments Using a Field Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Arslan, Tughrul; Duong, Vu; Zebulum, Ricardo; Ferguson, Ian; Guo, Xin

    2004-01-01

    Temperature and radiation tolerant electronics, as well as long life survivability are key capabilities required for future NASA missions. Current approaches to electronics for extreme environments focus on component level robustness and hardening. However, current technology can only ensure very limited lifetime in extreme environments. This paper describes novel experiments that allow adaptive in-situ circuit redesign/reconfiguration during operation in extreme temperature and radiation environments. This technology would complement material/device advancements and increase the mission capability to survive harsh environments. The approach is demonstrated on a mixed-signal programmable chip (FPTA-2), which recovers functionality for temperatures until 28 C and with total radiation dose up to 250kRad.

  16. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  17. ITEL Experiment Module and its Flight on MASER9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löth, K.; Schneider, H.; Larsson, B.; Jansson, O.; Houltz, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The ITEL (Interfacial Turbulence in Evaporating Liquid) module is built under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and is scheduled to fly onboard a Sounding Rocket (MASER 9) in March 2002. The project is conducted by Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) with Lambda-X as a subcontractor responsible for the optical system. The Principle Investigator is Pierre Colinet from Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). The experiment in ITEL on Maser 9 is part of a research program, which will make use of the International Space Station. The purpose of the flight on Maser 9 is to observe the cellular convection (Marangoni-Bénard instability) which arise when the surface tension varies with temperature yielding thermocapillary instabilities. During the 6 minutes of microgravity of the ITEL experiment, a highly volatile liquid layer (ethyl alcohol) will be evaporated, and the convection phenomena generated by the evaporation process will be visualized. Due to the cooling by latent heat consumption at the level of the evaporating free surface, a temperature gradient is induced perpendicularly to it. The flight experiment module contains one experiment cell, including a gas system for regulation of nitrogen flow over the evaporating surface and an injection unit that is used for injection of liquid into the cell both initially and during surface regulation. The experiment cell is equipped with pressure and flow sensors as well as thermocouples both inside the liquid and at different positions in the cell. Two optical diagnostic systems have been developed around the experiment cell. An interferometric optical tomograph measures the 3-dimensional distribution of temperature in the evaporating liquid and a Schlieren system visualizes the temperature gradients inside the liquid together with the liquid surface deformation. A PC/104 based electronic system is used for management and control of the experiment. The electronic system handles measurements, housekeeping, image

  18. Affect Modulated Startle in Schizophrenia: Subjective Experience Matters

    PubMed Central

    Dominelli, Rachelle M.; Boggs, Jennifer M.; Bolbecker, Amanda R.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Hetrick, William P.; Brenner, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Data suggests that emotion reactivity as measured by the affect-modulated startle paradigm in those with schizophrenia (SZ) may be similar to healthy controls (HC). However, normative classification of the stimuli may not accurately reflect emotional experience, especially for those with SZ. To examine this possibility, the present study measured the affect-modulated startle response with images classified according to both normative and subjective ratings. Seventeen HC and 17 SZ completed an image viewing task during which startle probes were presented, followed by subjective valence and arousal ratings. Both groups exhibited inhibited startle responses to positive images, intermediate startle amplitudes to neutral images, and potentiated startle amplitudes to negative images. SZ rated the positive images as less positive than HC. When images were reclassified based on subjective valence ratings, both groups’ startle magnitudes increased in response to subjectively rated positive images and decreased to subjectively rated neutral images. The number of trials classified into each valence condition suggested a tendency for SZ to classify neutral images as negative more often than HC. Overall, these findings suggest that affective stimuli modulate the startle response in HC and SZ in similar ways, but subjective emotional experience may differ in those with schizophrenia. PMID:25107317

  19. Weather extremes in very large, high-resolution ensembles: the weatherathome experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Rosier, S.; Massey, N.; Rye, C.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Otto, F.; Jones, R.; Wilson, S.; Mote, P.; Stone, D. A.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Carrington, D.

    2011-12-01

    Resolution and ensemble size are often seen as alternatives in climate modelling. Models with sufficient resolution to simulate many classes of extreme weather cannot normally be run often enough to assess the statistics of rare events, still less how these statistics may be changing. As a result, assessments of the impact of external forcing on regional climate extremes must be based either on statistical downscaling from relatively coarse-resolution models, or statistical extrapolation from 10-year to 100-year events. Under the weatherathome experiment, part of the climateprediction.net initiative, we have compiled the Met Office Regional Climate Model HadRM3P to run on personal computer volunteered by the general public at 25 and 50km resolution, embedded within the HadAM3P global atmosphere model. With a global network of about 50,000 volunteers, this allows us to run time-slice ensembles of essentially unlimited size, exploring the statistics of extreme weather under a range of scenarios for surface forcing and atmospheric composition, allowing for uncertainty in both boundary conditions and model parameters. Current experiments, developed with the support of Microsoft Research, focus on three regions, the Western USA, Europe and Southern Africa. We initially simulate the period 1959-2010 to establish which variables are realistically simulated by the model and on what scales. Our next experiments are focussing on the Event Attribution problem, exploring how the probability of various types of extreme weather would have been different over the recent past in a world unaffected by human influence, following the design of Pall et al (2011), but extended to a longer period and higher spatial resolution. We will present the first results of the unique, global, participatory experiment and discuss the implications for the attribution of recent weather events to anthropogenic influence on climate.

  20. The Light Microscope Module Designed for Space Biological Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weibo; Zhang, Tao

    The real-time observation and imaging techniques for the space science experiments has become more and more important. This paper will introduce the Light Microscope Module (LMM), which is an automatic acquisition mini-microscope designed for space biological science re-searches. The sample features including the shape and fluorescence images would be observed. The LMM consists of an illumination system of super bright LEDs, an optical system, a colour CCD camera, and a moving machine. Illumination will be provided in three colors (white, blue, and ultraviolet). It would search for the samples, then automatic focus on them and produce digital images. The LLM had been used in the biological science experiments on the Shijian-8 Satellite, which observed sample features including rat embryos and plant flowers, and researched the influence of samples in the space environments.

  1. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules – ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the “ecologic fallacy.” The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In “natural experiments,” the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies. PMID:28216721

  2. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  3. Automatized segmentation of photovoltaic modules in IR-images with extreme noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Andreas; Hepp, Johannes; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-05-01

    Local electric defects may result in considerable performance losses in solar cells. Infrared thermography is an essential tool to detect these defects on photovoltaic modules. Accordingly, IR-thermography is frequently used in R&D labs of PV manufactures and, furthermore, outdoors in order to identify faulty modules in PV-power plants. Massive amount of data is acquired which needs to be analyzed. An automatized method for detecting solar modules in IR-images would enable a faster and automatized analysis of the data. However, IR-images tend to suffer from rather large noise, which makes an automatized segmentation challenging. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable segmentation algorithm for R&D labs. We propose an algorithm, which detects a solar cell or module within an IR-image with large noise. We tested the algorithm on images of 10 PV-samples characterized by highly sensitive dark lock-in thermography (DLIT). The algorithm proved to be very reliable in detecting correctly the solar module. In our study, we focused on thin film solar cells, however, a transfer of the algorithm to other cell types is straight forward.

  4. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  5. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L. Even, Wesley; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Wong, Tsing-Wai

    2014-04-15

    Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10 MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  7. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  8. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  9. Is there Complex Trauma Experience typology for Australian's experiencing extreme social disadvantage and low housing stability?

    PubMed

    Keane, Carol A; Magee, Christopher A; Kelly, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability. Data on adverse childhood experiences, adulthood interpersonal trauma and relevant covariates were collected through interviews at baseline (Wave 1). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify distinct classes of childhood trauma history, which included physical assault, neglect, and sexual abuse. Multinomial logistic regression investigated childhood relevant factors associated with class membership such as biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years and number of times in foster care. Of the total sample (N=1682), 99% reported traumatic adverse childhood experiences. The most common included witnessing of violence, threat/experience of physical abuse, and sexual assault. LCA identified six distinct childhood trauma history classes including high violence and multiple traumas. Significant covariate differences between classes included: gender, biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years, and time in foster care. Identification of six distinct childhood trauma history profiles suggests there might be unique treatment implications for individuals living in extreme social disadvantage. Further research is required to examine the relationship between these classes of experience, consequent impact on adulthood engagement, and future transitions though homelessness.

  10. Effects of extreme endurance running on cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, Juan; Atchou, Guillaume; Adamec, Richard; Bayes de Luna, Antonio

    2006-01-15

    This study examined spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) during endurance mountain running in 8 healthy trained subjects. The data showed that during this type of mountain running, all spectral components of HRV may severely decrease, particularly very-low-frequency and low-frequency (LF) power, suggesting extreme activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The physiologic response of the heart in this situation was the downregulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors to protect myocardial function, with a subsequent increase in parasympathetic tone, reflected by an increase in high-frequency (HF) power and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio.

  11. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  12. Students' Design of Experiments: An Inquiry Module on the Conduction of Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Molohidis, A.; Psillos, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines secondary students' design of experiments after engagement in an innovative and inquiry-oriented module on heat transfer. The module consists of an integration of hands-on experiments, simulated experiments and microscopic model simulations, includes a structured series of guided investigative tasks and was implemented for a…

  13. Instrumentation on the RAIDS experiment 2: Extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, photometer, and near IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Kayser, D. C.; Pranke, J. B.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McCoy, R. P.

    1994-02-01

    The RAIDS experiment consists of eight instruments spanning the wavelength range from the extreme ultraviolet (55 nm) to the near infrared (800 nm) oriented to view the Earth's limb from the NOAA-J spacecraft to be launched into a circular orbit in 1993. Through measurements of the natural optical emissions and scattered sunlight originating in the upper atmosphere including the mesosphere and thermosphere, state variables such as temperature, composition, density and ion concentration of this region will be inferred. This report describes the subset of instruments fabricated or otherwise provided by the Space and Environment Technology Center (formerly Space Sciences Laboratory) at The Aerospace Corp. The companion to this report describes the instruments from the Naval Research Laboratory. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUVS), the three fixed filter photometers OI (630), OI (777), and Na (589), and the near infrared spectrometer (NIR) will be described. These are all mounted on a mechanical scan platform that scans the limb from approximately 75 to 750 km in the orbital plane of the satellite every 90 seconds.

  14. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  15. Charge sign solar modulation measured with the PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munini, Riccardo; Boezio, Mirko; Di Felice, Valeria; Potgieter, Marius; Vos, Etienne; Mikhailov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    The satellite-borne PAMELA experiment has been continuously collecting data since 15th June 2006, when it was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome to detect the charged component of cosmic rays over a wide energy range and with an unprecedented statistics. The apparatus design is particularly suited for particle and antiparticle identification. Moreover, the PAMELA long flight duration allows to study the time variation of low energy (<30 GeV) cosmic rays, measuring the differential energy intensity of oppositely charged particles down to ˜70 MeV. We present preliminary results on the time-dependent electron, positron and proton fluxes measured at Earth between July 2006 and the end of 2014. This time period spans between the A<0 solar minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) till the middle of solar maximum of solar cycle 24. A direct comparison of electron, positron and proton spectra time variation and their differences allow a detailed study of charge-sign dependent solar modulation, both during solar minimum and at the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field.

  16. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action.

  17. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Blinne, Alexander; Fuchs, Silvio; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Förster, Eckhart; Zastrau, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  18. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Blinne, Alexander; Fuchs, Silvio; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Paulus, Gerhard G; Förster, Eckhart; Zastrau, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  19. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Fuchs, Silvio; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Zastrau, Ulf; Blinne, Alexander; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Förster, Eckhart

    2013-09-15

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  20. Measurements of characteristic parameters of extremely small cogged wheels with low module by means of low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakula, Anna; Tomczewski, Slawomir; Skalski, Andrzej; Biało, Dionizy; Salbut, Leszek

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents novel application of Low Coherence Interferometry (LCI) in measurements of characteristic parameters as circular pitch, foot diameter, heads diameter, in extremely small cogged wheels (cogged wheel diameter lower than θ=3 mm and module m = 0.15) produced from metal and ceramics. The most interesting issue concerning small diameter cogged wheels occurs during their production. The characteristic parameters of the wheel depend strongly on the manufacturing process and while inspecting small diameter wheels the shrinkage during the cast varies with the slight change of fabrication process. In the paper the LCI interferometric Twyman - Green setup with pigtailed high power light emitting diode, for cogged wheels measurement, is described. Due to its relatively big field of view the whole wheel can be examined in one measurement, without the necessity of numerical stitching. For purposes of small cogged wheel's characteristic parameters measurement the special binarization algorithm was developed and successfully applied. At the end the results of measurement of heads and foot diameters of two cogged wheels obtained by proposed LCI setup are presented and compared with the results obtained by the commercial optical profiler. The results of examination of injection moulds used for fabrication of measured cogged wheels are also presented. Additionally, the value of cogged wheels shrinkage is calculated as a conclusion for obtained results. Proposed method is suitable for complex measurements of small diameter cogged wheels with low module especially when there are no measurements standards for such objects.

  1. Cross-Functional Globalization Modules: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Kathryn T.; Das, Jayoti; Synn, Wonhi J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-functional international teaching modules. The modules presented in this paper are intended to assist higher education institutions in initiating and implementing the first level of internationalization of the business school curriculum. Although the focus is on achieving a level of global awareness,…

  2. Epigenetic modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Leone, Lucia; Fusco, Salvatore; Mastrodonato, Alessia; Piacentini, Roberto; Barbati, Saviana Antonella; Zaffina, Salvatore; Pani, Giovambattista; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Grassi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    Throughout life, adult neurogenesis generates new neurons in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus that have a critical role in memory formation. Strategies able to stimulate this endogenous process have raised considerable interest because of their potential use to treat neurological disorders entailing cognitive impairment. We previously reported that mice exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEFs) showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the ELFEF-dependent enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis improves spatial learning and memory. To gain insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying ELFEFs' effects, we extended our studies to an in vitro model of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the hippocampi of newborn mice. We found that ELFEFs enhanced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of hippocampal NSCs by regulation of epigenetic mechanisms leading to pro-neuronal gene expression. Upon ELFEF stimulation of NSCs, we observed a significant enhancement of expression of the pro-proliferative gene hairy enhancer of split 1 and the neuronal determination genes NeuroD1 and Neurogenin1. These events were preceded by increased acetylation of H3K9 and binding of the phosphorylated transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on the regulatory sequence of these genes. Such ELFEF-dependent epigenetic modifications were prevented by the Cav1-channel blocker nifedipine, and were associated with increased occupancy of CREB-binding protein (CBP) to the same loci within the analyzed promoters. Our results unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the ELFEFs' ability to improve endogenous neurogenesis, pointing to histone acetylation-related chromatin remodeling as a critical determinant. These findings could pave the way to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine.

  3. Experience with CPV Module Failures at NREL (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2012-03-01

    The failures and performance issues associated with three years of on-sun testing of CPV modules are discussed. Pictures of various failure mechanisms and performance issues are presented. A wide array of CPV module failures and performance issues have been experienced at NREL. Many of the modules are prototypes and have not been through qualification testing. It is assumed that the qualification test would have captured many of the problems. Internal lens soiling due to condensation is not currently captured by the qualification test. Lens temperature dependence can be built into modeling if CPV is to operate in cold locations.

  4. Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module: An Experiment to Grow Flowers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, T. K.; Poynter, J. E.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    NASA has entered a new phase of in-depth exploration of the planets where robotic exploration of the Solar System is focusing on in-situ missions that pave the way for human exploration. Creating a human presence on Mars will require specialized knowledge and experience concerning the Martian environment and validated technologies that will provide life-supporting consumables. An understanding of the response of terrestrial organisms to the Martian environment with respect to potential deleterious effects on crew health and changes to biological processes will be paramount. In response to these challenges an innovative selfcontained flight experiment is proposed, which is designed to assess the biocompatibility of the Martian environment by germinating seeds and following their growth through to flowering. The experiment, dubbed Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module (Mars GEM), will be accomplished in a sealed pressurized growth chamber or 'Mars Greenhouse'. Seeds will be grown in Martian soil and the Mars Greenhouse will provide ultraviolet-radiation protected, thermal-controlled environment for plant growth that actively controls the CO2 (required nutrient) and O2 (generated by the plants) levels in the chamber. The simple, but visually dramatic, demonstration of the potential to grow a plant in a man-made environment on the surface of Mars should establish a strong connection between current robotic missions and future human habitation on Mars.

  5. Matter under extreme conditions experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barbrel, B.; Brown, S. B.; Chapman, D. A.; Chen, Z.; Curry, C. B.; Fiuza, F.; Gamboa, E.; Gauthier, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Gleason, A.; Goede, S.; Granados, E.; Heimann, P.; Kim, J.; Kraus, D.; MacDonald, M. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mishra, R.; Ravasio, A.; Roedel, C.; Sperling, P.; Schumaker, W.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Vorberger, J.; Zastrau, U.; Fry, A.; White, W. E.; Hasting, J. B.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-05-01

    The matter in extreme conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a new tool enabling accurate pump-probe measurements for studying the physical properties of matter in the high-energy density (HED) physics regime. This instrument combines the world’s brightest x-ray source, the LCLS x-ray beam, with high-power lasers consisting of two nanosecond Nd:glass laser beams and one short-pulse Ti:sapphire laser. These lasers produce short-lived states of matter with high pressures, high temperatures or high densities with properties that are important for applications in nuclear fusion research, laboratory astrophysics and the development of intense radiation sources. In the first experiments, we have performed highly accurate x-ray diffraction and x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on shock-compressed matter resolving the transition from compressed solid matter to a co-existence regime and into the warm dense matter state. These complex charged-particle systems are dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. They exist in planetary interiors and laboratory experiments, e.g., during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Applying record peak brightness x-rays resolves the ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and measure the static structure factor, which is a key quantity for determining equation of state data and important transport coefficients. Simultaneously, spectrally resolved measurements of plasmon features provide dynamic structure factor information that yield temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micron-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments. These studies have demonstrated our ability to measure fundamental thermodynamic properties that determine the state of matter in the HED physics regime.

  6. Low Frequency Modulation of Extreme Temperature Regimes in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Robert X.

    2014-11-24

    The project examines long-term changes in extreme temperature episodes (ETE) associated with planetary climate modes (PCMs) in both the real atmospheric and climate model simulations. The focus is on cold air outbreaks (CAOs) and warm waves (WWs) occurring over the continental US during the past 60 winters. No significant long-term trends in either WWs or CAOs are observed over the US. The annual frequency of CAOs is affected by the (i) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the Southeast US and (ii) Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern over the Northwest US. WW frequency is influenced by the (i) NAO over the eastern US and (ii) combined influence of PNA, Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and ENSO over the southern US. The collective influence of PCMs accounts for as much as 50% of the regional variability in ETE frequency. During CAO (WW) events occurring over the southeast US, there are low (high) pressure anomalies at higher atmospheric levels over the southeast US with oppositely-signed pressure anomalies in the lower atmosphere over the central US. These patterns lead to anomalous northerly (for CAOs) or southerly (for WWs) flow into the southeast leading to cold or warm surface air temperature anomalies, respectively. One distinction is that CAOs involve substantial air mass transport while WW formation is more local in nature. The primary differences among event categories are in the origin and nature of the pressure anomaly features linked to ETE onset. In some cases, PCMs help to provide a favorable environment for event onset. Heat budget analyses indicate that latitudinal transport in the lower atmosphere is the main contributor to regional cooling during CAO onset. This is partly offset by adiabatic warming associated with subsiding air. Additional diagnoses reveal that this latitudinal transport is partly due to the remote physical influence of a shallow cold pool of air trapped along the east side of the Rocky Mountains. ETE and PCM behavior is also

  7. Characterization and selection of CZT detector modules for HEX experiment onboard Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Purohit, S.; Shanmugam, M.; Acharya, Y. B.; Goswami, J. N.; Sudhakar, M.; Sreekumar, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of characterization of a large sample of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector modules planned to be used for the HEX (High Energy X-ray spectrometer) experiment onboard India's first mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1. We procured forty modules from Orbotech Medical Solutions Ltd. and carried out a detailed characterization of each module at various temperatures and selected final nine detector modules for the flight model of HEX. Here we present the results of the characterization of all modules and the selection procedure for the HEX flight detector modules. These modules show 5-6% energy resolution (at 122 keV, for best 90% of pixels) at room temperature which is improved to ˜4% when these modules are cooled to sub-0 °C temperature. The gain and energy resolution were stable during the long duration tests.

  8. Study of impurities in the Tandem Mirror Experiment using extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, O.T.

    1982-05-12

    Impurities in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) have been studied using extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. Three time-resolving absolutely-calibrated normal-incidence monochromators, one on each section of TMX, were used to study the impurity emissions in the wavelength range of 300 A to 1600 A. The instruments on the east end cell and central cell were each capable of obtaining spatially-resolved profiles from 22 chords of the plasma simultaneously while the instrument on the west end cell monitored the central chord. The impurities identified in TMX were carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and titanium. Emphasis was placed upon determining the impurity densities and radiated power losses of the central cell; results indicate that the impurity concentrations were low - less than 0.4% for each species - and that less than 10% of the total net trapped neutral beam power was lost to radiation. The use of titanium gettering on the central cell walls was observed to decrease the brightnesses of singly- and doubly-ionized carbon and oxygen in the central cell plasma. In the end cells, oxygen was the main impurity with a concentration of about 1.5% and was injected by the neutral beams; the other impurities had concentrations of about 0.5%. Radiation losses from the end cells were negligible.

  9. Observing another in pain facilitates vicarious experiences and modulates somatosensory experiences

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Sophie; Crombez, Geert; Loeys, Tom; Goubert, Liesbet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether individuals reporting vicarious pain in daily life (e.g., the self-reported vicarious pain group) display vicarious experiences during an experimental paradigm, and also show an improved detection of somatosensory stimuli while observing another in pain. Furthermore, this study investigated the stability of these phenomena. Finally, this study explored the putative modulating role of dispositional empathy and hypervigilance for pain. Methods: Vicarious pain responders (i.e., reporting vicarious pain in daily life; N = 16) and controls (N = 19) were selected from a large sample, and viewed videos depicting pain-related (hands being pricked) and non-pain related scenes, whilst occasionally experiencing vibrotactile stimuli themselves on the left, right or both hands. Participants reported the location at which they felt a somatosensory stimulus. We calculated the number of vicarious errors (i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported while observing pain-related scenes) and detection accuracy. Thirty-three participants (94.29%) took part in the same experiment 5 months later to investigate the temporal stability of the outcomes. Results: The vicarious pain group reported more vicarious errors compared with controls and this effect proved to be stable over time. Detection was facilitated while observing pain-related scenes compared with non-pain related scenes. Observers' characteristics, i.e., dispositional empathy and hypervigilance for pain, did not modulate the effects. Conclusion: Observing pain facilitates the detection of tactile stimuli, both in vicarious pain responders and controls. Interestingly, vicarious pain responders reported more vicarious errors during the experimental paradigm compared to controls and this effect remained stable over time. PMID:25191251

  10. Apollo experience report: Lunar module display and control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar module display and control subsystem equipment is described with emphasis on major problems and their solutions. Included in the discussion of each item is a description of what the item does and how the item is constructed. The development, hardware history, and testing for each item are also presented.

  11. GHz modulation detection using a streak camera: Suitability of streak cameras in the AWAKE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, K.; Caldwell, A.; Reimann, O.; Muggli, P.

    2017-02-01

    Using frequency mixing, a modulated light pulse of ns duration is created. We show that, with a ps-resolution streak camera that is usually used for single short pulse measurements, we can detect via an FFT detection approach up to 450 GHz modulation in a pulse in a single measurement. This work is performed in the context of the AWAKE plasma wakefield experiment where modulation frequencies in the range of 80-280 GHz are expected.

  12. A downscale experiment on the extreme heavy rainfall case over southern China in June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Chen, G.; Sha, W.; Iwasaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Extensive flood over southern China, brings a severe toll to the livelihood of local residents. Mesoscale heavy rainstorms, interacted with other multi-scale systems and structures, have played an important role in triggering and maintaining precipitation in southern China. By understanding the dynamic and physical mechanism, it is of great help to improve the predictability and accuracy for the heavy rainstorms. Thus, the motivation of the present work is to investigate the multi-scale interaction that leads to an intense precipitation case on June 2005 by carrying out the downscale experiments using a non-hydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) model. 2. Model settings In this test run, we employ three domains that focus on southern China (D1), Pearl River Delta (D2) and Guangzhou city (D3), respectively. All domains have 80*80 grids horizontal and 50 layers vertical. Their spatial resolutions are 15km, 4km and 1km. D1 run begins at 00LT on June 18 and drives D2 run after 3 hours; the later then drives D3 run after another 3 hours. 3. Results and discussion The results show that there area two east-west oriented rain belts over the eastern part of southern China during this long-lasting, wide-range heavy frontal rainfall. One is generated over the inland mountain region, the other is located along the windward coastline. Precipitation reaches the peak at early afternoon for the inland belt while the maximum appears in the morning for the coast belt. The extreme rainfall is mainly caused by the activities of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) within the rainband. The MCSs formed at the upstream of the frontal rainband during midnight and then move eastward in the daytime. During this heavy rainfall process, the plentiful moisture content over southern China and monsoon surge lead to the establishment of the moist convective instability. Then the low level jet, shear line and low-level convergence offer beneficial dynamic conditions for the lifting in the

  13. Reliability and performance experience with flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    Statistical models developed to define the most likely sources of photovoltaic (PV) array failures and the optimum method of allowing for the defects in order to achieve a 20 yr lifetime with acceptable performance degradation are summarized. Significant parameters were the cost of energy, annual power output, initial cost, replacement cost, rate of module replacement, the discount rate, and the plant lifetime. Acceptable degradation allocations were calculated to be 0.0001 cell failures/yr, 0.005 module failures/yr, 0.05 power loss/yr, a 0.01 rate of power loss/yr, and a 25 yr module wear-out length. Circuit redundancy techniques were determined to offset cell failures using fault tolerant designs such as series/parallel and bypass diode arrangements. Screening processes have been devised to eliminate cells that will crack in operation, and multiple electrical contacts at each cell compensate for the cells which escape the screening test and then crack when installed. The 20 yr array lifetime is expected to be achieved in the near-term.

  14. Resistance to Extreme Stresses in the Tardigrada: Experiments on Earth and in Space and Astrobiological Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecchi, L.; Altiero, T.; Guidetti, R.; Cesari, M.; Rizzo, A. M.; Bertolani, R.

    2010-04-01

    The ability of tardigrades to enter cryptobiosis al-lows them to resist to extreme stresses: very low or high temperatures, chemicals, high pressure, ionizing and UV radiations This has lead to propose tardigrades as suitable model in space research.

  15. Space Experiment Module: A new low-cost capability for education payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Theodore C.; Lewis, Ruthan

    1995-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) concept is one of a number of education initiatives being pursued by the NASA Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) in an effort to increase educational access to space by means of Space Shuttle Small Payloads and associated activities. In the SEM concept, NASA will provide small containers ('modules') which can accommodate small zero-gravity experiments designed and constructed by students. A number, (nominally ten), of the modules will then be flown in an existing Get Away Special (GAS) carrier on the Shuttle for a flight of 5 to 10 days. In addition to the module container, the NASA carrier system will provide small amounts of electrical power and a computer system for controlling the operation of the experiments and recording experiment data. This paper describes the proposed SEM carrier system and program approach.

  16. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Optimization of temporal dose modulation: Comparison of theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bewes, J. M.; Suchowerska, N.; Cartwright, L.; Ebert, M. A.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To compare theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of cell survival after exposure to two different temporally modulated radiation dose patterns that deliver the same dose in the same overall time. Methods: The authors derived an analytic expression for the dose protraction factor G in the Lea-Catcheside formalism for cell survival for 'triangle' and 'V' temporal modulation of dose. These temporal dose patterns were used in experimental clonogenic studies of a melanoma cell line (MM576) and a nonsmall-cell lung cancer line (NCI-H460) that have different alpha, beta, and repair parameters. The overall treatment time and total dose were kept constant. Results: The analytic expressions for G for the two temporal modulations are presented as a function of a single variable, the product of the exposure time, and the repair constant, enabling G to be evaluated for any exposure time and for any cell line. G for the triangle delivery pattern is always the larger. For the MM576 cell line, following a large dose of 6 Gy, a larger survival fraction was found for the V delivery pattern. No difference in survival was observed for lower doses or for the NCI-H460 cell line at any dose. These results are predicted by our theory, using published values of alpha, beta, and repair time within the limits of experimental uncertainty. Conclusions: The study provides evidence to confirm that cell lines having large beta values exhibit a response that is sensitive to the pattern of dose delivery when the delivery time is comparable with the repair time. It is recommended that the dose delivery pattern be considered in hypofractionated treatments.

  18. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation--a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie H; Campbell, Gordon R

    2012-08-01

    The idea that smooth muscle cells can exist in multiple phenotypic states depending on the functional demands placed upon them has been around for >5 decades. However, much of the literature today refers to only recent articles, giving the impression that it is a new idea. At the same time, the current trend is to delve deeper and deeper into transcriptional regulation of smooth muscle genes, and much of the work describing the change in biology of the cells in the different phenotypic states does not appear to be known. This loss of historical perspective regarding the biology of smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is what the current article has tried to mitigate.

  19. Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing gear subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the lunar module landing gear subsystem through the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission is presented. The landing gear design evolved from the design requirement, which had to satisfy the structural, mechanical, and landing performance constraints of the vehicle. Extensive analyses and tests were undertaken to verify the design adequacy. Techniques of the landing performance analysis served as a primary tool in developing the subsystem hardware and in determining the adequacy of the landing gear for toppling stability and energy absorption. The successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission provided the first opportunity for a complete flight test of the landing gear under both natural and induced environments.

  20. Hydrodynamic growth experiments with the 3-D, “native-roughness” modulations on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D.; Clark, D. S.; Coppari, F.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with threedimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. These new experiments results have prompted looking for ways to reduce UV light exposure during target fabrication.

  1. Hydrodynamic potential-modulated reflectance spectroscopy: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, R L; Peter, L M; Qiu, F L; Fisher, A C

    2001-05-15

    This article describes the development and application of a new electrochemical methodology based on potential-modulated UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy (PMRS). The device configuration is based upon a thin-layer flow-through channel cell incorporating a platinum working electrode. Reagent solutions are pumped through the cell under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions and electrolyzed at the platinum working electrode. Measurements are presented for linear sweep and fixed dc potentials with a superimposed small amplitude sinusoidal potential perturbation. A UV-vis source is employed to irradiate the electrode region, and the resulting reflected signal is analyzed using a phase sensitive detector. Experimental studies using tris(4-bromophenyl) amine (TBPA) in acetonitrile are presented which quantify the relationship between the absorption spectrum and reflected light intensity as a function of the transport rate, electrolysis reactions, and the modulation frequency of the incident irradiation. The experimental results are analyzed using numerical simulations based on a finite difference strategy. These permit the quantitative prediction of the concentration distribution of reagents within the cell. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) routine was used to analyze the frequency response of the numerically predicted reflectance signal. Excellent agreement was observed between the numerical predictions and experimental observations.

  2. Development and verification of hardware for life science experiments in the Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Asashima, Makoto; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Aizawa-Yano, Sachiko; Higashibata, Akira; Ando, Noboru; Nagase, Mutsumu; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Shimazu, Toru; Fukui, Keiji; Fujimoto, Nobuyoshi

    2004-03-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a cell biology experiment facility (CBEF) and a clean bench (CB) as a common hardware in which life science experiments in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM known as "Kibo") of the International Space Station (ISS) can be performed. The CBEF, a CO2 incubator with a turntable that provides variable gravity levels, is the basic hardware required to carry out the biological experiments using microorganisms, cells, tissues, small animals, plants, etc. The CB provides a closed aseptic operation area for life science and biotechnology experiments in Kibo. A phase contrast and fluorescence microscope is installed inside CB. The biological experiment units (BEU) are designed to run individual experiments using the CBEF and the CB. A plant experiment unit (PEU) and two cell experiment units (CEU type1 and type2) for the BEU have been developed.

  3. Simultaneous modulations of precipitation and temperature extremes in Southern parts of China by the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-01-01

    The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO), including a 30-60 day component (BSISO1) and a quasi-biweekly component (BSISO2), is the most prominent form of subtropical intraseasonal variability. Influences of BSISOs on summertime precipitation and temperature extremes in China are examined. Results indicate that BSISOs can simultaneously facilitate precipitation extremes in central-eastern China and extreme high temperatures in South China-Southeast China. During phase 2-4 of active BSISO1, accompanying precipitation extremes in central-eastern China, there is a fourfold-fivefold increase in probability of extreme high temperatures in Southeast China. About 50% of such simultaneous extremes fall into phase 2-3. BSISO2's influences are pronounced from phase 6 to the next phase 2, with about 58% simultaneous extremes clustered within phase 7 to the next phase 1. It is the BSISO-induced vertical cell, with ascending motion in the Yangtze-Huai River Valley and descending motion in the south, that contributes to simultaneous extremes. Enhanced low-level southwesterlies convey moist and warm air towards southern parts of China. Strengthened ascending branch loaded by anomalously abundant moisture produces precipitation extremes in the north. Concurrently, combined effects of warm advection and descent-triggered adiabatic heating anchors extreme high temperatures well located in South China. The northeastward propagation of the BSISO1 confines influenced regions to eastern-southeastern parts of China, with gradually narrowing spatial extents. The BSISO2-induced simultaneous extremes sweep much broader areas, from southeast coasts to the central inlands. Above analyses on BSISOs-simultaneous extremes relationship lay a crucial scientific basis for predicting these high-impact events on sub-seasonal to seasonal scales.

  4. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Lester C. P.; Ye, Karen J.; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A.; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods—a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling. PMID:27482098

  5. Observation platform for colloid science experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurk, Michael Andy; Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.

    2012-07-01

    The role of gravity in colloid self-assembly is a long-standing subject of inquiry. The International Space Station Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a potentially powerful tool for implementing the observation of colloids in a high-quality low-gravity environment. The main requirements for making observations of colloid self-assembly include a small-volume, thermally stabilized environment, the addition and removal of small volumes of fluids (colloidal suspensions or reagents), and on-demand access to electrokinetic and/or magnetophoretic body forces. A modular device has been designed in which a custom electronics module is designed to mate with the existing LMM cold plate and LMM controlling power. All control features, electrical power, microscope illuminator, fluid pumps and valves are components of this module. This module lies under, mates with and serves an experiment module which houses the fluid containers that fit under the LMM objective lenses and fluid transfer tubing. Four versions of the experiment module have been designed: a hollow-slide stopped flow cell, a multiwell quiescent module, a magnetization module and an electrokinetic module. Interfaces can be established in the viewing field using the stopped-flow cell, which is also applicable to living systems such as microbial cultures, suspended blood cells, nematodes, etc. Multi-well modules can be equipped with in-line static mixers that allow the investigator to combine pairs of fluids or to re-homogenize settled samples. The maximum dimension of all modules is 16 cm, so the modules can be transported in large numbers on cargo or manned spacecraft to the ISS. A doubly-contained transfer tool can be used to transfer fluids in and out of the experiment module, which is equipped with a fluid coupling that mates to the transfer tool. Experiment-specific versions of these modules can be prepared for approved experimenters within a 1-year period. The research for these devices is supported by NASA

  6. Unconscious Modulation of the Conscious Experience of Voluntary Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linser, Katrin; Goschke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    How does the brain generate our experience of being in control over our actions and their effects? Here, we argue that the perception of events as self-caused emerges from a comparison between anticipated and actual action-effects: if the representation of an event that follows an action is activated before the action, the event is experienced as…

  7. Apollo experience report: Lunar module environmental control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, R. J.; Brady, J. C.; Collier, F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of the environmental control subsystem is presented. Development, tests, checkout, and flight experiences of the subsystem are discussed; and the design fabrication, and operational difficulties associated with the various components and subassemblies are recorded. Detailed information is related concerning design changes made to, and problems encountered with, the various elements of the subsystem, such as the thermal control water sublimator, the carbon dioxide sensing and control units, and the water section. The problems associated with water sterilization, water/glycol formulation, and materials compatibility are discussed. The corrective actions taken are described with the expection that this information may be of value for future subsystems. Although the main experiences described are problem oriented, the subsystem has generally performed satisfactorily in flight.

  8. Interactive Web-based Learning Modules Prior to General Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Alison M.; Nisly, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement and evaluate interactive web-based learning modules prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on inpatient general medicine. Design. Three clinical web-based learning modules were developed for use prior to APPEs in 4 health care systems. The aim of the interactive modules was to strengthen baseline clinical knowledge before the APPE to enable the application of learned material through the delivery of patient care. Assessment. For the primary endpoint, postassessment scores increased overall and for each individual module compared to preassessment scores. Postassessment scores were similar among the health care systems. The survey demonstrated positive student perceptions of this learning experience. Conclusion. Prior to inpatient general medicine APPEs, web-based learning enabled the standardization and assessment of baseline student knowledge across 4 health care systems. PMID:25995515

  9. Subliminal modulation of voluntary action experience: A neuropsychological investigation.

    PubMed

    Khalighinejad, N; Kunnumpurath, A; Bertini, C; Ladavas, E; Haggard, P

    2017-03-10

    Human voluntary actions are often associated with a distinctive subjective experience termed 'sense of agency'. This experience could be a reconstructive inference triggered by monitoring one's actions and their outcomes, or a read-out of brain processes related to action preparation, or some hybrid of these. Participants pressed a key with the right index finger at a time of their own choice, while viewing a rotating clock. Occasionally they received a mild shock on the same finger. They were instructed to press the key as quickly as possible if they felt a shock. On some trials, trains of subliminal shocks were also delivered, to investigate whether such subliminal cues could influence the initiation of voluntary actions, or the subjective experience of such actions. Participants' keypress were always followed by a tone 250 ms later. At the end of each trial they reported the time of the keypress using the rotating clock display. Shifts in the perceived time of the action towards the following tone, compared to a baseline condition containing only a keypress but no tone, were taken as implicit measures of sense of agency. The subliminal shock train enhanced this "action binding" effect in healthy participants, relative to trials without such shocks. This difference could not be attributed to retrospective inference, since the perceptual events were identical in both trial types. Further, we tested the same paradigm in a patient with anarchic hand syndrome (AHS). Subliminal shocks again enhanced our measure of sense of agency in the unaffected hand, but had a reversed effect on the 'anarchic' hand. These findings suggest an interaction between internal volitional signals and external cues afforded by the external environment. Damage to the neural pathways that mediate interactions between internal states and the outside world may explain some of the clinical signs of AHS.

  10. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

    2007-11-29

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

  11. Apollo experience report: Command and service module environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samonski, F. H., Jr.; Tucker, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the design philosophy of the Apollo environmental control system together with the development history of the total system and of selected components within the system. In particular, discussions are presented relative to the development history and to the problems associated with the equipment cooling coldplates, the evaporator and its electronic control system, and the space radiator system used for rejection of the spacecraft thermal loads. Apollo flight experience and operational difficulties associated with the spacecraft water system and the waste management system are discussed in detail to provide definition of the problem and the corrective action taken when applicable.

  12. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  13. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cindy H.; Vagi, Sara J.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning. PMID:27239260

  14. Surface Temperature Probability Distributions and Extremes in the NARCCAP Hindcast Experiment: Evaluation Methodology and Metrics, Results, and Associated Atmospheric Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, P.; Waliser, D. E.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Lintner, B. R.; Neelin, J.; McGinnis, S. A.; Mattmann, C. A.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    Daily surface temperature probability distribution functions (PDFs) for a suite of regional climate model (RCM) hindcast experiments participating in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) are evaluated against two state-of-the-art high resolution reanalysis products over North America. While all models exhibit some level of temperature bias throughout the PDF, the majority of models capture higher moment statistics like variance and skewness with reasonable fidelity in the winter. More substantial disagreement exists in the simulation of the tails of the summer temperature distributions, with notable observational uncertainty, indicative of difficulty in properly simulating temperature extremes here. To better understand the mechanisms behind model-reanalysis disagreement, potential mechanisms affecting PDF shape are evaluated, focusing on events in the tails of the distribution. Composite analysis is employed to investigate differences in atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme temperature days at select locations where station data are available to reconcile reanalysis PDF uncertainty. In general, the models simulate large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns well where the shape of the PDF most resembles reanalysis, especially in the winter. Summertime patterns tend to be smaller in scale and lower in magnitude where extreme temperature occurrence may also be associated with local processes such as unusual soil moisture content and convective precipitation and cloudiness, introducing additional possibilities for model disagreement. From this comprehensive multi-model evaluation, it is possible to identify which models may be best suited to simulate temperature extremes under global warming conditions.

  15. Superconducting radio-frequency modules test faciilty operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R&D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service Fermilab SRF R&D needs. The first stage of the project has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project.

  16. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003). The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances. PMID:25825678

  17. Modulations of the experience of self and time.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marc

    2015-12-15

    Empirical findings in the Cognitive Sciences on the relationship between feeling states and subjective time have led to the assumption that time perception entails emotional and interoceptive states. The perception of time would thereafter be embodied; the bodily self, the continuous input from the body is the functional anchor of phenomenal experience and the mental self. Subjective time emerges through the existence of the self across time as an enduring and embodied entity. This relation is prominently disclosed in studies on altered states of consciousness such as in meditative states, under the influence of hallucinogens as well as in many psychiatric and neurological conditions. An increased awareness of oneself coincides with an increased awareness of time. Conversely, a decreased awareness of the self is associated with diminished awareness of time. The body of empirical work within different conceptual frameworks on the intricate relationship between self and time is presented and discussed.

  18. Utilizing nonlinear ELF generation in modulated ionospheric heating experiments for communications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2013-01-01

    Modulated high-frequency heating of the D region ionosphere near the auroral electrojet can generate extremely low frequency (ELF; 3 Hz-3 kHz) radio waves. The modulated heating process is nonlinear and generates harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency. Quaternary phase shift keying, a digital modulation technique is applied to ELF waves to demonstrate transmission of digital data. Data were successfully decoded at a nearby receiver and the bit error rate computed. Square wave modulation of the high-frequency heater results in stronger signals and hence a smaller bit error rate. Simulations of the communication system using ELF waveforms and noise signals derived from ELF observations are also conducted. These simulations show that using higher harmonics of the ELF signal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio can reduce the bit error rate, although only when these harmonics are below ~4.5 kHz because of radio atmospherics (sferics) generating strong impulsive noise at higher frequencies.

  19. A phenomenological investigation of the experience of taking part in 'extreme sports'.

    PubMed

    Willig, Carla

    2008-07-01

    This article is concerned with what it may mean to individuals to engage in practices that are physically challenging and risky. The article questions the assumptions that psychological health is commensurate with maintaining physical safety, and that risking one's health and physical safety is necessarily a sign of psychopathology. The research was based upon semi-structured interviews with eight extreme sport practitioners. The interviews were analysed using Colaizzi's version of the phenomenological method. The article explicates the themes identified in the analysis, and discusses their implications for health psychology theory and practice.

  20. Experiment on parallel correlated recognition of 2030 human faces based on speckle modulation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi; Guo, Yunbo; Cao, Liangcai; Ma, Xiaosu; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2004-08-23

    In this paper, the experiment on parallel correlated recognition of 2030 human faces in Fe:LiNbO(3) crystal is detailedly presented, a very clear correlation spots array was achieved and the recognition accuracy is better than 95%. According to the experiment, it is proved that speckle modulation on the object beam of volume holographic correlators can well suppress the crosstalk, so that the multiplexing spacing is markedly reduced and the channel density is increased 10 times compared with the traditional holographic correlators without speckle modulation.

  1. Noninvasive evaluation of the swollen extremity: Experiences with 190 lymphoscintigraphic examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Gloviczki, P.; Calcagno, D.; Schirger, A.; Pairolero, P.C.; Cherry, K.J.; Hallett, J.W.; Wahner, H.W.

    1989-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy (LS), performed with technetium 99m-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid, was used as a noninvasive diagnostic examination to evaluate the lymphatic circulation in 190 extremities of 115 patients. Forty-six patients had primary lymphedema, 48 had secondary lymphedema, and 21 patients had other causes of limb swelling. To determine the value of LS in surgical decision making, preoperative and postoperative LS of 16 patients who underwent surgical repair of the lymphatic abnormality were studied separately. Semiquantitative evaluation of the lymphatic drainage and visual interpretation of the image patterns were reliable to differentiate lymphedema from edemas of other origin (sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 100%). Although certain image patterns were characteristic of either primary or secondary lymphedema, LS could not consistently differentiate between the two types. Episodes of cellulitis in lymphedema clearly delayed lymph transport. LS was helpful in patient selection and follow-up after lymphatic surgery, but it did not prove patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. It was diagnostic in the evaluation of lymphangiectasia and was used to document successful surgical treatment of reflux of chyle. LS is safe and reliable and has no side effects. It should replace contrast lymphangiography in the routine evaluation of the swollen extremity.

  2. Analysis of D-Region Absorption via HF Cross-Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental observations performed near the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to implement a new method quantifying the rate of absorption of HF radio waves in the D-region ionosphere. Quantifying the ambient and HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere in the vicinity of ionospheric HF heaters has historically proven to be a difficult task. For example, the electron density in the 60-90 km altitude range is typically too low to employ radio-sounding techniques; LIDAR observations typically require significant temporal averaging, precluding the investigation of physical processes that occur on sub-millisecond time scales; ELF/VLF wave generation experiments typically have difficulty providing reliable spatial resolution and also cannot experimentally distinguish between the spatial distribution of the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by modulated HF heating and that of the current-driving electric fields associated with the auroral electrojet. Yet, the majority of HF signal absorption occurs in this region of the ionosphere, and the ability to characterize HF absorption in this region benefits a wide range of ionospheric HF heating experiments. The technique described and demonstrated in this paper combines ionosonde-style radio sounding with ELF/VLF cross-modulation experiments to identify the altitude of maximum D-region absorption as a function of HF frequency. Observations are presented and compared with the predictions of a theoretical model, demonstrating excellent agreement between experiment and theory and indicating that the technique may be used successfully in practice. Based on the success of this first experiment, another HF cross-modulation experiment has been performed at HAARP and analyzed theoretically. Pulsed-modulation experiments are used to assess the relative absorption as a function of altitude within the D-region ionosphere, and a method to chart the

  3. EEE - Extreme Energy Events: an astroparticle physics experiment in Italian High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferrarov, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project (EEE) is aimed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from primary cosmic rays of more than 1018 eV energy detecting the ground secondary muon component using an array of telescopes with high spatial and time resolution. The second goal of the EEE project is to involve High School teachers and students in this advanced research work and to initiate them in scientific culture: to reach both purposes the telescopes are located inside High School buildings and the detector construction, assembling and monitoring - together with data taking and analysis - are done by researchers from scientific institutions in close collaboration with them. At present there are 42 telescopes in just as many High Schools scattered all over Italy, islands included, plus two at CERN and three in INFN units. We report here some preliminary physics results from the first two common data taking periods together with the outreach impact of the project.

  4. Preterm birth during an extreme weather event in Québec, Canada: a "natural experiment".

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Kuehne, Erica; Goneau, Marc; Daniel, Mark

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and extreme weather events, we evaluated PTB during a January 1998 ice storm that had led to a provincial emergency in the middle of winter in the province of Québec, Canada. Singleton live births for three periods (1993-1997, 1998, 1999-2003) were obtained (N = 855,320). PTB was defined as gestational age <37 completed weeks. Births in the Triangle of Darkness, the area most strongly affect by the storm, were geocoded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the likelihood of PTB for the Triangle relative to metropolitan Montréal, adjusting for maternal age, education, civil status, maternal birthplace, and previous deliveries. Associations for 1998 relative to other periods were evaluated. Short-term (January-February) and long-term (March-October) exposure periods were examined. The proportion PTB for 1998 January-February births in the Triangle (8.7%) was high compared with 1998 March-October births (6.0%) and with the corresponding proportions for 1993-1997 (6.2%) and 1999-2003 (6.9%). Covariate-adjusted odds of PTB for January-February 1998 were 27% higher for the Triangle relative to metropolitan Montréal, though precision was low. Furthermore, adjusted odds were 28% higher for 1998 relative to 1999-2003, despite increasing rates of PTB over time. Odds were not elevated over a long-term exposure period. This study suggests a weak association between PTB and exposure to extreme weather for the two months following an ice storm, but not for later periods after the storm.

  5. The relationship between geophysical conditions and ELF amplitude in modulated heating experiments at HAARP: Modeling and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2011-07-01

    Experiments for generating extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves using modulated HF heating of the auroral ionosphere have been conducted and refined at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility at Gakona, Alaska. Because this technique is dependent on strength of the naturally generated electrojet current system, the amplitude of the generated ELF changes with geophysical conditions. Past work has shown that electrojet current strength as measured by magnetometers often correlates with generated ELF amplitude, but there are periods of poor or negative correlation. We attempt to use additional diagnostics from a radar, riometer, ionosonde, and magnetometer chain to understand how ionospheric conditions affect ELF generation. We then present the results of a statistical model that shows that ELF amplitude is roughly proportional to magnetometer measurements for a fixed value of riometer absorption and that the proportionality constant decreases as riometer absorption increases. Theoretical simulations of modulated heating are conducted for a variety of ionospheric density profiles to verify that denser profiles result in smaller gains for ELF generation as a function of electrojet current at a given electric field.

  6. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Lunar module stabilization and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    A brief functional description of the Apollo lunar module stabilization and control subsystem is presented. Subsystem requirements definition, design, development, test results, and flight experiences are discussed. Detailed discussions are presented of problems encountered and the resulting corrective actions taken during the course of assembly-level testing, integrated vehicle checkout and test, and mission operations. Although the main experiences described are problem oriented, the subsystem has performed satisfactorily in flight.

  7. Experience with a Theme-Based Integrated Renal Module for a Second-Year MBBS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafi, Riffat; Quadri, K. H. M.; Ahmed, Waseem; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Iqbal, Mobeen

    2010-01-01

    Integrated learning is the need of the hour. We at Shifa College of Medicine switched to an integrated modular curriculum last year. In the present article, we describe our experience with the renal module in year 2 of a 5-yr undergraduate medical curriculum. A multidisciplinary renal modular team developed the relevant objectives, themes, and…

  8. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  9. Prior experience does not alter modulation of cutaneous reflexes during manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Megan K; Klimstra, Marc; Sawatzky, Bonita; Zehr, E Paul; Lam, Tania

    2013-05-01

    Previous research has reported that training and experience influence H-reflex amplitude during rhythmic activity; however, little research has yet examined the influence of training on cutaneous reflexes. Manual wheelchair users (MWUs) depend on their arms for locomotion. We postulated that the daily dependence and high amount of use of the arms for mobility in MWUs would show differences in cutaneous reflex modulation during upper limb cyclic movements compared with able-bodied control subjects. We hypothesized that MWUs would demonstrate increased reflex response amplitudes for both manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling tasks. The superficial radial nerve was stimulated randomly at different points of the movement cycle of manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling in MWUs and able-bodied subjects naive to wheeling. Our results showed that there were no differences in amplitude modulation of early- or middle-latency cutaneous reflexes between the able-bodied group and the MWU group. However, there were several differences in amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes between tasks (manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling). Specifically, differences were observed in early-latency responses in the anterior and posterior deltoid muscles and biceps and triceps brachii as well as in middle-latency responses in the anterior and posterior deltoid. These data suggest that manual wheeling experience does not modify the pattern of cutaneous reflex amplitude modulation during manual wheeling. The differences in amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes between tasks may be a result of mechanical differences (i.e., hand contact) between tasks.

  10. Nursing faculty teaching a module in clinical skills to medical students: a Lebanese experience

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students’ performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties’ expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students’ skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. PMID:25419165

  11. Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68 eV in petawatt laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K.; Hey, D.; King, J. A.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B.

    2006-11-15

    A 68 eV extreme-ultraviolet light imaging diagnostic measures short pulse isochoric heating by electrons and protons in petawatt laser experiments. Temperatures are deduced from the absolute intensities and comparison with modeling using a radiation hydrodynamics code.

  12. Hydrodynamic instability experiments with three-dimensional modulations at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-06-18

    The first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements with three-dimensional (3D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on CH shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)]. The initial capsule outer-surface amplitudes were increased approximately four times, compared with the standard specifications, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, helping to qualify a technique for measuring small 3D modulations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray through-foil radiography based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 15 similar images significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ~2.4, the measured modulation levels were ~3 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. Several hypotheses are discussed, including increased instability growth due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. In conclusion, future experiments will be focused on measurements with standard 3D ‘native-roughness’ capsules as well as with deliberately imposed oxygen modulations.

  13. Hydrodynamic instability experiments with three-dimensional modulations at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; ...

    2015-06-18

    The first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements with three-dimensional (3D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on CH shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)]. The initial capsule outer-surface amplitudes were increased approximately four times, compared with the standard specifications, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, helping to qualify a technique for measuring small 3D modulations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray through-foil radiography based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 15 similar images significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3Dmore » simulations. At a convergence ratio of ~2.4, the measured modulation levels were ~3 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. Several hypotheses are discussed, including increased instability growth due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. In conclusion, future experiments will be focused on measurements with standard 3D ‘native-roughness’ capsules as well as with deliberately imposed oxygen modulations.« less

  14. Effect of collisional heat transfer in ICRF power modulation experiment on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, N.; D'Inca, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, Vl. V.; Brambilla, M.; van Eester, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, E. F.; Lerche, E. A.; Schneider, P.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating experiments were performed in D-H plasmas at various H concentrations on ASDEX Upgrade. The rf power was modulated to measure the electron power deposition profile from electron temperature modulation. To minimize the contribution from indirect collisional heating and the effect of radial transport, the rf power was modulated at 50 Hz. However, peaking of electron temperature modulation was still observed around the hydrogen cyclotron resonance indicating collisional heating contribution. Time dependent simulation of the hydrogen distribution function was performed for the discharges, using the full-wave code AORSA (E.F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 8, page 1573 (2001)) coupled to the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D (R.W. Harvey, et al., Proc. IAEA (1992)). In the present experimental conditions, it was found that modulation of the collisional heating was comparable to that of direct wave damping. Impact of radial transport was also analyzed and found to appreciably smear out the modulation profile and reduce the phase delay.

  15. Balloon-assisted guide catheter positioning to overcome extreme cervical carotid tortuosity: technique and case experience

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, Lissa; Fiorella, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and significance We describe a method by which to efficiently and atraumatically achieve distal positioning of a flexible guiding catheter beyond extreme cervical tortuosity using a hypercompliant temporary occlusion balloon. Methods A retrospective review of a prospective neuroendovascular database was used to identify cases in which a hypercompliant balloon catheter (Hyperform or Hyperglide, ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA; Scepter or Scepter XC, Alisa Viejo, California, USA) was used to achieve distal positioning of a flexible guiding catheter (Navion, ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA; Neuron, Penumbra Inc, Alameda, California, USA). After achieving a stable guiding sheath position within the proximal cervical carotid artery, a hypercompliant balloon catheter was manipulated beyond the tortuous cervical internal carotid segment into the distal carotid artery. The balloon was then inflated to anchor it distally within an intracranial (cavernous or petrous) segment of the internal carotid artery. The guiding catheter was then advanced beyond the tortuous cervical segment, over the balloon catheter, as gentle counter traction was applied to the balloon. Results Balloon-assisted guiding catheter placement was used to perform endovascular treatments of 12 anterior circulation aneurysms. One patient underwent coiling alone. Five patients underwent balloon-assisted coiling. One patient underwent balloon and stent assisted coil embolization. Four patients with five carotid aneurysms (one with bilateral carotid aneurysms) underwent vascular reconstruction with the pipeline embolization device. All patients had severe tortuosity of the extracranial carotid system. Three patients had findings consistent with cervical carotid fibromuscular dysplasia. The technique was successful each time it was attempted. No parent artery dissections or catheter induced vasospam were noted in any case. Discussion Hypercompliant balloon catheters can be reliably used

  16. Power-Stepped HF Cross-Modulation Experiments: Simulations and Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. The interaction between the heating wave and the probing pulse depends on the ambient and modified conditions of the D-region ionosphere. Cross-modulation observations are employed as a measure of the HF-modified refractive index. We employ an optimized version of Fejer's method that we developed during previous experiments. Experiments were performed in March 2013 at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the power of the HF heating signal incrementally increased in order to determine the dependence of cross-modulation on HF power. We found that a simple power law relationship does not hold at high power levels, similar to previous ELF/VLF wave generation experiments. In this paper, we critically compare these experimental observations with the predictions of a numerical ionospheric HF heating model and demonstrate close agreement.

  17. [New criteria for the classification of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Our experience with 14 extremities].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valenzuela, V; Matas, M; Maeso, J; Díaz, J; Juan, J; de Sobregrau, R C

    1991-01-01

    Authors explain their experiences with eight patients (14 affected limbs) with a popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Classification, diagnosis and treatment were reviewed. Six limbs, with any malformation and presenting as a unique sign an important hypertrophy of their intern gastrocnemius muscle, couldn't be classified. As a result, a new classification of this pathology is presented being based on the anatomical and arteriographic aspects as well as oh the surgical indication. The important correlation between anomaly, physical complexion typus athletic and sports is noted.

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Player Experience in the Design of a Serious Game for Upper Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cargnin, Diego João; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Video games have become a major entertainment industry and one of the most popular leisure forms, ranging from laboratory experiments to a mainstream cultural medium. Indeed, current games are multimodal and multidimensional products, relying on sophisticated features including not only a narrative-driven story but also impressive graphics and detailed settings. All of these elements helped to create a seamless and appealing product that have resulted in a growing number of players and in the number of game genres. Although video games have been used in education, simulation, and training, another application that exploits serious gaming is the exploration of player experience in the context of game research. Recent advances in the natural user interfaces and player experience have brought new perspectives on the in-game assessment of serious games. This paper evaluates the impact of player experience in the design of a serious game for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. The game combines biofeedback and mirror neurons both in single and multiplayer mode. Results have shown that the game is a feasible solution to integrate serious games into the physical therapy routine.

  19. A Bell-Bloom experiment with polarization-modulated light of arbitrary duty cycle.

    PubMed

    Fescenko, I; Knowles, P; Weis, A; Breschi, E

    2013-07-01

    We report on a study of polarization-modulation experiments on the 4 → 3 hyperfine component of the D1 transition in Cs vapor contained in a paraffin-coated cell. The laser beam's polarization was switched between left- and right-circular polarization at a rate of 200 Hz. Variations of the transmitted light power were recorded while varying the amplitude of a transverse magnetic field. The power shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonances when the atomic Larmor frequency matches a harmonic of the modulation frequency. We made a quantitative study of the resonance amplitudes with square-wave modulations of various duty cycles, and find an excellent agreement with recent algebraic model predictions.

  20. Ground testing of array modules for the photovoltaic array space power (PASP) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert K.; Grier, Norman T.

    1987-01-01

    One of the objectives of the PASP experiment is the verification of cost-effective ground simulations of high-voltage solar array/space-environment interactions by comparing the results with flight data. These ground tests consist of electrical characterization, thermal cycling, and plasma chamber simulations. The results of the latter tests are reported. Five array modules which are representative of the flight arrays were tested. The module types are planar silicon, planar gallium arsenide, planar silicon passivated with an integrally deposited cover glass, mini-Cassegrainian concentrator, and SLATS concentrator. The modules were biased to -1000 V in varying plasma densities from 4 x 103 to 2 x 105 e-/cu cm. Each array was tested in both dark and illuminated conditions with a load resistance. In addition to monitoring arcing during the plasma tests, the arrays were visually inspected and electrically characterized before and after exposure in the chamber. The electrical results are tabulated and briefly discussed.

  1. Proposal of experimental setup on boiling two-phase flow on-orbit experiments onboard Japanese experiment module "KIBO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, S.; Sakai, T.; Sawada, K.; Kubota, C.; Wada, Y.; Shinmoto, Y.; Ohta, H.; Asano, H.; Kawanami, O.; Suzuki, K.; Imai, R.; Kawasaki, H.; Fujii, K.; Takayanagi, M.; Yoda, S.

    2011-12-01

    Boiling is one of the efficient modes of heat transfer due to phase change, and is regarded as promising means to be applied for the thermal management systems handling a large amount of waste heat under high heat flux. However, gravity effects on the two-phase flow phenomena and corresponding heat transfer characteristics have not been clarified in detail. The experiments onboard Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO" in International Space Station on boiling two-phase flow under microgravity conditions are proposed to clarify both of heat transfer and flow characteristics under microgravity conditions. To verify the feasibility of ISS experiments on boiling two-phase flow, the Bread Board Model is assembled and its performance and the function of components installed in a test loop are examined.

  2. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  3. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  4. Local perception of infrequent, extreme upland flash flooding: prisoners of experience?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Jonathan; Warburton, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The United Kingdom has experienced several exceptional summer flash floods in recent years and there is growing concern about the frequency of such events and the preparedness of the population. This paper uses a case study of the upper Ryedale flash flood (2005) and questionnaire and interview data to assess local perceptions of upland flash flooding. Experience of a major flash flood may not be associated with increased flood risk perception. Despite local residents' awareness of a trend towards wetter summers and more frequent heavy rainfall, the poor maintenance of rivers was more frequently thought to be a more significant factor influencing local flood risk than climate change. Such findings have important implications for the potential success of contemporary national flood policies, which have put greater emphasis on public responsibility for responding to flooding. This study recommends, therefore, the use of fresh participatory approaches to redistribute and raise awareness of locally-held flood knowledge.

  5. Scintillation counter and wire chamber front end modules for high energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, Boris; DalMonte, Lou; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    This document describes two front-end modules developed for the proposed MIPP upgrade (P-960) experiment at Fermilab. The scintillation counter module was developed for the Plastic Ball detector time and charge measurements. The module has eight LEMO 00 input connectors terminated with 50 ohms and accepts negative photomultiplier signals in the range 0.25...1000 pC with the maximum input voltage of 4.0 V. Each input has a passive splitter with integration and differentiation times of {approx}20 ns. The integrated portion of the signal is digitized at 26.55 MHz by Analog Devices AD9229 12-bit pipelined 4-channel ADC. The differentiated signal is discriminated for time measurement and sent to one of the four TMC304 inputs. The 4-channel TMC304 chip allows high precision time measurement of rising and falling edges with {approx}100 ps resolution and has internal digital pipeline. The ADC data is also pipelined which allows deadtime-less operation with trigger decision times of {approx}4 {micro}s. The wire chamber module was developed for MIPP EMCal detector charge measurements. The 32-channel digitizer accepts differential analog signals from four 8-channel integrating wire amplifiers. The connection between wire amplifier and digitizer is provided via 26-wire twist-n-flat cable. The wire amplifier integrates input wire current and has sensitivity of 275 mV/pC and the noise level of {approx}0.013 pC. The digitizer uses the same 12-bit AD9229 ADC chip as the scintillator counter module. The wire amplifier has a built-in test pulser with a mask register to provide testing of the individual channels. Both modules are implemented as a 6Ux220 mm VME size board with 48-pin power connector. A custom europack (VME) 21-slot crate is developed for housing these front-end modules.

  6. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  7. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flare observations and findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Mason, James P.

    New solar soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provide full coverage from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 seconds for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution. These observations during flares can usually be decomposed into four distinct characteristics: impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase. Over 6000 flares have been observed during the SDO mission; some flares show all four phases, and some only show the gradual phase. The focus is on the newer results about the EUV late phase and coronal dimming and its relationship to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These EVE flare measurements are based on observing the sun-as-a-star, so these results could exemplify stellar flares. Of particular interest is that new coronal dimming measurements of stars could be used to estimate mass and velocity of stellar CMEs.

  8. Environmental Physical Modulation of Intrinsic Tendency to Growth of Multicellular Tumour Spheroids: In Silico Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffa, M.; Scalerandi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lowering in nutrient local availability and rising in host mechanical rigidity are two distinct boundary conditions that affect the growth of solid a-vascular cancers in similar ways (inhibition of growth). In silico experiments based on a physical-mathematical model can shed light on some of the mechanisms at the basis of these effects and suggest that the self-organizing properties of neoplastic populations are greatly modulated by environmental restrictions.

  9. Regional modeling sensitivity experiments for interpreting the UK Winter 2013-2014 extreme rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, H.; Vautard, R.; Schaller, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter 2013/2014, the UK saw heavy rainfalls associated with a succession of storms reaching Southern England causing widespread flooding, power cuts and major disruptions to transport. The January precipitation set a record for several rain gauge stations in Southern England. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropogenic climate change, represented by a modification of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the January precipitation. For that, we conducted a sensitivity experiment by running a set of 108 four-months simulations using WRF model with 9 different physics and 12 different SST fields; 9 for the factual world and 99 for the counter-factual world. A spectral nudging technique was used here to ensure a same atmospheric circulation patterns for all the simulations. Therefore, only the thermodynamic effect is considered here. The analysis is focused on January precipitation over the southern England. Results show for 0,5°C SST difference over the Northern Atlantic, the precipitation in the factual simulations is between 0,4 and 8% higher than the precipitation in the counter-factual simulations depending on the physic. A validation test shows that this value is closer to 8% for the "best physic" simulation. It also show a strong spatial variability where in some region the precipitation is higher in the counter-factual world compared the factual world. Finally, a backward trajectories were calculated to evaluate the sensitivity of the moisture sources and air mass trajectories to the SST in the factual and the counter-factual world.

  10. Oxytocin and the modulation of pain experience: Implications for chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Lincoln M; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Gibson, Stephen J; Giummarra, Melita J

    2015-08-01

    In an acute environment pain has potential protective benefits. However when pain becomes chronic this protective effect is lost and the pain becomes an encumbrance. Previously unheralded substances are being investigated in an attempt to alleviate the burden of living with chronic pain. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide hormone, is one prospective pharmacotherapeutic agent gaining popularity. Oxytocin has the potential to modulate the pain experience due to its ubiquitous involvement in central and peripheral psychological and physiological processes, and thus offers promise as a therapeutic agent. In this review, we discuss previous effective applications of oxytocin in pain-free clinical populations and its potential use in the modulation of pain experience. We also address the slowly growing body of literature investigating the administration of oxytocin in clinical and experimentally induced pain in order to investigate the potential mechanisms of its reported analgesic actions. We conclude that oxytocin offers a potential novel avenue for modulating the experience of pain, and that further research into this area is required to map its therapeutic benefit.

  11. Personal experience with narrated events modulates functional connectivity within visual and motor systems during story comprehension.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ho Ming; Mar, Raymond A; Xu, Yisheng; Liu, Siyuan; Wagage, Suraji; Braun, Allen R

    2015-04-01

    Past experience of everyday life activities, which forms the basis of our knowledge about the world, greatly affects how we understand stories. Yet, little is known about how this influence is instantiated in the human brain. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how past experience facilitates functional connectivity during the comprehension of stories rich in perceptual and motor details. We found that comprehenders' past experience with the scenes and actions described in the narratives selectively modulated functional connectivity between lower- and higher-level areas within the neural systems for visual and motor processing, respectively. These intramodal interactions may play an important role in integrating personal knowledge about a narrated situation with an evolving discourse representation. This study provides empirical evidence consistent with the idea that regions related to visual and motor processing are involved in the reenactment of experience as proposed by theories of embodied cognition.

  12. STS-107 crew look over experiments in a flight configured module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At SPACEHAB, Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-107 crew look over experiments for their mission. Pilot William 'Willie' McCool (left) displays a glove box experiment for the trainers (right). STS-107 has two payload elements, the Double Module in its first flight into space and a Hitchhiker payload. The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences (many rats). The Hitchhiker carrier system is modular and expandable in accordance with payload requirements. Hitchhiker experiments are housed in canisters or attached to mounting plates. The Hitchhiker canister comes in two varieties--the Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister and the Sealed Canisters. STS-107 is scheduled to launch in June 2002

  13. The atmospheric neutral density experiment (ANDE) and modulating retroreflector in space (MODRAS): combined flight experiments for the space test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Andrew C.; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Thonnard, Stefan E.; Kessel, R. A.; Lucke, Robert; Sillman, C. P.

    2003-03-01

    The Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) is a low cost mission proposed by the Naval Research Laboratory to demonstrate a method to monitor the thermospheric neutral density at an altitude of 400 km. The primary mission objective is to provide total neutral density along the orbit for improved orbit determination of resident space objects. The ANDE mission also serves as a test platform for a new space-to-ground optical communications technique, the Modulating Retro-reflector Array in Space (MODRAS) experiment. Both are sponsored in part by the Department of Defense Space Test Program. The mission consists of two spherical spacecraft fitted with retro-reflectors for satellite laser ranging (SLR). One spacecraft is completely passive; the other carries three active instruments; a miniature Wind And Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) to measure atmospheric composition, cross-track winds and neutral temperature; a Global Positioning Sensor (GPS); and a Thermal Monitoring System (TMS) to monitor the temperature of the sphere. A design requirement of the active satellite is to telemeter the data to the ground without external protrusions from the spherical spacecraft (i.e. an antenna). The active satellite will be fitted with the MODRAS system, which is an enabling technology for the ANDE mission. The MODRAS system consists of a set of multiple quantum well (MQW) modulating retro-reflectors coupled with an electronics package, which will telemeter data to the ground by modulating the reflected light from laser interrogation beam. This paper presents a mission overview and emphasis will be placed on the design, optical layout, performance, ground station, and science capabilities of the combined missions.

  14. Experience-dependent modulation of the attraction to faeces in the kissing bug Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Sofía L; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N; Minoli, Sebastián A

    2016-11-11

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of the Chagas disease in Latin America. These nocturnal bugs spend most of the daylight hours aggregated with conspecifics inside crevices in roofs and walls. Around the entrances of the shelters T. infestans deposits faeces that contain chemical cues that attract conspecifics. In this work we investigated whether attraction to faeces can be modulated by experience in this insect species. First, we analyzed if the attraction of nymphs to faeces is innate or acquired through previous sensory experiences. Results show that after hatching, 1st instar nymphs are attracted to faeces even if they had never been in contact with them before, thus indicating that this attraction is innate. Second, we studied if attraction to faeces can be influenced by the presence of con-specifics. No differences were found in the attraction to faeces of nymphs released alone or in groups, suggesting that attraction to faeces is independent of the presence of other individuals. Third, we examined if the innate response to faeces of nymphs can be modulated by experience. After pre-exposing nymphs to faeces during 24h, insects were no longer attracted to faeces. Finally, by pairing the presence of faeces with an aversive mechanical disturbance, nymphs switched from attraction to avoidance of faeces. These results show that although faeces attraction has a strong innate component, it can be modulated by experience. The learning and memory capacities of triatomines have been studied only recently, and our work is the first report on the effects of experience in the aggregation context.

  15. Design and characterization of a W-band system for modulated DNP experiments.

    PubMed

    Guy, Mallory L; Zhu, Lihuang; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic-field and microwave-frequency modulated DNP experiments have been shown to yield improved enhancements over conventional DNP techniques, and even to shorten polarization build-up times. The resulting increase in signal-to-noise ratios can lead to significantly shorter acquisition times in signal-limited multi-dimensional NMR experiments and pave the way to the study of even smaller sample volumes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of a broadband system for microwave frequency- and amplitude-modulated DNP that has been engineered to minimize both microwave and thermal losses during operation at liquid helium temperatures. The system incorporates a flexible source that can generate arbitrary waveforms at 94GHz with a bandwidth greater than 1GHz, as well as a probe that efficiently transmits the millimeter waves from room temperature outside the magnet to a cryogenic environment inside the magnet. Using a thin-walled brass tube as an overmoded waveguide to transmit a hybrid HE11 mode, it is possible to limit the losses to 1dB across a 2GHz bandwidth. The loss is dominated by the presence of a quartz window used to isolate the waveguide pipe. This performance is comparable to systems with corrugated waveguide or quasi-optical components. The overall excitation bandwidth of the probe is seen to be primarily determined by the final antenna or resonator used to excite the sample and its coupling to the NMR RF coil. Understanding the instrumental limitations imposed on any modulation scheme is key to understanding the observed DNP results and potentially identifying the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrate the utility of our design with a set of triangular frequency-modulated DNP experiments.

  16. Design and characterization of a W-band system for modulated DNP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Mallory L.; Zhu, Lihuang; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic-field and microwave-frequency modulated DNP experiments have been shown to yield improved enhancements over conventional DNP techniques, and even to shorten polarization build-up times. The resulting increase in signal-to-noise ratios can lead to significantly shorter acquisition times in signal-limited multi-dimensional NMR experiments and pave the way to the study of even smaller sample volumes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of a broadband system for microwave frequency- and amplitude-modulated DNP that has been engineered to minimize both microwave and thermal losses during operation at liquid helium temperatures. The system incorporates a flexible source that can generate arbitrary waveforms at 94 GHz with a bandwidth greater than 1 GHz, as well as a probe that efficiently transmits the millimeter waves from room temperature outside the magnet to a cryogenic environment inside the magnet. Using a thin-walled brass tube as an overmoded waveguide to transmit a hybrid HE11 mode, it is possible to limit the losses to 1 dB across a 2 GHz bandwidth. The loss is dominated by the presence of a quartz window used to isolate the waveguide pipe. This performance is comparable to systems with corrugated waveguide or quasi-optical components. The overall excitation bandwidth of the probe is seen to be primarily determined by the final antenna or resonator used to excite the sample and its coupling to the NMR RF coil. Understanding the instrumental limitations imposed on any modulation scheme is key to understanding the observed DNP results and potentially identifying the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrate the utility of our design with a set of triangular frequency-modulated DNP experiments.

  17. Module Equipped with a Life-Support System for Space Experiments with Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, E. A.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Guryeva, T. S.; Mednikova, E. I.

    2008-06-01

    A successful experiment with 12 Mongolian gerbils was performed during the 12-day flight of Russian automatic spacecraft Foton-M3 (September 14-26, 2007). Foton-M3 was not equipped with an air supply system. Due to this, a self-contained "CONTOUR" module equipped with its own Life-Support System, was developed. The cage for animals was equipped with yellow LEDs. The day/night cycle was 12:12 hours. In addition, the module was equipped with a digital video recorder located on the outside surface in front of a transparent window. In space flight, the animals were provided with food bars made of natural products and contained about 20% of water. This moisture met gerbils requirements in water; therefore, the module was not equipped with a water supply system. In the module, the environmental parameters were as follows: p02 = 143-156 (mean 150) mm Hg, pC02 - not more than 0.76 (mean 0.64) mm Hg, temperature = 23-28 (mean 26.7) °C, and RH = 29% at the beginning and 57% at the end of flight (mean 39%). Throughout the entire flight video recording of the animals was performed continuously during the daytime.

  18. First operational experience from a compact, highly energy efficient Data Center Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, V.; Cruz, R.; Delfino, M.; Martínez, F.; Rodríguez, M.; Tallada, P.

    2011-12-01

    PIC, the Port d'Informació Científica in Barcelona, Spain has provisioned a compact, highly efficient Data Centre Module in order to expand its CPU servers at a minimal energy cost. The design aims are to build an enclosure of 30 square meters or less and equip it with commodity data centre components (for example, standard gas expansion air conditioners) which can host 80 KW of CPU servers with a PUE less than 1.7 (to be compared with PIC's legacy computer room with an estimated PUE of 2.3). Forcing the use of commodity components has lead to an interesting design, where for example a raised floor is used more as an air duct rather than to install cables, resulting in an "air conditioner which computes". The module is instrumented with many thermometers whose data will be used to compare to computer room simulation programs. Also, each electrical circuit has an electric meter, yielding detailed data on power consumption. The paper will present the first experience from operating the module. Although the module has a slightly different geometry from a "container", the results can be directly applied to them.

  19. Variable Coding and Modulation Experiment Using NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Evans, Michael A.; Tollis, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Space Communication and Navigation Testbed on the International Space Station provides a unique opportunity to evaluate advanced communication techniques in an operational system. The experimental nature of the Testbed allows for rapid demonstrations while using flight hardware in a deployed system within NASA's networks. One example is variable coding and modulation, which is a method to increase data-throughput in a communication link. This paper describes recent flight testing with variable coding and modulation over S-band using a direct-to-earth link between the SCaN Testbed and the Glenn Research Center. The testing leverages the established Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation (DVB-S2) standard to provide various modulation and coding options. The experiment was conducted in a challenging environment due to the multipath and shadowing caused by the International Space Station structure. Performance of the variable coding and modulation system is evaluated and compared to the capacity of the link, as well as standard NASA waveforms.

  20. Experiments and error analysis of laser ranging based on frequency-sweep polarization modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuyuan; Ji, Rongyi; Li, Yao; Cheng, Zhi; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-sweep polarization modulation ranging uses a polarization-modulated laser beam to determine the distance to the target, the modulation frequency is swept and frequency values are measured when transmitted and received signals are in phase, thus the distance can be calculated through these values. This method gets much higher theoretical measuring accuracy than phase difference method because of the prevention of phase measurement. However, actual accuracy of the system is limited since additional phase retardation occurs in the measuring optical path when optical elements are imperfectly processed and installed. In this paper, working principle of frequency sweep polarization modulation ranging method is analyzed, transmission model of polarization state in light path is built based on the theory of Jones Matrix, additional phase retardation of λ/4 wave plate and PBS, their impact on measuring performance is analyzed. Theoretical results show that wave plate's azimuth error dominates the limitation of ranging accuracy. According to the system design index, element tolerance and error correcting method of system is proposed, ranging system is built and ranging experiment is performed. Experiential results show that with proposed tolerance, the system can satisfy the accuracy requirement. The present work has a guide value for further research about system design and error distribution.

  1. Soft X-ray irradiance measured by the Solar Aspect Monitor on the Solar Dynamic Observatory Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Bailey, S. M.; Jones, A.; Woodraska, D.; Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.

    2016-04-01

    The Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) is a pinhole camera on the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. SAM projects the solar disk onto the CCD through a metallic filter designed to allow only solar photons shortward of 7 nm to pass. Contamination from energetic particles and out-of-band irradiance is, however, significant in the SAM observations. We present a technique for isolating the 0.01-7 nm integrated irradiance from the SAM signal to produce the first results of broadband irradiance for the time period from May 2010 to May 2014. The results of this analysis agree with a similar data product from EVE's EUV SpectroPhotometer to within 25%. We compare our results with measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Solar X-ray Photometer and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Solar EUV Experiment at similar levels of solar activity. We show that the full-disk SAM broadband results compared well to the other measurements of the 0.01-7 nm irradiance. We also explore SAM's capability toward resolving spatial contribution from regions of solar disk in irradiance and demonstrate this feature with a case study of several strong flares that erupted from active regions on 11 March 2011.

  2. Art in Time and Space: Context Modulates the Relation between Art Experience and Viewing Time

    PubMed Central

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut; Rosenberg, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior. PMID:24892829

  3. An expert system to advise astronauts during experiments: The protocol manager module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymann-Haber, Guido; Colombano, Silvano P.; Groleau, Nicolas; Rosenthal, Don; Szolovits, Peter; Young, Laurence R.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps the scarcest resource for manned flight experiments - on Spacelab or on the Space Station Freedom - will continue to be crew time. To maximize the efficiency of the crew and to make use of their abilities to work as scientist collaborators as well as equipment operators, normally requires more training in a wide variety of disciplines than is practical. The successful application of on-board expert systems, as envisioned by the Principal Investigator in a Box program, should alleviate the training bottleneck and provide the astronaut with the guidance and coaching needed to permit him or her to operate an experiment according to the desires and knowledge of the PI, despite changes in conditions. The Protocol Manager module of the system is discussed. The Protocol Manager receives experiment data that has been summarized and categorized by the other modules. The Protocol Manager acts on the data in real-time, by employing expert system techniques. Its recommendations are based on heuristics provided by the Principal Investigator in charge of the experiment. This prototype was developed on a Macintosh II by employing CLIPS, a forward-chaining rule-based system, and HyperCard as an object-oriented user interface builder.

  4. Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

    PubMed

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut; Rosenberg, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

  5. Experiences with Extreme Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrell, Linda; Krishna, Bhagavathy; Velaga, Natasha; Vejandla, Pavan; Satharla, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Agile methodologies have become increasingly popular among software developers as evidenced by industrial participation at related conferences. The popularity of agile practices over traditional techniques partly stems from the fact that these practices provide for more customer involvement and better accommodate rapidly changing requirements,…

  6. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  7. The simulation and experiment research of harmonic signals based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dong-sheng; Hong, Yan-ji; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Ming-dong

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the measurement based on the wavelength modulation spectroscopy technology, a new simulation method of harmonic signals is analyzed and studied. After choosing one H2O absorption line (7185.60cm-1), the transmitted laser signals can be simulated using the measured incident laser signals and fitted laser frequency signals. The simulation of harmonic signals can be realized after creating the lock-in amplifier and calibrated using measured second-harmonic signal. The reliability of this method can be verified according to compare the simulation results with experiment results. At last, the application of this method in the flow field diagnosis is analyzed. It can lay the foundation of engineering application based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy.

  8. ENERGY MODULATION OF THE ELECTRONS BY THE LASER FIELD IN THEWIGGLER MAGNET: ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.A.; Holldack, K.

    2006-08-20

    Energy modulation of the electron beam after the interactionwith the laser field in the wiggler magnet can be calculated usinginterference of the laser field and the field of spontaneous emission inthe far field region of wiggler radiation. Quite often this approachgives a deeper insight on the process than traditional calculations wherethe effect of the laser field on the electron energy is integrated alongthe electron trajectory in the wiggler. We demonstrate it by showing theagreement between the analytical model and the experiment involvingwiggler scan measurements with large detuning from the FEL resonanceproducing more than one order of magnitude variations in the amplitude ofthe energy modulation. The high sensitivity was achieved using the THzradiation from a sub-mm dip in the electron density that energy modulatedelectrons leave behind while propagating along the storage ring lattice.All measurements were performed at the BESSY-II electron storagering.

  9. J-modulated ADEQUATE experiments using different kinds of refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Christina M; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Owing to the recent developments concerning residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), the interest in methods for the accurate determination of coupling constants is renascenting. We intended to use the J-modulated ADEQUATE experiment by Kövér et al. for the measurement of (13)C - (13)C coupling constants at natural abundance. The use of adiabatic composite chirp pulses instead of the conventional 180 degrees pulses, which compensate for the offset dependence of (13)C 180 degrees pulses, led to irregularities of the line shapes in the indirect dimension causing deviations of the extracted coupling constants. This behaviour was attributed to coupling evolution, during the time of the adiabatic pulse (2 ms), in the J-modulation spin echo. The replacement of this pulse by different kinds of refocusing pulses indicated that a pair of BIPs (broadband inversion pulses), which behave only partially adiabatic, leads to correct line shapes and coupling constants conserving the good sensitivity obtained with adiabatic pulses.

  10. Prior Visual Experience Modulates Learning of Sound Localization Among Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2017-02-04

    Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.

  11. Experience Modulates the Reproductive Response to Heat Stress in C. elegans via Multiple Physiological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Devin Y.; Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Natural environments are considerably more variable than laboratory settings and often involve transient exposure to stressful conditions. To fully understand how organisms have evolved to respond to any given stress, prior experience must therefore be considered. We investigated the effects of individual and ancestral experience on C. elegans reproduction. We documented ways in which cultivation at 15°C or 25°C affects developmental time, lifetime fecundity, and reproductive performance after severe heat stress that exceeds the fertile range of the organism but is compatible with survival and future fecundity. We found that experience modulates multiple aspects of reproductive physiology, including the male and female germ lines and the interaction between them. These responses vary in their environmental sensitivity, suggesting the existence of complex mechanisms for coping with unpredictable and stressful environments. PMID:26713620

  12. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; ...

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observationsmore » and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.« less

  13. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J.

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.

  14. Breeding on the extreme edge: modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian G; Meddle, Simone L; Romero, L Michael; Landys, Meta M; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Wingfield, John C

    2015-04-01

    Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic-breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migratory birds. Adjustments to coping strategies are therefore crucial, so here we examined the plasticity of the adrenocorticotropic stress response in two Arctic songbird species-the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) and Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)-breeding in northwest Greenland. Across the breeding season, the stress response was strongest at arrival and least robust during molt in male snow buntings. Snow bunting females had higher baseline but similar stress-induced corticosterone levels compared to males. Modification of the stress response was not due to adrenal insensitivity, but likely regulated at the anterior pituitary gland. Compared to independent nestlings and adult snow buntings, parental-dependent chicks had a more robust stress response. For Lapland longspurs, baseline corticosterone was highest at arrival in both male and females, and arriving males displayed a higher stress response compared to arriving females. Comparison of male corticosterone profiles collected at arrival in Greenland (76°N) and Alaska (67-71°N;) reveal that both species have higher stress responses at the more northern location. Flexibility in the stress response may be typical for birds nesting at the leading edges of their range and this ability will become more relevant as global climate change results in major shifts of breeding habitat and phenology for migratory birds.

  15. A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

  16. Flux modulations seen by the muon veto of the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicsk'o Cs'athy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Strecker, H.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    The GERDA experiment at LNGS of INFN is equipped with an active muon veto. The main part of the system is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. The muon flux recorded by this veto shows a seasonal modulation. Two causes have been identified: (i) secondary muons from the CNGS neutrino beam (2.2%) and (ii) a temperature modulation of the atmosphere (1.4%). A mean cosmic muon rate of Iμ0 =(3.477 ± 0 .002stat ± 0 .067sys) ×10-4 /(s · m2) was found in good agreement with other experiments at LNGS. Combining the present result with those from previous experiments at LNGS the effective temperature coefficient αT , Lngs is determined to 0.93 ± 0.03. A fit of the temperature coefficients measured at various underground sites yields a kaon to pion ratio rK/π of 0.10 ± 0.03.

  17. [Growth responses of belowground modules of Carex lasiocarpa to different water regimes and water experiences].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Song, Chang-Chun; Hu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    With seedling's transplanting experiment under different water levels, this paper studied the growth responses of belowground modules of Carex lasiocarpa to various water regimes and water experiences in Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the belowground modules of C. lasiocarpa had significantly different responses to water regimes. At thriving stage, the length of rhizome and adventitious root decreased with increasing water level, and until later growth stage, the maximal value still appeared under drought condition. However, under dry-wet alternate condition, the length of rhizome and adventitious root increased most from thriving stage to the end, indicating that stable and lower water level could improve the growth of rhizome and adventitious root. The biomass of rhizome, adventitious root, and belowground part were maximal under dry-wet alternate condition at both growth stages. For those with different water experiences, the ones undergoing alternate condition in early growth season and then drought had maximal rhizome biomass, and the others under sustained alternate condition had maximal adventitious root and belowground biomass. More biomass was distributed to rhizome in the later growth season under various water regimes. The percentage of rhizome in total biomass was significantly higher under drought condition than under other water conditions through the growth season. Besides, C. lasiocarpa grew slowly when submerged, but could recover through rhizomatic reproduction after the stress disappeared.

  18. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance.

  19. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  20. Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on climate extreme indices in a multi-model experiment under present and future conditions (GLACE-CMIP5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ruth; Pitman, Andy; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Extreme events can be directly influenced by land surface-atmosphere interactions. It is important to investigate how extreme events might change in the future and the role these interactions play in amplifying extremes. The data from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiments (Seneviratne et al., 2013) provide a unique opportunity to examine the influence of soil moisture on extremes in transient climate simulations from a range of climate models. The extreme indices we use are defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and contain a range of indices based on daily minimum and maximum temperature as well as daily precipitation. The ETCCDI indices are available from observational datasets, reanalysis and as well as CMIP5 runs. Hence, these indices are widely used and can be compared to other sources. In this paper, we analyze the effects of land surface feedbacks on the extremes and their trends in the different global climate models. Seneviratne, S. I., et al. (2013). Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. GRL, 40(19), 5212-5217. doi:10.1002/grl.50956

  1. Statistical properties of directional ocean waves: the role of the modulational instability in the formation of extreme events.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Waseda, T; Toffoli, A; Cavaleri, L; Gramstad, O; Janssen, P A E M; Kinoshita, T; Monbaliu, J; Mori, N; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Stansberg, C T; Tamura, H; Trulsen, K

    2009-03-20

    We discuss two independent, large scale experiments performed in two wave basins of different dimensions in which the statistics of the surface wave elevation are addressed. Both facilities are equipped with a wave maker capable of generating waves with prescribed frequency and directional properties. The experimental results show that the probability of the formation of large amplitude waves strongly depends on the directional properties of the waves. Sea states characterized by long-crested and steep waves are more likely to be populated by freak waves with respect to those characterized by a large directional spreading.

  2. Surface plasmons modulate the spatial coherence of light in Young's interference experiment.

    PubMed

    Gan, Choon How; Gbur, Greg; Visser, Taco D

    2007-01-26

    It is shown how surface plasmons that travel between the slits in Young's interference experiment can change the state of spatial coherence of the field that is radiated by the two apertures. Surprisingly, the coherence can both be increased and decreased, depending on the slit separation distance. This results in a modulation of the visibility of the interference fringes. Since many properties of a light field-such as its spectrum, polarization, and directionality - may change on propagation and are dependent on the spatial coherence of the source, our results suggest that the use of surface plasmons provides a new way to alter or even tailor the statistical properties of a light field.

  3. STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison conduct LBNP experiment in the SLJ module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    At the aft end of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module, STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (foreground) readies Rack 9 Automatic Blood Pressure System (ABPS) controls as MS Mae C. Jemison, inside the cylindrical fabric lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device, waits for the LBNP experiment to begin. LBNP device is sealed around Jemison's waist. It is attached to the SLJ floor and has a controller that operates a pump to change the pressure inside. Davis will monitor Jemison's pulse rate, blood pressure, and cardiac dimensions and functions.

  4. Density modulation experiment to determine transport coefficients on Joint-TEXT Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Zhuang, G.; Gao, L. Chen, J.; Shi, P.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, Z. J.; Gentle, K. W.

    2015-02-15

    Density modulation experiments have been conducted on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) Tokamak Ohmic discharge to investigate particle transport based on a model with constant diffusion plus inward convection. Like the HCN interferometer, the newly developed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) is used to measure the perturbed density. The comparison of results between the HCN interferometer and POLARIS is given. The consistent results indicate the validity of the analysis scheme. At lower densities, the typical particle confinement time τ{sub p} is found to increase with electron density, while it saturates at higher densities.

  5. Density modulation experiment to determine transport coefficients on Joint-TEXT Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhuang, G; Gao, L; Gentle, K W; Chen, J; Shi, P; Liu, Y; Li, Q; Wang, Z J

    2015-02-01

    Density modulation experiments have been conducted on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) Tokamak Ohmic discharge to investigate particle transport based on a model with constant diffusion plus inward convection. Like the HCN interferometer, the newly developed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) is used to measure the perturbed density. The comparison of results between the HCN interferometer and POLARIS is given. The consistent results indicate the validity of the analysis scheme. At lower densities, the typical particle confinement time τp is found to increase with electron density, while it saturates at higher densities.

  6. Beam Experiments in the Extreme Space-Charge Limit on the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Santiago

    2003-10-01

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), designed for transport studies of space-charge dominated beams in a strong focusing lattice, is nearing completion. UMER models, for example, the recirculator machine envisioned as a possible driver for heavy-ion inertial fusion. The UMER lattice consists of 36 FODO periods over an 11.5 m circumference. The main diagnostics are phosphor screens and capacitive beam position monitors placed at the center of each bending section. In addition, pepper-pot and slit-wire emittance meters are in operation. We describe experiments for two cases of extreme space-charge dominated transport (24 and 85 mA, at 10 keV.) and compare the results with studies in the emittance-dominated regime (0.6 mA at 10 keV.) With focusing given by σ_0=76^0, the zero-current betatron phase advance per period, the range of currents corresponds to tune depressions of 0.2 to 0.8. This range is unprecedented for a circular machine. The beam physics over three transport distances is considered: at or near the source, over the length of the matching section (about one-meter) and single-turn (10 m.) Issues associated with beam characterization, scaling of various parameters, alignment and envelope matching are discussed.

  7. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  8. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  9. 40-Gbps vestigial sideband half-cycle Nyquist subcarrier modulation transmission experiment and its comparison with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Chen, Xue; Ju, Cheng; Hui, Rongqing

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the superior performance of a 40-Gbps 16-QAM half-cycle Nyquist subcarrier modulation (SCM) transmission over a 100-km uncompensated standard single-mode fiber using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator-based vestigial sideband intensity modulation and direct detection. The impact of modulator chirp on the system performance is experimentally evaluated. This Nyquist-SCM technique is compared with optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing in both back-to-back and 100-km transmission experiments, and the results show that the Nyquist system has a better performance.

  10. Two years of experience with the [ 18F]FDG production module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Wook; Hur, Min Goo; Chai, Jong-Seo; Park, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Kook Hyun; Jeong, Cheol Ki; Lee, Goung Jin; Min, Young Don; Yang, Seung Dae

    2007-08-01

    Chemistry module for a conventional [18F]FDG production by using tetrabutylammonium bicarbonate (TBA) and an acidic hydrolysis has been manufactured and evaluated. In this experiment, 75 mM (pH 7.5-7.8) of TBA solution and a ca. 2-curies order of [18F]-fluoride have been used for the evaluation. The commercial acidic purification cartridge was purchased from GE or UKE. The operation system (OS) was programmed with Lab-View which was selected because of its easy customization of the OS. Small sized solenoid valves (Burkert; type 6124) were selected to reduce the module dimensions (W 350 × D 270 × H 250). The total time for the synthesis of [18F]FDG was 30 ± 3 min. The production yield of [18F]FDG was 60 ± 2% on an average at EOS, with the decay uncorrected. This experimental data show that the traditional chemistry module can provide a good [18F]FDG production yield by optimizing the operational conditions. The radiochemical purity, radionuclidic purity, acidity, residual solvent, osmolality and endotoxin were determined to assess the quality of [18F]FDG. The examined contents for the quality control of [18F]FDG were found to be suitable for a clinical application.

  11. Cropland responses to extreme winter temperature events: results from a manipulation experiment in north-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the last years, several studies has focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to climate warming. Most of them have been conducted on natural ecosystems (forests or grasslands), but few have considered intensively managed ecosystems such as croplands despite of their global extension. In particular, extreme events, such as temperature changes outside the growing season (winter) when soil is not covered by plants, can have a strong impact on soil respiration, residues decomposition, yield and overall net biome production (NBP). In this study, we investigated the response of soil respiration (total and heterotrophic), aboveground NPP, yield and NBP on a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) due to a manipulated warmer or cooler winter. The experiment was carried out in Beano (46°00' N 13°01'E, Italy). Soil albedo and soil temperature were manipulated by covering soil surface during late winter with a layer of inert ceramized silica gravel. We tested three treatments with three replicates each: cooling (Co; white gravel), warming (W; black gravel), mix (M; black and white 4:1 gravel) and control (C; bare soil). An automated soil respiration system measured continuously total soil CO2 efflux across all the year and heterotrophic respiration after sowing in root exclusion subplots. Additionally, soil temperature profiles (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm depth), soil water content (between 5 and 10 cm depth) were monitored in each plot. After sowing, soybean phenological phases were periodically assessed and final yield was measured in each plot. Preliminary results showed a significant change in upper soil temperature between gravel application and canopy closure (maximum of + 5.8 °C and - 6.8 °C in the warming and cooling treatments, respectively). However, warming had only a transient effect on soil respiration (increase) before sowing. Thereafter, as soon as fresh organic matter availability decreased, soil respiration rate decreased and annual budget was not

  12. Cropland responses to extreme winter temperature events: results from a manipulation experiment in north-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, several studies has focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to climate warming. Most of them have been conducted on natural ecosystems (forests or grasslands), but few have considered intensively managed ecosystems such as croplands despite of their global extension. In particular, extreme events, such as temperature changes outside the growing season (winter) when soil is not covered by plants, can have a strong impact on soil respiration, residues decomposition, yield and overall net biome production (NBP). In this study, we investigated the response of soil respiration (total and heterotrophic), aboveground NPP, yield and NBP on a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) due to a manipulated warmer or cooler winter. The experiment was carried out in Beano (46°00' N 13°01'E, Italy). Soil albedo and soil temperature were manipulated by covering soil surface during late winter with a layer of inert ceramized silica gravel. We tested three treatments with three replicates each: cooling (Co; white gravel), warming (W; black gravel), mix (M; black and white 4:1 gravel) and control (C; bare soil). An automated soil respiration system measured continuously total soil CO2 efflux across all the year and heterotrophic respiration after sowing in root exclusion subplots. Additionally, soil temperature profiles (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm depth), soil water content (between 5 and 10 cm depth) were monitored in each plot. After sowing, soybean phenological phases were periodically assessed and final yield was measured in each plot. Results showed a significant change in upper soil temperature between gravel application and canopy closure (maximum of + 5.8 °C and - 6.8 °C in the warming and cooling treatments, respectively). However, warming had only a transient effect on soil respiration (increase) before sowing. Thereafter, as soon as fresh organic matter availability decreased, soil respiration rate decreased and annual budget was not significantly different

  13. Optimal Geophysical Conditions for ELF/VLF Generation in Modulated Heating Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Techniques for using modulated HF heating of the D-region ionosphere near the auroral electrojet to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) waves in the kilohertz range have been refined over many decades. Even with the high power of the newest ionospheric heater at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Gakona, Alaska, practical use of modulated heating as a means of ELF generation has been hindered by the variability of ELF generation with changes in natural conditions. Magnetometers, which measure the intensity of the overhead electrojet currents, are often used as a predictor of ELF generation. We assemble statistics using the HAARP magnetometer and ELF amplitude measured at Chistochina, Alaska 37 km from HAARP. While correlation between the two is often good, we show that the relative change in ELF amplitude per unit change in magnetometer measurements decreases during strong electrojets. Dramatic increases in electrojet strength do not result in proportional increases in ELF generation. Data also show ELF generation to be surprisingly robust; ELF signals were always detectable at Chistochina even when magnetometers showed no discernible electrojet. Measurements from the HAARP riometer, which can measure increases in ionospheric absorption in the lower ionosphere, suggest that strong electrojets associated with increased absorption are not as beneficial for ELF generation. Statistical models using neural networks and multiple regression to fit ELF amplitude to magnetometer, riometer and other ionospheric diagnostics show that ELF amplitude and magnetometer are nearly linearly proportional, with the proportionality constant increasing as absorption decreases. We also present numerical simulations using a model for HF heating and a full-wave model for ELF propagation. These also show that denser electron density profiles increase the ambient conductivity more than they improve ELF generation. Certain profiles increase ambient

  14. Suppression of phase and amplitude J(HH) modulations in HSQC experiments.

    PubMed

    Castañar, Laura; Sistaré, Eduard; Virgili, Albert; Williamson, R Thomas; Parella, Teodor

    2015-02-01

    The amplitude and the phase of cross peaks in conventional 2D HSQC experiments are modulated by both proton-proton, J(HH), and proton-carbon, (1)J(CH), coupling constants. It is shown by spectral simulation and experimentally that J(HH) interferences are suppressed in a novel perfect-HSQC pulse scheme that incorporates perfect-echo INEPT periods. The improved 2D spectra afford pure in-phase cross peaks with respect to (1)J(CH) and J(HH), irrespective of the experiment delay optimization. In addition, peak volumes are not attenuated by the influence of J(HH), rendering practical issues such as phase correction, multiplet analysis, and signal integration more appropriate.

  15. Power Converter Module of the PHI Experiment on Board of Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Ferreres, A.; Gasent-Blesa, J. L.; Osorno, D.; Gilabert, D.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Esteve, V.; Jordan, J.; Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Power converters for experiments that have to fly on board space missions (satellite, launchers, etc.) have very stringent requirements due to its use in a very harsh environment. The selection of a suitable topology is therefore not only based on standard requirements but in addition, more strict ones have also to be fulfilled. This work shows the design procedure followed to build the Power Converter Module (PCM) for the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI), experiment on board the Solar Orbiter Satellite. The selected topology has been a Push-Pull, for a power level of approximately 35 W and with seven output voltages. Galvanic isolation is needed from primary to secondary, but not between each secondary. Coupled inductors among all outputs have allowed reducing cross regulation. The main design problems solved have been reduction of parasitic capacitance of magnetic elements and closed loop design when using peak current control due to coupling all output inductors together.

  16. Adaptive Coding and Modulation Experiment With NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Evans, Michael A.; Briones, Janette C.; Tollis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Space Communication and Navigation Testbed is an advanced integrated communication payload on the International Space Station. This paper presents results from an adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) experiment over S-band using a direct-to-earth link between the SCaN Testbed and the Glenn Research Center. The testing leverages the established Digital Video Broadcasting Second Generation (DVB-S2) standard to provide various modulation and coding options, and uses the Space Data Link Protocol (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard) for the uplink and downlink data framing. The experiment was con- ducted in a challenging environment due to the multipath and shadowing caused by the International Space Station structure. Several approaches for improving the ACM system are presented, including predictive and learning techniques to accommodate signal fades. Performance of the system is evaluated as a function of end-to-end system latency (round- trip delay), and compared to the capacity of the link. Finally, improvements over standard NASA waveforms are presented.

  17. Projection of the change in future extremes over Japan using a cloud-resolving model: (2) Precipitation Extremes and the results of the NHM-1km experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanada, S.; Nakano, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hayashi, S.; Kato, T.; Kurihara, K.; Sasaki, H.; Uchiyama, T.; Aranami, K.; Honda, Y.; Kitoh, A.

    2008-12-01

    In order to study changes in the regional climate in the vicinity of Japan during the summer rainy season due to global warming, experiments by a semi-cloud resolving non-hydrostatic model with a horizontal resolution of 5km (NHM-5km) have been conducted from June to October by nesting within the results of the 10-year time-integrated experiments using a hydrostatic atmospheric general circulation model with a horizontal grid of 20 km (AGCM-20km: TL959L60) for the present and future up to the year 2100. A non-hydrostatic model developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) (JMA-NHM; Saito et al. 2001, 2006) was adopted. Detailed descriptions of the NHM-5km are shown by the poster of Nakano et al. Our results show that rainy days over most of the Japanese Islands will decrease in June and July and increase in August and September in the future climate. Especially, remarkable increases in intense precipitations such as larger than 150 - 300 mm/day are projected from the present to future climate. The 90th percentiles of regional largest values among maximum daily precipitations (R-MDPs) grow 156 to 207 mm/day in the present and future climates, respectively. It is well-known that the horizontal distribution of precipitation, especially the heavy rainfall in the vicinity of Japan, much depends on the topography. Therefore, higher resolution experiments by a cloud-resolving model with a horizontal resolution of 1km (NHM-1km) are one-way nested within the results of NHM-5km. The basic frame and design of the NHM-1km is the same as those of the NHM-5km, but the topography is finer and no cumulus parameterization is used in the NHM-1km experiments. The NHM-1km, which treats the convection and cloud microphysics explicitly, can represent not only horizontal distributions of rainfall in detail but also the 3-dimensional structures of meso-beta-scale convective systems (MCSs). Because of the limitation of computation resources, only heavy rainfall events that rank in top

  18. Neural Repetition Effects in the Medial Temporal Lobe Complex are Modulated by Previous Encoding Experience

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ciara M.; Soto, David

    2012-01-01

    It remains an intriguing question why the medial temporal lobe (MTL) can display either attenuation or enhancement of neural activity following repetition of previously studied items. To isolate the role of encoding experience itself, we assessed neural repetition effects in the absence of any ongoing task demand or intentional orientation to retrieve. Experiment 1 showed that the hippocampus and surrounding MTL regions displayed neural repetition suppression (RS) upon repetition of past items that were merely attended during an earlier study phase but this was not the case following re-occurrence of items that had been encoded into working memory (WM). In this latter case a trend toward neural repetition enhancement (RE) was observed, though this was highly variable across individuals. Interestingly, participants with a higher degree of neural RE in the MTL complex displayed higher memory sensitivity in a later, surprise recognition test. Experiment 2 showed that massive exposure at encoding effected a change in the neural architecture supporting incidental repetition effects, with regions of the posterior parietal and ventral-frontal cortex in addition to the hippocampus displaying neural RE, while no neural RS was observed. The nature of encoding experience therefore modulates the expression of neural repetition effects in the MTL and the neocortex in the absence of memory goals. PMID:22829892

  19. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Claudio; Volpi, Nila; Franci, Daniela; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Guarna, Massimo; Montella, Antonio; Albanese, Antonietta; Battisti, Emilio; Fioravanti, Antonella; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by matrix degradation and changes in chondrocyte morphology and metabolism. Literature reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can produce benefits in OA patients, even if EMFs mechanism of action is debated. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from femoral heads were cultured in vitro in bidimensional (2-D) flasks and in three-dimensional (3-D) alginate beads to mimic closely cartilage environment in vivo. Cells were exposed 30 min/day for 2 weeks to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100 Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities, and waveforms. Cell viability was measured at days 7 and 14, while healthy-cell density, heavily vacuolized (hv) cell density, and cluster density were measured by light microscopy only for 3-D cultures after treatments. Cell morphology was observed for 2-D and 3-D cultures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chondrocyte exposure to TAMMEF enhances cell viability at days 7 and 14 compared to ELF. Light microscopy analysis showed that TAMMEF enhances healthy-cell density, reduces hv-cell density and clustering, compared to ELF. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed different morphology for 2-D (fibroblast-like) and 3-D (rounded shape) cultures, confirming light microscopy results. In conclusion, EMFs are effective and safe for OA chondrocytes. TAMMEF can positively interfere with OA chondrocytes representing an innovative non-pharmacological approach to treat OA.

  20. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: The preliminary report of Cleveland Clinic experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Heath B. . E-mail: hmackley@alumni.upenn.edu; Reddy, Chandana A. M.S.; Lee, S.-Y.; Harnisch, Gayle A.; Mayberg, Marc R.; Hamrahian, Amir H.; Suh, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is being increasingly used for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. However, there have been few published data on the short- and long-term outcomes of this treatment. This is the initial report of Cleveland Clinic's experience. Methods and Materials: Between February 1998 and December 2003, 34 patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with IMRT. A retrospective chart review was conducted for data analysis. Results: With a median follow-up of 42.5 months, the treatment has proven to be well tolerated, with performance status remaining stable in 90% of patients. Radiographic local control was 89%, and among patients with secretory tumors, 100% had a biochemical response. Only 1 patient required salvage surgery for progressive disease, giving a clinical progression free survival of 97%. The only patient who received more than 46 Gy experienced optic neuropathy 8 months after radiation. Smaller tumor volume significantly correlated with subjective improvements in nonvisual neurologic complaints (p = 0.03), and larger tumor volume significantly correlated with subjective worsening of visual symptoms (p = 0.05). New hormonal supplementation was required for 40% of patients. Younger patients were significantly more likely to require hormonal supplementation (p 0.03). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary adenomas over the short term. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine if IMRT confers any advantage with respect to either tumor control or toxicity over conventional radiation modalities.

  1. Environmental Experience Modulates Ischemia-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Enhances Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined whether ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis could be modulated by environmental “experience,” and whether this modulation is associated with improved cognitive functioning. Rats were subjected to either global ischemia or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to either enriched environment housing (EE) or socially paired housing (controls). After 14 days of differential environmental housing, the rats were tested in the water maze. Our results show decreased C-terminal fragments of the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) load in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. In addition, Aβ oligomerization was significantly decreased in the ischemic EE animals compared to the ischemic control rats. Further, significantly increased levels of neprilysin, but not insulin-degrading enzyme, amyloid-degrading enzymes, were seen in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. Behavioral analyses showed that ischemic EE rats performed significantly better on the memory task compared to the ischemic control group. These results suggest that use of multi-sensory environmental enrichment following cerebral ischemia may reduce the accumulation of Aβ peptide in the more pathologic oligomeric form, and consequently may enhance functional recovery. PMID:19271963

  2. Olfactory experience modulates immature neuron development in postnatal and adult guinea pig piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhang, X-M; Wu, J; Fu, J; Mou, L; Lu, D-H; Cai, Y; Luo, X-G; Pan, A; Yan, X-X

    2014-02-14

    Immature neurons expressing doublecortin (DCX+) are present around cortical layer II in various mammals including guinea pigs and humans, especially enriched in the paleocortex. However, little is known whether and how functional experience affects the development of this population of neurons. We attempted to explore a modulation by experience to layer II DCX+ cells in the primary olfactory cortex in postnatal and adult guinea pigs. Neonatal and 1-year-old guinea pigs were subjected to unilateral naris-occlusion, followed 1 and 2months later by morphometry of DCX+ cells in the piriform cortex. DCX+ somata and processes were reduced in the deprived relative to the non-deprived piriform cortex in both age groups at the two surviving time points. The number of DCX+ cells was decreased in the deprived side relative to internal control at 1 and 2months in the youths and at 2months in the adults post-occlusion. The mean somal area of DCX+ cells showed a trend of decrease in the deprived side relative to the internal control in the youths. In addition, DCX+ cells in the deprived side exhibited a lower frequency of colocalization with the neuron-specific nuclear antigen (NeuN) relative to counterparts. These results suggest that normal olfactory experience is required for the maintenance and development of DCX+ immature neurons in postnatal and adult guinea pig piriform cortex.

  3. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  4. Laser Wakefield Acceleration Experiments in the Self Modulated Regime at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Paul; Albert, Felicie; Lemos, Nuno; Patankar, Siddarth; Ralph, Joseph; Shaw, Jessica; Hegelich, Manuel; Moody, John; Joshi, Chan

    2016-10-01

    Picosecond laser plasma interaction has been studied as a novel source of producing betatron x-rays. In this regime, electrons are accelerated through the interplay of two mechanisms: self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration and direct laser acceleration. The experiment, conducted on the Titan laser system (1 ps and 150 Joules) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, using electron densities of 0.5 - 1.5 ×1019cm-3 , found electrons accelerated to energies of up to 250 MeV with divergence half angles on order of 10s of milliradians. Corresponding to the electron densities above, frequency shifts of laser light on order ωp 1.5 - 2 ×1014 rad/sec were measured using Raman forward scattering diagnostics.

  5. Preliminary results from the flight of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-01-01

    SAMPIE, the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment, flew in the Space Shuttle Columbia payload bay as part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) mission on STS-62, March, 1994. SAMPIE biased samples of solar arrays and space power materials to varying potentials with respect to the surrounding space plasma, and recorded the plasma currents collected and the arcs which occurred, along with a set of plasma diagnostics data. A large set of high quality data was obtained on the behavior of solar arrays and space power materials in the space environment. This paper is the first report on the data SAMPIE telemetered to the ground during the mission. It will be seen that the flight data promise to help determine arcing thresholds, snapover potentials, and floating potentials for arrays and spacecraft in LEO.

  6. Tritium permeation experiment using a tungsten armored divertor-simulating module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; O'hira, S.; Shu, W.; Nishi, M.; Venhaus, T. J.; Causey, R. A.; Hyatt, D. R.; Willms, R. S.

    2000-12-01

    A first engineering type experiment for evaluation of tritium permeation rate through a tungsten armored divertor of a DT fusion machine was carried out using tritium plasma experimental (TPE) apparatus under the collaborative program between US-DOE and JAERI. A test module having a multi-layer structure (W:1 mm t, Cu:5 mm t and a cavity containing water pressurized at 2.2 MPa) was exposed to DT (D:T=2:1) plasma. Break-through of tritium permeation into the water was observed after 4 h of plasma exposure. The amount of tritium permeated was compared with permeation rates predicted by numerical simulation codes (TMAP4 and TPERM). Feasibility of the experimental system and procedures to predict the tritium permeation behavior was examined using the simulation codes.

  7. Experience-based Auditory Predictions Modulate Brain Activity to Silence as do Real Sounds.

    PubMed

    Chouiter, Leila; Tzovara, Athina; Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Magezi, David; De Lucia, Marzia; Spierer, Lucas

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between stimuli's acoustic features and experience-based internal models of the environment enable listeners to compensate for the disruptions in auditory streams that are regularly encountered in noisy environments. However, whether auditory gaps are filled in predictively or restored a posteriori remains unclear. The current lack of positive statistical evidence that internal models can actually shape brain activity as would real sounds precludes accepting predictive accounts of filling-in phenomenon. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of internal models by testing whether single-trial electrophysiological responses to omitted sounds in a rule-based sequence of tones with varying pitch could be decoded from the responses to real sounds and by analyzing the ERPs to the omissions with data-driven electrical neuroimaging methods. The decoding of the brain responses to different expected, but omitted, tones in both passive and active listening conditions was above chance based on the responses to the real sound in active listening conditions. Topographic ERP analyses and electrical source estimations revealed that, in the absence of any stimulation, experience-based internal models elicit an electrophysiological activity different from noise and that the temporal dynamics of this activity depend on attention. We further found that the expected change in pitch direction of omitted tones modulated the activity of left posterior temporal areas 140-200 msec after the onset of omissions. Collectively, our results indicate that, even in the absence of any stimulation, internal models modulate brain activity as do real sounds, indicating that auditory filling in can be accounted for by predictive activity.

  8. Gas-grain simulation experiment module conceptual design and gas-grain simulation facility breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamel, James M.; Petach, Michael; Gat, Nahum; Kropp, Jack; Luong, Christina; Wolff, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This report delineates the Option portion of the Phase A Gas-Grain Simulation Facility study. The conceptual design of a Gas-Grain Simulation Experiment Module (GGSEM) for Space Shuttle Middeck is discussed. In addition, a laboratory breadboard was developed during this study to develop a key function for the GGSEM and the GGSF, specifically, a solid particle cloud generating device. The breadboard design and test results are discussed and recommendations for further studies are included. The GGSEM is intended to fly on board a low earth orbit (LEO), manned platform. It will be used to perform a subset of the experiments planned for the GGSF for Space Station Freedom, as it can partially accommodate a number of the science experiments. The outcome of the experiments performed will provide an increased understanding of the operational requirements for the GGSF. The GGSEM will also act as a platform to accomplish technology development and proof-of-principle experiments for GGSF hardware, and to verify concepts and designs of hardware for GGSF. The GGSEM will allow assembled subsystems to be tested to verify facility level operation. The technology development that can be accommodated by the GGSEM includes: GGSF sample generation techniques, GGSF on-line diagnostics techniques, sample collection techniques, performance of various types of sensors for environmental monitoring, and some off-line diagnostics. Advantages and disadvantages of several LEO platforms available for GGSEM applications are identified and discussed. Several of the anticipated GGSF experiments require the deagglomeration and dispensing of dry solid particles into an experiment chamber. During the GGSF Phase A study, various techniques and devices available for the solid particle aerosol generator were reviewed. As a result of this review, solid particle deagglomeration and dispensing were identified as key undeveloped technologies in the GGSF design. A laboratory breadboard version of a solid

  9. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Fabio; Ricevuti, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level. PMID:28197174

  10. Proteomics of human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF).

    PubMed

    Corallo, Claudio; Battisti, Emilio; Albanese, Antonietta; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Gagliardi, Assunta; Landi, Claudia; Carta, Serafino; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disease, characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix and alterations in chondrocyte metabolism. Some authors reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can positively interfere with patients affected by OA, even though the nature of the interaction is still debated. Human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from the femoral heads of OA-patients undergoing to total hip replacement, were cultured in vitro and exposed 30 min/day for two weeks to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100 Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities and waveforms. Sham-exposed (S.E.) cells served as control group. Cell viability was measured at days 2, 7 and 14. After two weeks, cell lysates were processed using a proteomic approach. Chondrocyte exposed to ELF and TAMMEF system demonstrated different viability compared to untreated chondrocytes (S.E.). Proteome analysis of 2D-Electrophoresis and protein identification by mass spectrometry showed different expression of proteins derived from nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles. Function analysis of the identified proteins showed changes in related-proteins metabolism (glyceraldeyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase), stress response (Mn-superoxide-dismutase, heat-shock proteins), cytoskeletal regulation (actin), proteinase inhibition (cystatin-B) and inflammation regulatory functions (S100-A10, S100-A11) among the experimental groups (ELF, TAMMEF and S.E.). In conclusion, EMFs do not cause damage to chondrocytes, besides stimulate safely OA-chondrocytes and are responsible of different protein expression among the three groups. Furthermore, protein analysis of OA-chondrocytes treated with ELF and the new TAMMEF systems could be useful to clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms of OA by identifying biomarkers of the disease.

  11. From Breast Cancer to Antimicrobial: Combating Extremely Resistant Gram-Negative "Superbugs" Using Novel Combinations of Polymyxin B with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Maytham H; Schneider, Elena K; Elliott, Alysha G; Han, Meiling; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Morris, Faye; Blastovich, Mark A T; Jasim, Raad; Currie, Bart; Mayo, Mark; Baker, Mark; Cooper, Matthew A; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2016-12-09

    Novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to combat nosocomial infections caused by extremely drug-resistant (XDR) "superbugs." This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antibacterial activity of polymyxin B in combination with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) against problematic Gram-negative pathogens. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of polymyxin B and the SERMs tamoxifen, raloxifene, and toremifene was assessed using the microdilution checkerboard and static time-kill assays against a panel of Gram-negative isolates. Polymyxin B and the SERMs were ineffective when used as monotherapy against polymyxin-resistant minimum inhibitory concentration ([MIC] ≥8 mg/L) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. However, when used in combination, clinically relevant concentrations of polymyxin B and SERMs displayed synergistic killing against the polymyxin-resistant P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii isolates as demonstrated by a ≥2-3 log10 decrease in bacterial count (CFU/ml) after 24 hours. The combination of polymyxin B with toremifene demonstrated very potent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms in an artificial sputum media assay. Moreover, polymyxin B combined with toremifene synergistically induced cytosolic green fluorescence protein release, cytoplasmic membrane depolarization, permeabilizing activity in a nitrocefin assay, and an increase of cellular reactive oxygen species from P. aeruginosa cells. In addition, scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that polymyxin B in combination with toremifene causes distinctive damage to the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa cells, compared with treatments with each compound per se. In conclusion, the combination of polymyxin B and SERMs illustrated a synergistic activity against XDR Gram-negative pathogens, including highly polymyxin-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, and represents a novel combination

  12. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Fabio; Ricevuti, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  13. Fish navigation of large dams emerges from their modulation of flow field experience

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, R. Andrew; Politano, Marcela; Garvin, Justin W.; Nestler, John M.; Hay, Duncan; Anderson, James J.; Weber, Larry J.; Dimperio, Eric; Smith, David L.; Timko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Navigating obstacles is innate to fish in rivers, but fragmentation of the world’s rivers by more than 50,000 large dams threatens many of the fish migrations these waterways support. One limitation to mitigating the impacts of dams on fish is that we have a poor understanding of why some fish enter routes engineered for their safe travel around the dam but others pass through more dangerous routes. To understand fish movement through hydropower dam environments, we combine a computational fluid dynamics model of the flow field at a dam and a behavioral model in which simulated fish adjust swim orientation and speed to modulate their experience to water acceleration and pressure (depth). We fit the model to data on the passage of juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) at seven dams in the Columbia/Snake River system. Our findings from reproducing observed fish movement and passage patterns across 47 flow field conditions sampled over 14 y emphasize the role of experience and perception in the decision making of animals that can inform opportunities and limitations in living resources management and engineering design. PMID:24706826

  14. How does experience modulate auditory spatial processing in individuals with blindness?

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-jia; Li, Jian-jun; Ting, Kin-hung; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-05-01

    Comparing early- and late-onset blindness in individuals offers a unique model for studying the influence of visual experience on neural processing. This study investigated how prior visual experience would modulate auditory spatial processing among blind individuals. BOLD responses of early- and late-onset blind participants were captured while performing a sound localization task. The task required participants to listen to novel "Bat-ears" sounds, analyze the spatial information embedded in the sounds, and specify out of 15 locations where the sound would have been emitted. In addition to sound localization, participants were assessed on visuospatial working memory and general intellectual abilities. The results revealed common increases in BOLD responses in the middle occipital gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, and precentral gyrus during sound localization for both groups. Between-group dissociations, however, were found in the right middle occipital gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. The BOLD responses in the left superior frontal gyrus were significantly correlated with accuracy on sound localization and visuospatial working memory abilities among the late-onset blind participants. In contrast, the accuracy on sound localization only correlated with BOLD responses in the right middle occipital gyrus among the early-onset counterpart. The findings support the notion that early-onset blind individuals rely more on the occipital areas as a result of cross-modal plasticity for auditory spatial processing, while late-onset blind individuals rely more on the prefrontal areas which subserve visuospatial working memory.

  15. Plant experiments with light-emitting diode module in Svet space greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Iliyana; Ivanova, Tania; Naydenov, Yordan; Dandolov, Ivan; Stefanov, Detelin

    Light is necessary for photosynthesis and shoot orientation in the space plant growth facilities. Light modules (LM) must provide sufficient photosynthetic photon flux for optimal efficiency of photosynthetic processes and also meet the constraints for power, volume and mass. A new LM for SVET Space Greenhouse using Cree R XLamp R 7090 XR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is developed. Three types of monochromic LEDs emitting in the red, green, and blue region of the spectrum are used. The new LM contains 36 LED spots - 30 LED spots with one red, green and blue LED and 6 LED spots with three red LEDs. DMX programming device controls the LED spots and can set 231 levels of light intensity thus achieving Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) in the range 0-400 µmol.m-2 .s-1 and different percentages of the red, green and blue light, depending on the experimental objectives. Two one-month experiments with "salad-type" plants - lettuce and chicory were carried at 400 µmol.m-2 .s-1 PPFD (high light - HL) and 220 µmol.m-2 .s-1 PPFD (low light - LL) and composition 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light. In vivo modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by a PAM fluorometer on leaf discs and the following parameters: effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (ΦP SII ) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were calculated. Both lettuce and chicory plants grown at LL express higher photochemical activity of Photosystem II (PSII) than HL grown plants, evaluated by the actual PSII quantum yield, ΦP SII . The calculated steady state NPQ values did not differ significantly in lettuce and chicory. The rapid phase of the NPQ increase was accelerated in all studied LL leaves. In conclusion low light conditions ensured more effective functioning of PSII than HL when lettuce and chicory plants were grown at 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light composition.

  16. Plant experiments with light-emitting diode module in Svet space greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania; Naydenov, Yordan; Dandolov, Ivan; Stefanov, Detelin

    2010-10-01

    Light is necessary for photosynthesis and shoot orientation in the space plant growth facilities. Light modules (LM) must provide sufficient photosynthetic photon flux for optimal efficiency of photosynthetic processes and also meet the constraints for power, volume and mass. A new LM for Svet space greenhouse using Cree® XLamp® 7090 XR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was developed. Monochromic LEDs emitting in the red, green, and blue regions of the spectrum were used. The LED-LM contains 36 LED spots - 30 LED spots with one red, green and blue LED and 6 LED spots with three red LEDs. Digital Multiplex Control Unit controls the LED spots and can set 231 levels of light intensity thus achieving Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) in the range 0-400 μmol m -2 s -1 and different percentages of the red, green and blue light, depending on the experimental objectives. Two one-month experiments with plants - lettuce and radicchio were carried out at 400 μmol m -2 s -1 PPFD (high light - HL) and 220 μmol m -2 s -1 PPFD (low light - LL) and 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light composition. To evaluate the efficiency of photosynthesis, in vivo modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometer on leaf discs and the following parameters: effective quantum yield of Photosystem II ( ΦPSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were calculated. Both lettuce and radicchio plants grown at LL express higher photochemical activity of Photosystem II (PSII) than HL grown plants, evaluated by ΦPSII. Accelerated rise in NPQ in both LL grown plants was observed, while steady state NPQ values were higher in LL grown lettuce plants and did not differ in LL and HL grown radicchio plants. The extent of photoinhibition process in both plants was evaluated by changes in malonedialdehyde (MDA) concentration, peroxidase (POX) activity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) content. Accumulation of high levels of MDA and increased POX activity

  17. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; de Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J.-K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K.-I.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2011-10-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Δv/v ~ 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Δn/n, Δβ/β and ΔH98/H98 were ~3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher β. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L- and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  18. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M. J.; Testa, D.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; De Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A.; Gates, D.A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W.; La Haye, R.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Oyama, N.; Osakabe, M.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Saimi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, Donald A; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhai, K.; Boedo, J.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, Raffi; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Sanchez, Raul; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Delta upsilon/upsilon similar to 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Delta n/n, Delta beta/beta and Delta H(98)/H(98) were similar to 3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher beta. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L-and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  19. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  20. Extreme events in Faraday waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael; Xia, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Observations of extreme wave events in the ocean are rare due to their low statistical probability. In the laboratory however, the evolution of extreme wave events can be studied in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The reported surface wave experiments in the short wavelength gravity-capillary range aim to contribute to the understanding of some of the underlying mechanisms for rogue wave generation. In this talk, we report on extreme wave events in parametrically excited Faraday waves. Faraday waves appear if a fluid is accelerated (normal to the fluid surface) above a critical threshold. A variety of novel tools have been deployed to characterize the 2D surface elevation. The results presented show spatio-temporal and statistical data on the surface wave conditions leading up to extreme wave events. The peak in wave amplitude during such an event is shown to exceed six times the standard deviation of the average wave field with significantly increased statistical probability compared to the background wave field [1]. The experiments also show that parametrically excited waves can be viewed as assembles of oscillons [2] (or oscillating solitons) where modulation instability seems to play a crucial role in their formation. More detailed studies on the oscillon dynamics reveal that the onset of an increased probability of extreme wave events correlates with the increase in the oscillons mobility and merger [3]. Reference: 1. Xia H., Maimbourg T., Punzmann H., and Shats M., Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples, Physical Review Letters 109, 114502 (2012) 2. Shats M., Xia H., and Punzmann H., Parametrically excited water surface ripples as ensembles of oscillons, Physical Review Letters 108, 034502 (2012) 3. Shats M., Punzmann H., Xia H., Capillary rogue waves, Physical Review Letters, 104, 104503 (2010)

  1. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  2. Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates' Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-Based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…

  3. Experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration during singing: role of the right anterior insula.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Boris; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Friberg, Anders; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-04-03

    Somatosensation plays an important role in the motor control of vocal functions, yet its neural correlate and relation to vocal learning is not well understood. We used fMRI in 17 trained singers and 12 nonsingers to study the effects of vocal-fold anesthesia on the vocal-motor singing network as a function of singing expertise. Tasks required participants to sing musical target intervals under normal conditions and after anesthesia. At the behavioral level, anesthesia altered pitch accuracy in both groups, but singers were less affected than nonsingers, indicating an experience-dependent effect of the intervention. At the neural level, this difference was accompanied by distinct patterns of decreased activation in singers (cortical and subcortical sensory and motor areas) and nonsingers (subcortical motor areas only) respectively, suggesting that anesthesia affected the higher-level voluntary (explicit) motor and sensorimotor integration network more in experienced singers, and the lower-level (implicit) subcortical motor loops in nonsingers. The right anterior insular cortex (AIC) was identified as the principal area dissociating the effect of expertise as a function of anesthesia by three separate sources of evidence. First, it responded differently to anesthesia in singers (decreased activation) and nonsingers (increased activation). Second, functional connectivity between AIC and bilateral A1, M1, and S1 was reduced in singers but augmented in nonsingers. Third, increased BOLD activity in right AIC in singers was correlated with larger pitch deviation under anesthesia. We conclude that the right AIC and sensory-motor areas play a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration for vocal motor control during singing.

  4. Broadband Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Daniel N.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Cornell, Eric A.; Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment will use a low-lying, metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped molecular ions of HfF^+ or ThF^+. Prior to this work, the low-lying states of these molecules had been investigated by PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy. However, there were no detailed studies of the electronic structure. The recently developed technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) provides broad-bandwidth, high-resolution, ion-sensitive spectroscopy, allowing the acquisition of 150 cm^{-1} of continuous spectra in 30 minutes over 1500 simultaneous channels. By supplementing this technique with cw-laser VMS, we have investigated the electronic structure of HfF^+ in the frequency range of 9950 to 14600 cm^{-1}, accurately fitting and assigning 16 rovibronic transitions involving 8 different electronic states including the X^1Σ^+ and a^3Δ_1 states. In addition, an observed ^3Π_{0+} state with coupling to both the X and a states has been used in the actual eEDM experiment to coherently transfer population from the rovibronic ground state of HfF^+ to the eEDM science state. Furthermore, we report on current efforts of applying frequency comb VMS at 700 - 900 nm to the study of ThF^+, which has a lower energy ^3Δ_1 state and a greater effective electric field, and will provide increased sensitivity for a measurement of the eEDM. A. E. Leanhardt et. al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 270, 1-25 (2011). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, Journal of Chemical Physics 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Physical Review Letters 107, 093002 (2011). K.C. Cossel et. al., Chemical Physics Letters 546, 1-11 (2012).

  5. Compact narrow linewidth diode laser modules for precision quantum optics experiments on board of sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfeldt, Anja; Kürbis, Christian; Luvsandamdin, Erdenetsetseg; Schiemangk, Max; Wicht, Andreas; Peters, Achim; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2016-04-01

    We have realized a laser platform based on GaAs diode lasers that allows for an operation in mobile exper-imental setups in harsh environments, such as on sounding rockets. The platform comes in two versions: a master-oscillator-power-amplifier and an extended cavity diode laser. Our very robust micro-optical bench has a footprint of 80 x 25 mm2. It strictly omits any movable parts. Master-oscillator-power-amplifier systems based on distributed feedback master oscillators for 767 nm and 780 nm narrow linewidth emission have been implemented by now. A continuous wave optical output power of > 1 W with a power conversion efficiency of > 25% could be achieved. The continuous tuning range of these lasers is on the order of 100 GHz, the linewidth at 10 μs is about 1 MHz. For applications demanding a narrower linewidth we have developed an extended cavity diode laser that achieves a linewidth of 100 kHz at 10 μs. These lasers achieve a continuous spectral tuning range of about 50 GHz and an continuous wave optical power up to 30 mW. The modules have been successfully vibration tested up to 29 gRMS along all three axes and passed 1500 g shocks, again along all 3 axes. Both, master-oscillator-power-amplifiers and extended cavity diode lasers, have been employed in sounding rocket experiments.

  6. Fast Ion Effects During Test Blanket Module Simulation Experiments in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, R.; Nazikian, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Salmi, A.; Schaffer, M. J.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Spong, D.

    2010-11-01

    The fast beam-ion confinement in the presence of a scaled mock-up of two Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER was studied in DIII-D. The TBM on DIII-D has four vertically arranged protective carbon tiles with thermocouples placed at the back of each tile. Temperature increases of up to 200^oC were measured for the two tiles closest to the midplane when the TBM fields were present. These measurements agree qualitatively with results from the full orbit-following beam-ion code, SPIRAL, that predict beam-ion losses to be localized on the central two carbon tiles when the TBM fields present. Within the experimental uncertainties no significant change in the fast-ion population was found in the core of these plasmas which is consistent with SPIRAL analysis. These experiments indicate that the TBM fields do not affect the fast-ion confinement in a harmful way which is good news for ITER.

  7. Modulation of intestinal functions following mycotoxin ingestion: meta-analysis of published experiments in animals.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J

    2013-02-21

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used.

  8. Designing and testing modules on non-formal education for teacher education candidates: A Brazilian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioppo, Christiane

    Two modules for preparing educators to use non-formal and informal education opportunities were developed and tested at the Federal University of Parana, Brazil. The first module prepared teacher candidates to create and teach lessons that use informal environments such as beaches and natural areas, while the second module focused on preparing museum interns to design and teach with activities prepared specifically for non-formal settings. The research was carried out in three steps. The first sought the perceptions of three groups of professionals about the use of non-formal/informal settings by school groups and their teachers, and asked for suggestions on designing educational modules. In the second step, the conception and development of the modules was enlightened by interview responses, research literature, and Biology Education program constraints. The third step tested both modules by having Biology Education majors develop and pilot activities for middle and high school students, with the results observed the research as post at. The results of testing Module I indicated that teacher candidates need a strong support system to become effective teachers. Data also showed that they needed additional instruction on preparing integrated inquiry lessons and how to use the module as a regular and permanent addition to the curriculum. Thus, the first module was redesigned but not further tested. Module II results indicated that museum personnel and administration became interested in designing more interactive activities and the school students who participated in the activities enjoyed being at the museum. Module II data also indicated need for revision and more study, especially regarding the use of inquiry, the implementation strategy for traditional museums, and the development of activities that are feasible for large group of museum visitors. This study indicated that such modules are valuable and could lead to change in informal and non-formal instruction

  9. An Argument for Salvage in Severe Lower Extremity Trauma with Posterior Tibial Nerve Injury: The Ganga Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    Momoh, Adeyiza O.; Kumaran, Senthil; Lyons, Daniel; Venkatramani, Hari; Ramkumar, Sanjai; Chung, Kevin C.; Sabapathy, S. Raja

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Absence of plantar sensation is a critical factor considered in favor of amputation for patients with lower limb-threatening injuries. This study aims to assess outcomes of limb salvage in a group of patients with severe lower extremity injuries associated with posterior tibial nerve transection. METHODS We studied eight cases of limb salvage after traumatic injuries with documented tibial nerve laceration managed at Ganga Hospital, India. Functional and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. Outcomes from this case series were compared to outcomes of studies from a systematic literature review on salvage of the severely injured lower extremity. RESULTS Patients in this case series reported mild pain (median score 20 on a 100 scale visual analog scale) with some return of plantar sensation in patients with tibial nerve repairs (median score 2/5). Patients demonstrated a decrease in ankle motion (27.5 degrees plantar flexion, 10 degrees extension) and muscle strength (median heel flexor score 3/5). All patients could ambulate independently. Quality of life and function measured by validated instruments revealed minimal disability. We identified 1,767 articles on lower extremity trauma and 14 articles were systematically reviewed. Relative to the case series, published articles reported similarly diminished ankle motion and muscle strength, with reports of mild pain in select studies. Patient reported outcome instruments found variations in the degree of physical disability based on time from the injury. CONCLUSIONS Though limited in number, this case series demonstrates the value of limb salvage even for patients with posterior tibial nerve injury. PMID:26270902

  10. Fertilizing ROSES through the STEM: Interdisciplinary Modules as Pre-service Research Experiences for Secondary STEM Educators (IMPRESS-Ed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Wiita, P. J.; Benoit, M.; Magee, N.

    2013-01-01

    IMPRESS-Ed is a program designed to provide authentic summer research experiences in the space, earth, and atmospheric sciences for pre-service K-12 educators at Long Island University (LIU) and The College of New Jersey (TCNJ). In 2011 and 2012, the program involved five students and took place over eight weeks with recruitment occurring during the preceding academic year. The program was divided into two modules: A common core module and an individual mentored research experience. The common module consisted of three units focusing on data-driven pedagogical approaches in astrophysics, tectonophysics, and atmospheric science, respectively. The common module also featured training sessions in observational astronomy, and use of a 3D geowall and state of the art planetarium. Participants in the program are also offered the opportunity to utilize the available TCNJ facilities with their future students. The individual mentored research module matched student interests with potential projects. All five students demonstrated strong gains in earth and space science literacy compared to a baseline measurement. Each student also reported gaining confidence to incorporate data and research-driven instruction in the space and earth sciences into the K-12 STEM classroom setting. All five research projects were also quite successful: several of the students plan to continue research during the academic year and two students are presenting research findings as first authors here at AAS. Other research results are likely to be presented at this year's American Geophysical Union meeting.

  11. Two-colour pump–probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Allaria, E.; Bencivenga, F.; Borghes, R.; Capotondi, F.; Castronovo, D.; Charalambous, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Danailov, M. B.; De Ninno, G.; Demidovich, A.; Di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Fausti, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Ferrari, E.; Froehlich, L.; Gauthier, D.; Gessini, A.; Giannessi, L.; Ivanov, R.; Kiskinova, M.; Kurdi, G.; Mahieu, B.; Mahne, N.; Nikolov, I.; Masciovecchio, C.; Pedersoli, E.; Penco, G.; Raimondi, L.; Serpico, C.; Sigalotti, P.; Spampinati, S.; Spezzani, C.; Svetina, C.; Trovò, M.; Zangrando, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the dynamics of matter driven to extreme non-equilibrium states by an intense ultrashort X-ray pulse is becoming reality, thanks to the advent of free-electron laser technology that allows development of different schemes for probing the response at variable time delay with a second pulse. Here we report the generation of two-colour extreme ultraviolet pulses of controlled wavelengths, intensity and timing by seeding of high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser with multiple independent laser pulses. The potential of this new scheme is demonstrated by the time evolution of a titanium-grating diffraction pattern, tuning the two coherent pulses to the titanium M-resonance and varying their intensities. This reveals that an intense pulse induces abrupt pattern changes on a time scale shorter than hydrodynamic expansion and ablation. This result exemplifies the essential capabilities of the jitter-free multiple-colour free-electron laser pulse sequences to study evolving states of matter with element sensitivity. PMID:24048228

  12. New Conceptual Design of a Test Module Assembly for Tritium Permeation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'hira, S.; Luo, G.-N.; Nakamura, H.; Shu, W.M.; Kitamura, K.; Nishi, M.

    2005-07-15

    A new conceptual design of a tritium permeation test module assembly was developed, for simulation of tritium permeation in the real plasma facing components and validation of the models and codes for evaluation of the tritium permeation. The assembly was designed for tests using powerful ion sources, which has a capability to simulate condition relevant to that of the ITER divertor. The heat load test of the prototype module has been performed using an electron beam to verify thermal and mechanical behavior of the bonded structure and to assess its structural integrity under the cyclic heat loads. Then, the first tests using tritium ion beam generated by the TPE apparatus at TSTA/LANL with the prototype module was performed and procedure to measure tritium permeated was established. Considerations for tests using the target module with defects generated by neutron irradiation or accelerated ion beam irradiation will be also taken in the new module design.

  13. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): BINARIES, PULSATIONS, AND EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Cantiello, Matteo; Marchant, Pablo; Langer, N.; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Dessart, Luc; Farmer, R.; Timmes, F. X.; Hu, H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Townsley, Dean M.

    2015-09-15

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open-source software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). MESA can now simultaneously evolve an interacting pair of differentially rotating stars undergoing transfer and loss of mass and angular momentum, greatly enhancing the prior ability to model binary evolution. New MESA capabilities in fully coupled calculation of nuclear networks with hundreds of isotopes now allow MESA to accurately simulate the advanced burning stages needed to construct supernova progenitor models. Implicit hydrodynamics with shocks can now be treated with MESA, enabling modeling of the entire massive star lifecycle, from pre-main-sequence evolution to the onset of core collapse and nucleosynthesis from the resulting explosion. Coupling of the GYRE non-adiabatic pulsation instrument with MESA allows for new explorations of the instability strips for massive stars while also accelerating the astrophysical use of asteroseismology data. We improve the treatment of mass accretion, giving more accurate and robust near-surface profiles. A new MESA capability to calculate weak reaction rates “on-the-fly” from input nuclear data allows better simulation of accretion induced collapse of massive white dwarfs and the fate of some massive stars. We discuss the ongoing challenge of chemical diffusion in the strongly coupled plasma regime, and exhibit improvements in MESA that now allow for the simulation of radiative levitation of heavy elements in hot stars. We close by noting that the MESA software infrastructure provides bit-for-bit consistency for all results across all the supported platforms, a profound enabling capability for accelerating MESA's development.

  14. In-Flight Performance of the Polarization Modulator in the CLASP Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non-uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  15. In-flight performance of the polarization modulator in the CLASP rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-07-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non- uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  16. 'Do you remember the first time?' Host plant preference in a moth is modulated by experiences during larval feeding and adult mating.

    PubMed

    Proffit, Magali; Khallaf, Mohammed A; Carrasco, David; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In insects, like in other animals, experience-based modulation of preference, a form of phenotypic plasticity, is common in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of multiple fitness-relevant experiences on insect preference remains largely unexplored. For the multivoltine polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis we investigated effects of larval and adult experiences on subsequent reproductive behaviours. We demonstrate, for the first time in male and female insects, that mating experience on a plant modulates plant preference in subsequent reproductive behaviours, whereas exposure to the plant alone or plant together with sex pheromone does not affect this preference. When including larval feeding experiences, we found that both larval rearing and adult mating experiences modulate host plant preference. These findings represent the first evidence that host plant preferences in polyphagous insects are determined by a combination of innate preferences modulated by sensory feedback triggered by multiple rewarding experiences throughout their lifetime.

  17. The overvoltage protection module for the power supply system for the pixel detector at Belle II experiment at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, P.; Kisielewski, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the overvoltage protection modules (OVP) for the power supply (PS) system of the Belle II pixel detector (PXD) are described. The aim of the OVP is to protect the detector and associated electronics against overvoltage conditions. Most critical in the system are voltages supplying the front-end ASICs. The PXD detector consists of the DEPFET sensor modules with integrated chips like the Drain Current Digitizer, the Switcher and the Data Handling Processor. These chips, implemented in modern sub-micron technologies, are quite vulnerable to variations in the supply voltages. The PXD will be placed in the Belle II experiment as close as possible to the interaction point, where access during experiment is very limited or even impossible, thus the PS and OVP systems exploit the remote-sensing method. Overvoltage conditions are due to failures of the PS itself, wrong setting of the output voltages or transient voltages coming out of hard noisy environment of the experiment. The OVP modules are parts of the PS modules. For powering the PXD 40 PS modules are placed 15 m outside the Belle II spectrometer. Each one is equipped with the OVP board. All voltages (22) are grouped in 4 domains: Analog, Digital, Steering and Gate which have independent grounds. The OVP boards are designed from integrated circuits from Linear Technology. All configurations were simulated with the Spice program. The control electronics is designed in a Xilinx CPLD. Two types of integrated circuits were used. LT4356 surge stopper protects loads from high voltage transients. The output voltages are limited to a safe value and also protect loads against over current faults. For less critical voltages, the LTC2912 voltage monitors are used that detect under-voltage and overvoltage events. It has to be noted that the OVP system is working independently of any other protection of the PS system, which increases its overall reliability. (authors)

  18. Apollo experience report: Command and service module controls and displays subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. B.; Swint, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the command and service module controls and displays subsystem is presented. The subsystem is described, and operational requirements, component history, problems and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations for the subsystem are included.

  19. Extremely low frequency (ELF) stray magnetic fields of laboratory equipment: a possible co-exposure conducting experiments on cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gresits, Iván; Necz, Péter Pál; Jánossy, Gábor; Thuróczy, György

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields were conducted in the environment of commercial laboratory equipment in order to evaluate the possible co-exposure during the experimental processes on cell cultures. Three types of device were evaluated: a cell culture CO2 incubator, a thermostatic water bath and a laboratory shaker table. These devices usually have electric motors, heating wires and electronic control systems, therefore may expose the cell cultures to undesirable ELF stray magnetic fields. Spatial distributions of magnetic field time domain signal waveform and frequency spectral analysis (FFT) were processed. Long- and short-term variation of stray magnetic field was also evaluated under normal use of investigated laboratory devices. The results show that the equipment under test may add a considerable ELF magnetic field to the ambient environmental magnetic field or to the intentional exposure to ELF, RF or other physical/chemical agents. The maximum stray magnetic fields were higher than 3 µT, 20 µT and 75 µT in the CO2 incubator, in water bath and on the laboratory shaker table, respectively, with high variation of spatial distribution and time domain. Our investigation emphasizes possible confounding factors conducting cell culture studies related to low-level ELF-EMF exposure due to the existing stray magnetic fields in the ambient environment of laboratory equipment.

  20. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, Lembit; Kartashov, Dmitry; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Tolochek, Raisa

    2013-12-01

    "Protective curtain" was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose - reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors.

  1. RF Power and Magnetic Field Modulation Experiments with Simple Mirror Geometry in the Central Cell of Hanbit Device

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Bak, J.G.; Jhang, H.G.; Kim, S.S.

    2005-01-15

    The radio frequency (RF) stabilization effects to investigate the characteristics of the interchange instability by RF power and magnetic field modulation experiments were performed near {omega}/{omega}{sub i} {approx} = 1 and with low beta ({approx} 0.1%) plasmas in the central cell of the Hanbit mirror device. Temporal behaviors of the interchange mode were measured and analyzed when the interchange mode was triggered by sudden changes of the RF power and magnetic field intensity.

  2. Experience-Based Quality Control of Clinical Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin L.; Brame, R. Scott; Low, Daniel A.; Mutic, Sasa

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To incorporate a quality control tool, according to previous planning experience and patient-specific anatomic information, into the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan generation process and to determine whether the tool improved treatment plan quality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 42 IMRT plans demonstrated a correlation between the fraction of organs at risk (OARs) overlapping the planning target volume and the mean dose. This yielded a model, predicted dose = prescription dose (0.2 + 0.8 [1 - exp(-3 overlapping planning target volume/volume of OAR)]), that predicted the achievable mean doses according to the planning target volume overlap/volume of OAR and the prescription dose. The model was incorporated into the planning process by way of a user-executable script that reported the predicted dose for any OAR. The script was introduced to clinicians engaged in IMRT planning and deployed thereafter. The script's effect was evaluated by tracking {delta} = (mean dose-predicted dose)/predicted dose, the fraction by which the mean dose exceeded the model. Results: All OARs under investigation (rectum and bladder in prostate cancer; parotid glands, esophagus, and larynx in head-and-neck cancer) exhibited both smaller {delta} and reduced variability after script implementation. These effects were substantial for the parotid glands, for which the previous {delta} = 0.28 {+-} 0.24 was reduced to {delta} = 0.13 {+-} 0.10. The clinical relevance was most evident in the subset of cases in which the parotid glands were potentially salvageable (predicted dose <30 Gy). Before script implementation, an average of 30.1 Gy was delivered to the salvageable cases, with an average predicted dose of 20.3 Gy. After implementation, an average of 18.7 Gy was delivered to salvageable cases, with an average predicted dose of 17.2 Gy. In the prostate cases, the rectum model excess was reduced from {delta} = 0.28 {+-} 0.20 to {delta} = 0.07 {+-} 0

  3. Wavelength locking of single emitters and multi-emitter modules: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanson, Dan; Rappaport, Noam; Peleg, Ophir; Berk, Yuri; Dahan, Nir; Klumel, Genady; Baskin, Ilya; Levy, Moshe

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength-stabilized high-brightness single emitters are commonly used in fiber-coupled laser diode modules for pumping Yb-doped lasers at 976 nm, and Nd-doped ones at 808 nm. We investigate the spectral behavior of single emitters under wavelength-selective feedback from a volume Bragg (or hologram) grating (VBG) in a multi-emitter module. By integrating a full VBG model as a multi-layer thin film structure with commercial raytracing software, we simulated wavelength locking conditions as a function of beam divergence and angular alignment tolerances. Good correlation between the simulated VBG feedback strength and experimentally measured locking ranges, in both VBG misalignment angle and laser temperature, is demonstrated. The challenges of assembling multi-emitter modules based on beam-stacked optical architectures are specifically addressed, where the wavelength locking conditions must be achieved simultaneously with high fiber coupling efficiency for each emitter in the module. It is shown that angular misorientation between fast and slow-axis collimating optics can have a dramatic effect on the spectral and power performance of the module. We report the development of our NEON-S wavelength-stabilized fiber laser pump module, which uses a VBG to provide wavelength-selective optical feedback in the collimated portion of the beam. Powered by our purpose-developed high-brightness single emitters, the module delivers 47 W output at 11 A from an 0.15 NA fiber and a 0.3 nm linewidth at 976 nm. Preliminary wavelength-locking results at 808 nm are also presented.

  4. Molecular correlates of cortical network modulation by long-term sensory experience in the adult rat barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment up-regulates cortical expression of neuropeptide mRNAs and down-regulates immediate-early gene (IEG) mRNAs specifically in the barrel cortex, and not in other brain regions. The present data suggest a central role of neuropeptides in the fine-tuning of sensory cortical circuits by long-term experience. PMID:25171421

  5. Development of a 150 GHz MMIC module prototype for large-scale CMB radiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voll, Patricia; Lau, Judy M.; Sieth, Matthew; Church, Sarah E.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Soria, Mary; Gaier, Todd C.; Van Winkle, Dan; Tantawi, Sami

    2010-07-01

    A prototype heterodyne amplifier module has been designed for operation from 140 to 170 GHz using Monolithic Millimeter- Wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) low noise InP High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. In the last few decades, astronomical instruments have made state-of-the-art measurements operating over the frequency range of 5-100 GHz, using HEMT amplifiers that offer low noise, low power dissipation, high reliability, and inherently wide bandwidths. Recent advances in low-noise MMIC amplifiers, coupled with industry-driven advances in high frequency signal interconnects and in the miniaturization and integration of many standard components, have improved the frequency range and scalability of receiver modules that are sensitive to a wide (20-25%) simultaneous bandwidth. HEMT-based receiver arrays with excellent noise and scalability are already starting to be manufactured around 100 GHz, but the advances in technology should make it possible to develop receiver modules with even higher operation frequency - up to 200 GHz. This paper discusses the design of a compact, scalable module centered on the 150 GHz atmospheric window using components known to operate well at these frequencies. Arrays equipped with hundreds of these modules can be optimized for many different astrophysical measurement techniques, including spectroscopy and interferometry.

  6. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  7. On the interference of J(HH) modulation in HSQMBC-IPAP and HMBC-IPAP experiments.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Parella, Teodor

    2013-09-01

    The effects of phase modulation due to homonuclear proton-proton coupling constants in HSQMBC-IPAP and HMBC-IPAP experiments are experimentally evaluated. We show that accurate values of small proton-carbon coupling constants, (n)J(CH), can be extracted even for phase-distorted cross-peaks obtained from a selHSQMBC experiment applied simultaneously on two mutually J-coupled protons. On the other hand, an assessment of the reliability of (n)J(CH) measurement from distorted cross-peaks obtained in broadband IPAP versions of equivalent HMBC and HSQMBC experiments is also presented. Finally, we show that HMBC-COSY experiments could be an excellent complement to HMBC for the measurement of small (n)J(CH) values.

  8. Closed-loop experiment of resonator integrated optic gyro with triangular wave phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yichuang; Liu, Huilan; Zhi, Yinzhou; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie

    2014-10-01

    A closed-loop resonator integrated optic gyro (RIOG) scheme based on triangular wave phase modulation is proposed. Only one integrated optic modulator (IOM) is employed. Triangular wave is applied on the IOM to modulate the passing light wave, and the feedback serrodyne wave is superimposed upon the triangular wave to compensate the resonant frequency-difference. The experimental setup is established and the related measurements are performed. The results show that the proposed scheme can realize the closed-loop RIOG employing an IOM, which has the advantage of miniature size. A bias stability of 0.39 deg/s (10 s integration time) over 1 hour is achieved. Moreover, good linearity and large dynamic range are also experimental demonstrated.

  9. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  10. "Systems Education Experiences: Transforming high school science education through unique partnerships, inquiry based modules, and ocean systems studies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, C.; Orellana, M. V.; Baliga, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in experimental practice, accompanying computational techniques and systems thinking, have advanced biological inquiry. However, current scientific practices do not typically resemble the science taught in schools. As a result, students are missing out on significant opportunities to develop the critical thinking that is needed both in science and many professions. As a potential solution to this ongoing problem in science education, we are using current scientific practices to create classroom activities, packaged in easy-to-use curriculum modules, which promote conceptual development of standards based instructional outcomes. By bringing together students, teachers, researchers, engineers, and programmers we bring needed systems thinking and engaging inquiry experiences to schools throughout Washington State and the nation. Teachers are trained and continuously supported as they learn needed content and methods to bring this new science into their classrooms. Current research on ocean acidification, changing biogeochemical cycles, and the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of ocean systems studies have been translated through our newest curriculum module. Developing this module presented a significant challenge due to the urgency and importance of instilling understanding in high school students as they prepare to make decisions on the highly charged political, economic, and scientific issues of climate change and ocean acidification. Challenges have been overcome through partnerships and through infusing the habits of sustainability, high level thinking, systems modeling, scientific design, and communication. The Next Generation Standards have opened the door for nationwide dissemination of the module as we embark enabling students to think, understand, and contribute to scientific research.

  11. D0 Decomissioning : Storage of Depleted Uranium Modules Inside D0 Calorimeters after the Termination of D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael; /Fermilab

    2011-09-21

    Dzero liquid Argon calorimeters contain hadronic modules made of depleted uranium plates. After the termination of DO detector's operation, liquid Argon will be transferred back to Argon storage Dewar, and all three calorimeters will be warmed up. At this point, there is no intention to disassemble the calorimeters. The depleted uranium modules will stay inside the cryostats. Depleted uranium is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. It is slightly radioactive, emits alpha, beta and gamma radiation. External radiation hazards are minimal. Alpha radiation has no external exposure hazards, as dead layers of skin stop it; beta radiation might have effects only when there is a direct contact with skin; and gamma rays are negligible - levels are extremely low. Depleted uranium is a pyrophoric material. Small particles (such as shavings, powder etc.) may ignite with presence of Oxygen (air). Also, in presence of air and moisture it can oxidize. Depleted uranium can absorb moisture and keep oxidizing later, even after air and moisture are excluded. Uranium oxide can powder and flake off. This powder is also pyrographic. Uranium oxide may create health problems if inhaled. Since uranium oxide is water soluble, it may enter the bloodstream and cause toxic effects.

  12. Apollo program soil mechanics experiment. [interaction of the lunar module with the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The soil mechanics investigation was conducted to obtain information relating to the landing interaction of the lunar module (LM) with the lunar surface, and lunar soil erosion caused by the spacecraft engine exhaust. Results obtained by study of LM landing performance on each Apollo mission are summarized.

  13. Apollo experience report: Command and service module sequential events control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo command and service module sequential events control subsystem is described, with particular emphasis on the major systems and component problems and solutions. The subsystem requirements, design, and development and the test and flight history of the hardware are discussed. Recommendations to avoid similar problems on future programs are outlined.

  14. Apollo experience report. Guidance and control systems: Command and service module stabilization and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littleton, O. P.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts, design, development, testing, and flight results of the command and service module stabilization and control system are discussed. The period of time covered was from November 1961 to December 1972. Also included are a functional description of the system, a discussion of the major problems, and recommendations for future programs.

  15. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Command and service module entry monitor subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reina, B., Jr.; Patterson, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual aspects of the command and service module entry monitor subsystem, together with an interpretation of the displays and their associated relationship to entry trajectory control, are presented. The entry monitor subsystem is described, and the problems encountered during the developmental phase and the first five manned Apollo flights are discussed in conjunction with the design improvements implemented.

  16. Librarian-Faculty Collaboration on a Library Research Assignment and Module for College Experience Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Anne; Barbier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    A librarian and faculty member collaborated on creating a library research module for students in the faculty member's college success classes to help them learn the fundamentals of information literacy. Using the assignment "My Ideal Job," the students met four or more times with the librarian in a computer classroom to learn how to do…

  17. On the design of experiments for the study of extreme field limits in the ultra-relativistic interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Z.; Hayashi, Yukio; Kando, Masaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Kiminori; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Chen, Pisin; Neely, David; Kato, Yoshiaki; Narozhny, Nikolay B.; Korn, Georg

    2011-06-01

    The critical electric field of quantum electrodynamics, called also the Schwinger field, is so strong that it produces electron-positron pairs from vacuum, converting the energy of light into matter. Since the dawn of quantum electrodynamics, there has been a dream on how to reach it on Earth. With the rise of laser technology this field has become feasible through the construction of extremely high power lasers or/and with the sophisticated use of nonlinear processes in relativistic plasmas. This is one of the most attractive motivations for extremely high power laser development, i.e. producing matter from vacuum by pure light in fundamental process of quantum electrodynamics in the nonperturbative regime. Recently it has been realized that a laser with intensity well below the Schwinger limit can create an avalanche of electron-positron pairs similar to a discharge before attaining the Schwinger field. It has also been realized that the Schwinger limit can be reached using an appropriate configuration of laser beams. In experiments on the collision of laser light and high intensity electromagnetic pulses generated by relativistic flying mirrors, with electron bunches produced by a conventional accelerator and with laser wake field accelerated electrons the studying of extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves is proposed. The regimes of dominant radiation reaction, which completely changes the electromagnetic wave-matter interaction, will be revealed. This will result in a new powerful source of high brightness gamma-rays. A possibility of the demonstration of the electronpositron pair creation in vacuum via multi-photon processes can be realized. This will allow modeling under terrestrial laboratory conditions neutron star magnetospheres, cosmological gamma ray bursts and the Leptonic Era of the Universe.

  18. Simple Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique and Preliminary Experience for T1-2 Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, David I.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Barker, Jerry L.; Mason, Bryan M.S.; Garcia, John A. C.; Lewin, Jan S.; Holsinger, F. Christopher; Stasney, C. Richard; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Morrison, William H.; Garden, Adam S.; Ang, K. Kian

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry and feasibility of carotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early glottic cancer and to report preliminary clinical experience. Methods and Materials: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine radiotherapy (DICOM-RT) datasets from 6 T1-2 conventionally treated glottic cancer patients were used to create both conventional IMRT plans. We developed a simplified IMRT planning algorithm with three fields and limited segments. Conventional and IMRT plans were compared using generalized equivalent uniform dose and dose-volume parameters for in-field carotid arteries, target volumes, and organs at risk. We have treated 11 patients with this simplified IMRT technique. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy consistently reduced radiation dose to the carotid arteries (p < 0.05) while maintaining the clinical target volume coverage. With conventional planning, median carotid V35, V50, and V63 were 100%, 100%, and 69.0%, respectively. With IMRT planning these decreased to 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.01). Radiation planning and treatment times were similar for conventional radiotherapy and IMRT. Treatment results have been excellent thus far. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduced unnecessary radiation dose to the carotid arteries compared with conventional lateral fields while maintaining clinical target volume coverage. Further experience and longer follow-up will be required to demonstrate outcomes for cancer control and carotid artery effects.

  19. Localized Fast-Ion Induced Heat Loads in Test Blanket Module Mockup Experiments on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, R. V.; Ellis, R. A.; Nazikian, R.; McLean, A. G.; Brooks, N. H.; Schaffer, M. J.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Koskela, T.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Spong, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    Localized hot spots can be created in ITER on the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) because the ferritic steel of the TBMs distorts the local magnetic field near the modules and alters fast ion confinement. Predicting the TBM heat load levels is important for assessing their effects on the ITER first wall. Experiments in DIII-D were carried out with a mock-up of the ITER TBM ferromagnetic error field to provide data for validation of fast-ion orbit following codes. The front surface temperature of the protective TBM tiles was imaged directly with a calibrated infrared camera and heat loads were extracted. The detailed spot sizes and measured heat loads are compared with results from heat load calculations performed with a suite of orbit following codes. The codes reproduce the hot spots well, thereby validating the codes and giving confidence in predictions for fast-ion heat loads in ITER.

  20. X-ray diffraction experiments on the Materials in Extreme Conditions (MEC) LCLS x-ray FEL beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond; Fratanduono, Dayne; Wicks, June; Duffy, Tom; Lee, Hae Ja; Granados, Eduardo; Heimann, Philip; Gleason, Arianna; Bolme, Cynthia; Swift, Damian; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon; Collins, Rip

    2015-06-01

    The experiments described here were conducted on the MEC beamline hutch at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source. A 10 ns 527 nm laser pulse was used to shock compress 60-100 μm thick NaCl and Graphite samples. LCLS x-rays (40 fs, 8 keV), scattered off the shocked sample, were recorded on several pixel array detectors positioned downstream. The diffracted x-ray pattern allows us to determine changes in crystal structure at Mbar pressures and over nanosecond timescales. In this talk we detail the experimental setup, the current capabilities of the MEC laser and the considerations for optimizing the target design. We will describe the wave interactions within the shock-compressed target and the use of a 1D hydrocode to describe the pressure, temperature and density conditions within the target assembly as a function of time and Lagrangian position. We present observations of the B1-B2 phase transition in NaCl and subsequent back transformation during release to ambient pressure, and compare these findings to gas gun and static data. We also present results from a preliminary study of the shock-induced graphite to diamond transformation.

  1. Analysis of pre-flight modulator voltage calibration data for the Voyager plasma science experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastov, Ognen

    1988-01-01

    The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) modulator calibration (MVM) data analysis was undertaken in order to check the correctness of the fast A/D converter formulas that connect low voltage monitor signals (MV) with digital outputs (DN), to determine the proportionality constants between the actual modulator grid potential (V) and the monitor voltage (MV), and to establish an algorithm to link the digitized readouts (DN) with the actual grid potential (V). The analysis results are surprising in that the derived conversion constants deviate by fairly significant amounts from their nominal values. However, it must be kept in mind that the test results which were used for analysis may be very imprecise. Even if it is assumed that the test result errors are very large, they do no appear to be capable to account for all discrepancies between the theoretical expectations and the results of the analysis. Measurements with the flight spare instrument appear to be the only means of investigating these effects further.

  2. Bounds on diurnal modulations from the COSME-II dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collar, J. I.; Avignone, F. T.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Garcia, E.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nuñez-Lagos, R.; Reeves, J. H.; Saenz, C.; Villar, J. A.

    1992-07-01

    A search was conducted for diurnal modulation in the background of the 0.234 kg germanium detector, COSME-II, due to the hypothetized scattering of cold dark matter (CDM) particles in the Earth. Bounds on CDM are presented, and a theory of CDM scattering in the Earth is discussed. Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830.

  3. Apollo experience report the command and service module milestone review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brendle, H. L.; York, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sequence of the command and service module milestone review process is given, and the Customer Acceptance Readiness Review and Flight Readiness Review plans are presented. Contents of the System Summary Acceptance Documents for the two formal spacecraft reviews are detailed, and supplemental data required for presentation to the review boards are listed. Typical forms, correspondence, supporting documentation, and minutes of a board meeting are included.

  4. Fertilizing ROSES through the STEM: Interdisciplinary Modules as Pre-service Research Experiences for Secondary STEM Educators (IMPRESS-Ed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Kavic, M.; Benoit, M. H.; Wiita, P.

    2011-12-01

    IMPRESS-Ed is a program designed to provide authentic summer research experiences in the space, earth, and atmospheric sciences for pre-service K-12 educators at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ). In 2011, the program involved five students and took place over eight weeks with recruitment occurring during the preceding academic year. The program was divided into two modules: A common core module and an individual mentored research experience. The common module consisted of three units focusing on data-driven pedagogical approaches in astrophysics, tectonophysics, and atmospheric science, respectively. The common module also featured training sessions in observational astronomy, and use of a 3D geowall and state of the art planetarium. Participants in the program are also offered the opportunity to utilize the available TCNJ facilities with their future students. Given that a large number of graduates from the TCNJ take positions in local New Jersey schools, the opportunity to make use of these facilities at a future time would be of great significance to them and their future students. The individual mentored research module matched student interests with potential projects. Research led by M.H. Benoit analyzed gravity data from the NASA-GRACE mission to find lithospheric density contrasts beneath the eastern US. A student working with N.B. Magee used data from NASA satellites CALIPSO, CloudSat, and AQUA-MODIS to study the dynamics of convective cloud tops. Research projects led by M. Kavic performed simulations to investigate the possibility of detecting superconducting cosmic strings using radio observations and also designed and constructed a radio interferometer based on the NASA's Radio-Jove program. P. Wiita supervised a research project studying star-forming regions of active galaxies through analysis of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and GALEX. The research program was also incorporated into the framework of the TCNJ Mentored Undergraduate Summer

  5. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber ... Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ...

  6. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  7. Experience-based modulation of behavioural responses to plant volatiles and other sensory cues in insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P; Anton, S

    2014-08-01

    Plant volatiles are important cues for many herbivorous insects when choosing a suitable host plant and finding a mating partner. An appropriate behavioural response to sensory cues from plants and other insects is crucial for survival and fitness. As the natural environment can show both large spatial and temporal variability, herbivores may need to show behavioural plasticity to the available cues. By using earlier experiences, insects can adapt to local variation of resources. Experience is well known to affect sensory-guided behaviour in parasitoids and social insects, but there is also increasing evidence that it influences host plant choice and the probability of finding a mating partner in herbivorous insects. In this review, we will focus upon behavioural changes in holometabolous insect herbivores during host plant choice and localization of mating partners, modulated by experience to sensory cues. The experience can be acquired during both the larval and the adult stage and can influence later responses to plant volatiles and other sensory cues not only within the developmental stage but also after metamorphosis. Furthermore, we will address the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the experience-dependent behavioural adaptations and discuss ecological and evolutionary aspects of insect behavioural plasticity based upon experience.

  8. Experience in judging intent to harm modulates parahippocampal activity: an fMRI study with experienced CCTV operators.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Neary, Catherine; Gillard, Julia; Pollick, Frank E

    2014-08-01

    Does visual experience in judging intent to harm change our brain responses? And if it does, what are the mechanisms affected? We addressed these questions by studying the abilities of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) operators, who must identify the presence of hostile intentions using only visual cues in complex scenes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess which brain processes are modulated by CCTV experience. To this end we scanned 15 CCTV operators and 15 age and gender matched novices while they watched CCTV videos of 16 sec, and asked them to report whether each clip would end in violence or not. We carried out four separate whole-brain analyses including 3 model-based analyses and one analysis of intersubject correlation to examine differences between the two groups. The three model analyses were based on 1) experimentally pre-defined clip activity labels of fight, confrontation, playful, and neutral behaviour, 2) participants' reports of violent outcomes during the scan, and 3) visual saliency within each clip, as pre-assessed using eye-tracking. The analyses identified greater activation in the right superior frontal gyrus for operators than novices when viewing playful behaviour, and reduced activity for operators in comparison with novices in the occipital and temporal regions, irrespective of the type of clips viewed. However, in the parahippocampal gyrus, all three model-based analyses consistently showed reduced activity for experienced CCTV operators. Activity in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus (uncus) was found to increase with years of CCTV experience. The intersubject correlation analysis revealed a further effect of experience, with CCTV operators showing correlated activity in fewer brain regions (superior and middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the ventral striatum) than novices. Our results indicate that long visual experience in action observation, aimed to predict harmful behaviour

  9. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-03-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions.

  10. Apollo experience report: Development of guidance targeting techniques for the command module and launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yencharis, J. D.; Wiley, R. F.; Davis, R. S.; Holmes, Q. A.; Zeiler, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the guidance targeting techniques for the Apollo command module and launch vehicle is discussed for four types of maneuvers: (1) translunar injection, (2) translunar midcourse, (3) lunar orbit insertion, and (4) return to earth. The development of real-time targeting programs for these maneuvers and the targeting procedures represented are discussed. The material is intended to convey historically the development of the targeting techniques required to meet the defined target objectives and to illustrate the solutions to problems encountered during that development.

  11. Apollo experience report: Command and service module electrical power distribution on subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munford, R. E.; Hendrix, B.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the design philosophy and development of the Apollo command and service modules electrical power distribution subsystem, a brief history of the evolution of the total system, and some of the more significant components within the system are discussed. The electrical power distribution primarily consisted of individual control units, interconnecting units, and associated protective devices. Because each unit within the system operated more or less independently of other units, the discussion of the subsystem proceeds generally in descending order of complexity; the discussion begins with the total system, progresses to the individual units of the system, and concludes with the components within the units.

  12. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people’s actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people’s actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions. PMID:27014025

  13. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions.

  14. Beam steering experiment with two cascaded ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators.

    PubMed

    Engström, David; Hård, Sverker; Rudquist, Per; Dhavé, Koen; Matuszczyk, Tomasz; Skeren, Marek; Löfving, Björn

    2004-03-01

    The design, construction, and evaluation of a laser beam steerer that uses two binary ferroelectric liquid-crystal (FLC) spatial light modulators (SLMs) operated in conjunction are presented. The system is characterized by having few components and is in principle lossless. Experimentally, a throughput of approximately 20% was achieved. The simple system design was achieved because of the high tilt angle FLC material used in the SLMs, which were specifically designed and manufactured for this study. By coherently imaging the first SLM onto the second SLM, pixel by pixel, we obtained an effective four-level phase structure with a phase step of 90 degrees. An appropriate alignment procedure is presented. The beam steering performance of the system is reported and analyzed.

  15. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  16. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  17. Modulation of folding energy landscape by charge-charge interactions: linking experiments with computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Tzul, Franco O; Schweiker, Katrina L; Makhatadze, George I

    2015-01-20

    The kinetics of folding-unfolding of a structurally diverse set of four proteins optimized for thermodynamic stability by rational redesign of surface charge-charge interactions is characterized experimentally. The folding rates are faster for designed variants compared with their wild-type proteins, whereas the unfolding rates are largely unaffected. A simple structure-based computational model, which incorporates the Debye-Hückel formalism for the electrostatics, was used and found to qualitatively recapitulate the experimental results. Analysis of the energy landscapes of the designed versus wild-type proteins indicates the differences in refolding rates may be correlated with the degree of frustration of their respective energy landscapes. Our simulations indicate that naturally occurring wild-type proteins have frustrated folding landscapes due to the surface electrostatics. Optimization of the surface electrostatics seems to remove some of that frustration, leading to enhanced formation of native-like contacts in the transition-state ensembles (TSE) and providing a less frustrated energy landscape between the unfolded and TS ensembles. Macroscopically, this results in faster folding rates. Furthermore, analyses of pairwise distances and radii of gyration suggest that the less frustrated energy landscapes for optimized variants are a result of more compact unfolded and TS ensembles. These findings from our modeling demonstrates that this simple model may be used to: (i) gain a detailed understanding of charge-charge interactions and their effects on modulating the energy landscape of protein folding and (ii) qualitatively predict the kinetic behavior of protein surface electrostatic interactions.

  18. Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required.

  19. Fast-ion effects during test blanket module simulation experiments in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, B. V.; Ellis, R.; Gorelenkova, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Nazikian, R.; Salmi, A.; Schaffer, M. J.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Spong, D. A.; Koskela, T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mock-up of two test blanket modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot, predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot, which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  20. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.

  1. Design and Fabrication of TES Detector Modules for the TIME-Pilot [CII] Intensity Mapping Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunacek, J.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bumble, B.; Chang, T.-C.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Cooray, A.; Crites, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Gong, Y.; Kenyon, M.; Koch, P.; Li, C.-T.; O'Brient, R.; Shirokoff, E.; Shiu, C.; Staniszewski, Z.; Uzgil, B.; Zemcov, M.

    2016-08-01

    We are developing a series of close-packed modular detector arrays for TIME-Pilot, a new mm-wavelength grating spectrometer array that will map the intensity fluctuations of the redshifted 157.7 \\upmu m emission line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]) from redshift z ˜ 5 to 9. TIME-Pilot's two banks of 16 parallel-plate waveguide spectrometers (one bank per polarization) will have a spectral range of 183-326 GHz and a resolving power of R ˜ 100. The spectrometers use a curved diffraction grating to disperse and focus the light on a series of output arcs, each sampled by 60 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers with gold micro-mesh absorbers. These low-noise detectors will be operated from a 250 mK base temperature and are designed to have a background-limited NEP of {˜ }10^{-17} mathrm {W}/mathrm {Hz}^{1/2}. This proceeding presents an overview of the detector design in the context of the TIME-Pilot instrument. Additionally, a prototype detector module produced at the Microdevices Laboratory at JPL is shown.

  2. Modulation of isochronous movements in a flexible environment: links between motion and auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Del Tongo, Claudia; Cohen, Erez James; Dalle Mura, Gabriele; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2014-06-01

    The ability to perform isochronous movements while listening to a rhythmic auditory stimulus requires a flexible process that integrates timing information with movement. Here, we explored how non-temporal and temporal characteristics of an auditory stimulus (presence, interval occupancy, and tempo) affect motor performance. These characteristics were chosen on the basis of their ability to modulate the precision and accuracy of synchronized movements. Subjects have participated in sessions in which they performed sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions under various conditions. The conditions were chosen on the basis of the defined characteristics. Kinematic parameters were evaluated during each session, and temporal parameters were analyzed. In order to study the effects of the auditory stimulus, we have minimized all other sensory information that could interfere with its perception or affect the performance of repeated isochronous movements. The present study shows that the distinct characteristics of an auditory stimulus significantly influence isochronous movements by altering their duration. Results provide evidence for an adaptable control of timing in the audio-motor coupling for isochronous movements. This flexibility would make plausible the use of different encoding strategies to adapt audio-motor coupling for specific tasks.

  3. CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists

  4. Design of a high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer system for plasma impurity studies on the stellarator experiment Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, W.; Bertschinger, G.; Burhenn, R.; König, R.; Jourdain, E.

    2004-10-01

    The design for a set of four high-efficiency vacuum ultraviolet/extreme ultraviolet (VUV/XUV) spectrometers has been developed, which shall be used for plasma impurity monitoring and impurity transport studies on the stellarator experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). The new high-efficiency XUV overview spectrometer (HEXOS) system covers the wavelength range from 2.5 to 160 nm, divided into four subsections with some overlapping, thus achieving a complete coverage of prominent spectral lines from the relevant impurity elements. Taking into account spectrometer geometries and detector geometries, toroidal holographic diffraction gratings are numerically optimized to maximize the total throughput while maintaining good spectral resolution. The performance of the spectrometers is tested and optimized by means of ray tracing calculations. In order to prove the potential for line identification as well as the expected levels of signal intensity and noise figures of the new systems, spectra are simulated using the impurity transport code STRAHL. Under typical plasma conditions on W7-X the new spectrometers will allow clear identification of all relevant impurity elements in the plasma. The large collected photon flux results in a high accuracy for the measured line intensities, even when operating the spectrometers at spectra rates of 1000/s.

  5. Untargeted metabolite profiling reveals that nitric oxide bioynthesis is an endogenous modulator of carotenoid biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans and is required for extreme ionizing radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Drad) is the most radioresistant organism known. Although mechanisms that underlie the extreme radioresistance of Drad are incompletely defined, resistance to UV irradiation-induced killing was found to be greatly attenuated in an NO synthase (NOS) knockout strain of Drad (Δnos). We now show that endogenous NO production is also critical for protection of Drad against γ-irradiation (3000 Gy), a result of accelerated growth recovery, not protection against killing. NO-donor treatment rescued radiosensitization in Δnos Drad but did not influence radiosensitivity in wild type Drad. To discover molecular mechanisms by which endogenous NO confers radioresistance, metabolite profiling studies were performed. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolite profiling in Drad quantified relative abundances of 1425 molecules and levels of 294 of these were altered by >5-fold (p < 0.01). Unexpectedly, these studies identified a dramatic perturbation in carotenoid biosynthetic intermediates in Δnos Drad, including a reciprocal switch in the pathway end-products from deoxydeinoxanthin to deinoxanthin. NO supplementation rescued these nos deletion-associated changes in carotenoid biosynthesis, and fully-restored radioresistance to wildtype levels. Because carotenoids were shown to be important contributors to radioprotection in Drad, our findings suggest that endogenously-produced NO serves to maintain a spectrum of carotenoids critical for Drad's ability to withstand radiation insult.

  6. Untargeted Metabolite Profiling Reveals that Nitric Oxide Bioynthesis is an Endogenous Modulator of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans and is Required for Extreme Ionizing Radiation Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Drad) is the most radioresistant organism known. Although mechanisms that underlie the extreme radioresistance of Drad are incompletely defined, resistance to UV irradiation-induced killing was found to be greatly attenuated in an NO synthase (NOS) knockout strain of Drad (Δnos). We now show that endogenous NO production is also critical for protection of Drad against γ-irradiation (3000 Gy), a result of accelerated growth recovery, not protection against killing. NO-donor treatment rescued radiosensitization in Δnos Drad but did not influence radiosensitivity in wild type Drad. To discover molecular mechanisms by which endogenous NO confers radioresistance, metabolite profiling studies were performed. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolite profiling in Drad quantified relative abundances of 1,425 molecules and levels of 294 of these were altered by >5-fold (p< 0.01). Unexpectedly, these studies identified a dramatic perturbation in carotenoid biosynthetic intermediates in Δnos Drad, including a reciprocal switch in the pathway end-products from deoxydeinoxanthin to deinoxanthin. NO supplementation rescued these nos deletion-associated changes in carotenoid biosynthesis, and fully-restored radioresistance to wildtype levels. Because carotenoids were shown to be important contributors to radioprotection in Drad, our findings suggest that endogenously-produced NO serves to maintain a spectrum of carotenoids critical for Drad’s ability to withstand radiation insult. PMID:26550929

  7. Experience modulates the psychophysiological response of airborne warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; de la Vega, Ricardo; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Lautenschlaeger, Mario; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to analyse the effect of experience level in the psychophysiological response and specific fine motor skills of novel and expert parachute warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, salivary cortisol, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand-grip strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills and cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confident before and after a tactical combat parachute jump in 40 warfighters divided in two group, novel (n=17) and expert group (n=23). Novels presented a higher heart rate, lactate, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and a lower self-confident than experts during the jump. We concluded that experience level has a direct effect on the psychophysiological response since novel paratroopers presented a higher psychophysiological response than compared to the expert ones, however this result neither affected the specific fine motor skills nor the muscle structure after a tactical combat parachute jump.

  8. The perception of speech modulation cues in lexical tones is guided by early language-specific experience.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laurianne; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Li, Lu-Yang; Hu, You-Hsin; Lorenzi, Christian; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies showed that infants reorganize their perception of speech sounds according to their native language categories during their first year of life. Still, information is lacking about the contribution of basic auditory mechanisms to this process. This study aimed to evaluate when native language experience starts to noticeably affect the perceptual processing of basic acoustic cues [i.e., frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation information] known to be crucial for speech perception in adults. The discrimination of a lexical-tone contrast (rising versus low) was assessed in 6- and 10-month-old infants learning either French or Mandarin using a visual habituation paradigm. The lexical tones were presented in two conditions designed to either keep intact or to severely degrade the FM and fine spectral cues needed to accurately perceive voice-pitch trajectory. A third condition was designed to assess the discrimination of the same voice-pitch trajectories using click trains containing only the FM cues related to the fundamental-frequency (F0) in French- and Mandarin-learning 10-month-old infants. Results showed that the younger infants of both language groups and the Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds discriminated the intact lexical-tone contrast while French-learning 10-month-olds failed. However, only the French 10-month-olds discriminated degraded lexical tones when FM, and thus voice-pitch cues were reduced. Moreover, Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds were found to discriminate the pitch trajectories as presented in click trains better than French infants. Altogether, these results reveal that the perceptual reorganization occurring during the first year of life for lexical tones is coupled with changes in the auditory ability to use speech modulation cues.

  9. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  10. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-07-22

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon.

  11. Self-representation in mediated environments: the experience of emotions modulated by auditory-vibrotactile heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In 1890, William James hypothesized that emotions are our perception of physiological changes. Many different theories of emotion have emerged since then, but it has been demonstrated that a specifically induced physiological state can influence an individual's emotional responses to stimuli. In the present study, auditory and/or vibrotactile heartbeat stimuli were presented to participants (N = 24), and the stimuli's effect on participants' physiological state and subsequent emotional attitude to affective pictures was measured. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of the perceived distance to stimuli on emotional experience. Distant versus close sound reproduction conditions (loudspeakers vs. headphones) were used to identify whether an "embodied" experience can occur in which participants would associate the external heartbeat sound with their own. Vibrotactile stimulation of an experimental chair and footrest was added to magnify the experience. Participants' peripheral heartbeat signals, self-reported valence (pleasantness) and arousal (activation) ratings for the pictures, and memory performance scores were collected. Heartbeat sounds significantly affected participants' heartbeat, the emotional judgments of pictures, and their recall. The effect of distance to stimuli was observed in the significant interaction between the spatial location of the heartbeat sound and the vibrotactile stimulation, which was mainly caused by the auditory-vibrotactile interaction in the loudspeakers condition. This interaction might suggest that vibrations transform the far sound condition (sound via loudspeakers) in a close-stimulation condition and support the hypothesis that close sounds are more affective than distant ones. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of mediated environments.

  12. Second language experience modulates word retrieval effort in bilinguals: evidence from pupillometry

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual speakers often have less language experience compared to monolinguals as a result of speaking two languages and/or a later age of acquisition of the second language. This may result in weaker and less precise phonological representations of words in memory, which may cause greater retrieval effort during spoken word recognition. To gauge retrieval effort, the present study compared the effects of word frequency, neighborhood density (ND), and level of English experience by testing monolingual English speakers and native Spanish speakers who differed in their age of acquisition of English (early/late). In the experimental paradigm, participants heard English words and matched them to one of four pictures while the pupil size, an indication of cognitive effort, was recorded. Overall, both frequency and ND effects could be observed in the pupil response, indicating that lower frequency and higher ND were associated with greater retrieval effort. Bilingual speakers showed an overall delayed pupil response and a larger ND effect compared to the monolingual speakers. The frequency effect was the same in early bilinguals and monolinguals but was larger in late bilinguals. Within the group of bilingual speakers, higher English proficiency was associated with an earlier pupil response in addition to a smaller frequency and ND effect. These results suggest that greater retrieval effort associated with bilingualism may be a consequence of reduced language experience rather than constitute a categorical bilingual disadvantage. Future avenues for the use of pupillometry in the field of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:24600428

  13. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  14. Historical influence of irrigation on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on extreme climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate extremes. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet extremes using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate extremes. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot extremes is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.

  15. Preflight calibration of the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment polarization modulation package based on liquid-crystal variable retarders.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Patarroyo, Néstor; Alvarez-Herrero, Alberto; Martínez Pillet, Valentín

    2012-07-20

    We present the study, characterization, and calibration of the polarization modulation package (PMP) of the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) instrument, a successful Stokes spectropolarimeter on board the SUNRISE balloon project within the NASA Long Duration Balloon program. IMaX was designed to measure the Stokes parameters of incoming light with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 103, using as polarization modulators two nematic liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVRs). An ad hoc calibration system that reproduced the optical and environmental characteristics of IMaX was designed, assembled, and aligned. The system recreates the optical beam that IMaX receives from SUNRISE with known polarization across the image plane, as well as an optical system with the same characteristics of IMaX. The system was used to calibrate the IMaX PMP in vacuum and at different temperatures, with a thermal control resembling the in-flight one. The efficiencies obtained were very high, near theoretical maximum values: the total efficiency in vacuum calibration at nominal temperature was 0.972 (1 being the theoretical maximum). The condition number of the demodulation matrix of the same calibration was 0.522 (0.577 theoretical maximum). Some inhomogeneities of the LCVRs were clear during the pixel-by-pixel calibration of the PMP, but it can be concluded that the mere information of a pixel-per-pixel calibration is sufficient to maintain high efficiencies in spite of inhomogeneities of the LCVRs.

  16. Modified case based learning: Our experience with a new module for pharmacology undergraduate teaching

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanchan; Arora, Shalini; Kaushal, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The undergraduate teaching in pharmacology has always been a challenging task for medical teachers. Traditional lecture format is monotonous and a passive way of learning. There is a need to shift the educational focus from content centered to case based. In an effort to create interest and further improve the student learning, we have introduced simulated bedside teaching sessions as case based learning (CBL) module (modified CBL-[mCBL]) for 2nd professional MBBS students. Materials and Methods: A case scenario of a clinical disease condition was prepared in consultation with a clinician. During the session, the case was presented along with discussion on the disease process, its management and rational drug use. Students were encouraged to participate actively. After the session, students were requested to fill the feedback questionnaire anonymously (both open-ended questions and responses on Likert scale). Results: According to the students, factors such as clinical orientation, interactivity and re-enforcement of important points helped them to learn better. Majority of the students (76.09%) found the sessions to be better than theory lectures and tutorials. The fact that the interactive component of departmental feedback (taken at the institutional level) has improved during the last 2 years could be attributed to the introduction of these sessions. Conclusion: mCBL (in the presence of departmental faculty and concerned clinician) is a good method of integrating pharmacology with clinical subjects. To make such sessions more reliable, the next planned step is to assess the knowledge gained by the students during such sessions in the future. PMID:25143883

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  18. Development of motor maps in rats and their modulation by experience.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicole A; Vuong, Jennifer; Teskey, G Campbell

    2012-09-01

    While a substantial literature demonstrates the effect of differential experience on development of mammalian sensory cortices and plasticity of adult motor cortex, characterization of differential experience on the functional development of motor cortex is meager. We first determined when forelimb movement representations (motor maps) could be detected in rats during postnatal development and then whether their motor map expression could be altered with rearing in an enriched environment consisting of group housing and novel toys or skilled learning by training on the single pellet reaching task. All offspring had high-resolution intracortical microstimulation (ICMS)-derived motor maps using methodologies previously optimized for the adult rat. First, cortical GABA-mediated inhibition was depressed by bicuculline infusion directly into layer V of motor cortex and ICMS-responsive points were first reliably detected on postnatal day (PND) 13. Without relying on bicuculline disinhibition of cortex, motor maps emerged on PND 35 and then increased in size until PND 60 and had progressively lower movement thresholds. Second, environmental enrichment did not affect initial detection of responsive points and motor maps in non-bicuculline-treated pups on PND 35. However, motor maps were larger on PND 45 in enriched rat pups relative to pups in the standard housing condition. Rats in both conditions had similar map sizes on PNDs 60, 75, and 90. Third, reach training in rat pups resulted in an internal reorganization of the map in the hemisphere contralateral, but not ipsilateral, to the trained forelimb. The map reorganization was expressed as proportionately more distal (digit and wrist) representations on PND 45. Our data indicate that both environmental enrichment and skilled reach training experience can differentially modify expression of motor maps during development.

  19. Dynamic behaviors of semiconductor lasers under strong sinusoidal current modulation; Modeling and experiments at 1. 3. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Hemery, E. ); Chusseau, L.; Lourtioz, J.M. )

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the dynamic behaviors of semiconductor lasers under strong sinusoidal modulation is presented. The theoretical analysis is based on rate-equations including gain-compression effects. General criteria are established to predict the existence of irregular behaviors. Experiments are performed on a single-mode buried-heterostructure InGaAsP laser at 1.3 {mu}m. An original method is proposed to evaluate the parameters entering the rate equations. Fully optical measurements are used. The nonlinear gain coefficient and the electrical response of the packaged laser are simultaneously determined from small-signal characteristics. Time-domain measurements show the three behaviors achieved with the studied laser, i.e., simple periodic, periodic with multiple spikes, and period doubling.

  20. Design and Development of High Voltage Direct Current (DC) Sources for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibyk, Irene K.; Wald, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Two programmable, high voltage DC power supplies were developed as part of the flight electronics for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE). SAMPIE's primary objectives were to study and characterize the high voltage arcing and parasitic current losses of various solar cells and metal samples within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO). High voltage arcing can cause large discontinuous changes in spacecraft potential which lead to damage of the power system materials and significant Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Parasitic currents cause a change in floating potential which lead to reduced power efficiency. These primary SAMPIE objectives were accomplished by applying artificial biases across test samples over a voltage range from -600 VDC to +300 VDC. This paper chronicles the design, final development, and test of the two programmable high voltage sources for SAMPIE. The technical challenges to the design for these power supplies included vacuum, space plasma effects, thermal protection, Shuttle vibrations and accelerations.

  1. Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation.

  2. Experience-Based Probabilities Modulate Expectations in a Gender-Coded Artificial Language

    PubMed Central

    Öttl, Anton; Behne, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study combines artificial language learning with visual world eyetracking to investigate acquisition of representations associating spoken words and visual referents using morphologically complex pseudowords. Pseudowords were constructed to consistently encode referential gender by means of suffixation for a set of imaginary figures that could be either male or female. During training, the frequency of exposure to pseudowords and their imaginary figure referents were manipulated such that a given word and its referent would be more likely to occur in either the masculine form or the feminine form, or both forms would be equally likely. Results show that these experience-based probabilities affect the formation of new representations to the extent that participants were faster at recognizing a referent whose gender was consistent with the induced expectation than a referent whose gender was inconsistent with this expectation. Disambiguating gender information available from the suffix did not mask the induced expectations. Eyetracking data provide additional evidence that such expectations surface during online lexical processing. Taken together, these findings indicate that experience-based information is accessible during the earliest stages of processing, and are consistent with the view that language comprehension depends on the activation of perceptual memory traces. PMID:27602009

  3. BOLIVAR-tool for analysis and simulation of metocean extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatoukhin, Leonid; Boukhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Metocean extreme events are caused by the combination of multivariate and multiscale processes which depend from each other in different scales (due to short-term, synoptic, annual, year-to-year variability). There is no simple method for their estimation with controllable tolerance. Thus, the extreme analysis in practice is sometimes reduced to the exploration of various methods and models in respect to decreasing the uncertainty of estimates. Therefore, a researcher needs the multifaceted computational tools which cover the various branches of extreme analysis. BOLIVAR is the multi-functional computational software for the researches and engineers who explore the extreme environmental conditions to design and build offshore structures and floating objects. It contains a set of computational modules of various methods for extreme analysis, and a set of modules for the stochastic and hydrodynamic simulation of metocean processes. In this sense BOLIVAR is a Problem Solving Environment (PSE). The BOLIVAR is designed for extreme events analysis and contains a set of computational modules of IDM, AMS, POT, MENU, and SINTEF methods, and a set of modules for stochastic simulation of metocean processes in various scales. The BOLIVAR is the tool to simplify the resource-consuming computational experiments to explore the metocean extremes in univariate and multivariate cases. There are field ARMA models for short-term variability, spatial-temporal random pulse model for synoptic variability (storms and calms alteration), cyclostationare model of annual and year-to-year variability. The combination of above mentioned modules and data sources allows to estimate: omnidirectional and directional extremes (with T-years return periods); multivariate extremes (the set of parameters) and evaluation of their impacts to marine structures and floating objects; extremes of spatial-temporal fields (including the trajectory of T-years storms). An employment of concurrent methods for

  4. Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Rodgers, David A; Bernardez Sarria, Maria Sol; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, helping is preferentially provided to members of one’s own group. Yet, it remains unclear how social experience shapes pro-social motivation. We found that rats helped trapped strangers by releasing them from a restrainer, just as they did cagemates. However, rats did not help strangers of a different strain, unless previously housed with the trapped rat. Moreover, pair-housing with one rat of a different strain prompted rats to help strangers of that strain, evidence that rats expand pro-social motivation from one individual to phenotypically similar others. To test if genetic relatedness alone can motivate helping, rats were fostered from birth with another strain and were not exposed to their own strain. As adults, fostered rats helped strangers of the fostering strain but not rats of their own strain. Thus, strain familiarity, even to one’s own strain, is required for the expression of pro-social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01385.001 PMID:24424411

  5. Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-09-01

    The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language.

  6. Phytoplankton Photosynthetic Response During the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment Using Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloquin, J. A.; Smith, W. O.

    2002-12-01

    Phytoplankton production in the Southern Ocean is controlled by complicated interactions of light, nutrients, and iron availability. In early 2002, the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), was completed in the Southern Pacific (along ~ 170° W). Two iron enriched patches were created North and South of the Polar Front with initially distinct silicic acid concentrations, ~1 μM and ~60 μM, respectively. PAM was employed for measuring phytoplankton whole water (bulk) and single-celled photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv}/F{m). Bulk measurements of photochemical efficiency for PAM show increases as phytoplankton from iron-enriched patches are relieved from iron stress for both the North and South Patch. For single-celled analysis with PAM, a time course from the South Patch will be presented along with late North Patch data. For the Southern Patch, a distinct increase in Fv}/F{m with time was detected for all diatom genera analyzed and Fv}/F{m values continued to increase over the duration of analysis. For the late Northern Patch phytoplankton assemblage, bulk Fv}/F{m estimates were still elevated, ~0.5. However, the dominant species, Pseudonitzchia sp., exhibited lower photochemical efficiency (0.25-0.35), suggesting that it may have been experiencing iron or silica stress. In contrast, Fv}/F{m measurements of another dominant species, Phaeocystis antarctica, exhibited higher (0.5-0.6) values, suggesting that the colonial haptophyte was not significantly stressed at the time of measurement.

  7. A J-modulated protonless NMR experiment characterizes the conformational ensemble of the intrinsically disordered protein WIP.

    PubMed

    Rozentur-Shkop, Eva; Goobes, Gil; Chill, Jordan H

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are multi-conformational polypeptides that lack a single stable three-dimensional structure. It has become increasingly clear that the versatile IDPs play key roles in a multitude of biological processes, and, given their flexible nature, NMR is a leading method to investigate IDP behavior on the molecular level. Here we present an IDP-tailored J-modulated experiment designed to monitor changes in the conformational ensemble characteristic of IDPs by accurately measuring backbone one- and two-bond J((15)N,(13)Cα) couplings. This concept was realized using a unidirectional (H)NCO (13)C-detected experiment suitable for poor spectral dispersion and optimized for maximum coverage of amino acid types. To demonstrate the utility of this approach we applied it to the disordered actin-binding N-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein (WIP), a ubiquitous key modulator of cytoskeletal changes in a range of biological systems. One- and two-bond J((15)N,(13)Cα) couplings were acquired for WIP residues 2-65 at various temperatures, and in denaturing and crowding environments. Under native conditions fitted J-couplings identified in the WIP conformational ensemble a propensity for extended conformation at residues 16-23 and 45-60, and a helical tendency at residues 28-42. These findings are consistent with a previous study of the based upon chemical shift and RDC data and confirm that the WIP(2-65) conformational ensemble is biased towards the structure assumed by this fragment in its actin-bound form. The effects of environmental changes upon this ensemble were readily apparent in the J-coupling data, which reflected a significant decrease in structural propensity at higher temperatures, in the presence of 8 M urea, and under the influence of a bacterial cell lysate. The latter suggests that crowding can cause protein unfolding through protein-protein interactions that stabilize the unfolded state. We conclude that J-couplings are

  8. Stability Analysis for a Large-scale Space Power Network, International Space Station and Japanese Experiment Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Masaaki; Arai, Satoaki

    The International Space Station (ISS), which is scheduled to start the operation fully in early 2000’s, is being developed and assembled on orbit since 1998 with international cooperation of the USA, Russia, Europe, Canada, and Japan. Japan participates in this ISS program and will provide the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, named “Kibo") which will be attached to the ISS core. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), which is responsible for the JEM system development and integration, has been developed JEM Electric Power System (JEM EPS) as part of the Space Station Electric Power System (EPS). The International Space Station Electric Power System is the world’s largest orbiting direct-current (DC) power system. The ISS electric power is generated by solar arrays, and distributed to the each module in 120 Vdc bus voltage rating. When designing a large-scale Space Power System using direct current (DC), special attention must be placed on the electrical stability and control of the system and individual load on the system. For a large-scale Space Power System, it is not feasible to design the entire system as a whole. Instead, the system can be defined in term of numerous small blocks, and each block then designed individually. The individual blocks are then integrated to form a complete system. The International Space Station (ISS) is one of good example for these issue and concerns as a large-scale Space Power System. This paper describes the approach of the stability analysis for a large-scale space power network.

  9. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  10. Time Modulation of the K-Shell Electron Capture Decay Rates of H-like Heavy Ions at GSI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Kienle, P.

    2009-08-07

    According to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EC}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d}{sup EC}approx0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  11. Solid state slit camera (SSC) of the MAXI mission for JEM (Japanese Experiment Module) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Torii, Ken'ichi; Ueno, Shiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Yuan, Wei M.; Shirasaki, Yuji; Sakano, M.; Komatsu, Shigenori; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tanaka, Isao

    2000-12-01

    Monitor of the All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is the first payload for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). It is designed for monitoring all-sky in the X-ray band. Its angular resolution and scanning period are about 1 arc-degree and 100 minutes, respectively. MAXI employs two types of X-ray camera. One is Gas Slit Camera (GSC), the detectors of which are one dimensional position sensitive proportional counters. Another is Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). We mainly report on SSC. We employ a pair of SSCs, each of which consists of 16 CCD chips. Each CCD chips has 1024 X 1024 pixels, and the pixel size is 24 X 24 micrometer. The CCDs are to be operated at -60 degrees Celsius using Peltier coolers. Optical light is blocked by aluminum coat on the CCDs instead of fragile aluminized film. SSC achieves an energy resolution of 152 eV in FWHM at 5.9 keV. The energy range is 0.5 - 10 keV.

  12. Attentional control and inferences of agency: Working memory load differentially modulates goal-based and prime-based agency experiences.

    PubMed

    Renes, Robert A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Aarts, Henk

    2015-12-15

    Previous research indicates that people can infer self-agency, the experience of causing outcomes as a result of one's own actions, in situations where information about action-outcomes is pre-activated through goal-setting or priming. We argue that goal-based agency inferences rely on attentional control that processes information about matches and mismatches between intended and actual outcomes. Prime-based inferences follow an automatic cognitive accessibility process that relies on matches between primed and actual information about outcomes. We tested an improved task for a better examination of goal-based vs. primed-based agency inferences, and examined the moderating effect of working memory load on both types of inferences. Findings of four studies showed that goal-based, but not prime-based agency inferences dwindled under working memory load. These findings suggest that goal-based (vs. primed-based) agency inferences indeed rely on attentional control, thus rendering goal-based agency inferences especially prone to conditions that modulate goal-directed control processes.

  13. Extreme Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Can one learn to lead on the flying trapeze? That's the question prompted by the exotic variations on the theme of experiential learning. By taking employees or executives (or both) out of their work element and putting them through an experience together, training professionals try to create learning that is more meaningful than PowerPoint…

  14. Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofré, Aaron; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Vargas, Asticio; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (TN-LC-SLM) as a useful tool for training students in the manipulation of light beams with phase-only masks. In particular, we focus the work on the realization of phase-only gratings and phase-only spiral phases for the generation of vortex beams, beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Despite the extensive activity in this field, its experimental implementation for educational purposes is limited because it requires the use of very expensive high-resolution liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) SLMs. Here, we show that a low-cost experimental implementation can be done with older TNLC technology. However, these devices, intended for display applications, exhibit rather limited optical phase modulation properties in comparison with modern LCOS devices, such as a very low range of phase modulation and a general coupled intensity modulation. However, we show that a precise characterization of their retardance parameters permits their operation in useful modulation configurations. As examples, we include one continuous phase-only configuration useful for reproducing the optimal triplicator phase grating, and a binary π-phase modulation. We include experiments with the realization of different phase diffraction gratings, and their combination with spiral phase patterns and lens functions to generate a variety of vortex beams.

  15. Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) Optics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy; Christl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A demonstration part will be manufactured in Japan on one of the large Toshiba machines with a diameter of 2.5 meters. This will be a flat PMMA disk that is cut between 0.5 and 1.25 meters radius. The cut should demonstrate manufacturing the most difficult parts of the 2.5 meter Fresnel pattern and the blazed grating on the diffractive surface. Optical simulations, validated with the subscale prototype, will be used to determine the limits on manufacturing errors (tolerances) that will result in optics that meet EUSO s requirements. There will be limits on surface roughness (or errors at high spatial frequency); radial and azimuthal slope errors (at lower spatial frequencies) and plunge cut depth errors in the blazed grating. The demonstration part will be measured to determine whether it was made within the allowable tolerances.

  16. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob; Rosenbusch, Peter

    2014-08-15

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  17. Importance of Radiation Oncologist Experience Among Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Boero, Isabel J.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Xu, Beibei; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Mell, Loren K.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has replaced conventional radiation techniques in the management of head-and-neck cancers (HNCs). We conducted this population-based study to evaluate the influence of radiation oncologist experience on outcomes in patients with HNC treated with IMRT compared with patients with HNC treated with conventional radiation therapy. Methods We identified radiation providers from Medicare claims of 6,212 Medicare beneficiaries with HNC treated between 2000 and 2009. We analyzed the impact of provider volume on all-cause mortality, HNC mortality, and toxicity end points after treatment with either conventional radiation therapy or IMRT. All analyses were performed by using either multivariable Cox proportional hazards or Fine-Gray regression models controlling for potential confounding variables. Results Among patients treated with conventional radiation, we found no significant relationship between provider volume and patient survival or any toxicity end point. Among patients receiving IMRT, those treated by higher-volume radiation oncologists had improved survival compared with those treated by low-volume providers. The risk of all-cause mortality decreased by 21% for every additional five patients treated per provider per year (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.94). Patients treated with IMRT by higher-volume providers had decreased HNC-specific mortality (subdistribution HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.91) and decreased risk of aspiration pneumonia (subdistribution HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.99). Conclusion Patients receiving IMRT for HNC had improved outcomes when treated by higher-volume providers. These findings will better inform patients and providers when making decisions about treatment, and emphasize the critical importance of high-quality radiation therapy for optimal treatment of HNC. PMID:26729432

  18. Adaptive Planning in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancers: Single-Institution Experience and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H.; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Ahn, Andrew I.; Hong, Linda; Scripes, Paola G.; Shen Jin; Lee, Chen-Chiao; Miller, Ekeni; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Anatomic changes and positional variability during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer can lead to clinically significant dosimetric changes. We report our single-institution experience using an adaptive protocol and correlate these changes with anatomic and positional changes during treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head and neck IMRT patients underwent serial computed tomography (CT) scans during their radiation course. After undergoing the planning CT scan, patients underwent planned rescans at 11, 22, and 33 fractions; a total of 89 scans with 129 unique CT plan combinations were thus analyzed. Positional variability and anatomic changes during treatment were correlated with changes in dosimetric parameters to target and avoidance structures between planning CT and subsequent scans. Results: A total of 15/23 patients (65%) benefited from adaptive planning, either due to inadequate dose to gross disease or to increased dose to organs at risk. Significant differences in primary and nodal targets (planning target volume, gross tumor volume, and clinical tumor volume), parotid, and spinal cord dosimetric parameters were noted throughout the treatment. Correlations were established between these dosimetric changes and weight loss, fraction number, multiple skin separations, and change in position of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine. Conclusions: Variations in patient positioning and anatomy changes during IMRT for head and neck cancer can affect dosimetric parameters and have wide-ranging clinical implications. The interplay between random positional variability and gradual anatomic changes requires careful clinical monitoring and frequent use of CT- based image-guided radiation therapy, which should determine variations necessitating new plans.

  19. Materials in extreme environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemley, R. J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Buchanan, M. V.; Materials Science Division; Geophysical Lab.; ORNL

    2009-11-01

    Nature is rich with examples of phenomena and environments we might consider extreme, at least from our familiar experience on Earth's surface: large fluxes of radiation and particles from the Sun, explosive asteroid collisions in space, volcanic eruptions that originate deep underground, extraordinary pressures and temperatures in the interiors of planets and stars, and electromagnetic discharges that occur, say, in sunspots and pulsars. We often intentionally create similar extreme environments - for example, in high-powered lasers, high-temperature turbines, internal-combustion engines, and industrial chemical plants. The response of materials to the broad range of such environments signals the materials underlying structure and dynamics, provides insight into new phenomena, exposes failure modes that limit technological possibility, and presents novel routes for making new materials.

  20. Development of an Organic Rankine-Cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiceniuk, T.

    1985-01-01

    An organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power module was developed for use in a multimodule solar power plant to be built and operated in a small community. Many successful components and subsystems, including the reciever, power conversion subsystem, energy transport subsystem, and control subsystem, were tested. Tests were performed on a complete power module using a test bed concentrator in place of the proposed concentrator. All major single-module program functional objectives were met and the multimodule operation presented no apparent problems. The hermetically sealed, self-contained, ORC power conversion unit subsequently successfully completed a 300-hour endurance run with no evidence of wear or operating problems.

  1. Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Modulates Na+ Currents in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells through Increase of AA/PGE2 and EP Receptor-Mediated cAMP/PKA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yan-Jia; Zhan, Xiao-Qin; Yao, Jin-Jing; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2013-01-01

    Although the modulation of Ca2+ channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na+ channels (Nav). Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Nav activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs). Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10–60 min significantly increased Nav currents (INa) by 30–125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Nav channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV) towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on INa in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the NaV 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of NaV 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE2 receptor (EP) antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and INa. In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA2 in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal INa is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE2 EP receptors PKA signaling pathway. PMID:23349866

  2. Survalytics: An Open-Source Cloud-Integrated Experience Sampling, Survey, and Analytics and Metadata Collection Module for Android Operating System Apps

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe here Survalytics, a software module designed to address two broad areas of need. The first area is in the domain of surveys and app analytics: developers of mobile apps in both academic and commercial environments require information about their users, as well as how the apps are being used, to understand who their users are and how to optimally approach app development. The second area of need is in the field of ecological momentary assessment, also referred to as experience sampling: researchers in a wide variety of fields, spanning from the social sciences to psychology to clinical medicine, would like to be able to capture daily or even more frequent data from research subjects while in their natural environment. Objective Survalytics is an open-source solution for the collection of survey responses as well as arbitrary analytic metadata from users of Android operating system apps. Methods Surveys may be administered in any combination of one-time questions and ongoing questions. The module may be deployed as a stand-alone app for experience sampling purposes or as an add-on to existing apps. The module takes advantage of free-tier NoSQL cloud database management offered by the Amazon Web Services DynamoDB platform to package a secure, flexible, extensible data collection module. DynamoDB is capable of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant storage of personal health information. Results The provided example app may be used without modification for a basic experience sampling project, and we provide example questions for daily collection of blood glucose data from study subjects. Conclusions The module will help researchers in a wide variety of fields rapidly develop tailor-made Android apps for a variety of data collection purposes. PMID:27261155

  3. A system-level model for high-speed, radiation-hard optical links in HEP experiments based on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, M.; Detraz, S.; Olantera, L.; Sigaud, C.; Soos, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators have been shown to be relatively insensitive to displacement damage beyond a 1-MeV-equivalent neutron fluence of 3ṡ1016n/cm2. Recent investigations on optimized device designs have also led to a high resistance against total ionizing dose levels of above 1 MGy. Such devices could potentially replace electrical and/or optical links close to the particle interaction points in future high energy physics experiments. Since they require an external continuous-wave light source, radiation-hard optical links based on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators need to have a different system design when compared to existing directly modulated laser-based optical links. 10 Gb/s eye diagrams of irradiated Mach-Zehnder modulators were measured. The outcomes demonstrate the suitability for using these components in harsh radiation environments. A proposal for the implementation of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators in CERN's particle detectors was developed and a model to calculate the system performance is presented. The optical power budget and the electrical power dissipation of the proposed link is compared to that of the upcoming Versatile Link system that will be installed in 2018.

  4. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, Fernando F. de; Puri, Dev R.; Zhung, Joanne; Narayana, Ashwatha; Wolden, Suzanne; Hunt, Margie; Stambuk, Hilda; Pfister, David; Kraus, Dennis; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Lee, Nancy Y. . E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To review the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience in using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and June 2004, 50 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the oropharynx underwent IMRT at our institution. There were 40 men and 10 women with a median age of 56 years (range, 28-78 years). The disease was Stage I in 1 patient (2%), Stage II in 3 patients (6%), Stage III in 7 (14%), and Stage IV in 39 (78%). Forty-eight patients (96%) received definitive treatment, and 2 (4%) were treated in the postoperative adjuvant setting. Concurrent chemotherapy was used in 43 patients (86%). Patients were treated using three different IMRT approaches: 76% dose painting, 18% concomitant boost with IMRT in both am and pm deliveries, and 6% concomitant boost with IMRT only in pm delivery. Regardless of the approach, the average prescription dose to the gross tumor planning target volume was 70 Gy, while the average dose delivered to the subclinical volume was 59.4 Gy in the dose painting group and 54 Gy in the concomitant boost group. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes (PEGs) were placed before the beginning of treatment in 84% of the patients. Acute and late toxicity were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Toxicity was also evaluated using subjective criteria such as the presence of esophageal stricture, and the need for PEG usage. The local progression-free, regional progression-free, and distant metastases-free rates, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Three patients had persistent locoregional disease after treatment. The 2-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastases-free, and overall survival were 98%, 88%, 84%, and 98%, respectively. The worst acute mucositis experienced was Grade 1

  5. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  6. Column CO2 Measurements with Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar System During the ASCENDS 2014 Summer Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S. A.; Campbell, J. F.; Obland, M. D.; Browell, E. V.; Yang, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign results of an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar system operating at 1.57 µm for measurements of column CO2 over a wide variety of geographic regions. The 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, space mission to address global sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2. As part of the development of a capability for the NASA ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Exelis, Inc. have been collaborating to develop, demonstrate and mature the IM-CW lidar approach for measuring atmospheric column CO2 mixing ratios from a space platform using the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar technique with preferential weighting of the CO2 measurements to the mid to lower troposphere. The Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a system developed as a technology demonstrator for the ASCENDS mission, has been used to demonstrate high precision column CO2 retrievals from various aircraft platforms. The MFLL operates using a novel IM-CW IPDA approach to make simultaneous CO2 and O2 column measurements in the 1.57-micron and 1.26-micron spectral regions, respectively, to derive the column-average CO2 dry-air mixing ratios. Measurements from the 2014 summer field experiment focused on advancing CO2 & O2 measurement technologies under day and night conditions in realistic environments, assessing CO2 emissions over large metropolitan areas, observing and evaluating CO2 drawdown and diurnal trends over large agricultural regions, obtaining reflectance data and CO2 & O2 measurements over rough ocean surfaces with high surface wind speeds (~10 m/s), and carrying out CO2 & O2 intercomparisons with OCO-2 and GOSAT over the western United States. Initial results from MFLL for the aforementioned flight campaign

  7. HOME for STEPS. Homemaking Opportunity Modules for Education for Use with Surviving Today's Experiences and Problems Successfully. Compiled from Competency Based Modules Based on V-TECS Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Home Economics.

    Designed to accompany Surviving Today's Experiences and Problems Successfully (STEPS) for 9th and 10th grade home economics courses, this volume consists of individualized learning packages dealing with four areas: management/family economics, human development, housing, and foods/nutrition. The book is divided into four parts. First, the…

  8. Rising sea levels will reduce extreme temperature variations in tide-dominated reef habitats

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest temperature extremes globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce temperature extremes within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589

  9. Rising sea levels will reduce extreme temperature variations in tide-dominated reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee

    2016-08-01

    Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest temperature extremes globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce temperature extremes within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in total scalp irradiation: a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Ostheimer, Christian; Hübsch, Patrick; Janich, Martin; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Total scalp irradiation (TSI) is a rare but challenging indication. We previously reported that non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was superior to coplanar IMRT in organ-at-risk (OAR) protection and target dose distribution. This consecutive treatment planning study compared IMRT with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Materials and Methods A retrospective treatment plan databank search was performed and 5 patient cases were randomly selected. Cranial imaging was restored from the initial planning computed tomography (CT) and target volumes and OAR were redelineated. For each patients, three treatment plans were calculated (coplanar/non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT; prescribed dose 50 Gy, single dose 2 Gy). Conformity, homogeneity and dose volume histograms were used for plan. Results VMAT featured the lowest monitor units and the sharpest dose gradient (1.6 Gy/mm). Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and homogeneity was better in VMAT (coverage, 0.95; homogeneity index [HI], 0.118) compared to IMRT (coverage, 0.94; HI, 0.119) but coplanar IMRT produced the most conformal plans (conformity index [CI], 0.43). Minimum PTV dose range was 66.8% –88.4% in coplanar, 77.5%–88.2% in non-coplanar IMRT and 82.8%–90.3% in VMAT. Mean dose to the brain, brain stem, optic system (maximum dose) and lenses were 18.6, 13.2, 9.1, and 5.2 Gy for VMAT, 21.9, 13.4, 14.5, and 6.3 Gy for non-coplanar and 22.8, 16.5, 11.5, and 5.9 Gy for coplanar IMRT. Maximum optic chiasm dose was 7.7, 8.4, and 11.1 Gy (non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT, and coplanar IMRT). Conclusion Target coverage, homogeneity and OAR protection, was slightly superior in VMAT plans which also produced the sharpest dose gradient towards healthy tissue. PMID:27951625

  11. Extreme Heat Guidebook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 'Climate Change and Extreme Heat: What You Can Do to Prepare' handbook explains the connection between climate change and extreme heat events, and outlines actions citizens can take to protect their health during extreme heat.

  12. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report)].

    PubMed

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.

  13. Design and development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating achromatic half-wave plate for CMB polarization modulation on the POLARBEAR-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Charles A.; Beckman, Shawn; Chinone, Yuji; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Hazumi, Masashi; Keating, Brian; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T.; Matsuda, Frederick; Plambeck, Richard; Suzuki, Aritoki; Takakura, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    We describe the development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating half-wave plate (HWP) for study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the POLARBEAR-2 (PB2) experiment. Rapid polarization modulation suppresses 1/f noise due to unpolarized atmospheric turbulence and improves sensitivity to degree-angular-scale CMB fluctuations where the inflationary gravitational wave signal is thought to exist. A HWP modulator rotates the input polarization signal and therefore allows a single polarimeter to measure both linear polarization states, eliminating systematic errors associated with differencing of orthogonal detectors. PB2 projects a 365-mm-diameter focal plane of 7,588 dichroic, 95/150 GHz transition-edge-sensor bolometers onto a 4-degree field of view that scans the sky at 1 degree per second. We find that a 500-mm-diameter ambient-temperature sapphire achromatic HWP rotating at 2 Hz is a suitable polarization modulator for PB2. We present the design considerations for the PB2 HWP, the construction of the HWP optical stack and rotation mechanism, and the performance of the fully-assembled HWP instrument. We conclude with a discussion of HWP polarization modulation for future Simons Array receivers.

  14. Management of the complications of traditional bone setting for upper extremity fractures: the experiences of a French Forward Surgical Team in Chad.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L; Bertani, A; Chaudier, P; Charpail, C; Rongiéras, F; Chauvin, F

    2014-04-01

    The practice of traditional bone setting (TBS) in sub-Saharan Africa often leads to severe complications after upper extremity fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of these complications by a French Forward Surgical Team deployed in Chad. An observational, prospective study was conducted over a six-month period between 2010 and 2011. During this period 28 patients were included. There were 20 males and 8 females with a mean age of 30.6 years (range 5-65 years). Thirteen patients (47%) had mal-union of their fracture, nine had non-union (32%), three children (10.5%) presented gangrene and three patients (10.5%) suffered from other complications. Fifteen (54%) patients did not undergo a corrective procedure either because it was not indicated or because they declined. Only 13 (46%) patients were operated on. Twelve of these patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 2.4 months. All of them were satisfied with conventional treatment. The infection seemed to be under control in every septic patient. Bone union could not be evaluated in most patients because of the short follow-up. Management of TBS complications is always challenging, even in a deployed Western medical treatment facility. Surgical expectations should be low because of the severity of the sequelae and the uncertainty of patient follow-up. Prevention remains the best treatment.

  15. Experience from the in-flight calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) fixed head star trackers (FHSTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Michael

    1995-05-01

    Since the original post-launch calibration of the FHSTs (Fixed Head Star Trackers) on EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite), the Flight Dynamics task has continued to analyze the FHST performance. The algorithm used for inflight alignment of spacecraft sensors is described and the equations for the errors in the relative alignment for the simple 2 star tracker case are shown. Simulated data and real data are used to compute the covariance of the relative alignment errors. Several methods for correcting the alignment are compared and results analyzed. The specific problems seen on orbit with UARS and EUVE are then discussed. UARS has experienced anomalous tracker performance on an FHST resulting in continuous variation in apparent tracker alignment. On EUVE, the FHST residuals from the attitude determination algorithm showed a dependence on the direction of roll during survey mode. This dependence is traced back to time tagging errors and the original post launch alignment is found to be in error due to the impact of the time tagging errors on the alignment algorithm. The methods used by the FDF (Flight Dynamics Facility) to correct for these problems is described.

  16. Phase detection experiment for the down-looking synthetic aperture imaging ladar with electro-optic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiyong; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhi, Ya'nan; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Liren

    2014-09-01

    The down-looking synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) with electro-optic modulation was proposed. The measurement uses electrically controlled scanner to produce beams with spatial parabolic phase difference, which consists of electro-optic crystal and cylindrical lens. Due to the high modulation rate without mechanical scanning, this technique has a great potential for applications in extensive synthetic aperture imaging ladar fields. The phase mapping of electrically controlled scanner under the different applied voltage is achieved and measured by the polarized digital holographic interferometry. The phase mappings of the scanner in the down-looking SAIL with the o-polarized light and e-polarized light are obtained. The linear phase distribution and the parabolic phase distribution are observed after applying the external electric field. The corresponding analyses and discussions are proposed to explain the phenomena.

  17. Experience Drives Synchronization: The phase and Amplitude Dynamics of Neural Oscillations to Musical Chords Are Differentially Modulated by Musical Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher J.; Brattico, Elvira; Gjedde, Albert; Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Musical expertise is associated with structural and functional changes in the brain that underlie facilitated auditory perception. We investigated whether the phase locking (PL) and amplitude modulations (AM) of neuronal oscillations in response to musical chords are correlated with musical expertise and whether they reflect the prototypicality of chords in Western tonal music. To this aim, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while musicians and non-musicians were presented with common prototypical major and minor chords, and with uncommon, non-prototypical dissonant and mistuned chords, while watching a silenced movie. We then analyzed the PL and AM of ongoing oscillations in the theta (4–8 Hz) alpha (8–14 Hz), beta- (14–30 Hz) and gamma- (30–80 Hz) bands to these chords. We found that musical expertise was associated with strengthened PL of ongoing oscillations to chords over a wide frequency range during the first 300 ms from stimulus onset, as opposed to increased alpha-band AM to chords over temporal MEG channels. In musicians, the gamma-band PL was strongest to non-prototypical compared to other chords, while in non-musicians PL was strongest to minor chords. In both musicians and non-musicians the long-latency (> 200 ms) gamma-band PL was also sensitive to chord identity, and particularly to the amplitude modulations (beats) of the dissonant chord. These findings suggest that musical expertise modulates oscillation PL to musical chords and that the strength of these modulations is dependent on chord prototypicality. PMID:26291324

  18. Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

  19. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  20. Energetic changes caused by antigenic module insertion in a virus-like particle revealed by experiment and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Tang, Ronghong; Bai, Shu; Connors, Natalie K; Lua, Linda H L; Chuan, Yap P; Middelberg, Anton P J; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The success of recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for human papillomavirus and hepatitis B demonstrates the potential of VLPs as safe and efficacious vaccines. With new modular designs emerging, the effects of antigen module insertion on the self-assembly and structural integrity of VLPs should be clarified so as to better enabling improved design. Previous work has revealed insights into the molecular energetics of a VLP subunit, capsomere, comparing energetics within various solution conditions known to drive or inhibit self-assembly. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method were performed to examine the molecular interactions and energetics in a modular capsomere of a murine polyomavirus (MPV) VLP designed to protect against influenza. Insertion of an influenza antigenic module is found to lower the binding energy within the capsomere, and a more active state is observed in Assembly Buffer as compared with that in Stabilization Buffer, which has been experimentally validated through measurements using differential scanning calorimetry. Further in-depth analysis based on free-energy decomposition indicates that destabilized binding can be attributed to electrostatic interaction induced by the chosen antigen module. These results provide molecular insights into the conformational stability of capsomeres and their abilities to be exploited for antigen presentation, and are expected to be beneficial for the biomolecular engineering of VLP vaccines.

  1. Energetic Changes Caused by Antigenic Module Insertion in a Virus-Like Particle Revealed by Experiment and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Tang, Ronghong; Bai, Shu; Connors, Natalie K.; Lua, Linda H. L.; Chuan, Yap P.; Middelberg, Anton P. J.; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The success of recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for human papillomavirus and hepatitis B demonstrates the potential of VLPs as safe and efficacious vaccines. With new modular designs emerging, the effects of antigen module insertion on the self-assembly and structural integrity of VLPs should be clarified so as to better enabling improved design. Previous work has revealed insights into the molecular energetics of a VLP subunit, capsomere, comparing energetics within various solution conditions known to drive or inhibit self-assembly. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method were performed to examine the molecular interactions and energetics in a modular capsomere of a murine polyomavirus (MPV) VLP designed to protect against influenza. Insertion of an influenza antigenic module is found to lower the binding energy within the capsomere, and a more active state is observed in Assembly Buffer as compared with that in Stabilization Buffer, which has been experimentally validated through measurements using differential scanning calorimetry. Further in-depth analysis based on free-energy decomposition indicates that destabilized binding can be attributed to electrostatic interaction induced by the chosen antigen module. These results provide molecular insights into the conformational stability of capsomeres and their abilities to be exploited for antigen presentation, and are expected to be beneficial for the biomolecular engineering of VLP vaccines. PMID:25215874

  2. Field experiment of 800× off-axis XR-Köhler concentrator module on a carousel tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Noboru; Okamoto, Kazuya; Ijiro, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Takao; Maemura, Toshihiko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Takashi; Hernandez, Maikel; Benitez, Pablo; Chaves, Julio; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Vilaplana, Juan; Mohedano, Ruben; Mendes-Lopes, Joao; Miñano, Juan Carlos

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the design and preliminary experimental results of a concentrator-type photovoltaic module based on a free-form off-axis 800×XR-Köhler concentrator. The off-axis XR-Köhler concentrator is one of the advanced concentrators that perform high concentration with a large acceptance angle and excellent irradiance uniformity on a solar cell. As a result of on-sun characterization of the unglazed single-cell unit test rig, the temperature-corrected DC module efficiency was 32.2% at 25 °C without an anti-reflective (AR) coating on the secondary optics, and the acceptance angle was more than ±1.0°. In addition, the non-corrected DC efficiency of an individual cell in a glazed 8-cell unit module mounted on a carousel tracking system was measured. The individual efficiency deviated in the range of 24.3-27.4%, owing to the mirror shape and alignment errors. The resultant series-connected efficiency was approximately 25% at direct normal irradiation (DNI) of 770 W/m2.

  3. Positive and negative early life experiences differentially modulate long term survival and amyloid protein levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lesuis, Sylvie L.; Maurin, Herve; Borghgraef, Peter; Lucassen, Paul J.; Leuven, Fred Van; Krugers, Harm J.

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor for the severity and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early life experiences determine stress responsivity in later life, and modulate age-dependent cognitive decline. Therefore, we examined whether early life experiences influence AD outcome in a bigenic mouse model which progressively develops combined tau and amyloid pathology (biAT mice). Mice were subjected to either early life stress (ELS) or to ‘positive’ early handling (EH) postnatally (from day 2 to 9). In biAT mice, ELS significantly compromised long term survival, in contrast to EH which increased life expectancy. In 4 month old mice, ELS-reared biAT mice displayed increased hippocampal Aβ levels, while these levels were reduced in EH-reared biAT mice. No effects of ELS or EH were observed on the brain levels of APP, protein tau, or PSD-95. Dendritic morphology was moderately affected after ELS and EH in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, while object recognition memory and open field performance were not affected. We conclude that despite the strong transgenic background, early life experiences significantly modulate the life expectancy of biAT mice. Parallel changes in hippocampal Aβ levels were evident, without affecting cognition of young adult biAT mice. PMID:27259247

  4. Cognitive modulation of pain and predictive coding. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A.

    2014-09-01

    Pain is a phenomenologically complex experience whose sensory and psychological dimensions are deeply intertwined. In their perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the physiological and neural mechanisms underlying nociception and its cognitive modulation within the broader concept of suffering, which includes psychological pain [2] in its culturally mediated and existentially nuanced forms. The tight link between affective and cognitive processes, on the one hand, and pain, on the other, is illustrated by examining in turn the placebo effect, empathy for other people's afflictions, clinical depression, and the role that mindfulness-based practices may play in alleviating suffering.

  5. Mid-term and long-term follow-up of intracranial aneurysms treated by the p64 Flow Modulation Device: a multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Briganti, Francesco; Leone, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; Marseglia, Mariano; Macera, Antonio; Manto, Andrea; Delehaye, Luigi; Resta, Maurizio; Resta, Mariachiara; Burdi, Nicola; Nuzzi, Nunzio Paolo; Divenuto, Ignazio; Caranci, Ferdinando; Muto, Mario; Solari, Domenico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Maiuri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Background Experience with the endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms using the p64 Flow Modulation Device is still limited. This study discusses the results and complications of this new flow diverter device. Methods 40 patients (30 women, 10 men) with 50 cerebral aneurysms treated in six Italian neurointerventional centers with the p64 Flow Modulation Device between April 2013 and September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Complete occlusion was obtained in 44/50 aneurysms (88%) and partial occlusion in 3 (6%). In the other three aneurysms (6%), two cases of asymptomatic in-stent thrombosis and one intraprocedural occlusion of the parent vessel occurred. Technical complications were observed in eight procedures (16%). Permanent morbidity due to acute in-stent thrombosis and consequent ischemic stroke occurred in one patient (2.5%). No delayed aneurysm rupture, subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or ischemic complications occurred and there were no deaths. Conclusions Endovascular treatment with the p64 Flow Modulation Device is a safe treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, resulting in a high rate of occlusion. As with other flow diverter devices, we recommend this treatment mainly for large-necked aneurysms of the internal carotid artery siphon. However, endovascular treatment with the p64 device should also be encouraged in difficult cases such as aneurysms of the posterior circulation and beyond the circle of Willis. PMID:27439887

  6. Experimenting seismological and GNSS equipment in extreme conditions in preparation for complex studies in the area of the Bulgarian Antarctic Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Georgieva, Gergana; Raykova, Reneta; Gurev, Vasil; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Study of seismicity and Earth's structure on Livingston Island and surrounding area is carrying out in the frame of the project "Creating an information base for study of seismicity and Earth's structure on Livingston island and surroundings through complex research in the Bulgarian Arctic Base area" supported by the Science Research Fund to Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science for a period of 2 years including two Antarctic expeditions. The main goal of the project is to carry out a complex seismological and geodetic research based on data recorded by broadband seismic station and 2 GNSS receivers, which will be installed near the Bulgarian Antarctic Base on Livingston Island. Additionally, the velocity of the Perunica glassier (Livingston Island) will be estimated by processing and analyzing of GNSS data. The seismic station and GNSS receivers were installed on Vitosha Mountain, near Sofia, and were working during the winter to test the performance of the equipment in extreme weather conditions similar to the Antarctic climate. The seismological equipment included CMT40T seismometer and Reftek 130 digitizer. A thermo isolating cover was used to protect the seismic station. The power was supplied by a set of special batteries. The recorded seismological and geodetic data were stored into memory cards inside the apparatus. McNamara method was used to study ambient seismic noise. Effects of harsh weather conditions (wind, snowing, reining, low temperatures) and absence of man-made noise on the distribution of the noise power are investigated. Registered signals and noise power distribution were compared with records and noise power distribution of seismic station Vitosha (VTS). The result was used to estimate and improve the performance of the equipment. Registered seismic events were localized by application of Gallitzin method. A software for localization of the events on the base of three component registration was developed and tested. . Software was

  7. First Experiences in Intensity Modulated Radiation Surgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery: A Dosimetric Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.; Celis-López, Miguel A.

    2003-09-01

    The National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City has acquired a Novalis® shaped beam radiosurgery unit. The institute is pioneer in the use of new technologies for neuroscience. The Novalis® unit allows the use of conformal beam radiosurgery/therapy and the more advanced modality of conformal therapy: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). In the present work we present the first cases of treatments that use the IMRT technique and show its ability to protect organs at risk, such as brainstem and optical vias.

  8. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  9. High dose chemoradiation for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinomas using intensity modulated external beam radiotherapy: a single tertiary care centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shaesta; Kalyani, Nikhil; Chaudhari, Suresh; Dharia, Tejas; Shetty, Nitin; Chopra, Supriya; Goel, Mahesh; Kulkarni, Suyash; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Background We present results of patients diagnosed with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinomas treated with high dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods From Aug 2005 to Dec 2012, 68 consecutive patients were treated. Fifty patients (group 1) presenting to us with obstructive jaundice were planned for endobiliary brachytherapy (EBBT 14 Gy) followed external beam radiotherapy (EBRT 45 Gy). Twenty-two patients (group 2) who had previously undergone biliary drainage underwent EBRT (57 Gy). All patients received injection Gemcitabine 300 mg/m2/weekly along with EBRT. Results Twenty-nine patients in group 1 and 22 patients in group 2 completed the treatment. Twenty-six (55%) patients achieved complete radiological response, 16 (64%) belonging to group 1 and 8 (44%) of group 2 (P=0.05). The median overall survival (MOS) was 17.5 and 16 months for group 1 and 2 respectively (P=0.07). The 1- and 2-year survival was 63%, and 18% for group I and 61% and 22% for group II respectively. The MOS was 5 months and 1 year survival was 14% for patients receiving EBBT only. MOS was significantly better after complete response (P=0.001). Conclusions Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) modulated high dose radiotherapy used either alone or with brachytherapy demonstrates potential to prolonged overall survival in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:28280622

  10. [Use experience and problems in the optimization of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)--Focus on head & neck].

    PubMed

    Ariji, Takaki; Ueda, Takashi; Kitoh, Satoshi; Goka, Tomonori; Kameoka, Satoru; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko

    2010-08-20

    We present the main points of the optimization in IMRT. The skin surface of the planned target volume was reduced by a few millimeters, in view of the limitations of a calculation grid in accurately estimating the influence of build-up or contamination of electrons. Air cavities such as nasal or oral cavities were, in general, filled with water equivalent density in the dose calculation. Planned target volume was contracted by 5 mm when PTV of a higher prescribed dose was delineated adjacent to it. The 5 mm width of ring-shaped ROI was set at 5 mm outside of the entire PTV to eliminate hot spots. Physical quality assurance is extremely important to eradicate unexpected dose inhomogeneity, and meticulous efforts are required.

  11. Attentional processes in low-socioeconomic status bilingual children: are they modulated by the amount of bilingual experience?

    PubMed

    Ladas, Aristea I; Carroll, Daniel J; Vivas, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional functions and pragmatic ability of 54 bilingual and 56 monolingual low-SES children were assessed (Experiment 1: 6- to 12-year-olds; Experiment 2: 6- to 8-year-olds). A language-switching task was also employed, to measure bilingual proficiency. Overall, the monolingual and bilingual groups did not differ significantly in any of the tasks employed, although the ability to resolve conflict was related to children's level of bilingual experience.

  12. Experience-dependent modulation of right anterior insula and sensorimotor regions as a function of noise-masked auditory feedback in singers and nonsingers.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Boris; Friberg, Anders; Zeitouni, Anthony; Zatorre, Robert

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies on vocal motor production in singing suggest that the right anterior insula (AI) plays a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration. Specifically, when somatosensory input was reduced via anesthesia of the vocal fold mucosa, right AI activity was down regulated in trained singers. In the current fMRI study, we examined how masking of auditory feedback affects pitch-matching accuracy and corresponding brain activity in the same participants. We found that pitch-matching accuracy was unaffected by masking in trained singers yet declined in nonsingers. The corresponding brain region with the most differential and interesting activation pattern was the right AI, which was up regulated during masking in singers but down regulated in nonsingers. Likewise, its functional connectivity with inferior parietal, frontal, and voice-relevant sensorimotor areas was increased in singers yet decreased in nonsingers. These results indicate that singers relied more on somatosensory feedback, whereas nonsingers depended more critically on auditory feedback. When comparing auditory vs somatosensory feedback involvement, the right anterior insula emerged as the only region for correcting intended vocal output by modulating what is heard or felt as a function of singing experience. We propose the right anterior insula as a key node in the brain's singing network for the integration of signals of salience across multiple sensory and cognitive domains to guide vocal behavior.

  13. Urology residents experience comparable workload profiles when performing live porcine nephrectomies and robotic surgery virtual reality training modules.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Klein, Martina; Schommer, Eric; Thiel, David D; Samavedi, Srinivas; Kumar, Anup; Leveillee, Raymond J; Thomas, Raju; Pow-Sang, Julio M; Su, Li-Ming; Mui, Engy; Smith, Roger; Patel, Vipul

    2016-03-01

    In pursuit of improving the quality of residents' education, the Southeastern Section of the American Urological Association (SES AUA) hosts an annual robotic training course for its residents. The workshop involves performing a robotic live porcine nephrectomy as well as virtual reality robotic training modules. The aim of this study was to evaluate workload levels of urology residents when performing a live porcine nephrectomy and the virtual reality robotic surgery training modules employed during this workshop. Twenty-one residents from 14 SES AUA programs participated in 2015. On the first-day residents were taught with didactic lectures by faculty. On the second day, trainees were divided into two groups. Half were asked to perform training modules of the Mimic da Vinci-Trainer (MdVT, Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA) for 4 h, while the other half performed nephrectomy procedures on a live porcine model using the da Vinci Si robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). After the first 4 h the groups changed places for another 4-h session. All trainees were asked to complete the NASA-TLX 1-page questionnaire following both the MdVT simulation and live animal model sessions. A significant interface and TLX interaction was observed. The interface by TLX interaction was further analyzed to determine whether the scores of each of the six TLX scales varied across the two interfaces. The means of the TLX scores observed at the two interfaces were similar. The only significant difference was observed for frustration, which was significantly higher at the simulation than the animal model, t (20) = 4.12, p = 0.001. This could be due to trainees' familiarity with live anatomical structures over skill set simulations which remain a real challenge to novice surgeons. Another reason might be that the simulator provides performance metrics for specific performance traits as well as composite scores for entire exercises. Novice trainees experienced

  14. Forecasting extreme wave events in moderate and high sea states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Anne Karin; Reistad, Magnar; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria

    2013-04-01

    Empirical studies on measurements have not yet come to conclusive relations between occurrence of rogue waves and - parameters which could be forecasted . Theoretical and tank experiments have demonstrated that high spectral peakedness and low spectral width combined (high Benjamin-Feir instability index, Onorato et al., 2006) give higher probability of rogue wave occurrence. Directional spread seems to reduce the probability of occurrence of rogue waves in these studies. Many years of experience with forecasting and discussions with people working in ocean environment indicate that rogue waves may as well occur in crossing seas. This was also indicated in a study in the Maxwave project (Toffoli et al., 2003) and the EXTREME SEAS project (Toffoli et al., 2011). We have here experimented with some indexes describing both high BFI and crossing seas and run the WAM model for some North Sea storm cases. Wave distributions measured at Ekofisk are analysed in the different cases. References • Onorato, M., Osborne, A., Serio, M., Cavaleri, L., Brandini, C., and Stansberg, C.: Extreme waves, modulational instability and second order theory: wave flume experiments on irregular waves,Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 25, 586-601, 2006. • Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J.M., Monbaliu, J., Savina, H., and Bitner-Gregersen, E., "Freak Waves:Clues for Prediction in Ship Accidents?", Proc. ISOPE'2003 Conf. Hawai, USA, 2003. • Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen E. M., Osborne A. R., Serio M. Monbaliu J., Onorato M. (2011) Extreme Waves in Random Crossing Seas: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06605, 5 pp. doi: 10.1029/2011.

  15. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; ...

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 tomore » 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.« less

  16. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; Gray, T.; Grierson, B. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lanctot, M.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Mclean, A. G.

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 to 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.

  17. The Failure Patterns of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-University of Iowa Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min . E-mail: min-yao@uiowa.edu; Chang, Kristi; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Tan Huaming; Wacha, Judith C; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Buatti, John M.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Determine the failure patterns of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and July 2005, 55 patients with oral cavity SCC were treated with IMRT for curative intent. Forty-nine received postoperative IMRT, 5 definitive IMRT, and 1 neoadjuvant. Three target volumes were defined (clinical target CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3). The failure patterns were determined by coregistration or comparison of the treatment planning computed tomography to the images obtained at the time of recurrence. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 17.1 months (range, 0.27-59.3 months). The median follow-up for living patients was 23.9 months (range, 9.3-59.3 months). Nine patients had locoregional failures: 4 local failures only, 2 regional failures only, and 3 had both local and regional failures. Five patients failed distantly; of these, 3 also had locoregional failures. The 2-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, and distant disease-free survival was 68%, 74%, 85%, 82%, and 89%, respectively. The median time from treatment completion to locoregional recurrence was 4.1 months (range, 3.0-12.1 months). Except for 1 patient who failed in contralateral lower neck outside the radiation field, all failed in areas that had received a high dose of radiation. The locoregional control is strongly correlated with extracapsular extension. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated RT is effective for oral cavity SCC. Most failures are in-field failures. Further clinical studies are necessary to improve the outcomes of patients with high-risk features, particularly for those with extracapsular extension.

  18. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.

  19. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  20. Attentional Processes in Low-Socioeconomic Status Bilingual Children: Are They Modulated by the Amount of Bilingual Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladas, Aristea I.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Vivas, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional…

  1. A Transition Radiation Experiment to Measure the Electron Beam Modulation Induced by the Free Electron Laser: A Design Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    a detector of the phototube, TV camera, or reticon type. The characteristics of TR that will apply to the proposed experiment are: (1) The angular...January- February 1987. 4. Colson, W.B., and A.M. Sessler, "Free Electron Lasers," Annual Review of Nuclear Particle Science, v. 35, pp. 25-54, 1985

  2. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model

    PubMed Central

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A.; Braun, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects’ choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects’ choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  3. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    PubMed

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  4. Technology of planetary extreme environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.; Hall, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four test chamber systems were devleoped to simulate the extreme atmospheric environs of Venus and Jupiter, in order to assure satisfactory performance of scientific entry probes and their experiments.

  5. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  6. COMT Val158Met modulates the effect of childhood adverse experiences on the risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.

  7. Whole Abdominopelvic Radiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy in the Palliative Treatment of Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer With Bulky Peritoneal Disease: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    De Meerleer, Gert; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Ost, Piet; Delrue, Louke; Denys, Hannelore; Makar, Amin; Speleers, Bruno; Van Belle, Simon; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Fonteyne, Valerie; De Neve, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our experience with whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy (WAPRT) using intensity-modulated arc therapy in the palliative treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer with bulky peritoneal disease. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and April 2008, 13 patients were treated with WAPRT using intensity-modulated arc therapy. We prescribed a dose of 33 Gy to be delivered in 22 fractions of 1.5 Gy to the abdomen and pelvis. All patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III or IV ovarian cancer at the initial diagnosis. At referral, the median age was 61 years, and the patients had been heavily pretreated with surgery and chemotherapy. All patients had symptoms from their disease, including gastrointestinal obstruction or subobstruction in 6, minor gastrointestinal symptoms in 2, pain in 4, ascites in 1, and vaginal bleeding in 2. A complete symptom or biochemical response required complete resolution of the patient's symptoms or cancer antigen-125 level. A partial response required {>=}50% resolution of these parameters. The actuarial survival was calculated from the start of radiotherapy. Results: The median overall survival was 21 weeks, with a 6-month overall survival rate of 45%. The 9 patients who completed treatment obtained a complete symptom response, except for ascites (partial response). The median and mean response duration (all symptoms grouped) was 24 and 37 weeks, respectively. Of the 6 patients presenting with obstruction or subobstruction, 4 obtained a complete symptom response (median duration, 16 weeks). Conclusion: WAPRT delivered using intensity-modulated arc therapy offers important palliation in the case of peritoneal metastatic ovarian cancer. WAPRT resolved intestinal obstruction for a substantial period.

  8. Modulated release of cyclosporine from soluble vinyl pyrrolidone--hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer hydrogels. A correlation of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' experiments.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Fernández, F; Cifuentes, A; Díez-Masa, J C; Bermejo, P; Rebuelta, M; López-Bravo, A; San Román, J

    2001-05-14

    Soluble, uncrosslinked and high molecular weight copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone, VP, with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, HEMA, prepared by free radical copolymerization, are proposed as supports for the modulated release of the immunosuppressor cyclosporine. Two copolymeric systems with copolymer compositions f(VP)=0.52 (namely VP--HEMA 60--40) and 0.42 (VP--HEMA 40--60) have been prepared and tested in vitro and in vivo using rats as animal model. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, MEKC, has been used for the simultaneous detection of the polymer reabsorption and the drug release for the in vitro experiments. The composition and microstructural distribution of the copolymer system controls the solubilization rate which modulates the in vitro release of the drug (with time profiles from a few days to several weeks for the VP--HEMA 60--40 and 40--60, respectively) and the in vivo response that correlates with the previous in vitro results: the more hydrophobic implant (VP--HEMA 40--60) reverts the immune response more slowly (2--4 weeks) compared to the more hydrophilic one (VP--HEMA 60--40, 1--2 weeks).

  9. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Hugo; Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David; Soulieres, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Pelvic Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Planning Procedures and Early Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Muren, Ludvig Paul Wasbo, Ellen; Helle, Svein Inge; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Karlsdottir, Asa; Odland, Odd Harald; Valen, Harald; Ekerold, Randi; Johannessen, Dag Clement

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: We present planning and early clinical outcomes of a study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 43 patients initially treated with an IMRT plan delivering 50 Gy to the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes, followed by a conformal radiotherapy (CRT) plan delivering 20 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles, were studied. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data for the added plans were compared with dose-volume histogram data for the sum of two CRT plans for 15 cases. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity, based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system, was recorded weekly throughout treatment as well as 3 to 18 months after treatment and are presented. Results: Treatment with IMRT both reduced normal tissue doses and increased the minimum target doses. Intestine volumes receiving more than 40 and 50 Gy were significantly reduced (e.g., at 50 Gy, from 81 to 19 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.026), as were bladder volumes above 40, 50, and 60 Gy, rectum volumes above 30, 50, and 60 Gy, and hip joint muscle volumes above 20, 30, and 40 Gy. During treatment, Grade 2 GI toxicity was reported by 12 of 43 patients (28%), and Grade 2 to 4 GU toxicity was also observed among 12 patients (28%). With 6 to 18 months of follow-up, 2 patients (5%) experienced Grade 2 GI effects and 7 patients (16%) experienced Grade 2 GU effects. Conclusions: Use of IMRT for pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer reduces normal tissue doses, improves target coverage, and has a promising toxicity profile.

  11. Using ESSEA Modules, Local Event Studies and Personal Learning Experiences in an Earth Systems Science Course for Preservice Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slattery, W.; Brown, D.

    2008-12-01

    Most science courses, including courses that provide preparation for pre-service K-12 teachers are only taught from a deductive big picture perspective. This method is fine for most abstract learners, but pre- service classroom educators that are being prepared to teach in middle school classrooms will be faced with the challenge of building science content knowledge in students that are concrete learners. For these K-12 students a better pedagogical practice is to use local real-world familiar places, issues and personal experience to connect student learning with more abstract concepts. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite skills and pedagogical content knowledge to build K- 12 student science concept knowledge and science process skills we have integrated ESSEA modules that connect worldwide issues such as global climate change with local event studies chosen by learners. Some recent examples include how such local events such as landfill fires and suburban sprawl impact the local area's air, land, water and life. Course participants are able to choose a more personal route to understanding how their habits impact the global environment by participating in a three week learning experience called the Lifestyle Project. This experience asks students to incrementally reduce their use of heating or air-conditioning, the amount of waste going to landfills, to conserve electricity, drive less and eat less energy intensively. Pre-post content assessments indicate that students in this course scored significantly higher on post course content assessments and reported that by engaging in personal experience to global scale learning experiences they have a new appreciation for how personal choices impact the global environment and how to use local artifacts and issues to enhance K-12 student learning.

  12. Laser Driven, Extreme Compression Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon

    2014-03-01

    Extreme-compression science is blessed by a number of new techniques and facilities that are shattering previous experimental limitations: static pressures above 600 GPa, equation of state (EOS) experiments on pulsed-power machines, picosecond-resolved x-ray diffraction on free-electron lasers, and many new experiments on high-energy lasers. Our goals, using high-energy lasers, have been to push the limits of high pressure accessible to measurement and to bridge the gap between static- and dynamic-compression experiments by exploring off-Hugoniot states. I will review laser techniques for both shock- and ramp-compression experiments, and discuss a variety of diagnostics. I will present recent results including: impedance-matching Hugoniot experiments, absolute-Hugoniot implosive-shock radiography, coupled radiometry and velocimetry, ramp-compression EOS, and in-situ x-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy into the TPa regime. As the National Ignition Facility (NIF) transitions to a laser user facility for basic and applied science, we are transferring many of these techniques. The unprecedented quality and variety of diagnostics available, coupled with exquisite pulse-shaping predictability and control make the NIF a premier facility for extreme-compression experiments.

  13. Laser Driven, Extreme Compression Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon

    2013-06-01

    Extreme-compression science is blessed by a number of new techniques and facilities that are shattering previous experimental limitations: static pressures above 600 GPa, equation of state (EOS) experiments on pulsed-power machines, picosecond-resolved x-ray diffraction on free-electron lasers, and many new experiments on high-energy lasers. Our goals, using high-energy lasers, have been to push the limits of high pressure accessible to measurement and to bridge the gap between static- and dynamic-compression experiments by exploring off-Hugoniot states. I will review laser techniques for both shock- and ramp-compression experiments, and discuss a variety of diagnostics. I will present recent results including: impedance-matching Hugoniot experiments, absolute-Hugoniot implosive-shock radiography, coupled radiometry and velocimetry, ramp-compression EOS, and in-situ x-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy into the TPa regime. As the National Ignition Facility (NIF) transitions to a laser user facility for basic and applied science, we are transferring many of these techniques. The unprecedented quality and variety of diagnostics available, coupled with exquisite pulse-shaping predictability and control make the NIF a premier facility for extreme-compression experiments.

  14. Pigment composition and concentrations within the plant (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) component of the STS-89 C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module spaceflight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeste, D.; Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Blüm, V.

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) Mini-Module, a Space Shuttle middeck locker payload which supports a variety of aquatic inhabitants (fish, snails, plants and bacteria) in an enclosed 8.6 L chamber, was tested for its biological stability in microgravity. The aquatic plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was critical for the vitality and functioning of this artificial mini-ecosystem. Its photosynthetic pigment concentrations were of interest due to their light harvesting and protective functions. ``Post-flight'' chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations within Ceratophyllum apical segments were directly related to the quantities of light received in the experiments, with microgravity exposure (STS-89) failing to account for any significant deviation from ground control studies.

  15. Pigment composition and concentrations within the plant (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) component of the STS-89 C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module spaceflight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voeste, D.; Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Blum, V.; Wheeler, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) Mini-Module, a Space Shuttle middeck locker payload which supports a variety of aquatic inhabitants (fish, snails, plants and bacteria) in an enclosed 8.6 L chamber, was tested for its biological stability in microgravity. The aquatic plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was critical for the vitality and functioning of this artificial mini-ecosystem. Its photosynthetic pigment concentrations were of interest due to their light harvesting and protective functions. "Post-flight" chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations within Ceratophyllum apical segments were directly related to the quantities of light received in the experiments, with microgravity exposure (STS-89) failing to account for any significant deviation from ground control studies. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  16. Neurotrophin modulation of voltage-gated potassium channels in rat through TrkB receptors is time and sensory experience dependent

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, K; Fadool, DA

    2002-01-01

    The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique, immunoprecipitation experiments and unilateral naris occlusions were used to investigate whether the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 was a substrate for neurotrophin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent functional modulation of current properties in cultured rat olfactory bulb (OB) neurons. Membrane proteins of the OB included all three Trk receptor kinases, but the truncated form of the receptor, lacking an intact kinase domain, was the predominant form of the protein for TrkA and TrkC, while TrkB was predominantly found as the full-length receptor. Acute (15 min) stimulation of OB neurons with bath application of 50 ng ml−1 brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a selective ligand for TrkB, caused suppression of the whole-cell outward current and no changes in the kinetics of inactivation or deactivation. Acute stimulation with either nerve growth factor or neurotrophin-3 failed to evoke any changes in Kv1.3 function in the OB neurons. Chronic exposure to BDNF (days) caused an increase in the magnitude of Kv1.3 current and speeding of the inactivation and deactivation of the channel. Acute BDNF-induced activation of TrkB receptors significantly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.3 in the OB, as shown using a combined immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. With unilateral naris occlusion, the acute BDNF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.3 was increased in neurons lacking odour sensory experience. In summary, the duration of neurotrophin exposure and the sensory-dependent state of a neuron can influence the degree of phosphorylation of a voltage-gated ion channel and its concomitant functional modulation by neurotrophins. PMID:12122142

  17. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, shortening osteotomy, angulatory correction osteotomy and lengthening. This report reviews the literature relative to upper extremity length inequality and equalization and presents an algorithm for evaluation and planning appropriate treatment for patients with this condition. This algorithm is illustrated by two clinical cases of posttraumatic shortness of the radius which were effectively treated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  18. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  19. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  20. Materials Response under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S; McNaney, J M

    2005-10-06

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.

  1. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  2. Sensory experience differentially modulates the mRNA expression of the polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV in postnatal mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Di Cristo, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a unique carbohydrate composed of a linear homopolymer of α-2,8 linked sialic acid, and is mainly attached to the fifth immunoglobulin-like domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in vertebrate neural system. In the brain, PSA is exclusively synthesized by the two polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII (also known as STX) and ST8SiaIV (also known as PST). By modulating adhesive property of NCAM, PSA plays a critical role in several neural development processes such as cell migration, neurite outgrowth, axon pathfinding, synaptogenesis and activity-dependent plasticity. The expression of PSA is temporally and spatially regulated during neural development and a tight regulation of PSA expression is essential to its biological function. In mouse visual cortex, PSA is downregulated following eye opening and its decrease allows the maturation of GABAergic synapses and the opening of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. Relatively little is known about how PSA levels are regulated by sensory experience and neuronal activity. Here, we demonstrate that while both ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV mRNA levels decrease around the time of eye opening in mouse visual cortex, only ST8SiaII mRNA level reduction is regulated by sensory experience. Using an organotypic culture system from mouse visual cortex, we further show that ST8SiaII gene expression is regulated by spiking activity and NMDA-mediated excitation. Further, we show that both ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV mRNA levels are positively regulated by PKC-mediated signaling. Therefore, sensory experience-dependent ST8SiaII gene expression regulates PSA levels in postnatal visual cortex, thus acting as molecular link between visual activity and PSA expression.

  3. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MD Anderson Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Zhiqin; Yang Kunyu; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Xiong; Tucker, Susan L.; Zhuang Yan; Martel, Mary K.; Vedam, Sastray; Balter, Peter; Zhu Guangying; Gomez, Daniel; Lu, Charles; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of {>=}60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Results: Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade {>=}3 maximum TRP (TRP{sub max}) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade {>=}1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}) and 7% Grade {>=}2 pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}. The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis{sub max}) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis{sub max} later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. Conclusions: In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.

  4. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    PubMed

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  5. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  6. Extremal surface barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  7. Modulation of auroral electrojet currents using dual HF beams with ELF phase offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The modulation of naturally occuring ionospheric currents with high power radio waves in the high frequency (HF, 3-10 MHz) band is a well known technique for generation of extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves. We use the heating facility of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) to investigate the effect of using dual HF beams with an ELF/VLF phase offset between the modulation waveforms. Experiments with offset HF beams confirm the model of independent ELF/VLF sources. Experiments with co-located HF beams exhibit interaction between the first and second harmonics of the modulated tones when square and sine wave modulation waveforms are employed. Using ELF/VLF phase offsets for co-loacted beams is also shown to be a potential diagnostic for the D-region ionospheric profile.

  8. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  9. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  10. The C.E.B.A. Mini Module on the STS-107 Mission: Data of Ground Experiments and Preliminary Results of the third Spaceflight of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.; Bungart, S.

    evaluated. It turned out that in the male sex the gonopodial development is an excellent parameter in combination with defined morphological changes in the testis as the onset of meiosis. In females the formation of oocytes and the start of vitellogenesis allow a safe definition of puberty. In both sexes the sexual maturation is accompanied my marked morphological changes of the GnRH system and the GtH cells in the pituitary gland. The male sexual behavior was recorded in a comprehensive quantitative ethogram so that possible alterations can be easily detected. In the field of embryology all possible "marker organs" were selected which enable a direct correlation of developmental stage and duration of gestation. The most important of those are eye and skin pigmentation, eye development, circulatory system, pericardial sac and otoliths. The axial skeleton development has been found to be extremely suitable to study the biomineralization process in chronology which will be used to detect possible alterations during the time of space flight. The lecture will present the latest results of ground experiments in embryology and skeleton research as well as the first results of the STS-107 spaceflifht including system performance data. Moreover, the possible further development of the C.E.B.A.S. and the utizitation of its basic biotechnology for the construction of aquatic modules für bioregenerative life support systems will be discussed.

  11. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  12. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  13. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  14. Growth and electrical characterization of Al0.24Ga0.76As/AlxGa1-xAs/Al0.24Ga0.76As modulation-doped quantum wells with extremely low x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Watson, John D.; Mondal, Sumit; Deng, Nianpei; Csáthy, Gabor A.; Manfra, Michael J.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the growth and electrical characterization of modulation-doped Al0.24Ga0.76As/AlxGa1-xAs/Al0.24Ga0.76As quantum wells with mole fractions as low as x = 0.00057. Such structures will permit detailed studies of the impact of alloy disorder in the fractional quantum Hall regime. At zero magnetic field, we extract an alloy scattering rate of 24 ns-1 per%Al. Additionally, we find that for x as low as 0.00057 in the quantum well, alloy scattering becomes the dominant mobility-limiting scattering mechanism in ultra-high purity two-dimensional electron gases typically used to study the fragile ν = 5/2 and ν = 12/5 fractional quantum Hall states.

  15. Effect of Increasing Experience on Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes in the Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Pretesh R.; Yoo, Sua; Broadwater, Gloria; Marks, Lawrence B.; Miles, Edward F.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Harpole, David; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of increasing experience with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and Materials: The records of all patients who received IMRT following EPP at Duke University Medical Center between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Target volumes included the preoperative extent of the pleural space, chest wall incisions, involved nodal stations, and a boost to close/positive surgical margins if applicable. Patients were typically treated with 9-11 beams with gantry angles, collimator rotations, and beam apertures manually fixed to avoid the contalateral lung and to optimize target coverage. Toxicity was graded retrospectively using National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria version 4.0. Target coverage and contralateral lung irradiation were evaluated over time by using linear regression. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Thirty patients received IMRT following EPP; 21 patients also received systemic chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 15 months. The median dose prescribed to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax was 45 Gy (range, 40-50.4 Gy) with a boost of 8-25 Gy in 9 patients. Median survival was 23.2 months. Two-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 47%, 34%, and 50%, respectively. Increasing experience planning MPM cases was associated with improved coverage of planning target volumes (P=.04). Similarly, mean lung dose (P<.01) and lung V5 (volume receiving 5 Gy or more; P<.01) values decreased with increasing experience. Lung toxicity developed after IMRT in 4 (13%) patients at a median of 2.2 months after RT (three grade 3-4 and one grade 5). Lung toxicity developed in 4 of the initial 15 patients vs none of the last 15 patients treated. Conclusions: With increasing experience, target volume coverage improved and dose to the

  16. Extremely low losses 14xx single mode laser diode leading to 550-mW output power module with 0-75°C case temperature and 10-W consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burie, J.-R.; Garabedian, P.; Starck, C.; Pagnod-Rossiaux, P.; Bettiati, M.; Do Nascimento, M.; Reygrobellet, J.-N.; Bertreux, J.-C.; Laruelle, F.

    2012-03-01

    High power 14xx laser pumps are more and more required for eye safe industrial, medical, safety and defense applications as well as for increased telecom network capability (e.g. for 100 Gb Ethernet). However, this need of high power requires to control the overall power consumption in a range in line with systems requirements. In this respect, 3S PHOTONICS has developed a 14xx nm single mode laser diode with record internal losses of 1.5 cm-1 compared to the 2.7 cm-1 reported up to now. These lasers are based on p/nBH technology and use the asymmetric waveguide concept to reduce internal losses. The record loss value, coupled to an internal efficiency higher than 0.8, allows realization lasers of 3 mm length with external efficiency higher than 0.5 W.A-1 at 25°C in AR/HR coating configuration. Modules using direct coupling technology were realized. High coupling efficiency is obtained thanks to the 8° x 14° far field pattern of the diode. Output power of 550 mW at 1.8 A is thus obtained, with or without FBG stabilization, with maximum output power above 700mW. Thanks to the lasers' length, voltage at this current level is below 1.9 V, which gives a reduced thermal load. Thus, the overall modules electrical consumption remains lower than 10 W at case temperatures ranging from 0°C to 75°C. The 3 mm length also guaranties high reliability of these laser diodes.

  17. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-14

    into Extreme Water Level Characterization 9 September 2013 Attendees: Heidi Moritz, Kate White, Jonathan Simm, Robert Nicholls, Peter Hawkes...adaptation. Robert Nicholls raised the question of how well do we feel that we understand the present extreme climate? We should start with this area...the peer-review and acceptance process for a journal paper. Robert suggested that most of the papers which are needed for an analysis today may be

  18. Second-language experience modulates first- and second-language word frequency effects: evidence from eye movement measures of natural paragraph reading.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2012-02-01

    We used eye movement measures of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph reading to investigate whether the degree of current L2 exposure modulates the relative size of L1 and L2 frequency effects (FEs). The results showed that bilinguals displayed larger L2 than L1 FEs during both early- and late-stage eye movement measures, which are taken to reflect initial lexical access and postlexical access, respectively. Moreover, the magnitude of L2 FEs was inversely related to current L2 exposure, such that lower levels of L2 exposure led to larger L2 FEs. In contrast, during early-stage reading measures, bilinguals with higher levels of current L2 exposure showed larger L1 FEs than did bilinguals with lower levels of L2 exposure, suggesting that increased L2 experience modifies the earliest stages of L1 lexical access. Taken together, the findings are consistent with implicit learning accounts (e.g., Monsell, 1991), the weaker links hypothesis (Gollan, Montoya, Cera, Sandoval, Journal of Memory and Language, 58:787-814, 2008), and current bilingual visual word recognition models (e.g., the bilingual interactive activation model plus [BIA+]; Dijkstra & van Heuven, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5:175-197, 2002). Thus, amount of current L2 exposure is a key determinant of FEs and, thus, lexical activation, in both the L1 and L2.

  19. Modulation of systemic and intestinal immune response by interleukin-2 therapy in gastrointestinal surgical oncology. Personal experience in the context of current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Luca; Uggeri, Fabio; Romano, Fabrizio; Nespoli, Angelo; Brivo, Fernando; Fumagalli, Luca; Sargenti, Manuela; Uggeri, Franco; Gianotti, Luca

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between host and malignant tumor is currently under intensive investigation. The immune system seems to have a key role in cancer development and spread. Novel strategies to actively modulate the immune system have been proposed to improve the outcome of disease in patients with neoplasms. Our experience with systemic immunomodulation by interleukin-2 (IL-2) focused on both systemic and local immunity in surgical gastrointestinal cancer. Preoperative IL-2 subcutaneous injection was effective in counteracting postoperative immunosuppression, with a reduction of serum levels of IL-6 and the maintenance of preoperative levels of IL-12, a higher number of circulating total lymphocytes, and CD3(+) and CD4(+) T-cells, and a smaller decrease in circulating mature and immature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as a reduction in postoperative serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. At the intestinal level, in patients with colorectal cancer, preoperative administration of IL-2 affected both phenotype and function of resident dendritic cells and T-cells, skewing local immunity toward a more immunogenic one. Our data showed that immunomodulation by IL-2 was effective in counteracting the systemic postoperative immune suppression related to surgical stress. IL-2 was also active at a local level on intestinal immunity, affecting both phenotype and function of resident T-cells and DCs. Future studies will encompass the possibility of reaching more adequate intratumoral IL-2 concentrations by direct intralesional injection to maximize immunostimulatory effects and minimize adverse effects.

  20. Comment on 'Time modulation of K-shell electron capture decay rates of H-like heavy ions at GSI experiments.'

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H. J.; Physics; Weizmann Inst. of Science; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2010-04-16

    A Comment on the Letter by A.N. Ivanov and P. Kienle, Physical Review Letters volume 103, Issue 6, 062502 (2009). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EX}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d {sup EC}}{approx}0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  1. Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Peter Danet, Jean-Marie; Holleville, David; Clercq, Emeric de; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2014-12-08

    We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.

  2. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  3. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  4. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  5. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  6. Timbral Sharpness and Modulations in Frequency and Amplitude: Implications for the Fusion of Musical Sounds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goad, Pamela Joy

    The fusion of musical voices is an important aspect of musical blend, or the mixing of individual sounds. Yet, little research has been done to explicitly determine the factors involved in fusion. In this study, the similarity of timbre and modulation were examined for their contribution to the fusion of sounds. It is hypothesized that similar timbres will fuse better than dissimilar timbres, and, voices with the same kind of modulation will fuse better than voices of different modulations. A perceptually-based measure, known as sharpness was investigated as a measure of timbre. The advantages of using sharpness are that it is based on hearing sensitivities and masking phenomena of inner ear processing. Five musical instrument families were digitally recorded in performances across a typical playing range at two extreme dynamic levels. Analyses reveal that sharpness is capable of uncovering subtle changes in timbre including those found in musical dynamics, instrument design, and performer-specific variations. While these analyses alone are insufficient to address fusion, preliminary calculations of timbral combinations indicate that sharpness has the potential to predict the fusion of sounds used in musical composition. Three experiments investigated the effects of modulation on the fusion of a harmonic major sixth interval. In the first experiment using frequency modulation, stimuli varied in deviation about a mean fundamental frequency and relative modulation phase between the two tones. Results showed smaller frequency deviations promoted fusion and relative phase differences had a minimal effect. In a second experiment using amplitude modulation, stimuli varied in deviation about a mean amplitude level and relative phase of modulation. Results showed smaller amplitude deviations promoted better fusion, but unlike frequency modulation, relative phase differences were also important. In a third experiment, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation and mixed

  7. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  8. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  9. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  10. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  11. Occult fractures of extremities.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Mo; El-Khoury, Georges Y

    2007-05-01

    Recent advances in cross-sectional imaging, particularly in CT and MR imaging, have given these modalities a prominent role in the diagnosis of fractures of the extremities. This article describes the clinical application and imaging features of cross-sectional imaging (CT and MR imaging) in the evaluation of patients who have occult fractures of the extremities. Although CT or MR imaging is not typically required for evaluation of acute fractures, these modalities could be helpful in the evaluation of the occult osseous injuries in which radiographic findings are equivocal or inconclusive.

  12. Commissioning and quality assurance for intensity modulated radiotherapy with dynamic multileaf collimator: experience of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

    PubMed

    Venencia, Carlos Daniel; Besa, Pelayo

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present our experience in the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC), sliding window technique. Using Varian equipment solution, the connectivity and operation between all IMRT chain components was checked. Then the following test were done: stability of leaf positioning and leaf speed, sensitivity to treatment interruptions (acceleration and deceleration), evaluation of standard field patterns, stability of dMLC output, segmental dose accuracy check, average leaf transmission, dosimetric leaf separation, effects of lateral disequilibrium between adjacent leaves in dose profiles and multiple carriage field verification. Standard patterns were generated for verification: uniform field, pyramid, hole, wedge, peaks and chair. Weekly QA Protocol include: sweeping gap output, Garden Fence Test (narrow bands, 2 mm wide, of exposure spaced at 2-cm intervals) and segmental dose accuracy check. Monthly QA include: sweeping gap output at multiple gantry and collimator angle, sweeping gap output off-axis, Picket Fence Test (eight consecutive movements of a 5-cm wide rectangular field spaced at 5-cm intervals), stability of leaf speed and leaf motor current test (PWM test). Patient QA procedure consists of an absolute dose measurement for all treatments fields in the treatment condition, analysis of actual leaf position versus planned leaf position (dynalog files) for each treatment field, film relative dose determination for each field, film relative dose determination for the plan (all treatment fields) in two axial planes and patient positioning verification with orthogonal films. The tests performed showed acceptable result. After more than one year of IMRT treatment the routine QA machine checks confirm the precision and stability of the IMRT system.

  13. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Complex-Shaped Meningioma of the Skull Base: Long-Term Experience of a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie . E-mail: Stefanie_Milker-Zabel@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Zabel-du Bois, Angelika; Huber, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our long-term experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with complex-shaped meningioma of the skull base. Patients and Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2004, 94 patients with complex-shaped meningioma were treated using IMRT at our institution. Tumor distribution was: World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 54.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 9.6%, and WHO Grade 3 in 4.2%. In 31.9% of patients, the clinical and radiologic characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of meningioma. Twenty-six patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment and 14 patients postoperative for residual disease. Fifty-four patients were treated after local recurrence. Median target volume was 81.4 mL, median total dose was 57.6 Gy given in 32 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Overall local control was 93.6%. Sixty-nine patients had stable disease based on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas 19 had a tumor volume reduction after IMRT. Six patients showed local tumor progression on MRI 22.3 months' median after IMRT. Three patients died from non-treatment-related conditions after IMRT. In 39.8% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms was seen in 4 patients and 2 patients developed new clinical symptoms from local tumor progression. Transient side effects such as headache were seen in 7 patients. Treatment-induced loss of vision was seen in 1 of 53 reirradiated patients with a Grade 3 meningioma 9 months after retreatment with IMRT. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that IMRT is an effective and safe treatment modality for long-term local control of complex-shaped and otherwise difficult to treat meningioma.

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Koutcher, Lawrence; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rowan, Nicholas; Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Pfister, David G.; Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27-91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3-135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia {>=}Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  15. Forecaster's dilemma: Extreme events and forecast evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Gneiting, Tilmann

    2015-04-01

    In discussions of the quality of forecasts in the media and public, attention often focuses on the predictive performance in the case of extreme events. Intuitively, accurate predictions on the subset of extreme events seem to suggest better predictive ability. However, it can be demonstrated that restricting conventional forecast verification methods to subsets of observations might have unexpected and undesired effects and may discredit even the most skillful forecasters. Hand-picking extreme events is incompatible with the theoretical assumptions of established forecast verification methods, thus confronting forecasters with what we refer to as the forecaster's dilemma. For probabilistic forecasts, weighted proper scoring rules provide suitable alternatives for forecast evaluation with an emphasis on extreme events. Using theoretical arguments, simulation experiments and a case study on probabilistic forecasts of wind speed over Germany, we illustrate the forecaster's dilemma and the use of weighted proper scoring rules.

  16. Autonomous radar pulse modulation classification using modulation components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Qiu, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Jun; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    An autonomous method for recognizing radar pulse modulations based on modulation components analysis is introduced in this paper. Unlike the conventional automatic modulation classification methods which extract modulation features based on a list of known patterns, this proposed method classifies modulations by the existence of basic modulation components including continuous frequency modulations, discrete frequency codes and discrete phase codes in an autonomous way. A feasible way to realize this method is using the features of abrupt changes in the instantaneous frequency rate curve which derived by the short-term general representation of phase derivative. This method is suitable not only for the basic radar modulations but also for complicated and hybrid modulations. The theoretical result and two experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  18. Astron extreme lightweighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, Niels; Drost, Marco; Pragt, Johan

    2004-09-01

    Producing extreme light weighted structures by combining a new design concept with the most recent production machines and production software tools. Weight reductions of up to 50% compared to the traditional techniques are feasible with the same stiffness performance. Suitable for standard materials like aluminium and steel, for single construction parts out of mono material and with a single production process. Astronomical instruments for space applications and ground-based applications require more and more extreme light and extreme stiff structures. The traditional technique like 3-axis or multisided machining of metal parts seems limited and not suitable for the next generation instruments. New materials with new production technologies are used more and more with all their specialties and restrictions. ASTRON developed a new structural design of traditional materials with heritage optimized for production with the most recent milling machines. The structural shapes are closely linked to the extremes of 5-axis simultaneous milling. The design and production process is patented and now free for publication.

  19. Extreme sports are good for your health: a phenomenological understanding of fear and anxiety in extreme sport.

    PubMed

    Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Extreme sports are traditionally explored from a risk-taking perspective which often assumes that participants do not experience fear. In this article we explore participants' experience of fear associated with participation in extreme sports. An interpretive phenomenological method was used with 15 participants. Four themes emerged: experience of fear, relationship to fear, management of fear, and fear and self-transformation. Participants' experience of extreme sports was revealed in terms of intense fear but this fear was integrated and experienced as a potentially meaningful and constructive event in their lives. The findings have implications for understanding fear as a potentially transformative process.

  20. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  1. Linac-based extracranial radiosurgery with Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy and an anatomy-based treatment planning system: Feasibility and initial experience.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Savino; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Ianiro, Anna; Viola, Pietro; Craus, Maurizio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Piermattei, Angelo; Morganti, Alessio G

    2016-01-01

    We reported our initial experience in using Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and an anatomy-based treatment planning system (TPS) for single high-dose radiosurgery (SRS-VMAT) of liver metastases. This study included a cohort of 12 patients treated with a 26-Gy single fraction. Single-arc VMAT plans were generated with Ergo++ TPS. The prescription isodose surface (IDS) was selected to fulfill the 2 following criteria: 95% of planning target volume (PTV) reached 100% of the prescription dose and 99% of PTV reached a minimum of 90% of prescription dose. A 1-mm multileaf collimator (MLC) block margin was added around the PTV. For a comparison of dose distributions with literature data, several conformity indexes (conformity index [CI], conformation number [CN], and gradient index [GI]) were calculated. Treatment efficiency and pretreatment dosimetric verification were assessed. Early clinical data were also reported. Our results reported that target and organ-at-risk objectives were met for all patients. Mean and maximum doses to PTVs were on average 112.9% and 121.5% of prescribed dose, respectively. A very high degree of dose conformity was obtained, with CI, CN, and GI average values equal to 1.29, 0.80, and 3.63, respectively. The beam-on-time was on average 9.3 minutes, i.e., 0.36min/Gy. The mean number of monitor units was 3162, i.e., 121.6MU/Gy. Pretreatment verification (3%-3mm) showed an optimal agreement with calculated values; mean γ value was 0.27 and 98.2% of measured points resulted with γ < 1. With a median follow-up of 16 months complete response was observed in 12/14 (86%) lesions; partial response was observed in 2/14 (14%) lesions. No radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) was observed in any patients as well no duodenal ulceration or esophagitis or gastric hemorrhage. In conclusion, this analysis demonstrated the feasibility and the appropriateness of high-dose single-fraction SRS-VMAT in liver metastases performed with Elekta VMAT

  2. Linac-based extracranial radiosurgery with Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy and an anatomy-based treatment planning system: Feasibility and initial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cilla, Savino; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Ianiro, Anna; Viola, Pietro; Craus, Maurizio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Piermattei, Angelo; Morganti, Alessio G.

    2016-07-01

    We reported our initial experience in using Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and an anatomy-based treatment planning system (TPS) for single high-dose radiosurgery (SRS-VMAT) of liver metastases. This study included a cohort of 12 patients treated with a 26-Gy single fraction. Single-arc VMAT plans were generated with Ergo++ TPS. The prescription isodose surface (IDS) was selected to fulfill the 2 following criteria: 95% of planning target volume (PTV) reached 100% of the prescription dose and 99% of PTV reached a minimum of 90% of prescription dose. A 1-mm multileaf collimator (MLC) block margin was added around the PTV. For a comparison of dose distributions with literature data, several conformity indexes (conformity index [CI], conformation number [CN], and gradient index [GI]) were calculated. Treatment efficiency and pretreatment dosimetric verification were assessed. Early clinical data were also reported. Our results reported that target and organ-at-risk objectives were met for all patients. Mean and maximum doses to PTVs were on average 112.9% and 121.5% of prescribed dose, respectively. A very high degree of dose conformity was obtained, with CI, CN, and GI average values equal to 1.29, 0.80, and 3.63, respectively. The beam-on-time was on average 9.3 minutes, i.e., 0.36 min/Gy. The mean number of monitor units was 3162, i.e., 121.6 MU/Gy. Pretreatment verification (3%-3 mm) showed an optimal agreement with calculated values; mean γ value was 0.27 and 98.2% of measured points resulted with γ < 1. With a median follow-up of 16 months complete response was observed in 12/14 (86%) lesions; partial response was observed in 2/14 (14%) lesions. No radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) was observed in any patients as well no duodenal ulceration or esophagitis or gastric hemorrhage. In conclusion, this analysis demonstrated the feasibility and the appropriateness of high-dose single-fraction SRS-VMAT in liver metastases performed with Elekta

  3. Lower extremity venous reflux

    PubMed Central

    Baliyan, Vinit; Tajmir, Shahein; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Venous incompetence in the lower extremity is a common clinical problem. Basic understanding of venous anatomy, pathophysiologic mechanisms of venous reflux is essential for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. The complex interplay of venous pressure, abdominal pressure, venous valvular function and gravitational force determine the venous incompetence. This review is intended to provide a succinct review of the pathophysiology of venous incompetence and the current role of imaging in its management. PMID:28123974

  4. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  5. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  6. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  7. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  8. Binaural modulation detection interference.

    PubMed

    Sheft, S; Yost, W A

    1997-09-01

    The ability to detect amplitude modulation (AM) of a tonal probe can be disrupted by the presence of modulated masking tones. Two experiments examined whether a disparity in the interaural parameters of the probe and masker can reduce the amount of interference. In the first experiment, the effects of interaural time and intensity differences were studied in separate sets of conditions. With low-frequency carriers, the detection of 10-Hz probe modulation in the presence of 10-Hz masker modulation was not significantly affected by interaural time differences. With higher-frequency carriers, dichotic stimuli were generated through combinations of diotic, dichotic, or monotic probe and masker presentations in which the probe and masker did not share a common interaural intensity difference. In these conditions, the amount of interference was affected by the interaural configuration. However, monotic level differences between the probe and masker may have contributed to the effect of interaural configuration. In the second experiment, the probe and masker were presented through separate speakers in an enclosed listening environment. Spatial separation between the sources for the probe and masker led to a small reduction in the amount of interference. When the masker modulation rate was varied with the probe AM rate fixed at 10 Hz, the extent of tuning in the modulation domain in the sound-field conditions was similar to that obtained with diotic stimulus presentation over headphones.

  9. Extreme events in discrete nonlinear lattices.

    PubMed

    Maluckov, A; Hadzievski, Lj; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2009-02-01

    We perform statistical analysis on discrete nonlinear waves generated through modulational instability in the context of the Salerno model that interpolates between the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) equation and the nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We focus on extreme events in the form of discrete rogue or freak waves that may arise as a result of rapid coalescence of discrete breathers or other nonlinear interaction processes. We find power law dependence in the wave amplitude distribution accompanied by an enhanced probability for freak events close to the integrable limit of the equation. A characteristic peak in the extreme event probability appears that is attributed to the onset of interaction of the discrete solitons of the AL equation and the accompanied transition from the local to the global stochasticity monitored through the positive Lyapunov exponent of a nonlinear map.

  10. Methods for Improving Long-Range Wireless Communication Between Extreme Terrain Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Axel is an extreme terrain, two-wheeled rover designed to traverse rocky surface and sub-surface landscapes in order to conduct remote science experiments in hard-to-reach locations. The rover's design meets many requirements for a mobile research platform capable of reaching water seeps on Martian cliff sides. Axel was developed by the Mobility and Robotic Systems section at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Unique design criteria associated with extreme terrain mobility led to a unique rover solution, consisting of a central module, which provides long-term energy storage and space for large-scale science payloads, and two detachable Axels that can detach and explore extreme terrain locations that are inaccessible to conventional rovers. The envisioned mission could involve a four-wheeled configuration of Axel called 'DuAxel' that is able to traverse the benign, flattened terrain of a landing site and approach the edge of the targeted crater or cave where it would deploy anchoring legs and detach one of the Axel rovers [1]. A tether provides a secure link between the Axel rover and the central module, acting as an anchor to allow Axel to descend along steep crater walls to collect data from the scientifically relevant sites along the water seeps or crater ledges. After completing its scientific mission Axel would hoist itself up to the central module and dock autonomously (using its on-board stereo cameras), allowing the once-again recombined DuAxel to travel to another location to repeat data collection.

  11. Functional Recovery of Analog Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Neff, Joseph; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new reconfigurable analog array (RAA) architecture and integrated circuit (IC) used to map analog circuits that can adapt to extreme temperatures under programmable control. Algorithm-driven adaptation takes place on the RAA IC. The algorithms are implemented in a separate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) IC, co-located with the RAA in the extreme temperature environment. The experiments demonstrate circuit adaptation over a wide temperature range, from extremely low temperature of -180 C to high 120 C.

  12. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  13. Performance Verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kanako, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kenward, David

    2014-01-01

    olarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor greater than or equal to 35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, approximately 20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  14. Performance verification of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small explorer (GEMS) x-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Black, J. Kevin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Tamagawa, Toru; Kaneko, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Marlowe, Hannah; Griffiths, Scott; Kaaret, Philip E.; Kenward, David; Khalid, Syed

    2014-07-01

    Polarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical observations that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band. For satellite-borne and sounding rocket experiments, we have developed a photoelectric gas polarimeter to measure X-ray polarization in the 2-10 keV range utilizing a time projection chamber (TPC) and advanced micro-pattern gas electron multiplier (GEM) techniques. We carried out performance verification of a flight equivalent unit (1/4 model) which was planned to be launched on the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) satellite. The test was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility in April 2013. The polarimeter was irradiated with linearly-polarized monochromatic X-rays between 2.3 and 10.0 keV and scanned with a collimated beam at 5 different detector positions. After a systematic investigation of the detector response, a modulation factor >=35% above 4 keV was obtained with the expected polarization angle. At energies below 4 keV where the photoelectron track becomes short, diffusion in the region between the GEM and readout strips leaves an asymmetric photoelectron image. A correction method retrieves an expected modulation angle, and the expected modulation factor, ~20% at 2.7 keV. Folding the measured values of modulation through an instrument model gives sensitivity, parameterized by minimum detectable polarization (MDP), nearly identical to that assumed at the preliminary design review (PDR).

  15. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Jinfu

    2012-02-07

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  16. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  17. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  18. [The extremely violent child].

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Bonneville, E

    2009-02-01

    More and more children have extremely violent behaviour which appears about the age of 15-16 months, when walking makes their hands free. This violence is individual, can appear suddenly at anytime, and is not accompanied by guilt. It is caused by early psychological and repeated traumas, whose importance is usually underestimated: unpredictable, violent parents, exposure to the spectacle of conjugal violence, distortion of the signals emitted by the toddler. These traumas bring about specific psychological structure. The prevention of these troubles exists but is impossible to realise in France.

  19. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  20. Precipitation Extremes Under Climate Change.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to better constrain the sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to warming.

  1. Voltage balancing: Long-term experience with the 250 V supercapacitor module of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle HY-LIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötz, R.; Sauter, J.-C.; Ruch, P.; Dietrich, P.; Büchi, F. N.; Magne, P. A.; Varenne, P.

    On the occasion of the "Challenge Bibendum" 2004 in Shanghai, the hybrid fuel cell-supercapacitor vehicle HY-LIGHT, a joint project of Conception et Développement Michelin and the Paul Scherrer Institut, was presented to the public. The drive train of this vehicle comprises a 30 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a 250 V supercapacitor (SC) module for energy recuperation and boost power during short acceleration and start-up processes. The supercapacitor module was deliberately constructed without continuous voltage balancing units. The performance of the supercapacitor module was monitored over the 2 years of operation particularly with respect to voltage balancing of the large number of SC cells connected in series. During the investigated period of 19 months and about 7000 km driving, the voltage imbalance within the supercapacitor module proved negligible. The maximum deviation between best and worst SC was always below 120 mV and the capacitor with the highest voltage never exceeded the nominal voltage by more than 40 mV.

  2. Towards a Whole-School Approach to the Pastoral Care Module in a Postgraduate Certificate of Education Programme: A South African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeman, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential of adopting a whole-school approach to the pastoral care module in a Postgraduate Certificate of Education Programme to ensure that all newly qualified teachers practice effective pastoral care in their classrooms and promote the learners' academic engagement and performance. A non-experimental survey research…

  3. Deformable mirror designs for extreme AO (XAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaco, Jeffrey; Wirth, Allan

    2014-08-01

    One of the science missions for the next generation of extremely large ground based telescopes (30-42m apertures) is the imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets. To achieve that goal an Adaptive Optics (AO) subsystem with a very large number of corrected modes is required. To provide contrast ratios in the range of 10-9 or better for a 42m telescope an AO system with 25,000 to 60,000 channels will be needed. This is approximately an order of magnitude beyond the current state of the art. Adaptive Optics Associates Xinetics has developed the Photonex Module Deformable Mirror (DM) technology specifically to address the needs of extreme AO for high contrast applications. A Photonex Module is a monolithic block of electrostrictive ceramic in which a high density of individually addressable actuators are formed by screen printing of electrodes and partial wire saw cutting of the ceramic. The printed electrode structures also allow all electrical connections to be made at the back surface of the module via flex circuits. Actuator spacings of 1mm or less have been achieved using this approach. The individual modules can be edge butted and bonded to achieve high actuator count. The largest DMs fabricated to date have 4096 actuators in a 64X64mm array. In this paper the engineering challenges in extending this technology by a factor of ten or more in actuator count will be discussed. A conceptual design for a DM suitable for XAO will be presented. Approaches for a support structure that will maintain the low spatial frequency surface figure of this large (~0.6m) DM and for the electrical interface to the tens of thousands of actuators will be discussed. Finally, performance estimates will be presented.

  4. Rogue waves in injected semiconductor lasers with current modulation: role of the modulation phase.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Jatin; Nalawade, Dhananjay Bhiku; Zamora-Munt, Jordi; Vilaseca, Ramon; Masoller, Cristina

    2014-11-17

    Semiconductor lasers with continuous-wave optical injection display a rich variety of behaviors, including stable locking, periodic or chaotic oscillations, excitable pulses, etc. Within the chaotic regime it has been shown that the laser intensity can display extreme pulses, which have been identified as optical rogue waves (RWs), and it has also been shown that such extreme pulses can be completely suppressed via direct modulation of the laser current, with appropriated modulation amplitude and frequency. Here we perform a numerical analysis of the RW statistics and show that, when RWs are not suppressed by current modulation, their probability of occurrence strongly depends on the phase of the modulation. If the modulation is slow (the modulation frequency, fmod, is below the relaxation oscillation frequency, fro), the RWs occur within a well-defined interval of values of the modulation phase, i.e., there is a "safe" window of phases where no RWs occur. The most extreme RWs occur for modulation phases that are at the boundary of the safe window. When the modulation is fast (fmod > fro), there is no safe phase window; however, the RWs are likely to occur at particular values of the modulation phase. Our findings are of interest for the study of RWs in other systems, where a similar response to external forcing could be observed, and we hope that they will motivate experimental investigations to further elucidate the role of the modulation phase in the likelihood of the occurrence of RWs.

  5. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  6. Some characterizations of unique extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guowu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that some necessary characteristic conditions for unique extremality obtained by Zhu and Chen are also sufficient and some sufficient ones by them actually imply that the uniquely extremal Beltrami differentials have a constant modulus. In addition, some local properties of uniquely extremal Beltrami differentials are given.

  7. Monster symmetry and extremal CFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiotto, Davide

    2012-11-01

    We test some recent conjectures about extremal selfdual CFTs, which are the candidate holographic duals of pure gravity in AdS 3. We prove that no c = 48 extremal selfdual CFT or SCFT may possess Monster symmetry. Furthermore, we disprove a recent argument against the existence of extremal selfdual CFTs of large central charge.

  8. Module Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    various testing methodologies for the evaluation and characterization of Transmit /Receive (T/R) modules for phased array radars. Discussed are techniques...for characterizing T/R modules in transmit and receive modes under ideal and emulated operation environments. Further, techniques for life testing...characteristics of T/R modules developed during the early and mid 1980’s. Data provided shows the performance in terms of gain and phase for both transmit

  9. Upper Extremity Problems in Doner Kebab Masters

    PubMed Central

    Taspinar, Ozgur; Kepekci, Muge; Ozaras, Nihal; Aydin, Teoman; Guler, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper extremities. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper extremity problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper extremity disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper extremities their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper extremity musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business. PMID:25276030

  10. Disparate bilingual experiences modulate task-switching advantages: A diffusion-model analysis of the effects of interactional context on switch costs.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Drawing on the adaptive control hypothesis (Green & Abutalebi, 2013), we investigated whether bilinguals' disparate interactional contexts modulate task-switching performance. Fifty-eight bilinguals within the single-language context (SLC) and 75 bilinguals within the dual-language context (DLC) were compared in a typical task-switching paradigm. Given that DLC bilinguals switch between languages within the same context, while SLC bilinguals speak only one language in one environment and therefore rarely switch languages, we hypothesized that the two groups' stark difference in their interactional contexts of conversational exchanges would lead to differences in switch costs. As predicted, DLC bilinguals showed smaller switch costs than SLC bilinguals. Our diffusion-model analyses suggest that DLC bilinguals' benefits in switch costs are more likely driven by task-set reconfiguration than by proactive interference. Our findings underscore the modulating role of the interactional context of conversational exchanges in task switching.

  11. Glycemic modulation in neuro-oncology: experience and future directions using a modified Atkins diet for high-grade brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Henry, Bobbie J; Kossoff, Eric H; Hartman, Adam L; Blakeley, Jaishri O

    2015-09-01

    Dietary glycemic modulation through high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, which induce a state of systemic ketosis and alter systemic metabolic signaling, have been incorporated into the clinical management of patients with neurological disease for more than a century. Mounting preclinical evidence supports the antitumor, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of disrupting glycolytic metabolism through dietary intervention. In recent years, interest in incorporating such novel therapeutic strategies in neuro-oncology has increased. To date, 3 published studies incorporating novel dietary therapies in oncology have been reported, including one phase I study in neuro-oncology, and have set the stage for further study in this field. In this article, we review the biochemical pathways, preclinical data, and early clinical translation of dietary interventions that modulate systemic glycolytic metabolism in the management of primary malignant brain tumors. We introduce the modified Atkins diet (MAD), a novel dietary alternative to the classic ketogenic diet, and discuss the critical issues facing future study.

  12. (Welding under extreme conditions)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.A.

    1989-09-29

    The traveler was an invited member of the United States delegation and representative of the Basic Energy Science Welding Science program at the 42nd Annual International Institute of Welding (IIW) Assembly and Conference held in Helsinki, Finland. The conference and the assembly was attended by about 600 delegates representing 40 countries. The theme of the conference was welding under extreme conditions. The conference program contained several topics related to welding in nuclear, arctic petrochemical, underwater, hyperbaric and space environments. At the annual assembly the traveler was a delegate (US) to two working groups of the IIW, namely Commission IX and welding research study group 212. Following the conference the traveler visited the Danish Welding Institute in Copenhagen and the Risoe National Laboratory in Roskilde. Prior to the conference the traveler visited Lappeenranta University of Technology and presented an invited seminar entitled Recent Advances in Welding Science and Technology.''

  13. Extreme Scale Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without extreme-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  14. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  15. Development of a 150-GHz MMIC Module Prototype for Large-Scale CMB Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Lau, Judy M.; Sieth, Matthew M.; VanWinkle, Daniel; Tantawi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    HEMT-based receiver arrays with excellent noise and scalability are already starting to be manufactured at 100 GHz, but the advances in technology should make it possible to develop receiver modules with even greater operation frequency up to 200 GHz. A prototype heterodyne amplifier module has been developed for operation from 140 to 170 GHz using monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) low-noise InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. The compact, scalable module is centered on the 150-GHz atmospheric window using components known to operate well at these frequencies. Arrays equipped with hundreds of these modules can be optimized for many different astrophysical measurement techniques, including spectroscopy and interferometry. This module is a heterodyne receiver module that is extremely compact, and makes use of 35-nm InP HEMT technology, and which has been shown to have excellent noise temperatures when cooled cryogenically to 30 K. This reduction in system noise over prior art has been demonstrated in commercial mixers (uncooled) at frequencies of 160-180 GHz. The module is expected to achieve a system noise temperature of 60 K when cooled. An MMIC amplifier module has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of expanding heterodyne amplifier technology to the 140 to 170-GHz frequency range for astronomical observations. The miniaturization of many standard components and the refinement of RF interconnect technology have cleared the way to mass-production of heterodyne amplifier receivers, making it a feasible technology for many large-population arrays. This work furthers the recent research efforts in compact coherent receiver modules, including the development of the Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) modules centered at 40 and 90 GHz, and the production of heterodyne module prototypes at 90 GHz.

  16. NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

  17. Qualification and testing of modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D. B.

    1983-11-01

    The experience gained in procuring solar modules soon to be installed on the Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF) at Georgetown University is discussed. The 300 KE Photovoltaic Array consists of 4464, 2' X 4', polycrystalline solar cell modules. The performance requirements for the modules are described in a detailed procurement specification which defines physical and electrical characteristics and extensive quality assurance provisions including requirements for an interface control drawing and qualification and acceptance testing.

  18. Qualification and testing of modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    The experience gained in procuring solar modules soon to be installed on the Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF) at Georgetown University is discussed. The 300 KE Photovoltaic Array consists of 4464, 2' X 4', polycrystalline solar cell modules. The performance requirements for the modules are described in a detailed procurement specification which defines physical and electrical characteristics and extensive quality assurance provisions including requirements for an interface control drawing and qualification and acceptance testing.

  19. The Kauai Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael B.; Hursky, Paul; Siderius, Martin; Badiey, Mohsen; Caruthers, Jerald; Hodgkiss, William S.; Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Rouseff, Daniel; Fox, Warren; de Moustier, Christian; Calder, Brian; Kraft, Barbara J.; McDonald, Keyko; Stein, Peter; Lewis, James K.; Rajan, Subramaniam

    2004-11-01

    The Kauai Experiment was conducted from June 24 to July 9, 2003 to provide a comprehensive study of acoustic propagation in the 8-50 kHz band for diverse applications. Particular sub-projects were incorporated in the overall experiment 1) to study the basic propagation physics of forward-scattered high-frequency (HF) signals including time/angle variability, 2) to relate environmental conditions to underwater acoustic modem performance including a variety of modulation schemes such as MFSK, DSSS, QAM, passive-phase conjugation, 3) to demonstrate HF acoustic tomography using Pacific Missile Range Facility assets and show the value of assimilating tomographic data in an ocean circulation model, and 4) to examine the possibility of improving multibeam accuracy using tomographic data. To achieve these goals, extensive environmental and acoustic measurements were made yielding over 2 terabytes of data showing both the short scale (seconds) and long scale (diurnal) variations. Interestingly, the area turned out to be extremely active with a large mixed layer overlying a very dynamic lower channel. This talk will present an overview of the experiment and preliminary results.

  20. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.

  1. Identification of extreme precipitation threat across midlatitude regions based on short-wave circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Yu; Davies, Robert E.; Gillies, Robert R.

    2013-10-01

    most severe thunderstorms, producing extreme precipitation, occur over subtropical and midlatitude regions. Atmospheric conditions conducive to organized, intense thunderstorms commonly involve the coupling of a low-level jet (LLJ) with a synoptic short wave. The midlatitude synoptic activity is frequently modulated by the circumglobal teleconnection (CGT), in which meridional gradients of the jet stream act as a guide for short Rossby waves. Previous research has linked extreme precipitation events with either the CGT or the LLJ but has not linked the two circulation features together. In this study, a circulation-based index was developed by combining (a) the degree of the CGT and LLJ coupling, (b) the extent to which this CGT-LLJ coupling connects to regional precipitation and (c) the spatial correspondence with the CGT (short wave) trending pattern over the recent 32 years (1979-2010). Four modern-era global reanalyses, in conjunction with four gridded precipitation data sets, were utilized to minimize spurious trends. The results are suggestive of a link between the CGT/LLJ trends and several recent extreme precipitation events, including those leading to the 2008 Midwest flood in U.S., the 2011 tornado outbreaks in southeastern U.S., the 2010 Queensland flood in northeastern Australia, and to the opposite side the 2012 central U.S. drought. Moreover, an analysis of three Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models from the historical experiments points to the role of greenhouse gases in forming the CGT trends during the warm season.

  2. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  3. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; He, C.; Sophocleous, M.; Yin, Z.; Hongrui, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    SWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that the

  4. Locoregional recurrences after post-operative volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in oral cavity cancers in a resource constrained setting: experience and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Patil, V M; Babu, S; Muttath, G; Thiagarajan, S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The conformal nature of dose distribution produced by volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) increases the risk of geographic miss. Data regarding patterns of failure after VMAT in oral cavity cancers in resource-constrained settings are scarce. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the patterns of failure in patients receiving adjuvant VMAT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer in Malabar Cancer Center, Kerala, India. Methods: Data of patients with oral cavity cancer receiving adjuvant VMAT IMRT between April 2012 and March 2014 were collected. Recurrent volumes were delineated on the treatment planning images and classified as defined by Dawson et al (Dawson LA, Anzai Y, Marsh L, Martel MK, Paulino A, Ship JA, et al. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46: 1117–26). Results: 75 patients with a median follow-up of 24 months were analysed. 41 (55%) patients had oral tongue cancers and 52 (69%) of the patients had Stage IVA cancers. The 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival were 88.9%, 82.1% and 80.5%, respectively. With a median time to failure of 6.5 months, five infield and three outfield failures were identified. Conclusion: A relatively low rate of outfield failure and lack of marginal failure attests to the efficacy of VMAT in such patients. Modifications to our existing target delineation policy have been proposed. Advances in knowledge: The use of standardized target delineation methods allows safe use of VMAT IMRT even in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25645107

  5. Phase modulation in dipolar-coupled A 2 spin systems: effect of maximum state mixing in 1H NMR in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Coupling constants of nuclear spin systems can be determined from phase modulation of multiplet resonances. Strongly coupled systems such as citrate in prostatic tissue exhibit a more complex modulation than AX connectivities, because of substantial mixing of quantum states. An extreme limit is the coupling of n isochronous spins (A n system). It is observable only for directly connected spins like the methylene protons of creatine and phosphocreatine which experience residual dipolar coupling in intact muscle tissue in vivo. We will demonstrate that phase modulation of this "pseudo-strong" system is quite simple compared to those of AB systems. Theory predicts that the spin-echo experiment yields conditions as in the case of weak interactions, in particular, the phase modulation depends linearly on the line splitting and the echo time.

  6. The Modulation of Tropical Storm Activity in the Western North Pacific by the Madden-Julian Oscillation in GEOS-5 AGCM Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  8. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  9. Understanding water extremes with caution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate extremes in water quality managements. Such extremes are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of extremes and practice.

  10. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  11. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  12. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm−2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations. PMID:27283369

  13. Reward modulates adaptations to conflict.

    PubMed

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-11-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single flanker task (Experiment 1) or a task-switch paradigm (Experiment 2) with performance-related rewards. Both experiments confirmed that adaptations after conflict were modulated by reward. In the flanker task, this resulted in increased conflict adaptation after rewarded trials. In the task-switching experiment, reward increased the conflict-modulated switch cost. Interestingly, both adaptations to conflict disappeared after no-reward trials. Moreover, individual differences in participants' sensitivity to reward predicted these reward modulations of trial-to-trial adaptations. These findings shed new light on the exact role of cognitive conflict in shaping subsequent behavior.

  14. Modulation techniques for deep-space pulse-position modulation (PPM) optical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Robinson, Deborah L.

    1988-01-01

    The extremely energy-efficient pulse-position modulation (PPM) format is being actively developed as a basis for optical communications with deep-space probes. Attention is presently given to different modulation schemes for the efficient production of laser pulses over a broad range of repetition rates. Both Q-switching and cavity dumping modulation methods are available for the envisioned diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser source. Numerical calculation results are presented for cavity-dumping.

  15. Thallium under extreme compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorla, C.; MacLeod, S. G.; Errandonea, D.; Munro, K. A.; McMahon, M. I.; Popescu, C.

    2016-11-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the high-pressure behavior of thallium. X-ray diffraction experiments have been carried out at room temperature (RT) up to 125 GPa using diamond-anvil cells (DACs), nearly doubling the pressure range of previous experiments. We have confirmed the hcp-fcc transition at 3.5 GPa and determined that the fcc structure remains stable up to the highest pressure attained in the experiments. In addition, HP-HT experiments have been performed up to 8 GPa and 700 K by using a combination of XRD and a resistively heated DAC. Information on the phase boundaries is obtained, as well as crystallographic information on the HT bcc phase. The equation of state (EOS) for different phases is reported. Ab initio calculations have also been carried out considering several potential high-pressure structures. They are consistent with the experimental results and predict that, among the structures considered in the calculations, the fcc structure of thallium is stable up to 4.3 TPa. Calculations also predict the post-fcc phase to have a close-packed orthorhombic structure above 4.3 TPa.

  16. Thallium under extreme compression.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, C; MacLeod, S G; Errandonea, D; Munro, K A; McMahon, M I; Popescu, C

    2016-11-09

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the high-pressure behavior of thallium. X-ray diffraction experiments have been carried out at room temperature (RT) up to 125 GPa using diamond-anvil cells (DACs), nearly doubling the pressure range of previous experiments. We have confirmed the hcp-fcc transition at 3.5 GPa and determined that the fcc structure remains stable up to the highest pressure attained in the experiments. In addition, HP-HT experiments have been performed up to 8 GPa and 700 K by using a combination of XRD and a resistively heated DAC. Information on the phase boundaries is obtained, as well as crystallographic information on the HT bcc phase. The equation of state (EOS) for different phases is reported. Ab initio calculations have also been carried out considering several potential high-pressure structures. They are consistent with the experimental results and predict that, among the structures considered in the calculations, the fcc structure of thallium is stable up to 4.3 TPa. Calculations also predict the post-fcc phase to have a close-packed orthorhombic structure above 4.3 TPa.

  17. Measurement of one and two bond N-C couplings in large proteins by TROSY-based J-modulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhou; Prestegard, James H

    2009-09-01

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) between NC' and NC(alpha) atoms in polypeptide backbones of proteins contain information on the orientation of bond vectors that is complementary to that contained in NH RDCs. The (1)J(NC)(alpha) and (2)J(NC)(alpha) scalar couplings between these atoms also display a Karplus relation with the backbone torsion angles and report on secondary structure. However, these N-C couplings tend to be small and they are frequently unresolvable in frequency domain spectra having the broad lines characteristic of large proteins. Here a TROSY-based J-modulated approach for the measurement of small (15)N-(13)C couplings in large proteins is described. The cross-correlation interference effects inherent in TROSY methods improve resolution and signal to noise ratios for large proteins, and the use of J-modulation to encode couplings eliminates the need to remove frequency distortions from overlapping peaks during data analysis. The utility of the method is demonstrated by measurement of (1)J(NC'), (1)J(NC)(alpha) , and (2)J(NC)(alpha) scalar couplings and (1)D(NC') and D(NC)(alpha) residual dipolar couplings for the myristoylated yeast ARF1.GTPgammas protein bound to small lipid bicelles, a system with an effective molecule weight of approximately 70kDa.

  18. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  19. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  20. Extreme Light Infrastructure: nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Habs, D.; Negoita, F.; Ursescu, D.

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular progress of electron and heavy-ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high-power laser has opened the way for new methods of investigations in nuclear physics and related fields. On the other hand, upshifting the photon energies of a high repetition TW-class laser through inverse Compton scattering on electron bunches classically accelerated, a high-flux narrow bandwidth gamma beam can be produced. With such a gamma beam in the 1-20 MeV energy range and a two-arms 10-PW class laser system, the pillar of "Extreme Light Infrastructure" to be built in Bucharest will focus on nuclear phenomena and their practical applications. Nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental QED aspects as well as applications in material and life sciences, radioactive waste management and homeland security will be studied using the high-power laser, the gamma beam or combining the two. The article includes a general description of ELI-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, an overview of the Physics Case and some details on the few, most representative proposed experiments.