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Sample records for experiment seeds ii

  1. Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Mark L.; Trick, Charles G.; Cochlan, William P.; Beall, Ben

    2009-12-01

    The cumulative evidence from more than a dozen mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters demonstrates that iron limitation is widespread and very likely affects atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus global climate. However, the responses of microphytoplankton (>20 μm), predominantly diatoms, vary greatly among these mesoscale experiments even though similar amounts of iron were added, making it difficult to quantitatively incorporate iron effects into global climate models. Nowhere is this difference more dramatic than between the massive bloom observed during Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study (SEEDS) I and the order of magnitude smaller ecosystem response in SEEDS II; two mesocale experiments performed in the same HNLC region of the western subarctic Pacific in different years. Deckboard incubation experiments initiated during the early, middle, and late stages of the 32-day SEEDS II experiment show that while the two iron infusions increased phytoplankton growth, diatoms remained significantly limited by iron availability, despite total dissolved Fe concentrations in the patch being well above the diffusion-limited threshold for rapid diatom growth. This iron limitation was apparent <6 days after the initial iron infusion and was not alleviated by the second, smaller iron infusion. In contrast, smaller phytoplankton (<20 μm) showed a more restricted response to further iron amendments, indicating that their iron nutrition was near optimal. Iron complexed to desferrioximine B, a commonly available siderophore produced by at least one marine bacterium, was poorly available to diatoms throughout the patch evolution, indicating that these diatoms lacked the ability to induce high-affinity iron uptake systems. These results suggest that the strong organic complexation of Fe(III) observed in the SEEDS II-fertilized patch was not compatible with rapid diatom growth. In contrast, iron associated with

  2. Behavior of particulate materials during iron fertilization experiments in the Western Subarctic Pacific (SEEDS and SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Takafumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Imai, Keiri

    2009-12-01

    During two mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in the northwestern subarctic Pacific (SEEDS in 2001 summer and SEEDS II in 2004 summer), particulate materials from the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the upper water column were monitored to analyze the export processes beneath the upper mixed layer, mainly with drifting sediment traps. We could not observe the total downward export process of the high accumulation of particulate organic carbon from the mixed layer induced by the large diatom bloom of SEEDS [e.g., Tsuda, A., Takeda, S., Saito, H., Nishioka, J., Nojiri, Y., Kudo, I., Kiyosawa, H., Shiomoto, A., Imai, K., Ono, T., Shimamoto, A., Tsumune, D., Yoshimura, T., Aono, T., Hinuma, A., Kinugasa, M., Suzuki, K., Sohrin, Y., Noiri, Y., Tani, H., Deguchi, Y., Tsurushima, N., Ogawa, H., Fukami, K., Kuma, K., Saino, T., 2003. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces large centric diatom bloom. Science 300, 958-961] because the 2-week observation period was too short to examine the decline phase of the bloom. In contrast, in SEEDS II, the particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen were accumulated 123 and 23 mmol m -2, respectively, in the mixed layer until day-15 (days from iron-enrichment), and then ca. 90% were removed from the mixed layer by day-25. The sediment traps at 40 m depth between day-15 and day-25 accounted for at least more than 35% of these particles. There was no large variation in chemical composition in settling particles above 100 m depth throughout the experimental periods both in SEEDS and SEEDS II. The content of biogenic opal remained more than 50% of all settling particles during SEEDS, while the content of biogenic calcium carbonate was relatively high, with a low biogenic opal content of consistently less than 30% during SEEDS II. These results suggest that high standing stock of seed population of diatoms before the iron fertilization, indicated by low C/Si ratio of particulate matter, is an

  3. Single Particle Analysis of Oceanic Suspended Matters During the SEEDS II Iron Fertilization Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Y.; Narita, Y.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic suspended particles play an important role regulating the chemical composition of seawater through the removal of trace elements from surface water to deep water and their lateral transport. Therefore, physical and chemical properties of these particles reflect the characteristics of water mass and marine ecosystem under the perturbation of marine environment such as iron fertilization. To consider the physical and/or chemical variation of these particles in the water column, it is necessary to analyze size, number and chemical composition of individual particles. Suspended particles in the surface seawater were collected during the SEEDS II (Subarctic Iron Experiment for Ecosystem and Dynamics Study II) iron fertilization experiment in the summer of 2004. The particulate samples were analyzed by Electron probe X-ray micro analyzer (EPMA) and characterized by size and major and minor elements ranged from 0.4 to 10 μ m in diameter. These particles were classified into five groups based on their chemical compositions: Al-Si, Si-rich, Ca-rich, Organic and Others. Most of particles were Si-rich, Ca-rich and Organic. Si-rich and Ca-rich particles were mainly consist of detritus of phytoplankton.In the iron-fertilized patch area, Chl-a concentration covaried with dry weight, number and volume concentrations of the suspended particles. At 20 m depth, the number concentration of Organic particles having two peaks at 1.1 and 0.65 μ m in diameter increased within 2 days after the iron fertilization, and then gradually increased. It is suggested that the increase in suspended particles, mostly detritus of planktonic shells, corresponded to that in primary production. The contents by weight of Si in Si-rich particle and the content by weight of Ca in Ca-rich particle tended to decrease in size. In fine mode particle, Si-rich and Ca-rich particles contained more P and S as biolimiting elements and less Al, Ti, Mn, and Fe as crustal elements. The smaller Organic

  4. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  5. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  6. Biogeochemical cycling of N and Si during the mesoscale iron-enrichment experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Atsushi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Aramaki, Takafumi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Imai, Keiri; Kudo, Isao; Nishioka, Jun; Ono, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Koji; Takeda, Shigenobu

    2009-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycles of N and Si were examined in the surface mixed layer during the mesoscale iron-enrichment (IE) experiment in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II). Although the IEs increased nitrate uptake, silicic acid utilization was not stimulated. The nitrate drawdown in the iron-patch (IN-patch, 140.3 mmol m -2 in the surface mixed layer, 0-30 m) was only 25% of the initial inventory, which was 1/3-2/5 of the previous IE experiments in the subarctic Pacific. This relatively weak response of nutrient drawdown to IEs was due to the high biomass of mesozooplankton (MZ) dominated by copepod Neocalanus plumchrus. Feeding of MZ (247.2 mmol m -2 during Day 0-21 from the first IE) in the IN-patch was higher than the nitrate drawdown and prevented further development of the phytoplankton bloom. In the later period of the experiment (Day 14-21), the increase in the feeding activity and resultant decrease in phytoplankton biomass induced the accumulation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and ammonium. Among total growth of MZ (81.6 mmol N m -2), 89% (72.8 mmol N m -2) was transported to the depth by the ontogenetic downward migration of N. plumchrus. Although silicic acid drawdown was not increased by the IEs, Si export flux increased by 2.7 times. The increase in Si export was also due to the increase in MZ, which egested faecal pellets with higher Si:N ratio and faster sinking speed than diatoms. The export efficiency (78% of new production) and total amount of export flux (143.8 mmol N m -2, 1392 mmol C m -2) were highest records within the IE experiments despite weak responses of nutrient drawdown to the IE. During SEEDS-II, the high biomass of MZ reduced the phytoplankton response and nutrient drawdown to the IEs but via grazing and ontogenetic vertical migration accelerated the export flux as well as accumulations of dissolved forms of N. Results of the present and previous IE experiments indicate that the ecosystem

  7. Experiments on the enhancement of compressible mixing via streamwise vorticity. II - Vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, J. W.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of streamwise vorticity on compressible axisymmetric mixing layers is examined using vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics analysis. Experimental results indicate that the particles faithfully represent the dynamics of the turbulent swirling flow. A comparison of the previously determined mixing layer growth rates with the present vortex strength data reveals that the increase of turbulent mixing up to 60 percent scales with the degree of swirl. The mixing enhancement appears to be independent of the compressibility level of the mixing layer.

  8. Experiments on the enhancement of compressible mixing via streamwise vorticity. II - Vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, J. W.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of streamwise vorticity on compressible axisymmetric mixing layers is examined using vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics analysis. Experimental results indicate that the particles faithfully represent the dynamics of the turbulent swirling flow. A comparison of the previously determined mixing layer growth rates with the present vortex strength data reveals that the increase of turbulent mixing up to 60 percent scales with the degree of swirl. The mixing enhancement appears to be independent of the compressibility level of the mixing layer.

  9. Production and air-sea flux of halomethanes in the western subarctic Pacific in relation to phytoplankton pigment concentrations during the iron fertilization experiment (SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Toda, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Kato, Shungo; Narita, Yasusi; Kurihara, Michiko K.; Akatsuka, Yoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takahiro; Nagao, Ippei; Kudo, Isao; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Iron could play a key role in controlling phytoplankton biomass and productivity in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions. As a part of the iron fertilization experiment carried out in the western subarctic Pacific from July to August 2004 (Subarctic Pacific iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study II—SEEDS II), we analysed the concentrations of trace gases in the seawater for 12 d following iron fertilization. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll a in the mixed layer (5-30 m depth) increased from 0.94 to 2.81 μg L -1 for 8 d in the iron patch. The mean concentrations of methyl bromide (CH 3Br; 5-30 m depth) increased from 6.4 to 13.4 pmol L -1 for 11 d; the in-patch concentration increased relative to the out-patch concentration. A linear correlation was observed between the concentrations of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, which is a biomarker of several prymnesiophytes, and CH 3Br in the seawater. After fertilization, the air-sea flux of CH 3Br inside the patch changed from influx to efflux from the ocean. There was no clear evidence for the increase in saturation anomaly of methyl chloride (CH 3Cl) due to iron fertilization. Furthermore, CH 3Cl fluxes did not show a tendency to increase after fertilization of the patch. In contrast to CH 3Br, no change was observed in the concentrations of bromoform (in-patch day 11 and out-patch day 11: 1.7 and 1.7 pmol L -1), dibromomethane (2.1 and 2.2 pmol L -1), and dibromochloromethane (1.0 and 1.2 pmol L -1, respectively). The concentration of isoprene, which is known to have a relationship with chlorophyll a, did not change in this study. The responses of trace gases during SEEDS II differed from the previous findings ( in situ iron enrichment experiment—EisenEx, Southern Ocean iron experiment—SOFeX, and Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study—SERIES). Thus, in order to estimate the concomitant effect of iron fertilization on the climate, it is important to assess the induction of biological

  10. The Disposition of Silver Released from Soviet OBLAKO Rockets in Precipitation during the Hail Suppression Experiment Grossversuch IV. Part II: Case Studies of Seeded Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaux, J. P.; Warburton, J. A.; Fournet-Fayard, J.; Waldteufel, P.

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes analyses of data collected from four seeded storms during the 1978 summer program of Grossversuch IV in Switzerland. The storms all met the Soviet criteria for hail-forming potential and were seeded with Soviet-type OBLAKO rockets.A seeding `quality' was estimated in each of the cases by observing the internal structure of the storm cells with C, S and X-band radar, and the trajectory, time of residence and dispersion of the AgI aerosols in the seeded clouds with radar and chemical techniques. The notion of `seeding coverage' is presented as the ratio of the surface area of precipitation in which the seeding chemical is found at the ground to the surface area of the rainfall (using the 40 dBZ radar reflectivity contour near the ground).The study of two cells on 30 June 1978 shows that the seeding coverages were small (7% and 25%) and that estimated residence times for AgI in those portions of the cloud colder than 5°C were too short to allow for significant ice phase modification. The other two cells, seeded 11 and 14 July 1978 had seeding coverages of 100% and AgI residence times, in cloud colder than 5°C of 500-700 seconds, which should be adequate for modification of the water-ice balance in these clouds.Positive correlations exist between precipitation intensity and seeding chemical concentration when the seeding aerosol has a long residence time in cloud colder than 5°C (11 July case). This is not so when the AgI aerosols are scavenged in a short time interval as occurred in the two case studies of 30 June.The hail suppression plan for the Grossversuch IV experiment was shaped in accordance with the Moldavian hail suppression organization. The seeding criteria attempts to guarantee that the seeding time always occurs at the same stage of development of a growing storm. This criterion is based on six 3-cm radar parameters in the RHI mode and by a radiosonde. These parameters are cloud top height, height of maximum reflectivity, the

  11. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-02

    Image taken on card 8 during BASS-II flame test session with reduced O2 partial pressure. Session conducted on GMT 213. The Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) investigation examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The BASS-II experiment will guide strategies for materials flammability screening for use in spacecraft as well as provide valuable data on solid fuel burning behavior in microgravity. BASS-II results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  12. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds; results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887.

    PubMed

    Gaubin, Y; Delpoux, M; Pianezzi, B; Gasset, G; Heilmann, C; Planel, H

    1990-01-01

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments.

  13. Experiments with solid particle seeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, C. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Kaoline, a hydrated aluminum silicate clay, is investigated as a seeding material for laser velocimetry. It is inexpensive but is polydispersed with some of the fineparticles being too large to follow wind tunnel flow and is in the form of nonspherical platelets having an aspect ratio of approximately 4/1. Gravity sedimentation experiments as a means of narrowing the fineparticle sizes distribution are being conducted. The fineparticle size distribution of Engelhard ASP 200 kaolin suspended in ethanol (0.00792 grams kaolin/ml ethanol) as received, after 24 hours gravity sedimentation and after 48 hours sedimentation, respectively is shown. A shearing atomizer is used to inject the fineparticles. Gravity sedimentation is carried out in an 800 ml pyrex beaker. Following gravity sedimentation, the top 3.5 inches are siphoned from the liquid, which has a column height of 4.5 inches. In a like manner, longer settling times will serve to further narrow the fineparticle distribution range. As successive sedimentations are effected, the number of fineparticles per unit volume of ethanol decreased markedly.

  14. Behaviors of dissolved and particulate Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb during a mesoscale Fe-enrichment experiment (SEEDS II) in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Seiji; Okamura, Kei; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Lutfi Firdaus, M.; Norisuye, Kazuhiro; Sohrin, Yoshiki

    2009-12-01

    During mesoscale Fe enrichment (SEEDS II) in the western North Pacific ocean, we investigated dissolved and particulate Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in seawater from both field observation and shipboard bottle incubation of a natural phytoplankton assemblage with Fe addition. Before the Fe enrichment, strong correlations between dissolved trace metals (Ni, Zn and Cd) and PO 43-, and between particulate trace metals (Ni, Zn and Cd) and chlorophyll- a were obtained, suggesting that biogeochemical cycles mainly control the distributions of Ni, Zn and Cd in the study area. Average concentrations of dissolved Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the surface mixed layer (0-20 m) were 70 pM, 4.9, 2.1, 1.6, 0.48 nM and 52 pM, respectively, and those for the particulate species were 1.7 pM, 0.052, 0.094, 0.46, 0.037 nM and 5.2 pM, respectively. After Fe enrichment, chlorophyll- a increased 3 fold (up to 3 μg L -1) during developing phases of the bloom (<12 days). Mesozooplankton biomass also increased. Particulate Co, Ni, Cu and Cd inside the patch hinted at an increase in the concentrations, but there were no analytically significant differences between concentrations inside and outside the patch. The bottle incubation with Fe addition (1 nM) showed an increase in chlorophyll- a (8.9 μg L -1) and raised the particulate fraction up to 3-45% for all the metals, accompanying changes in Si/P, Zn/P and Cd/P. These results suggest that Fe addition lead to changes in biogeochemical cycling of trace metals. The comparison between the mesoscale Fe enrichment and the bottle incubation experiment suggests that although Fe was a limiting factor for the growth of phytoplankton, the enhanced biomass of mesozooplankton also limited the growth of phytoplankton and the transformation of trace metal speciation during the mesoscale Fe enrichment. Sediment trap data and the elemental ratios taken up by phytoplankton suggest that export loss was another reason that no detectable change in the

  15. Echo-seeding options for LCLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    The success of LCLS has opened up a new era of x-ray sciences. An upgrade to LCLS is currently being planned to enhance its capabilities. In this paper we study the feasibility of using the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique to generate narrow bandwidth soft x-ray radiation in the proposed LCLS-II soft x-ray beam line. We focus on the conceptual design, the technical implementation and the expected performances of the echo-seeding scheme. We will also show how the echo-seeding scheme allows one to generate two color x-ray pulses with the higher energy photons leading the lower energy ones as is favored in the x-ray pump-probe experiments.

  16. View of CBEF Space Seed Experiment Hardware

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-13

    ISS021-E-006274 (13 Oct. 2009) --- A close-up view of the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) SPACE SEED experiment is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 21 crew member in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station.

  17. View of CBEF Space Seed Experiment Hardware

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-13

    ISS021-E-006256 (13 Oct. 2009) --- A close-up view of the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) SPACE SEED experiment is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 21 crew member in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station.

  18. Re-Evaluation of the Arizona Cloud-Seeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Neyman, Jerzy; Osborn, Herbert B.; Scott, Elizabeth L.; Wells, Marcella A.

    1972-01-01

    The apparent effect of cloud seeding on the average 24-hr precipitation in the Santa Catalina Mountains during the two programs of the 7-year-long Arizona experiment was found to be a 30% loss of rain (P = 0.06). Considering rainy days only, the apparent effect is a 34% loss of rain (P = 0.03). On South-East days the apparent loss was 40% (P = 0.03). The analysis of the diurnal variation in the amounts of hourly precipitation brought out two suggestions: (i) more active silver iodide enters the clouds through seeding at their bases than at the -6°C level; (ii) the population of experimental days includes two categories with opposite responses to seeding: augmentations of rain in one case and losses in the other. These suggestions require independent confirmation. PMID:16591991

  19. Re-evaluation of the Arizona cloud-seeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Neyman, J; Osborn, H B; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

    1972-06-01

    The apparent effect of cloud seeding on the average 24-hr precipitation in the Santa Catalina Mountains during the two programs of the 7-year-long Arizona experiment was found to be a 30% loss of rain (P = 0.06). Considering rainy days only, the apparent effect is a 34% loss of rain (P = 0.03). On South-East days the apparent loss was 40% (P = 0.03). The analysis of the diurnal variation in the amounts of hourly precipitation brought out two suggestions: (i) more active silver iodide enters the clouds through seeding at their bases than at the -6 degrees C level; (ii) the population of experimental days includes two categories with opposite responses to seeding: augmentations of rain in one case and losses in the other. These suggestions require independent confirmation.

  20. Physical behaviors of the iron-fertilized patch in SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Aramaki, Takafumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Takeda, Shigenobu; Tsuda, Atsushi; Tsubono, Takaki

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) tracer release experiments were carried out to trace the iron-fertilized water mass during the iron-fertilization experiments in the western North Pacific of Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study II (SEEDS II) in 2004. A solution of Fe and SF 6 tracer was released into the surface mixed layer over an 8×8 km area, and the fertilized patch was traced by onboard SF 6 analysis for 12 days during each experiment. A Lagrangian frame of reference was maintained by the use of a drogued GPS buoy released at the center of the patch to reduce the advection effect on observations. The patch moved along the contour of sea-surface height (SSH) of a clockwise mesoscale eddy for 4 days after release. Then strong easterly winds dragged the patch across the contour of SSH. The patch behavior was affected by both the mesoscale eddy and surface winds. Apparent horizontal diffusivities were determined by the change of the distribution of SF 6 concentrations. The averaged apparent horizontal diffusivity was about 49 m 2 s -1 during SEEDS II. It was larger than the one in SEEDS. Mixed-layer depth (MLD) was 8.5-18 m during SEEDS, and 12-33 m during SEEDS II. The larger horizontal diffusivity and deeper MLD in SEEDS II were disadvantages to maintain a high iron concentration in the surface layer compared to SEEDS. Temporal change of the MLD corresponded to the temporal change of chlorophyll- a concentration. Temporal change in the surface MLD was also important for the response of phytoplankton by iron fertilization.

  1. Experience with MODSIM II

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project.

  2. Experience with MODSIM II

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project.

  3. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-27

    ISS040-E-023287 (27 June 2014) --- This is a close-up image photographed during a run of the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment onboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station. Following a series of preparations, NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman (out of frame), Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducted runs of the experiment, which examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The experiment is planned for guiding strategies for extinguishing fires in microgravity. BASS results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  4. BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-23

    ISS040-E-073120 (23 July 2014) --- This is a close-up image photographed during a run of the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment onboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station. Following a series of preparations, NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman (out of frame), Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducted runs of the experiment, which examines the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity. The experiment is planned for guiding strategies for extinguishing fires in microgravity. BASS results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  5. Continued results of the seeds in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1992-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) tray in the sealed canister number 6 and in two small vented canisters. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in the storage facility. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility. At least some of the seed in the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed mutations was very low. In the initial testing, the small seeded crops were not grown to maturity to check for mutation and obtain a second generation seed. These small seeded crops are now being grown for evaluation.

  6. Continued results of the seeds in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1992-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) tray in the sealed canister number 6 and in two small vented canisters. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in the storage facility. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility. At least some of the seed in the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed mutations was very low. In the initial testing, the small seeded crops were not grown to maturity to check for mutation and obtain a second generation seed. These small seeded crops are now being grown for evaluation.

  7. Elastic swimming II: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tony; Lauga, Eric; Hosoi, Anette

    2006-03-01

    We consider the problem of swimming at low Reynolds number by oscillating an elastic filament in a viscous liquid, as investigated by Wiggins and Goldstein (1998, Phys Rev Lett). In this second part of the study, we present results of a series of experiments characterizing the performance of the propulsive mechanism.

  8. Seeded Fault Bearing Experiments: Methodology and Data Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Seeded Fault Bearing Experiments: Methodology and Data Acquisition by Andrew J. Bayba, Derwin Washington, and Kwok Tom ARL-TR-5575 June...TR-5575 June 2011 Seeded Fault Bearing Experiments: Methodology and Data Acquisition Andrew J. Bayba, Derwin Washington, and Kwok Tom...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2010 to March 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seeded Fault Bearing Experiments: Methodology and Data

  9. Continued results of the seeds in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1993-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seed were housed on the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) tray in the sealed canister number 6 and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seed were germinated and the germination rates and the development of the resulting plants were compared to the performance of the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results were presented in a paper at the First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium. There was a better survival rate of the seed in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seed in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low. In the initial testing, the small seeded crops were not grown to maturity to check for mutations and obtain second generation seed. These small seeded crops have now been grown for evaluation and second generation seed collected.

  10. Cloud seeding experiments: lack of bias in Florida series.

    PubMed

    Brier, G W; Cotton, G F; Simpson, J; Woodley, W L

    1972-04-14

    There has been concern about the possibility of selection bias in cloud seeding experiments. Covariates and experimental design have been used to obtain an estimate of this bias. The results indicate that there was no selection bias in the Caribbean and Florida series of cloud seeding experiments.

  11. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  12. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  13. "From seed-to-seed" experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Mashinsky, A; Ivanova, I; Derendyaeva, T; Nechitailo, G; Salisbury, F

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the "seed-to-seed experiment." Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  14. MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.

  15. Fincke stands beside a floating bag of tomato seeds for the EPO Tomatosphere II project during Expedition 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-17

    ISS009-E-15362 (17 July 2004) --- Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, Expedition 9 NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, is pictured in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). A bag of tomato seeds for the Tomatosphere II Project, an educational program sponsored by Canadian Space Agency (CSA), floats nearby. The seeds will be distributed to classrooms in Canada for use in plant growth experiments.

  16. Fincke stands beside a floating bag of tomato seeds for the EPO Tomatosphere II project during Expedition 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-17

    ISS009-E-15361 (17 July 2004) --- Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, Expedition 9 NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, is pictured in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). A bag of tomato seeds for the Tomatosphere II Project, an educational program sponsored by Canadian Space Agency (CSA), floats nearby. The seeds will be distributed to classrooms in Canada for use in plant growth experiments.

  17. Seeds in space experiment (P0004-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, G. B., Jr.; Alston, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of space radiation on the survivability of seed stored in space under sealed and vented conditions and to determine possible resulting mutants and changes in mutation rates.

  18. LDEF (Postflight), P0004-01 : Seeds in Space Experiment, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), P0004-01 : Seeds in Space Experiment, Tray F02 EL-1994-00704 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF and the silvered TEFLON® thermal cover was removed from the experiment tray. The Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) is one of three passive experiments located in a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of 2 million seeds of 120 different varieties, one sealed canister, two smaller vented canisters, and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 and the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006), were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Areas of the experiment tray flanges covered by the tray clamp blocks are unstained and clearly visible. The sealed Seeds in Space Experiment canister, a base portion and a dome portion, was machined from aluminum and assembled together with a butyl rubber o-ring seal. The machined interior was approximately 4 inches deep with a 12 inch internal diameter, providing a volume of approximately 1/3 cubic foot. the sealed canister was the center canister in the top row. The two vented canisters were also aluminum. One canister, 4 inches in diameter and 4 inches high, was mounted on the top side of the experiment tray at the lower right corner of the large sealed canister. The other vented canister was rectangular in shape and mounted on the bottom side of the tray, the side facing the LDEF interior. The exterior surfaces of all canisters located on the top side of the experiment tray were painted white with Chemglaze II A-276. The exterior surface of the rectangular canister on the bottom side of the experiment tray was coated with Chemglaze Z-306 flat black paint over a Chemglaze 9924 primer. Thermal control was accomplished by

  19. Cloud microphysical background for the Israel-4 cloud seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freud, Eyal; Koussevitzky, Hagai; Goren, Tom; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The modest amount of rainfall in Israel occurs in winter storms that bring convective clouds from the Mediterranean Sea when the cold post frontal air interacts with its relatively warm surface. These clouds were seeded in the Israel-1 and Israel-2 cloud glaciogenic seeding experiments, which have shown statistically significant positive effect of added rainfall of at least 13% in northern Israel, whereas the Israel-3 experiment showed no added rainfall in the south. This was followed by operational seeding in the north since 1975. The lack of physical evidence for the causes of the positive effects in the north caused a lack of confidence in the statistical results and led to the Israel-4 randomized seeding experiment in northern Israel. This experiment started in the winter of 2013/14. The main difference from the previous experiments is the focus on the orographic clouds in the catchment of the Sea of Galilee. The decision to commence the experiment was partially based on evidence supporting the existence of seeding potential, which is reported here. Aircraft and satellite microphysical and dynamic measurements of the clouds document the critical roles of aerosols, especially sea spray, on cloud microstructure and precipitation forming processes. It was found that the convective clouds over sea and coastal areas are naturally seeded hygroscopically by sea spray and develop precipitation efficiently. The diminution of the large sea spray aerosols farther inland along with the increase in aerosol concentrations causes the clouds to develop precipitation more slowly. The short time available for the precipitation forming processes in super-cooled orographic clouds over the Golan Heights farthest inland represents the best glaciogenic seeding potential.

  20. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Anikeeva, I. D.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Vaulina, E. N.; Kostina, L. N.; Marenny, A.; Portman, A. I.; Rusin, S. V.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied. The seeds were located inside the satellite in an open space, protected with aluminum foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminum foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival rate and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can thus be regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  1. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Kosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikeeva, I. D.; Vaulina, E. N.; Kostina, L. N.; Marenny, A. M.; Portman, A. I.; Rusin, S. V.; Benton, E. V.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied provided with various protective measures: the seeds were located inside the satellite and in open space, protected with aluminium foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminium foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can be thus regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  2. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Kosmos 1887.

    PubMed

    Anikeeva, I D; Akatov YuA; Vaulina, E N; Kostina, L N; Marenny, A M; Portman, A I; Rusin, S V; Benton, E V

    1990-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied provided with various protective measures: the seeds were located inside the satellite and in open space, protected with aluminium foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminium foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can be thus regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  3. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Kosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikeeva, I. D.; Vaulina, E. N.; Kostina, L. N.; Marenny, A. M.; Portman, A. I.; Rusin, S. V.; Benton, E. V.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied provided with various protective measures: the seeds were located inside the satellite and in open space, protected with aluminium foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminium foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can be thus regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  4. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Anikeeva, I.D.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Vaulina, E.N.; Kostina, L.N.; Marenny, A.; Portman, A.I.; Rusin, S.V. ||

    1995-03-01

    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied. The seeds were located inside the satellite in an open space, protected with aluminum foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminum foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds` viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival rate and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can thus be regarded as an integral biological `dosimeter` which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  5. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  6. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  7. Preliminary results of the echo-seeding experiment at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Ding, Y.; Dunning, M.; Frederico, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Corlett, J.; Qiang, J.; Penn, G.; Prestemon, S.; Schlueter, R.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Pernet, P-L.

    2010-05-23

    ECHO-7 is a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation FEL experiment in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. The experiment aims to generate coherent radiation at 318 nm and 227 nm, which are the 5th and 7th harmonic of the infrared seed laser. In this paper we present the preliminary results from the commissioning run of the completed experimental setup which started in April 2010.

  8. Weightlessness experiments on Biosatellite II.

    PubMed

    Edwards, B F

    1969-01-01

    Four experiments in the aft compartment of Biosatellite II investigated the broad question of the effect of nearly zero gravity on the development, morphology and metabolism of plants and animals. The fertilization and development of the egg of a vertebrate (the frog, Rana pipiens), the feeding and growth of a protozoan (the giant amoeba, Pelomyxa carolinensis), the orientation of leaves and petioles of a young dicotyledon (pepper plants, Capsicum annuum) and the morphogenesis, orientation, histochemistry and biochemistry of a monocotyledon seedling (wheat, Triticum vulgare) gave a broad scope. All are known to have specific responses to normal gravity and changes in them might be expected to reflect the effects of orbital flight on living organisms. No differences in development of the frog eggs could be detected. Unfortunately, the 3 1/2 hour delay in launch allowed the first cleavage (the stage most sensitive to inversion) to appear before launch. Although the orbited embryos were somewhat slower to reach certain stages of development, recovered embryos developed just as did the controls. The amoebae fed normally while in orbit, and specimens fixed in orbit retained the ordinary heteropodal shape. Growth rates of orbited amoebae, both fed and starved, were slower than controls following reentry and recovery procedures. In continuous-fed organisms there was little or no effect of flight detectable in growth rate or actual number of divisions. Electron micrographs showed no abnormalities and few differences between flight and control organisms. The pepper plants were photographed in orbit at ten-minute intervals, as were the clinostat and erect controls. The subsequent measurement of photographs showed that in the orbited plants all leaves showed epinasty, the interaxial angle decreasing by 20-60 degrees C. Plants on the horizontal clinostat behaved comparably, but recovered more rapidly than orbited plants when returned to the normal erect position. Although the

  9. Solid H2/D2 Particle Seeding and Injection System for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurement of He II

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2006-04-27

    Solid particles of the mixture of hydrogen and deuterium have certain advantages for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of He II flow. The H2/D2 particles are near neutrally buoyant in He II and will vaporize with the helium as the experimental apparatus is warmed to room temperature. Progress of the construction of a H2/D2 particle seeding and injection system is reported in this paper. A cryogenic pulse valve is used to inject the mixture of helium, hydrogen and deuterium gas directly into a He II bath. Experiments show that the seeding quality is dependent on the back pressure, the mix ratio of the deuterium and helium gases and valve open duration. The effects of these parameters on the solid deuterium particle distribution are also discussed.

  10. The seed bank longevity index revisited: limited reliability evident from a burial experiment and database analyses

    PubMed Central

    Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed survival in the soil contributes to population persistence and community diversity, creating a need for reliable measures of soil seed bank persistence. Several methods estimate soil seed bank persistence, most of which count seedlings emerging from soil samples. Seasonality, depth distribution and presence (or absence) in vegetation are then used to classify a species' soil seed bank into persistent or transient, often synthesized into a longevity index. This study aims to determine if counts of seedlings from soil samples yield reliable seed bank persistence estimates and if this is correlated to seed production. Methods Seeds of 38 annual weeds taken from arable fields were buried in the field and their viability tested by germination and tetrazolium tests at 6 month intervals for 2·5 years. This direct measure of soil seed survival was compared with indirect estimates from the literature, which use seedling emergence from soil samples to determine seed bank persistence. Published databases were used to explore the generality of the influence of reproductive capacity on seed bank persistence estimates from seedling emergence data. Key Results There was no relationship between a species' soil seed survival in the burial experiment and its seed bank persistence estimate from published data using seedling emergence from soil samples. The analysis of complementary data from published databases revealed that while seed bank persistence estimates based on seedling emergence from soil samples are generally correlated with seed production, estimates of seed banks from burial experiments are not. Conclusions The results can be explained in terms of the seed size–seed number trade-off, which suggests that the higher number of smaller seeds is compensated after germination. Soil seed bank persistence estimates correlated to seed production are therefore not useful for studies on population persistence or community diversity. Confusion of soil

  11. The seed bank longevity index revisited: limited reliability evident from a burial experiment and database analyses.

    PubMed

    Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Seed survival in the soil contributes to population persistence and community diversity, creating a need for reliable measures of soil seed bank persistence. Several methods estimate soil seed bank persistence, most of which count seedlings emerging from soil samples. Seasonality, depth distribution and presence (or absence) in vegetation are then used to classify a species' soil seed bank into persistent or transient, often synthesized into a longevity index. This study aims to determine if counts of seedlings from soil samples yield reliable seed bank persistence estimates and if this is correlated to seed production. Seeds of 38 annual weeds taken from arable fields were buried in the field and their viability tested by germination and tetrazolium tests at 6 month intervals for 2.5 years. This direct measure of soil seed survival was compared with indirect estimates from the literature, which use seedling emergence from soil samples to determine seed bank persistence. Published databases were used to explore the generality of the influence of reproductive capacity on seed bank persistence estimates from seedling emergence data. There was no relationship between a species' soil seed survival in the burial experiment and its seed bank persistence estimate from published data using seedling emergence from soil samples. The analysis of complementary data from published databases revealed that while seed bank persistence estimates based on seedling emergence from soil samples are generally correlated with seed production, estimates of seed banks from burial experiments are not. The results can be explained in terms of the seed size-seed number trade-off, which suggests that the higher number of smaller seeds is compensated after germination. Soil seed bank persistence estimates correlated to seed production are therefore not useful for studies on population persistence or community diversity. Confusion of soil seed survival and seed production can be avoided by

  12. Removal of Lead(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using L. Seed Husk Ash as a Biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingfang; Zuo, Weiyuan; Zhang, Jinlei; Tong, Haijuan; Zhao, Jinhe

    2016-05-01

    The removal of heavy metals, especially from wastewater, has attracted significant interest because of their toxicity, tendency to bioaccumulate, and the threat they pose to human life and the environment. Many low-cost sorbents have been investigated for their biosorption capacity toward heavy metals. However, there are no reports available on the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by of L. seed husk ash. In this work, use of seed husk ash for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater was investigated as a function of contact time and the initial pH of the solution. Kinetics and equilibrium constants were obtained from batch experiments. Our study shows that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Moreover, the Langmuir absorption model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of the husk ash was 263.10 mg g at 298 K and pH 5.0, and this is higher than the previously reported data obtained using other sorbents. The results obtained confirm that seed husk ash is an effective sorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Analysis of infrared spectra of the husk ash after absorption of Pb(II) suggested that OH, C=O, C-O, Si-O-Si, and O-Si-O groups were important for the Pb(II) ion removal. Moreover, practical tests on this biosorbent for Pb(II) removal in real wastewater samples successfully demonstrated that seed husk ash constitutes an efficient and cost-effective technology for the elimination of heavy metals from industrial effluent.

  13. Seeded FEL Microbunching Experiments at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tochitsky, S. Ya.; Musumeci, P.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Joshi, C.; Gottschalk, S. C.

    2010-11-04

    Seeded high-gain FELs, which can generate very powerful radiation pulses in a relatively compact undulator and simultaneously modulate the electron beam longitudinally at the seed wavelength, are important tools for advanced accelerator development. A single-pass 0.5-9 THz FEL amplifier-buncher driven by a regular photoinjector is being built at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory. FEL interactions at 340 {mu}m (1 THz) are considered for the first experiment, since time-resolved measurements of longitudinal current distribution of the bunched beam using the RF deflecting cavity are possible. A design of a 0.2-2.0 {mu}m FEL using the same undulators is presented. In this case the FEL is driven by a high-peak current beam from the laser-plasma accelerator tunable in the 100-300 MeV range.

  14. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  15. Ternary biosorption studies of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on shelled Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parul; Kumari, Pushpa; Srivastava, M M; Srivastava, Shalini

    2007-01-01

    Competitive biosorption of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on unmodified shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) present in ternary mixture were compared with the single metal solution. The extent of adsorption capacity of the ternary metal ions tested on unmodified SMOS was low (10-20%) as compared to single metal ions. SMOS removed the target metal ions in the selectivity order of Cd(II) > Cr(III) > Ni(II). Sorption equilibria, calculated from adsorption data, explained favorable performance of biosorption system. Regeneration of exhausted biomass was also attempted for several cycles with a view to restore the sorbent to its original state.

  16. Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by seed powder of Prosopis juliflora DC.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, K; Prasad, M N V

    2009-09-30

    Biosorption potential of Prosopis juliflora seed powder (PJSP) for Pb(II) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and different metal concentrations were studied in batch experiments. The maximum uptake of metal ions was obtained at pH 6.0. Adsorption equilibrium was established at 360 min. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to study the kinetics of the biosorption processes. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation (R(2)=0.9992) of the experimental data compared to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The maximum Pb(II) adsorbed was found to be 40.322 mg/g and it was found that the biosorption of Pb(II) on PJSP has correlated well (R(2)=0.9719) with the Langmuir equation compared to Freundlich isotherm equation (R(2)=0.9282) in the concentration range studied. Negative values of DeltaG indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The FTIR study revealed the presence of various functional groups which are responsible for the adsorption process. The overall results show that PJSP can be envisaged as a vibrant, biosorbent for metal cleanup operations.

  17. Flatland optics. II. Basic experiments.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, A W; Wang, D; Pe'er, A; Friesem, A A

    2001-05-01

    In "Flatland optics: fundamentals" [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1755 (2000)] we described the basic principles of two-dimensional (2D) optics and showed that a wavelength lambda in three-dimensional (3D) space (x,y,z) may appear in Flatland (x,z) as a wave with another wavelength, lambda = lambda/cosalpha. The tilt angle alpha can be modified by a 3D (Spaceland) individual who then is able to influence the 2D optics in a way that must appear to be magical to 2D Flatland individuals-in the spirit of E. A. Abbott's science fiction story [Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions, 6th ed. (Dover, New York, 1952)] of 1884. We now want to establish the reality or objectivity of the 2D wavelength lambda by some basic experiments similar to those that demonstrated roughly 200 years ago the wave nature of light. Specifically, we describe how to measure the 2D wavelength lambda by mean of five different arrangements that involve Young's biprism configuration, Talbot's self-imaging effect, measuring the focal length of a Fresnel zone plate, and letting light be diffracted by a double slit and by a grating. We also performed experiments with most of these arrangements. The results reveal that the theoretical wavelength, as predicted by our Flatland optics theory, does indeed coincide with the wavelength lambda as measured by Flatland experiments. Finally, we present an alternative way to understand Flatland optics in the spatial frequency domains of Flatland and Spaceland.

  18. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  19. RTNS-II — Facility and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, C. M.; Heikkinen, D. W.

    1982-08-01

    Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) is a national facility for fusion materials research. It contains two 14-MeV neutron sources. Deuterons are accelerated to ~400 keV and transported to a rotating titanium-tritide target. Present source strength is greater than 1 × 10 13 n/s and source diameter is 1 cm FWHM. Recent papers [1,2] describe the present status of the facility and the experiments [3] being conducted there. Sixteen laboratories and universities have participated in the experimental program at RTNS-II. Most measurements have been directed at understanding defect production and low dose damage microstructure. The principal diagnostic tools have been cryogenic resistivity measurements, mechanical properties and transmission electron microscopy. Some engineering tests have been conducted in support of near-term magnetic confinement experiments and of reactor materials which will see small lifetime doses. Experiments not related to the fusion power program are an important part of the work done at RTNS-II. Many of these experiments can be conducted in a "piggyback" mode with a fusion experiment. Subjects for irradiation have included electronic components, glass, strontium nitrate, liver enzymes and mice. Fluences up to ~ 10 17 n/cm 2 are readily available with no impact on the mainline fusion materials program. The Experimenter's Guide [4] provides the information required for the experimenter to effectively utilize RTNS-II and describes the procedure for gaining approval for an irradiation.

  20. A class II KNOX gene, KNOX4, controls seed physical dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Maofeng; Zhou, Chuanen; Molina, Isabel; Fu, Chunxiang; Nakashima, Jin; Li, Guifen; Zhang, Wenzheng; Park, Jongjin; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Physical dormancy of seed is an adaptive trait that widely exists in higher plants. This kind of dormancy is caused by a water-impermeable layer that blocks water and oxygen from the surrounding environment and keeps embryos in a viable status for a long time. Most of the work on hardseededness has focused on morphological structure and phenolic content of seed coat. The molecular mechanism underlying physical dormancy remains largely elusive. By screening a large number of Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged Medicago truncatula lines, we identified nondormant seed mutants from this model legume species. Unlike wild-type hard seeds exhibiting physical dormancy, the mature mutant seeds imbibed water quickly and germinated easily, without the need for scarification. Microscopic observations of cross sections showed that the mutant phenotype was caused by a dysfunctional palisade cuticle layer in the seed coat. Chemical analysis found differences in lipid monomer composition between the wild-type and mutant seed coats. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that a class II KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOXII) gene, KNOX4, was responsible for the loss of physical dormancy in the seeds of the mutants. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified CYP86A, a gene associated with cutin biosynthesis, as one of the downstream target genes of KNOX4. This study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of physical dormancy and revealed a new role of class II KNOX genes. Furthermore, KNOX4-like genes exist widely in seed plants but are lacking in nonseed species, indicating that KNOX4 may have diverged from the other KNOXII genes during the evolution of seed plants. PMID:27274062

  1. A class II KNOX gene, KNOX4, controls seed physical dormancy.

    PubMed

    Chai, Maofeng; Zhou, Chuanen; Molina, Isabel; Fu, Chunxiang; Nakashima, Jin; Li, Guifen; Zhang, Wenzheng; Park, Jongjin; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2016-06-21

    Physical dormancy of seed is an adaptive trait that widely exists in higher plants. This kind of dormancy is caused by a water-impermeable layer that blocks water and oxygen from the surrounding environment and keeps embryos in a viable status for a long time. Most of the work on hardseededness has focused on morphological structure and phenolic content of seed coat. The molecular mechanism underlying physical dormancy remains largely elusive. By screening a large number of Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged Medicago truncatula lines, we identified nondormant seed mutants from this model legume species. Unlike wild-type hard seeds exhibiting physical dormancy, the mature mutant seeds imbibed water quickly and germinated easily, without the need for scarification. Microscopic observations of cross sections showed that the mutant phenotype was caused by a dysfunctional palisade cuticle layer in the seed coat. Chemical analysis found differences in lipid monomer composition between the wild-type and mutant seed coats. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that a class II KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOXII) gene, KNOX4, was responsible for the loss of physical dormancy in the seeds of the mutants. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified CYP86A, a gene associated with cutin biosynthesis, as one of the downstream target genes of KNOX4 This study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of physical dormancy and revealed a new role of class II KNOX genes. Furthermore, KNOX4-like genes exist widely in seed plants but are lacking in nonseed species, indicating that KNOX4 may have diverged from the other KNOXII genes during the evolution of seed plants.

  2. Status of the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. Rolli

    2002-08-14

    The status of the CDF II experiment is described. Since operations start-up for run II data taking in March 2001, the CDF detector has been commissioned using about 20 pb{sup -1} of data provided by the Tevatron (utilized about 4-8). Most detector components are ready for physics quality data. The goal is to present the first physics results by summer-fall 2002.

  3. Reconsidering the effects of tannin on seed dispersal by rodents: evidence from enclosure and field experiments with artificial seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Steele, Michael A; Yi, Xianfeng

    2013-11-01

    The question of how tannin affects feeding and hoarding preferences of rodents still remains poorly understood, in part, because it is difficult to control for other seed traits when considering the sole effect of tannin. Here, we constructed a series of artificial 'seeds' with different tannin levels, made from wheat flour, peanut powder and hydrolysable tannins, to determine the direct effects of tannin on both feeding and hoarding preferences. We first presented 'seeds' to individual rodents of two species (Tamias sibiricus and Apodemus peninsulae) confined in semi-natural enclosures and then monitored patterns of seed dispersal and consumption by free-ranging animals in a temperate forest in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province of China. Our results showed that small rodents displayed a significant preference for low-tannin 'seeds' for both consumption and caching in both captive and field experiments. Moreover, our two-year study consistently showed that tannin concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with the number of cached 'seeds' at both the individual and population levels. Seed size, compared with tannin concentrations, appeared to have little effect on dispersal distances and the number of 'seeds' cached. Low-tannin 'seeds' tended to be dispersed greater distances by rodents in the field than those with higher levels of tannin. These results failed to support those of previous reports indicating that acorns containing higher tannins are more likely to be cached by food hoarding animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  5. Gerst during BASS-II experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-30

    ISS040-E-083576 (30 July 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, performs two tests with a combustion experiment known as the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The experiment seeks to provide insight on how flames burn in space compared to Earth which may provide fire safety benefits aboard future spacecraft.

  6. Gerst during BASS-II experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-30

    ISS040-E-083578 (30 July 2014) --- European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst, Expedition 40 flight engineer, performs two tests with a combustion experiment known as the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The experiment seeks to provide insight on how flames burn in space compared to Earth which may provide fire safety benefits aboard future spacecraft.

  7. Recent experience in seeding transonic/supersonic flows at AEDC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heltsley, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    The laser velocimeter has been utilized for several years at the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) as a flow diagnostics tool. Most applications, following the initial proof-of-concept experiments, have involved relatively complex unknown flow fields in which the more conventional, intrusive techniques had either not been attempted or had yielded unsatisfactory results. A blunt-base nozzle-afterbody base flow study is discussed as a respresentative example of such applications. A wide variety of problems have been encountered during these tests, many of which have proven to be closely related to the size and/or size distribution of the seeding material within the fluid. Resulting measurement uncertainties could often not be conclusively resolved because of the unknown nature of the flow field. The other experiments listed were conducted to provide known aerodynamic conditions for comparison with the velocimeter results.

  8. Overview of TJ-II experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Bruna, D.

    2006-12-04

    We present an overview of experiments in the TJ-II stellarator. Global confinement studies reveal a positive dependence of energy confinement on the rotational transform and plasma density, together with parametric dependences on wall conditioning. Spontaneous and biasing-induced improved confinement transitions are seen. Configuration scan experiments show an interplay between magnetic structure, transport and electric fields. While dc radial electric fields are comparable with neoclassical estimates, neoclassical/turbulent bifurcations and kinetic effects are needed to explain the impact of magnetic topology on flows and radial electric fields. Hydrocarbon fuelling in configurations with a low-order rational value of the rotational transform near the LCFS show impurity screening related to the divertor effect. The first TJ-II experiments in neutral beam injection plasmas are reported and studies on EBW heating put an optimum heating scheme underway.

  9. The 120-yr period for Dr. Beal's seed viability experiment.

    PubMed

    Telewski, Frank W; Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2002-08-01

    After 120 yr of burial in moist, well-aerated sand, 23 seeds of Verbascum blattaria and two seeds of a Verbascum sp. germinated and produced normal plants (50% germination for Verbascum). After a 6-wk cold treatment, a single seed of Malva rotundifolia germinated also, producing a normal plant (2% germination). Plants were grown to maturity in a greenhouse, and flowering was induced by exposure to a 6-wk cold treatment. Flowers were artificially pollinated to produce seed of both Verbascum blattaria and Malva rotundifolia. The Verbascum sp. failed to set seed. Collected seeds were subsequently germinated, producing normal plants. F(1) seeds of V. blattaria had a germination of 64%. Seeds (6%) of M. rotundifolia germinated after a cold treatment.

  10. Seeds in space experiment. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1992-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed in one sealed canister and in two small vented canisters. After being returned to earth, the seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants were compared to the performance of the control seeds that stayed in the Park Seed's seed storage facility. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than at the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  11. Seeds in space experiment. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1992-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed in one sealed canister and in two small vented canisters. After being returned to earth, the seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants were compared to the performance of the control seeds that stayed in the Park Seed's seed storage facility. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than at the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  12. Relating seed treatments to nursery performance: Experience with southern pines

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Producing good quality seeds that perform well in the nursery continues to be challenging. High quality conifer seeds are obtained by optimizing collecting, processing, storing, and treating methodologies, and such quality is needed to consistently produce uniform nursery crops. Although new technologies are becoming available to evaluate seed quality, they have not...

  13. Ground and space experiments to determine the ability of plant seeds to survive in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2008-09-01

    The EXPOSE consortium seeks to understand the capacity of organisms (including extremophiles) to survive under space conditions, i.e. to withstand a long voyage through space. We have proposed that plant seeds are suited for space travel. In our current SEEDS experiment on the Columbus module of the ISS, Arabidopsis seeds were chosen for their small size (approx. 300 μm) and the availability of mutants lacking UV screens. These mutants should allow us to establish the role of flavonoids and sinapic acid esters in resistance to UV and other stresses encountered during space travel. The importance of these substances is indicated by simulations (manuscripts in preparation) and spectroscopy (Zalar 2004; Zalar et al. 2007; Zalar et al. 2007), the results of which will be discussed. Zalar A, (2004) Résistance des graines d'arabidopsis aux UV et à d'autres conditions néfastes dans l'espace. Journal DESS Zalar A, Tepfer D, Hoffmann SV, Kenney JM, Leach S (2007) Directed exospermia: I. Biological modes of resistance to UV light are implied through absorption spectroscopy of DNA and potential UV screens. International Journal of Astrobiology 6: 229-240 Zalar A, Tepfer D, Hoffmann SV, Kollmann A, Leach S (2007) Directed exospermia: II. VUV-UV spectroscopy of specialized UV screens, including plant flavonoids, suggests using metabolic engineering to improve survival in space. International Journal of Astrobiology 6: 291-301

  14. Numerical simulation of the Beta II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D.E.; Boyd, J.K.; McNamara, B.; Turner, W.C.

    1981-10-01

    The transport code FRT which is a 1-1/2-D transport-equilibrium code for an axisymmetric plasma was used to simulate the decay of the plasma and magnetic fields of the Beta II experiment. A comparison is made between the experimentally determined decay times for the magnetic fields and particle confinement times and the computed decay times. It is found that 1% oxygen impurity is enough to clamp the electron temperature below the radiation barrier, which is in agreement with the experiment.

  15. Final results of the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P-0004-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1992-01-01

    Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS), resulted in the distribution of over 132,000 SEED kits in 1990. The kits contained Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) as well as seeds that had been stored in a climate controlled warehouse for the same period of time. Students compared germination and growth rate characteristics of the two seeds groups and returned data to NASA for analysis. The scientific information gained was valuable as students shared the excitement of taking part in a national project. Of greater importance was the subsequent interest generated in science education.

  16. Final results of the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P-0004-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1992-01-01

    Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS), resulted in the distribution of over 132,000 SEED kits in 1990. The kits contained Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) as well as seeds that had been stored in a climate controlled warehouse for the same period of time. Students compared germination and growth rate characteristics of the two seeds groups and returned data to NASA for analysis. The scientific information gained was valuable as students shared the excitement of taking part in a national project. Of greater importance was the subsequent interest generated in science education.

  17. EBR-II fuel slug casting experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C. W.; Batte`, G. L.; Tracy, D. B.; Griffiths, V.

    1987-07-01

    The following paper presents a chronology of EBR-II fuel slug casting experience. Starting with the early vendor campaigns, the paper explains how production of EBR-II fuel, as well as fuel for off-site reactors, has evolved. The production facilities (i.e., EFL, Room 20, FMF, etc.) and casting techniques are discussed in detail. The paper also presents how the original casting operations have improved and the problems encountered as the techniques were developed. Extensive descriptions and data are given on the major experimental programs currently ongoing at EBR-II. Major programs include the IFR lead subassemblies, large diameter slugs, IFR metal fuel RBCB, and the FFTF subassembly program. Concluding the paper is a brief description of future development projects being considered and a summation of how EBR-II Fuels and Materials has been able to overcome various administration obstacles (i.e., improved security and safeguards measures) to continue to meet the increasing demands of fuel production while maintaining an aggressive and active research and development program in fuel slug production.

  18. Seed size- and density-related hidden treatments in common biodiversity experiments

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    With a few exceptions, most well-known field biodiversity experiments on ecosystem functioning have been conducted in plant communities (especially grasslands) in which different numbers of species are planted as treatments. In these experiments, investigators have either kept the total seed weight or seed number constant across treatment plots. However, although in...

  19. Further studies of the whitetop cloud-seeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

    1971-01-01

    By means of two stratifications of experimental days of the Whitetop Project-into categories E and W and into categories air mass and frontal-the effects of cloud seeding on precipitation downwind, upwind, and to the sides, up to 180 miles from the seeding line, were investigated. No significant effects were found for W and frontal days. On the other hand, for E and airmass days, significant and highly significant apparent effects of seeding were found in all directions and in areas at distances up to 180 miles. All these significant apparent effects are negative, the largest of them indicating that seeding reduced precipitation to one quarter of its unseeded value.

  20. Megabar liner experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Bartsch, R.R.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Using pulsed power to implode a liner onto a target can produce high shock pressures for many interesting application experiments. With a Pegasus II facility in Los Alamos, a detailed theoretical analysis has indicated that the highest attainable pressure is around 2 Mbar for a best designed aluminum liner. Recently, an interesting composite liner design has been proposed which can boost the shock pressure performance by a factor 4 over the aluminum liner. This liner design was adopted in the first megabar (Megabar-1) liner experiment carried out on Pegasus last year to verify the design concept and to compare the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on liner integrity with the code simulations. We present briefly the physical considerations to explain why the composite liner provides the best shock pressure performance. The theoretical modeling and performance of Megabar-1 liner are discussed. Also presented are the first experimental results and the liner design modification for our next experiment.

  1. FE-2 Nicole Stott works on the CBEF Space Seed Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-14

    ISS021-E-006292 (14 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 21 flight engineer, using a watering syringe, supplies water to the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) SPACE SEED experiment in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station.

  2. FE-2 Nicole Stott works on the CBEF Space Seed Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-13

    ISS021-E-006267 (13 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 21 flight engineer, works with the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) SPACE SEED experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. FE-2 Nicole Stott works on the CBEF Space Seed Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-13

    ISS021-E-006261 (13 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 21 flight engineer, works with the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) SPACE SEED experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  4. Removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera seeds as a bioadsorbent.

    PubMed

    Marques, Thiago L; Alves, Vanessa N; Coelho, Luciana M; Coelho, Nívia M M

    2012-01-01

    Metal contaminants are generally removed from effluents by chemical and physical processes which are often associated with disadvantages such as the use of toxic reagents, generation of toxic waste and high costs. Hence, new techniques have been developed, among them the study of natural adsorbents, for instance, the use of Moringa oleifera seeds. The potential of M. oleifera seeds for nickel removal in aqueous systems was investigated. The seeds utilized were obtained from plants grown in Uberlândia/Brazil. After being dried and pulverized, the seeds were treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses were used for the characterization of the material. Using the optimized methodology (50 mL of 4.0 mg/L Ni(II), pH range of 4.0-6.0, agitation time of 5 min and adsorption mass of 2.0 g) more than 90% of Ni(II) could be removed from water samples. The sorption data were fitted satisfactorily by the Langmuir adsorption model. Evaluation applying the Langmuir equation gave the monolayer sorption capacity as 29.6 mg/g. The results indicate that this material could be employed in the extraction of nickel, considering its ease of use, low cost and environmental viability, which make it highly attractive for application in developing countries.

  5. Removal of Ni (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Ricinus communis seed shell activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasu, P; Karunakaran, K

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption studies on the removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution using Ricinus communis seed shells activated carbon and polypyrrole coated Ricinus communis seed shells activated carbon were carried out under various experimental conditions. The effects of various process parameters have been investigated by following the batch adsorption technique. Adsorption data was modeled with Freundlich, Langmuir and tempkin adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamics parameters such as DeltaH0, DeltaS0, and DeltaG0 were calculated indicating that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic nature. A mechanism, involving intra particle diffusion and surface adsorption, has been proposed for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto the adsorbent. Adsorbent used in this study is characterized by FTIR and SEM before and after the adsorption of metal ions.

  6. Temporal changes in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during in situ iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Takafumi; Suzuki, Koji; Hayakawa, Maki; Kudo, Isao; Higashi, Seigo; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of iron enrichment in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters on the community composition of heterotrophic bacteria, which are crucial to nutrient recycling and microbial food webs. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments, we investigated the heterotrophic eubacterial community composition in surface waters during an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS-II) in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. DGGE fingerprints representing the community composition of eubacteria differed inside and outside the iron-enriched patch. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that at least five phylotypes of α-proteobacteria including Roseobacter, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria- Bacteroides (CFB), γ-proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria occurred in almost all samples from the iron-enriched patch. Diatoms did not bloom during SEEDS-II, but the eubacterial composition in the iron-enriched patch was similar to that in diatom blooms observed previously. Although dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation was not detected in surface waters during SEEDS-II, growth of the Roseobacter clade might have been particularly stimulated after iron additions. Two identified phylotypes of CFB were closely related to the genus Saprospira, whose algicidal activity might degrade the phytoplankton assemblages increased by iron enrichment. These results suggest that the responses of heterotrophic bacteria to iron enrichment could differ among phylotypes during SEEDS-II.

  7. Liner target interaction experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.P.; Chrien, R.E.; Bartsch, R.

    1995-09-01

    The Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics program uses capacitively driven low voltage, inductive-storage pulse power to implode cylindrical targets for hydrodynamics experiments. Once a precision driver liner was characterized an experimental series characterizing the aluminum target dynamics was performed. The target was developed for shock-induced quasi-particle ejecta experiments including holography. The concept for the Liner shock experiment is that the driver liner is used to impact the target liner which then accelerates toward a collimator with a slit in it. A shock wave is set up in the target liner and as the shock emerges from the back side of the target liner, ejecta are generated. By taking a laser hologram the particle distribution of the ejecta are hoped to be determined. The goal for the second experimental series was to characterize the target dynamics and not to measure and generate the ejecta. Only the results from the third shot, Pegasus II-26 fired April 26th, 1994, from the series is discussed in detail. The second experimental series successfully characterized the target dynamics necessary to move forward towards the planned quasi-ejecta experiments.

  8. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    PubMed

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-01-26

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively.

  9. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  10. Further Studies of the Whitetop Cloud-Seeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Lovasich, Jeanne L.; Neyman, Jerzy; Scott, Elizabeth L.; Wells, Marcella A.

    1971-01-01

    By means of two stratifications of experimental days of the Whitetop Project—into categories E and W and into categories air mass and frontal—the effects of cloud seeding on precipitation downwind, upwind, and to the sides, up to 180 miles from the seeding line, were investigated. No significant effects were found for W and frontal days. On the other hand, for E and airmass days, significant and highly significant apparent effects of seeding were found in all directions and in areas at distances up to 180 miles. All these significant apparent effects are negative, the largest of them indicating that seeding reduced precipitation to one quarter of its unseeded value. PMID:16591894

  11. Quantitative proteome analysis of barley seeds using ruthenium(II)-tris-(bathophenanthroline-disulphonate) staining.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Katja; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Jyothsnakumari, Gottimukkala; Sudhakar, Chinta; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the application of the recently introduced fluorescence stain Ruthenium(II)-tris-(bathophenanthroline-disulphonate) (RuBP) on a comparative proteome analysis of two phenotypically different barley lines. We carried out an analysis of protein patterns from 2-D gels of the parental lines of the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population DOM and REC and stained with either the conventional colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue (cCBB) or with the novel RuBP solution. We wished to experimentally verify the usefulness of such a stain in evaluating the complex pattern of a seed proteome, in comparison to the previously used cCBB staining technique. To validate the efficiency of visualization by both stains, we first compared the overall number of detected protein spots. On average, 790 spots were visible by cCBB staining and 1200 spots by RuBP staining. Then, the intensity of a set of spots was assessed, and changes in relative abundance were determined using image analysis software. As expected, staining with RuBP performed better in quantitation in terms of sensitivity and dynamic range. Furthermore, spots from a cultivar-specific region in the protein map were chosen for identification to asses the gain of biological information due to the staining procedure. From this particular region, eight spots were visualized exclusively by RuBP and identification was successful for all spots, proving the ability to identify even very low abundant proteins. Performance in MS analysis was comparable for both protein stains. Proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS peptide mass fingerprinting. This approach was not successful for all spots, due to the restricted entry number for barley in the database. Therefore, we subsequently used LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS and de novo sequencing for identification. Because only an insufficient number of proteins from barley is annotated, an EST-based identification strategy was chosen for our experiment. We wished to test whether under

  12. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper.

  13. The effect of seed electrons on the repeatability of atmospheric pressure plasma plume propagation. II. Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Nie, L.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.

    2016-12-01

    One of the distinguishable features of plasma jets compared with the traditional streamers is their repeatable propagation. As an initial objective, the effect of seed electrons on the repeatability of plasma plume propagation is investigated numerically. Besides residual electrons left from previous pulses, the electrons detached from O2 - ions could also be a significant source of the seed electrons to affect the repeatability of plasma plume propagation when an electronegative gas admixture is presented. In this investigation, a global plasma chemical kinetics model is developed to investigate the temporal evolution of the electron and O2 - ions in the afterglow of a plasma plume driven by microsecond pulse direct current voltages, at a total gas pressure of 2 × 104 Pa or 4 × 103 Pa in helium or helium-oxygen mixtures with an air impurity of 0.025%. In addition, a Monte Carlo technique has been applied to calculate the O2 - detachment rate coefficient. Accordingly, the seed electron density due to detachment from O2 - ions for different percentages of oxygen is obtained. Finally, the minimum seed electron density required for the plasma bullets to propagate in a repeatable mode is obtained according to the critical frequency from the experiments. It is found that the order of minimum seed electron number density required for repeatable propagation mode is independent of oxygen concentrations in the helium-oxygen mixture. It is 10 8 cm - 3 for 20 kPa and 10 7 cm - 3 for 4 kPa. Furthermore, for the helium with an air impurity of 0.025%, the residual electrons left over from previous discharges are the main source of seed electrons. On the other hand, when 0.5% of O2 is added, the detachment of O2 - is the main source of the seed electrons.

  14. Evidence of widespread effects of cloud seeding at two Arizona experiments.

    PubMed

    Neyman, J; Osborn, H B

    1971-03-01

    The average effect of two cloud seeding experiments (1957-1960; 1961, 1962, and 1964) over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, on the 24-hr precipitation at Walnut Gulch, 65 miles away, was an apparent 40% loss of rainfall (P = 0.025) on seeded, as opposed to not-seeded, experimental days. Larger apparent losses, some highly significant, were found for experimental days on which Walnut Gulch was downwind from the seeding site (but not on upwind days), and also on "second days" of the randomized pairs (but not on "first days"). The timing of significant apparent effects indicated that the afternoon maximum of precipitation, which is very pronounced on days without seeding, is either absent or weakened on days with seeding. This phenomenon was observed earlier in a study of the Whitetop Project.

  15. Evidence of Widespread Effects of Cloud Seeding at Two Arizona Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Neyman, Jerzy; Osborn, Herbert B.

    1971-01-01

    The average effect of two cloud seeding experiments (1957-1960; 1961, 1962, and 1964) over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, on the 24-hr precipitation at Walnut Gulch, 65 miles away, was an apparent 40% loss of rainfall (P = 0.025) on seeded, as opposed to not-seeded, experimental days. Larger apparent losses, some highly significant, were found for experimental days on which Walnut Gulch was downwind from the seeding site (but not on upwind days), and also on “second days” of the randomized pairs (but not on “first days”). The timing of significant apparent effects indicated that the afternoon maximum of precipitation, which is very pronounced on days without seeding, is either absent or weakened on days with seeding. This phenomenon was observed earlier in a study of the Whitetop Project. PMID:16591914

  16. NDCX-II target experiments and simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Barnard, J. J.; More, R. M.; Terry, M.; ...

    2013-06-13

    The ion accelerator NDCX-II is undergoing commissioning at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Its principal mission is to explore ion-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) especially in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam-heated targets for parameters expected for the initial configuration of NDCX-II. For metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets), the beam is predicted to heat the target in a timescale comparable to the hydrodynamic expansion time for experiments that infer material properties from measurements of the resulting rarefaction wave. We have alsomore » carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam heating of metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets) in which the ion range is shorter than the areal density of the material. In this case shock waves will form and we derive simple scaling laws for the efficiency of conversion of ion energy into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Geometries with a tamping layer may also be used to study the merging of a tamper shock with the end-of-range shock. As a result, this process can occur in tamped, direct drive IFE targets.« less

  17. NDCX-II target experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J. J.; More, R. M.; Terry, M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Koniges, A.; Kwan, J. W.; Ng, A.; Ni, P. A.; Liu, W.; Logan, B. G.; Startsev, E.; Yuen, A.

    2013-06-13

    The ion accelerator NDCX-II is undergoing commissioning at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Its principal mission is to explore ion-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) especially in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam-heated targets for parameters expected for the initial configuration of NDCX-II. For metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets), the beam is predicted to heat the target in a timescale comparable to the hydrodynamic expansion time for experiments that infer material properties from measurements of the resulting rarefaction wave. We have also carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam heating of metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets) in which the ion range is shorter than the areal density of the material. In this case shock waves will form and we derive simple scaling laws for the efficiency of conversion of ion energy into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Geometries with a tamping layer may also be used to study the merging of a tamper shock with the end-of-range shock. As a result, this process can occur in tamped, direct drive IFE targets.

  18. NDCX-II target experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. J.; More, R. M.; Terry, M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Koniges, A.; Kwan, J. W.; Ng, A.; Ni, P. A.; Liu, W.; Logan, B. G.; Startsev, E.; Yuen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ion accelerator NDCX-II is undergoing commissioning at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Its principal mission is to explore ion-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) especially in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam-heated targets for parameters expected for the initial configuration of NDCX-II. For metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets), the beam is predicted to heat the target in a timescale comparable to the hydrodynamic expansion time for experiments that infer material properties from measurements of the resulting rarefaction wave. We have also carried out hydrodynamic simulations of beam heating of metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets) in which the ion range is shorter than the areal density of the material. In this case shock waves will form and we derive simple scaling laws for the efficiency of conversion of ion energy into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Geometries with a tamping layer may also be used to study the merging of a tamper shock with the end-of-range shock. This process can occur in tamped, direct drive IFE targets.

  19. Biosorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by Litchi chinensis seeds.

    PubMed

    Flores-Garnica, Jonathan Gonzalo; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Pineda-Camacho, Gabriela; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2013-05-01

    The potential of Litchi chinensis seeds (LCS) for biosorption of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch systems in terms of kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics. Experimental data showed that the biosorption capacity of LCS was dependent on operating variables such as solution pH, initial Ni(II) concentration, contact time, and temperature. The optimum pH value for Ni(II) biosorption was 7.5. Significant enhancement of Ni(II) biosorption was observed by increasing initial metal concentration and temperature. Modeling of sorption kinetics showed good agreement of experimental data with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Langmuir model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. According to this isotherm model, the maximum Ni(II) biosorption capacity of LCS is 66.62 mg g(-1). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption of Ni(II) ions is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Results indicate that LCS can be used as an effective and environmentally friendly biosorbent to detoxify Ni(II)-polluted wastewaters.

  20. Intravitreal Melphalan for Vitreous Seeds: Initial Experience in China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xunda; Hua, Peiyan; Li, Jing; Li, Jiakai; Zhao, Junyang; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal melphalan for vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma in Chinese patients. Methods. This is a retrospective review of 17 consecutive Chinese patients (19 eyes) with viable vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma. The patients received multiple intravitreal injections of 20 ug melphalan. Results. The International Classification of Retinoblastoma groups were B in 1 eye, C in 5 eyes, D in 11 eyes, and E in 2 eyes. On average, 6 injections (range: 1–15) were given to each eye at the interval of 2–4 weeks. Successful control of vitreous seeds was achieved in 16 of 19 eyes (84.21%). Globe retention was achieved in 73.68% (14/19) eyes. The patients were followed up for 27 months on average (median: 26; range: 17–42 months). There is a significant difference in response to intravitreal melphalan for cloud, spheres, and dust seeds with a median number of injections of 9, 6, and 3, respectively (P = 0.003). Complications related to intravitreal melphalan included vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, salt-and-pepper retinopathy, and pupil posterior synechia. There was no case of epibulbar extension or systemic metastasis within the period of follow-up. Conclusion. Intravitreal melphalan achieved a high local control rate for vitreous seeds without extraocular extension and with acceptable toxicity in Chinese retinoblastoma patients. PMID:26977313

  1. Model analysis of radar echo split observed in an artificial cloud seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Shimada; Kikuro, Tomine; Koji, Nishiyama

    2016-06-01

    An artificial cloud seeding experiment was performed over the Japan Sea in winter to show how massive seeding could be effective to mitigate heavy snowfall damage. The results showed that 20 min after cloud seeding, a portion of the radar echo beneath the seeding track was weakened to divide the radar echo into two parts. In order to analyze the results, a numerical simulation was conducted by using the Weather Research and Forecasting model verion 3.5.1. In this simulation, the seeding effects were represented as phenomena capable of changing rain particles by accreting cloud ice and snow to form graupel particles and by changing cloud liquid water to snow particles. The graupel particles fell rapidly, thus temporarily intensifying the rainfall, which subsequently decreased. Therefore, the weakened radar echo in the field experiment is deemed to have been caused by the increase in rapidly falling graupel particles.

  2. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  3. VINETA II: A linear magnetic reconnection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, H. Von Stechow, A.; Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2014-02-15

    A linear experiment dedicated to the study of driven magnetic reconnection is presented. The new device (VINETA II) is suitable for investigating both collisional and near collisionless reconnection. Reconnection is achieved by externally driving magnetic field lines towards an X-point, inducing a current in the background plasma which consequently modifies the magnetic field topology. Owing to the open field line configuration of the experiment, the current is limited by the axial sheath boundary conditions. A plasma gun is used as an additional electron source in order to counterbalance the charge separation effects and supply the required current. Two drive methods are used in the device. First, an oscillating current through two parallel conductors drive the reconnection. Second, a stationary X-point topology is formed by the parallel conductors, and the drive is achieved by an oscillating current through a third conductor. In the first setup, the magnetic field of the axial plasma current dominates the field topology near the X-point throughout most of the drive. The second setup allows for the amplitude of the plasma current as well as the motion of the flux to be set independently of the X-point topology of the parallel conductors.

  4. Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P-0004-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1991-01-01

    This cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company, resulted in the distribution, by the end of March, 1990, of approximately 132,000 space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) kits to 64,000 teachers representing 40,000 classrooms and 3.3 million kindergarden through university students. Kits were sent to every state, as well as to 30 foreign countries. Preliminary radiation data indicates that layer A received 725 rads, while layer D received 350 rads. Germination rate was reported to be 73.8 percent for space exposed seeds and 70.3 percent for earth based control seeds. Tests conducted within the first six months after retrieval indicated space exposed seeds germinated in an average of 8.0 days, while earth based control seeds' average germination rate was 8.3 days. Some mutations (assumed to be radiation induced) reported by students and Park Seed include plants that added a leaf instead of the usual flower at the end of the flower front and fruit produced from a flower with a variegated calyx bore seeds producing albino plants, while fruit from a flower with a green calyx from the same plant bore seeds produced green plants.

  5. Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P-0004-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1991-01-01

    This cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company, resulted in the distribution, by the end of March, 1990, of approximately 132,000 space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) kits to 64,000 teachers representing 40,000 classrooms and 3.3 million kindergarden through university students. Kits were sent to every state, as well as to 30 foreign countries. Preliminary radiation data indicates that layer A received 725 rads, while layer D received 350 rads. Germination rate was reported to be 73.8 percent for space exposed seeds and 70.3 percent for earth based control seeds. Tests conducted within the first six months after retrieval indicated space exposed seeds germinated in an average of 8.0 days, while earth based control seeds' average germination rate was 8.3 days. Some mutations (assumed to be radiation induced) reported by students and Park Seed include plants that added a leaf instead of the usual flower at the end of the flower front and fruit produced from a flower with a variegated calyx bore seeds producing albino plants, while fruit from a flower with a green calyx from the same plant bore seeds produced green plants.

  6. Results of the Thailand Warm-Cloud Hygroscopic Particle Seeding Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Bernard A.; Sukarnjanaset, Wathana

    2000-07-01

    A randomized, warm-rain enhancement experiment was carried out during 1995-98 in the Bhumibol catchment area in northwestern Thailand. The experiment was conducted in accordance with a randomized, floating single-target design. The seeding targets were semi-isolated, warm convective clouds, contained within a well-defined experimental unit, that, upon qualification, were selected for seeding or not seeding with calcium chloride particles in a random manner. The seeding was done by dispensing the calcium chloride particles at an average rate of 21 kg km1 per seeding pass into the updrafts of growing warm convective clouds (about 1-2 km above cloud base) that have not yet developed or, at most, have just started to develop a precipitation radar echo. The experiment was carried out by the Bureau of Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation (BRRAA) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives as part of its Applied Atmospheric Resources Research Program, Phase 2.During the 4 yr of the experiment, a total of 67 experimental units (34 seeded and 33 nonseeded units) were qualified in accordance with the experimental design. Volume-scan data from a 10-cm Doppler radar at 5-min intervals were used to track each experimental unit, from which various radar-estimated properties of the experimental units were obtained. The statistical evaluation of the experiment was based on a rerandomization analysis of the single ratio of seeded to unseeded experimental unit lifetime properties. In 1997, the BRRAA acquired two sophisticated King Air 350 cloud-physics aircraft, providing the opportunity to obtain physical measurements of the aerosol characteristics of the environment in which the warm clouds grow, of the hydrometeor characteristics of seeded and unseeded clouds, and of the calcium chloride seeding plume dimensions and particle size distribution-information directly related to the effectiveness of the seeding conceptual model that was not directly available up to then

  7. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution using Citrus Limettioides peel and seed carbon.

    PubMed

    Sudha, R; Srinivasan, K; Premkumar, P

    2015-07-01

    The agricultural wastes like Citrus Limettioides peel and seed to be suitable precursor for the preparation of carbon [Citrus Limettioides peel carbon (CLPC) and seed carbon (CLSC)] has been explored in the present work, utilizing sulfuric acid as the activating agent. Adsorption studies were performed by varying contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature. The equilibrium time for Ni(II) ions was determined as 4h and optimal pH was 4-7. Surface morphology and functionality of the CLPC and CLSC were characterized by SEM, EDX and FT-IR. The experimental data were analysed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm equations using nonlinear regression analysis. Equilibrium data were found to fit well in the Langmuir isotherm, which confirmed the monolayer coverage of Ni(II) ions. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of CLPC and CLSC was found to be 38.46 and 35.54 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The kinetic data followed pseudo-second order model with film diffusion process. The adsorbents were tested with Ni(II) plating wastewater in connection with the reuse and selectivity of the adsorbents.

  8. A multi-sensor study of the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on clouds and precipitation over mountains in Wyoming. Part II: Seeding impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokharel, Binod; Geerts, Bart; Jing, Xiaoqin; Friedrich, Katja; Ikeda, Kyoko; Rasmussen, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII) campaign, conducted in early 2012 and 2013 over two mountain ranges in southern Wyoming, was designed to examine the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on snow growth in winter orographic clouds. Part I of this study (Pokharel and Geerts, 2016) describes the project design, instrumentation, as well as the ambient atmospheric conditions and macrophysical and microphysical properties of the clouds sampled in ASCII. This paper (Part II) explores how the silver iodide (AgI) seeding affects snow growth in these orographic clouds in up to 27 intensive operation periods (IOPs), depending on the instrument used. In most cases, 2 h without seeding (NOSEED) were followed by 2 h of seeding (SEED). In situ data at flight level (2D-probes) indicate higher concentrations of small snow particles during SEED in convective clouds. The double difference of radar reflectivity Z (SEED - NOSEED in the target region, compared to the same trend in the control region) indicates an increase in Z for the composite of ASCII cases, over either mountain range, and for any of the three radar systems (WCR, MRR, and DOW), each with their own control and target regions, and for an array of snow gauges. But this double difference varies significantly from case to case, which is attributed to uncertainties related to sampling representativeness and to differences in natural trends between control and target regions. We conclude that a sample much larger than ASCII's sample is needed for clear observational evidence regarding the sensitivity of seeding efficacy to atmospheric and cloud conditions.

  9. Seed Experiments for Students. Tips & Demonstrations for Teachers & Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides a short course in the mysteries of seed structure, function, and development. Chapter 1, "Backgrounds, Hints, And Tips For Teachers And Parents," provides a basis for working with the mid-years student. Chapater 2, "Where Do I Start? What Do I Do?" provides procedural tips for science research. Chapter 3,…

  10. Seed Experiments for Students. Tips & Demonstrations for Teachers & Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides a short course in the mysteries of seed structure, function, and development. Chapter 1, "Backgrounds, Hints, And Tips For Teachers And Parents," provides a basis for working with the mid-years student. Chapater 2, "Where Do I Start? What Do I Do?" provides procedural tips for science research. Chapter 3,…

  11. [Experience of brachytherapy using I-125 seed permanent implants for localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Toya, Kazuhito; Yorozu, Atsunori; Ohashi, Toshio; Okada, Masahiro; Itoh, Reiko; Monma, Tetsuo; Saito, Shiro; Fukada, Junichi; Sugawara, Akitomo; Dokiya, Takushi

    2005-10-01

    We report here our experience of brachytherapy using I-125 seeds for localized prostate cancer in 100 patients. We carried out brachytherapy with I-125 seed permanent implants in 100 patients with localized prostate cancer between September 2003 and October 2004. Preplanning dosimetry was done using transrectal ultrasonic images obtained three or four weeks prior to treatment. Using transrectal ultrasound, we inserted I-125 seeds in the prostate through needles according to the preplanning diagram. We then examined the results on prostate CT performed one month later. It was necessary to describe transrectal ultrasonic image such as preplanning. There were several cases in which the source arrangement of the schedule was corrected immediately before the operation. In the examination after one month, the numerical value at the start of treatment initially was not satisfactory, but we eventually obtained a result that could to be evaluated. We carried out permanent implant brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer using I-125 seeds and reported our experience.

  12. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmaster, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    Design features and the performance envelope of the SAGE II stratospheric aerosol monitoring instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite are described. SAGE II was designed to obtain vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols, monitor global seasonal changes in aerosols, provide data on stratospheric circulation and the behavior of transient events such as volcanic particulate injections, and to investigate atmospheric chemistry. The mmeasurements are centered on extinctions due to aerosols, NO2, O3 and water vapor.

  13. Areal spread of the effect of cloud seeding at the whitetop experiment.

    PubMed

    Neyman, J; Scott, E; Smith, J A

    1969-03-28

    With reference to arguments that weather modification technology is sufficiently advanced for the federal government to finance cloud-seeding operations as a means of alleviating water shortages, an analysis of the Whitetop rain stimulation experiment was performed. The average 24-hour precipitation in six concentric regions up to 180 miles from the center of the target on 102 days of cloud seeding was less than that on the 96 experimental days without seeding. For distances less than 30 miles, the apparent loss of rain due to seeding was 32 percent. With the increase in distance, this apparent loss decreased to a minimum of 9 percent for gages between 120 and 150 miles from the center. However, the 48 gages at distances between 150 and 180 miles showed a 22 percent apparent loss of rain due to seeding. The estimated average loss of rain within the whole region of about 100,000 square miles was 21 percent of what would have fallen without seeding. When a 5-year experiment, expected to produce a 5 to 10-percent increase, shows a 20-percent decrease in rainfall, the relevant technology does not appear reliable enough for practical use.

  14. The effect of seed electrons on the repeatability of atmospheric pressure plasma plume propagation: I. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, L.; Chang, L.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.

    2016-09-01

    One of the significant differences between the traditional streamers and the plasma jets is the repeatability of their propagation. In this paper, the effect of the seed electron density on the repeatability of the plasma jets is investigated. The seed electron density plays an essential role in the propagation of plasma plume which is in either repeatable mode or random mode depending on the frequency of the applied voltage and the mixture percentage of the working gas. By measuring the propagation velocities and the ignition delay time, it is found that the propagation velocities of the plasma plume are independent of the seed electron density. However, the jitter of the ignition delay time strongly depends on the frequency of the applied voltage and the mixture percentage of the working gas. After detailed analyzing of the experiment results, it is concluded that the minimum seed electron density required for the plasma bullet to propagate in repeatable mode is on the order of 108 cm-3 for gas pressure of 2 × 104 Pa. The minimum required seed electron density for the gas pressure of 4 × 103 Pa is on the order of 107 cm-3. Further analysis shows that, at one atmospheric pressure, the required minimum seed electron density for repeatable mode is on the order of 109 cm-3.

  15. 140 GHz microwave FEL experiments using ELF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Jong, R.A.; Atkinson, D.P.; Clark, J.C.; Felker, B.; Ferguson, S.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Nexsen, W.E.; Stallard, B.W.; Stever, R.D.; Turner, W.C.

    1989-09-01

    We describe the modeling, the experimental facility, and the initial operating results for ELF-II, an induction-linac based free-electron laser designed to produce up to 2 GW of peak power at 140 GHz. ELF-II is the initial configuration of an FEL system which will eventually produce up to 2 MW of average power at a frequency of 250 GHz, for use in plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Commissioning the Echo-Seeding Experiment Echo-7 at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S.a E.Colby; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Woodley, M.; Xiang, D.; Pernet, P-L.; /Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne

    2011-06-02

    ECHO-7 is a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) FEL experiment in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. The experiment is intended to test the EEHG principle at low electron beam energy, 120 MeV, and determine the sensitivities and limitations to understand the expected performance at the higher energy scales and harmonic numbers required for x-ray FELs. In this paper we present the experimental results from the commissioning run of the completed experimental setup which started in April 2010.

  17. Purification and characterization of a class II α-Mannosidase from Moringa oleifera seed kernels.

    PubMed

    Tejavath, Kiran Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2014-10-01

    α-Mannosidase (EC. 3.2.1.114) belonging to class II glycosyl hydrolase family 38 was purified from Moringa oleifera seeds to apparent homogeneity by conventional protein purification methods followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with 9.3 % carbohydrate and exhibited a native molecular mass of 240 kDa, comprising two heterogeneous subunits with molecular masses of 66 kDa (α-larger subunit) and 55 kDa (β-smaller subunit). Among both the subunits only larger subunit stained for carbohydrate with periodic acid Schiff's staining. The optimum temperature and pH for purified enzyme was 50 °C and pH 5.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA, Hg(2+), Ag(2+), and Cu(2+). The activity lost by EDTA was completely regained by addition of Zn(2+). The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of the kinetic parameters K m (1.6 mM) and V max (2.2 U/mg) using para-nitrophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside as substrate. The enzyme was very strongly inhibited by swainsonine (SW) at 1 μM concentration a class II α-Mannosidase inhibitor, but not by deoxymannojirimycin (DMNJ). Chemical modification studies revealed involvement of tryptophan at active site. The inhibition by SW and requirement of the Zn(2+) as a metal ion suggested that the enzyme belongs to class II α-Mannosidase.

  18. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  19. Preliminary Results of the Echo-Seeding Experiment ECHO-7 at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Ding, Y.; Dunning, M.; Frederico, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Corlett, J.; Qiang, J.; Penn, G.; Prestemon, S.; /LBL, Berkeley /LPHE, Lausanne

    2010-06-15

    ECHO-7 is a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation FEL experiment in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. The experiment aims to generate coherent radiation at 318 nm and 227 nm, which are the 5th and 7th harmonic of the infrared seed laser. In this paper we present the preliminary results from the commissioning run of the completed experimental setup which started in April 2010.

  20. The Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. II - Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Lovelock, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The calibration standards used in the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) for CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3CCl3, and CCl4 are described. This includes the preparation of the primary standards by static dilution and their propagation and stability for the period 1977-1982. Two independent assessments of the absolute concentrations of the primary standards used to initiate the ALE measurements in 1977-1978 are reported. For consistency in the ALE program the values assigned to the primary standards and subsequent working standards used in the field were not altered during the experiment when results of better estimates of the original concentration values were obtained. Rather, the appropriate factors by which the ALE mixing ratios for a given species should be multiplied to obtain the best estimate of the current concentration of a given species, are provided.

  1. The Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. II - Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Lovelock, J. E.

    1983-10-01

    The calibration standards used in the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) for CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3CCl3, and CCl4 are described. This includes the preparation of the primary standards by static dilution and their propagation and stability for the period 1977-1982. Two independent assessments of the absolute concentrations of the primary standards used to initiate the ALE measurements in 1977-1978 are reported. For consistency in the ALE program the values assigned to the primary standards and subsequent working standards used in the field were not altered during the experiment when results of better estimates of the original concentration values were obtained. Rather, the appropriate factors by which the ALE mixing ratios for a given species should be multiplied to obtain the best estimate of the current concentration of a given species, are provided.

  2. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  3. Wiseman working with BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-26

    ISS040-E-021546 (26 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a combustion experiment known as the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory. Without gravity, materials burn quite differently, with a spherical flame instead of the conical shape seen on Earth. BASS is studying the hypothesis that some materials may actually become more flammable in space. Results from BASS will help guide spacecraft materials selection and improve strategies for putting out accidental fires aboard spacecraft. The research also provides scientists with improved computational models that will aid in the design of fire detection and suppression systems here on Earth.

  4. The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia de la Cruz, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.

  5. Kinetics modelling of Cu(II) biosorption on to coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds from tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Mike A; Pereira, Joana P C; Meulepas, Roel J W; Lens, Piet N L

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption kinetic studies are of great significance in evaluating the performance of a given adsorbent and gaining insight into the underlying mechanism. This work investigated the sorption kinetics of Cu(II) on to coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds using batch techniques. To understand the mechanisms of the biosorption process and the potential rate-controlling steps, kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data. The results indicate that kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second-order model with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9974 and 0.9958 for the coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds, respectively. The initial sorption rates obtained for coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds were 9.6395 x 10(-3) and 8.3292 x 10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1), respectively. The values of the mass transfer coefficients obtained for coconut shell (1.2106 x 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and Moringa oleifera seeds (8.965 x 10(-4) cm s(-1)) indicate that the transport of Cu(II) from the bulk liquid to the solid phase was quite fast for both materials investigated. The results indicate that intraparticle diffusion controls the rate of sorption in this study; however, film diffusion cannot be neglected, especially at the initial stage of sorption.

  6. Environmentally friendly biosorbents (husks, pods and seeds) from Moringa oleifera for Pb(II) removal from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Fernanda Oliveira; Pinto, Laura Adriane de Moraes; Bassetti, Fátima de Jesus; Vieira, Marcelo Fernandes; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo

    2017-02-17

    Lead is a heavy metal considered highly toxic, responsible for causing several health problems as well as being extremely harmful to fauna and flora. Given this fact, several techniques have been studied for the removal of this metal from contaminated water, in which stands out adsorption. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of lead(II) biosorption from contaminated water by seed husks, seeds and pods of Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa). Biomass was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. From the studied parameters, the optimal conditions obtained for the three analyzed biosorbents are: 30 min to equilibrium, pH 6 and 25°C temperature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was the best fitted to the experimental data for the three evaluated biosorbents. Regarding the adsorption isotherms, the model that best fitted to the experimental data for seed and seed husk was that proposed by Freundlich, and for the pod the Langmuir model. The analysis of the obtained thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process is favorable and of exothermic nature. Through the results it was concluded that the evaluated biosorbents are efficient in lead(II) biosorption.

  7. X-Ray Astronomy Discovery Experiments, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. C.

    2009-05-01

    Paper I provided proof of concurrent discovery experiments at the start of cosmic x-ray source studies. It was noted that since the Lockheed discovery was postulated before any source was observed, that discovery was of equal or greater importance to the start of such studies than the discovery of Sco X-1. Illusions about the nonexistence of the Lockheed discovery that may have been caused by organizers and invited reviewers of a meeting, and related events (including A. E. Whitford, private communication (1975). and, R. Giacconi, Les Prix Nobel, Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, p. 114 (2003). will be described. This paper's goal is to have the American Institute of Physics require members to properly credit contributions of others. P. C. Fisher, BAPS 53 No. 2, 165 (2008). S. B. Pikelner et al., Transactions of the IAU (L. Perek ed.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht/Holland and Springer-Verlag, New York XIIIA, p. 179 (1968). H. Friedman, op cit, p.180. R. Giacconi, op cit, p. 184.

  8. SAGE II - An overview. [Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite was launched from Shuttle in October 1984. SAGE II is a seven-channel sun-photometer measuring stratospheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide during each spacecraft sunrise and sunset. In addition to stratospheric information, mid-tropospheric and higher water vapor, ozone, and aerosol data are being produced in cloud-free regions, and cloud data everywhere else. Aerosol information is being produced at three wavelengths and, together with water vapor data, is providing a global microphysical description of the aerosol.

  9. Multiwell experiment: reservoir modeling analysis, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, A.I.

    1985-05-01

    This report updates an ongoing analysis by reservoir modelers at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of well test data from the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Results of previous efforts were presented in a recent METC Technical Note (Horton 1985). Results included in this report pertain to the poststimulation well tests of Zones 3 and 4 of the Paludal Sandstone Interval and the prestimulation well tests of the Red and Yellow Zones of the Coastal Sandstone Interval. The following results were obtained by using a reservoir model and history matching procedures: (1) Post-minifracture analysis indicated that the minifracture stimulation of the Paludal Interval did not produce an induced fracture, and extreme formation damage did occur, since a 65% permeability reduction around the wellbore was estimated. The design for this minifracture was from 200 to 300 feet on each side of the wellbore; (2) Post full-scale stimulation analysis for the Paludal Interval also showed that extreme formation damage occurred during the stimulation as indicated by a 75% permeability reduction 20 feet on each side of the induced fracture. Also, an induced fracture half-length of 100 feet was determined to have occurred, as compared to a designed fracture half-length of 500 to 600 feet; and (3) Analysis of prestimulation well test data from the Coastal Interval agreed with previous well-to-well interference tests that showed extreme permeability anisotropy was not a factor for this zone. This lack of permeability anisotropy was also verified by a nitrogen injection test performed on the Coastal Red and Yellow Zones. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The role of research institutions in seed-related disaster relief: Seeds of Hope experiences in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Buruchara, Robin A; Sperling, Louise; Ewell, Peter; Kirkby, Roger

    2002-12-01

    The article describes the efforts of a coalition of agricultural research centres, Seeds of Hope (SOH) in the rebuilding, of Rwanda, after the genocide and war of 1994. Research involvement in emergency relief and rehabilitation was unusual at the time and SOH had to forge its unique complementary role. Focusing on crop and variety development and conservation it: provided technical advice to relief agencies on seed procurement; used its baseline ken to assess the effects of war on seed diversity and seed security; made preparations to restore specific germplasm (which, fortunately, proved unnecessary) and spent substantial effort on rebuilding human resource capacity in research as well as basic scientific facilities. The involvement of SOH highlighted the critical, yet very different, roles for research during emergency versus rehabilitation periods and demonstrated the cost effectiveness of building in a diagnostic component--before massive seed or germplasm distributions are programmed.

  11. Recent results of comparative radiobiological experiments with short and long term expositions of Arabidopsis seed embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M. W.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Kranz, A. R.; Baican, B.; Schopper, E.; Heilmann, C.; Reitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of experimental data obtained from short (SDEF) and long duration exposure flights (LDEF) recently led to results, which will contribute for the estimation of genetic risk for long and/or repeated stay of man in space. Under orbital conditions biological stress and damage are induced in test subjects by cosmic radiation, especially the high energetic, densely ionizing component of heavy ions. Plant seeds were successful model systems for a biotest in studying the physiological damages and mutagenic effects caused by ionizing radiation in particular stem cells. In this article we present an overview of our space experiments with Arabidopis thaliana seeds. We present first results of investigations on certain damage endpoints (seed germination, plant survival, mutation frequencies), caused by cosmic ionizing radiation in dry dormant plant seeds ofArabidopsis thaliana after different short term (e.g. IML-1 and D-2) and long term (e.g. EURECA and LDEF-1) space exposures. Total dose effects of heavy ions and the other components of the mixed radiation field on damage endpoints and survival after space exposure and gamma-ray pre-irradiation were obtained. A new method of total dose spectrometry by neutron activation has been applied.

  12. Mechanical response of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds under quasi-static compression: Experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning

    2017-01-06

    The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression.

  13. Using natural seeding material to generate nucleation in protein crystallization experiments.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Allan; Mac Sweeney, Aengus; Haber, Alexander

    2003-07-01

    The nucleation event in protein crystallization is a part of the process that is poorly controlled. It is generally accepted that the protein should be in the metastable phase for crystal growth, but for nucleation higher levels of saturation are needed. Formation of nuclei in bulk solvent requires interaction of protein molecules until a critical size of aggregate is created. In many crystallization experiments sufficiently high levels of saturation are not reached to allow this critical nucleation event to occur. If an environment can be created that favours a higher local concentration of macromolecules, the energy barrier for nucleation may be lowered. When seeds are introduced at lower levels of saturation in a crystallization experiment, nucleation may be facilitated and crystal growth initiated. In this study, the use of natural materials as stable seeds for nucleation has been investigated. The method makes it possible to introduce seeds into crystallization trials at any stage of the experiment using both microbatch and vapour-diffusion methods.

  14. SAGE II stratospheric density and temperature retrieval experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Lenoble, J.; Nagatani, R. M.; Chanin, M. L.; Barnes, R. A.; Schmidlin, F.; Rowland, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a stratospheric density and temperature retrieval experiment based on the solar occultation measurement of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II). The entire retrieval analysis involves two inversion steps: the vertical structure inversion, which derives the profile of local atmospheric extinction from SAGE II limb optical depth data, and the species inversion, which inverts the concentration of air molecules, aerosols, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide from the derived atmospheric extinction at five SAGE II short wavelengths (0.385, 0.448, 0.453, 0.525, and 0.600 microns). The derived density profile is then used to infer the temperature distribution, assuming that the atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium and obeys the ideal gas law. The temperature profiles retrieved from the SAGE II observations are compared with near-coincident, in both time and space, French Rayleigh lidar and NASA Wallops Flight Facility rocket datasonde soundings as well as the National Meteorological Center (NMC) data analyses. The results indicate that the mean SAGE II temperature agrees with the mean lidar measurements to within 2 C at altitudes from 30.5 to 52.5 km. The SAGE II and datasonde observations agree to within about 4 C in approximately the same altitude region.

  15. SAGE II inversion algorithm. [Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Lenoble, J.; Brogniez, C.; Pruvost, P.

    1989-01-01

    The operational Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II multichannel data inversion algorithm is described. Aerosol and ozone retrievals obtained with the algorithm are discussed. The algorithm is compared to an independently developed algorithm (Lenoble, 1989), showing that the inverted aerosol and ozone profiles from the two algorithms are similar within their respective uncertainties.

  16. Understanding the Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanorods through a Fractional Factorial Design of Experiments.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Nathan D; Harvey, Samantha; Idesis, Fred A; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-02-28

    Since the development of simple, aqueous protocols for the synthesis of anisotropic metal nanoparticles, research into many promising, valuable applications of gold nanorods has grown considerably, but a number of challenges remain, including gold-particle yield, robustness to minor impurities, and precise control of gold nanorod surface chemistry. Herein we present the results of a composite fractional factorial series of experiments designed to screen seven additional potential avenues of control and to understand the seed-mediated silver-assisted synthesis of gold nanorods. These synthesis variables are the amount of sodium borohydride used and the rate of stirring when producing seed nanoparticles, the age of and the amount of seeds added, the reaction temperature, the amounts of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid added, and the age of the reduced growth solution before seed nanoparticles are added to initiate rod formation. This statistical experimental design and analysis method, besides determining which experimental variables are important and which are not when synthesizing gold nanorods (and quantifying their effects), gives further insight into the mechanism of growth by measuring the degree to which variables interact with each other by mapping out their mechanistic connections. This work demonstrates that when forming gold nanorods by the reduction of auric ions by ascorbic acid onto seed nanoparticles, ascorbic acid determines how much gold is reduced, and the amount of seeds determine how it is divided, yet both influence the intrinsic growth rates, in both width and length, of the forming nanorods. Furthermore, this work shows that the reduction of gold proceeds via direct reduction on the surface of seeds and not through a disproportionation reaction. Further control over the length of gold nanorods can be achieved by tuning the amount of silver nitrate or the reaction temperature. This work shows that silver does not directly influence rod length or

  17. NASDA's space environment exposure experiment on ISS - first retrieval of SM/MPAC&SEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Fumikazu; Imagawa, Kichiro

    2003-09-01

    It is very important to investigate space environment effects on spacecraft materials to improve their lifetime and performance. At low-Earth-orbit altitudes, atomic oxygen is produced by the dissociation of oxygen molecules by solar ultraviolet rays, and can significantly affect spacecraft surfaces. To investigate the degradation mechanism of exposed materials and to accumulate experimental data, NASDA have conducted a space environment exposure experiment using the Russian Service Module on the ISS (the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device: SM/MPAC&SEED). The first SM/MPAC&SEED was retrieved in August 2002 after about 10 months' exposure to the space environment. Atomic oxygen, ultraviolet-rays, and radiation have induced characteristic changes to its exposed materials. Their degradation is compared to that of specimens evaluated by ground simulation test facilities.

  18. Dynamics of trace metals during the subarctic Pacific iron experiment for ecosystem dynamics study (SEEDS2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugasa, Masatoshi; Ishita, Tsunemi; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Okamura, Kei; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    During the first iron-enrichment experiment in the northwest subarctic Pacific (SEEDS2001), the dynamics of dissolved and acid dissolvable trace metals were studied. Seawater samples were collected from the upper water column (5-70 m) of In- and Out-patch stations. Immediately after the collection, an aliquot of seawater for dissolved species was filtered through an 0.2 μm filter and acidified to pH 2.2. An aliquot for acid dissolvable species was acidified without filtration and stored for 3 years at an ambient temperature. Before the Fe enrichment, the dissolved Fe concentration in the surface mixed layer was <0.13 nM (the detection limit) and the acid dissolvable Fe concentration was 4.7 nM. The difference was a particulate fraction. Since the photochemical quantum efficiency of algal photosystem II was low, Fe in this fraction was not easily available to phytoplankton. After the Fe enrichment, acid dissolvable Fe in the patch decreased from 9.6 nM on day 2 to 4.6 nM on day 13, which was still ∼3 nM higher than that at the Out-patch station. Dissolved Fe was 1.4 nM on day 2 and decreased exponentially to <0.13 nM on day 11. The concentration ratio of the acid dissolvable fraction to the dissolved fraction for the other trace metals was lower than that for Fe. The acid dissolvable concentrations for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd did not show significant change during the observation. The dissolved concentrations for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in the surface layer on day 2 were 0.039, 5.0, 1.7, 2.2 and 0.27 nM, respectively. They decreased exponentially to 0.013, 4.3, 1.2, 0.87 and 0.21 nM on day 13, respectively. The mole ratio of the concentration difference between days 2 and 13 was similar to the elemental ratio reported for phytoplankton. These are the first data showing that mesoscale iron fertilization alters the dynamics of dissolved Co, Ni, Cu and Zn.

  19. Design And Performance Of The Stratospheric Aerosol And Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaun, N. H.; Mauldin, L. E.; McCormick, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance data are presented for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experi-ment II (SAGE II) instrument, which has been developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). SAGE II is designed to monitor globally the vertical distribution of strato-spheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide by measuring the extinction of solar radiation through the earth's atmosphere during the ERBS observatory solar occultations. Solar radiation is reflected from a flat scanning mirror into a Cassegrain type telescope, which forms a solar image on the entrance slit of a grating spectrometer. The SAGE II instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) is scanned along the vertical solar diameter by the elevation scan mirror. The entire optical system is contained within an azimuth gimbal which tracks the solar radiometric centroid during the data event. This spectrometer, with help from three interference filters, isolates seven spectral wavelengths ranging from 0.385 micrometers to 1.02 micrometers. All seven channels use silicon photodiode detectors oper-ated in the photovoltaic mode. Detector outputs are multiplexed into a serial data stream for readout by the ERBS telemetry system. Each output is sampled 64 times per second and digitized to 12 bit resolution. SAGE II is a third generation instrument following the highly successful SAM II and SAGE programs.

  20. Natural Experiment Demonstrates That Bird Loss Leads to Cessation of Dispersal of Native Seeds from Intact to Degraded Forests

    PubMed Central

    HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Rogers, Haldre S.

    2013-01-01

    In healthy forests, vertebrate frugivores move seeds from intact to degraded forests, aiding in the passive regeneration of degraded forests. Yet vertebrate frugivores are declining around the world, and little is known about the impact of this loss on regeneration of degraded areas. Here, we use a unique natural experiment to assess how complete vertebrate frugivore loss affects native seed rain in degraded forest. All native vertebrate frugivores (which were primarily avian frugivores) have been functionally extirpated from the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), whereas the nearby island of Saipan has a relatively intact vertebrate frugivore community. We captured seed rain along transects extending from intact into degraded forest and compared the species richness, density and condition of the seed rain from native bird-dispersed tree species between the two islands. Considering seeds from native bird-dispersed species, approximately 1.66 seeds landed per 26 days in each square meter of degraded forest on Saipan, whereas zero seeds landed per 26 days per square meter in degraded forest on Guam. Additionally, on Saipan, 69% of native bird-dispersed seeds in intact forest and 77% of seeds in degraded forest lacked fleshy fruit pulp, suggesting ingestion by birds, compared to 0% of all seeds on Guam. Our results show an absence of seed rain in degraded forests on Guam, correlated with the absence of birds, whereas on Saipan, frugivorous birds regularly disperse seeds into degraded forests, providing a mechanism for re-colonization by native plants. These results suggest that loss of frugivores will slow regeneration of degraded forests on Guam. PMID:23741503

  1. Natural experiment demonstrates that bird loss leads to cessation of dispersal of native seeds from intact to degraded forests.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Jennings, Summer B; Hillerislambers, Janneke; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Rogers, Haldre S

    2013-01-01

    In healthy forests, vertebrate frugivores move seeds from intact to degraded forests, aiding in the passive regeneration of degraded forests. Yet vertebrate frugivores are declining around the world, and little is known about the impact of this loss on regeneration of degraded areas. Here, we use a unique natural experiment to assess how complete vertebrate frugivore loss affects native seed rain in degraded forest. All native vertebrate frugivores (which were primarily avian frugivores) have been functionally extirpated from the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), whereas the nearby island of Saipan has a relatively intact vertebrate frugivore community. We captured seed rain along transects extending from intact into degraded forest and compared the species richness, density and condition of the seed rain from native bird-dispersed tree species between the two islands. Considering seeds from native bird-dispersed species, approximately 1.66 seeds landed per 26 days in each square meter of degraded forest on Saipan, whereas zero seeds landed per 26 days per square meter in degraded forest on Guam. Additionally, on Saipan, 69% of native bird-dispersed seeds in intact forest and 77% of seeds in degraded forest lacked fleshy fruit pulp, suggesting ingestion by birds, compared to 0% of all seeds on Guam. Our results show an absence of seed rain in degraded forests on Guam, correlated with the absence of birds, whereas on Saipan, frugivorous birds regularly disperse seeds into degraded forests, providing a mechanism for re-colonization by native plants. These results suggest that loss of frugivores will slow regeneration of degraded forests on Guam.

  2. Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment II (SHERE II) Microgravity Rheology with Non-Newtonian Polymeric Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Haward, Simon; Hall, Nancy Rabel; Magee, Kevin; McKinley, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of SHERE II is to study the effect of torsional preshear on the subsequent extensional behavior of filled viscoelastic suspensions. Microgravity environment eliminates gravitational sagging that makes Earth-based experiments of extensional rheology challenging. Experiments may serve as an idealized model system to study the properties of lunar regolith-polymeric binder based construction materials. Filled polymeric suspensions are ubiquitous in foods, cosmetics, detergents, biomedical materials, etc.

  3. The hydrological assessment of aerosol effects by the idealized airborne cloud seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, B.; Chae, S.; Lee, C.; Choi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The main source of aerosols over East Asia including the Korean Peninsula is the anthropogenic emission of atmospheric pollutants transported from Chinese industrial areas. For this reason, the researches of aerosol effects are very active in East Asian countries. In case of South Korea, aircraft measurement campaigns and airborne cloud seeding experiments for the meteorological and environmental research have been conducted over the local area of Korean Peninsula since the year of 2010. This project is related with the weather modification research to build up strategies for the regulation or enhancement of precipitation and snowpack for a severe drought in South Korea during a winter season. For this study, the aerosol effect on precipitation by the airborne cloud seeding was simulated using WRF-CHEM model with RADM2/MADE,SORGAM modules. Emission data of 10000μg/(m2s) of unspeciated primary PM2.5 were input at 0.5km altitude for aerosol scenario cases which is the height of airborne cloud seeding experiment. For the control run, the original WRF model with no chemistry/aerosol modules was used. Also, the hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, USDA/ARS) is incorporated to evaluate this aerosol effects hydrologically for the enhancement of precipitation or snowfall from the results of WRF-CHEM model. The target area is the Andong dam basin (1,584 km2) which is known as one of the important water resources in southern part of South Korea. The date was chosen based on the conditions of airborne cloud seeding experiment (RH>50%, Low Temp.<-3°C, Wind Speeds<5m/s, etc). During the 24 forecasting hour, the aerosol scenario case showed more amounts of accumulated precipitation (about 12%) than those of control run. According to the analysis of SWAT, the enhancement of precipitation in aerosol scenario cases of WRF-CHEM model could influence the increase of about 1.0×106m3 water resources when we assumed the 10% of effective area over the Andong dam

  4. Hail in Southwestern France. II: Results of a 30-Year Hail Prevention Project with Silver Iodide Seeding from the Ground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessens, Jean

    1986-01-01

    A nonrandomized weather modification project, hail prevention by seeding from the ground, has been run since 1952 in a large area of southwestern France. From the beginning of the experiment, the parameter proposed to measure the seeding efficiency in the area covered by AgI ground generators was the loss-to-risk ratio derived from insurance data. The analysis of the trend of this parameter in three parts of France which constitute a target, a buffer and a control area, brings to light a relative decrease of the damage during the last years in the protected area. A new statistical test for detecting a shift in precipitation series, applied after a log-transformation to the loss-to-risk ratio series, indicates a decrease significant at the 0.01 level in the damage due to hail during the period 1965-1982 in the protected area, while no significant change has been observed in the buffer area. Since there has been a large increase in the number of generators, and, above all, the setting up of better equipment since 1965, seeding is a reasonable explanation for the hail decrease.A double-ratio calculation with the target and control data gives a value of 41% for the decrease of the damage in the seeded area. Within this area, the global result is strengthened by the positive departmental correlation between the number of seeding stations per unit area and the hail decrease. The benefit-to-cost ratio of the project appears to be about 24.The hypothesis of a seeding effect leads to the following main physical implications: 1) The seeding effect is only perceptible in the area where the generators are distributed and not downwind of this area; this is in keeping with the observation that the ice-forming nucleus concentration is only locally increased over the seeded area. 2) At least 65% of the hail situations in southwestern France are related to cold fronts; the decrease of the hail damage corroborates the results of the Argentinian hail suppression project where a

  5. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment.

    PubMed

    Spector, Aaron D; Põld, Jan H; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-12-12

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  6. An overview of Southeast Florida Outfall Experiment II

    SciTech Connect

    Fergen, R.E.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    The Southeast Florida Ocean Outfall Experiment II (SEFLOE II, 1991--1994) project is the result of a cooperative effort of several government agencies and the Hazen and Sawyer, P.C. The project was designed to satisfy biomonitoring concerns and provide site specific information to allow the USEPA Regional Administrator to evaluate if four open ocean outfalls located off the Southeast Florida coast were contributing to unreasonable degradation of the local marine environment. During the field studies of the project, tremendous efforts were made to collect physical, chemical, and biological data. These data were analyzed to characterize outfall plumes and associated environmental conditions. This overview provides a summary to the SEFLOE II project.

  7. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Põld, Jan H.; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-12-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  8. Influence of a stationary magnetic field on water relations in lettuce seeds. Part II: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Reina, F G; Pascual, L A; Fundora, I A

    2001-12-01

    An experimental study on water absorption by lettuce seeds previously treated in a stationary magnetic field of 0-10 mT is presented. A significant increase in the rate with which the seeds absorb water is observed in the interval 0-10 mT of magnetic treatment. An increment in the total mass of absorbed water in this interval is also observed. These results are consistent with the reports on the increase of germination rate of the seeds, and the theoretical calculation of the variations induced by magnetic fields in the ionic currents across the cellular membrane. The fields originate in changes in the ionic concentration and thus in the osmotic pressure which regulates the entrance of water to the seeds. The good correlation between the theoretical approach and experimental results provides strong evidence that the magnetic field alters the water relations in seeds, and this effect may be the explanation of the reported alterations in germination rate of seeds by the magnetic field.

  9. Radioactive Seed Localization Compared to Wire Localization in Breast-Conserving Surgery: Initial 6-Month Experience

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James O.; Moo, Tracy-Ann; King, Tari A.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.; Villegas, Kristine A.; Stempel, Michelle; Eaton, Anne; St. Germain, Jean M.; Morris, Elizabeth; Morrow, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Wire localization (WL) of non-palpable breast cancers on the day of surgery is uncomfortable for patients and impacts OR efficiency. Radioactive seed localization (RSL) before the day of surgery avoids these disadvantages. In this study we compare outcomes of our initial 6-month experience with RSL to those with WL in the preceding 6 months. Methods Lumpectomies for invasive or intraductal cancers localized with a single 125iodine seed (January-June 2012) were compared to those using 1 wire (July-December 2011). Surgeons and radiologists did not change. Positive and close margins were defined as tumor on ink and tumor ≤1mm from ink, respectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between RSL and WL patients. Results There were 431 RSL and 256 WL lumpectomies performed. Clinicopathologic characteristics did not differ between groups. Most seeds (90%) were placed before the day of surgery. Positive margins were present in 7.7% of RSL versus 5.5% of WL patients, and 16.9% of RSL versus 19.9% of WL had close margins (p=0.38). The median operative time was longer for lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the RSL group (55 versus 48 minutes, p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the volume of tissue excised between groups. Conclusions In the first 6 months of RSL, operative scheduling was simplified, while rates of positive and close margins were similar to those seen after many years of experience with WL. Operative time was slightly longer for RSL lumpectomy and SLNB; we anticipate this will decrease with experience. PMID:23943024

  10. Prospects of charmonium studies in the Belle-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhlova, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    TheBelle-II experiment at the SuperKEKB super-B factorywill begin data acquisition in 2016, the expected integrated luminosity being 50 ab{sup -1}. A statistical data sample of record volume 50 times as large as that of the statistical data sample accumulated earlier at the Belle detector will make it possible to measure precisely the parameters of new exotic states discovered recently at B factories and to clarify the origin of these states.

  11. Pegasus II experiments and plans for the Atlas pulsed power facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, J.S.; Adams, P.J.; Atchison, W.L.

    1997-09-01

    Atlas will be a high-energy (36 MJ stored), high-power ({approximately} 10 TW) pulsed power driver for high energy-density experiments, with an emphasis on hydrodynamics. Scheduled for completion in late 1999, Atlas is designed to produce currents in the 40-50 MA range with a quarter-cycle time of 4-5 {mu}s. It will drive implosions of heavy liners (typically 50 g) with implosion velocities exceeding 20 mm/{mu}s. Under these conditions very high pressures and magnetic fields are produced. Shock pressures in the 50 Mbar range and pressures exceeding 10 Mbar in an adiabatic compression will be possible. By performing flux compression of a seed field, axial magnetic fields in the 2000 T range may be achieved. A variety of concepts have been identified for the first experimental campaigns on Atlas. These experiments include Rayleigh-Taylor instability studies, convergent (e.g., Bell-Plesset type) instability studies, material strength experiments at very high strain and strain rate, hydrodynamic flows in 3-dimensional geometries, equation of state measurements along the hugoniot and adiabats, transport and shock propagation in dense strongly-coupled plasmas, and atomic and condensed matter studies employing ultra-high magnetic fields. Experimental configurations, associated physics issues, and diagnostic strategies are all under investigation as the design of the Atlas facility proceeds. Near-term proof-of-principle experiments employing the smaller Pegasus II capacitor bank have been identified, and several of these experiments have not been performed. This paper discusses a number of recent Pegasus II experiments and identifies several areas of research presently planned on Atlas.

  12. The sequence of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II is a useful marker for inferring seed plant phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Jennifer; Drouin, Guy

    2004-05-01

    We used RT-PCR to sequence approximately 3 kb of the gene coding for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb1) from nine land plants. Our results show that plant rpb1 genes all have a similar GC-content and that their amino acid sequences evolve at a similar rate in most species we examined, except for the Arabidopsis thaliana and rice sequences which evolve faster. This gene also exists as a single copy in most species and contains enough phylogenetically informative sites to resolve the evolutionary relationships among seed plants. Protein maximum parsimony, as well as neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses of DNA and protein sequences, all generated identical tree topologies with similar strong support values at each node. The angiosperms are a clade comprising Amborella as a sister group to all other angiosperms, followed by Nymphaea, Magnolia, Arabidopsis, and a monocot clade containing maize and rice. The gymnosperms also form a monophyletic clade with Welwitschia and pine grouped together and sister to a Cycas and Zamia clade. These findings concur with recent studies that refute the Anthophyte Hypothesis and place Amborella at the base of the angiosperm tree. These rpb1 sequences also give a more consistent picture of seed plant relationships than similar analyses performed on data sets made of 18S rDNA, atpB, and rbcL sequences from the same species. These sequences therefore show great promise to help further resolve the phylogenetic relationships of seed plants.

  13. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  14. Superoxide radical production and performance index of Photosystem II in leaves from magnetoprimed soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Baby, Shine Madukakkuzhyil; Narayanaswamy, Guruprasad Kadur; Anand, Anjali

    2011-11-01

    Priming of soybean seeds with static magnetic field exposure of 200 mT (1 h) and 150 mT (1 h) resulted in plants with enhanced performance index (PI). The three components of PI i.e the density of reaction centers in the chlorophyll bed (RC/ABS), exciton trapped per photon absorbed (φpo) and efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move in electron transport chain (Ψo) were found to be 17%, 27% and 16% higher, respectively in leaves from 200 mT (1h) treated compared to untreated seeds. EPR spectrum of O2.--PBN adduct revealed that the O2.-radical level was lower by 16% in the leaves of plants that emerged from magnetic field treatment. Our study revealed that magnetoprimed seeds have a long lasting stimulatory effect on plants as reduced superoxide production and higher performance index contributed to higher efficiency of light harvesting that consequently increased biomass in plants that emerged from magnetoprimed seeds.

  15. Database usage and performance for the Fermilab Run II experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bonham, D.; Box, D.; Gallas, E.; Guo, Y.; Jetton, R.; Kovich, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Kumar, A.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Stanfield, N.; Trumbo, J.; Vittone-Wiersma, M.; White, S.P.; Wicklund, E.; Yasuda, T.; Maksimovic, P.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-12-01

    The Run II experiments at Fermilab, CDF and D0, have extensive database needs covering many areas of their online and offline operations. Delivering data to users and processing farms worldwide has represented major challenges to both experiments. The range of applications employing databases includes, calibration (conditions), trigger information, run configuration, run quality, luminosity, data management, and others. Oracle is the primary database product being used for these applications at Fermilab and some of its advanced features have been employed, such as table partitioning and replication. There is also experience with open source database products such as MySQL for secondary databases used, for example, in monitoring. Tools employed for monitoring the operation and diagnosing problems are also described.

  16. Design of the new METAS watt balance experiment Mark II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Eichenberger, A.; Cosandier, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Clavel, R.; Reber, D.; Tommasini, D.

    2013-06-01

    The kilogram is the last unit of the international system of units (SI) still based on a material artefact, the international prototype of the kilogram (IPK). The comparisons made in the last hundred years have clearly revealed a long-term relative drift between the IPK and the official copies kept under similar conditions at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. A promising route towards a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant is represented by the watt balance experiment which links the mass unit to the Planck constant h. For more than ten years, the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS has been actively working in the conception and development of a watt balance experiment. This paper describes the new design of the Mark II METAS watt balance. The metrological characteristics of the different components of the experiment are described and discussed.

  17. Dark matter search results from the CDMS II experiment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Z; Akerib, D S; Arrenberg, S; Bailey, C N; Balakishiyeva, D; Baudis, L; Bauer, D A; Brink, P L; Bruch, T; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cooley, J; Cushman, P; Daal, M; DeJongh, F; Dragowsky, M R; Duong, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Filippini, J; Fritts, M; Golwala, S R; Grant, D R; Hall, J; Hennings-Yeomans, R; Hertel, S A; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Kamaev, O; Kiveni, M; Kos, M; Leman, S W; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moore, D; Nelson, H; Ogburn, R W; Phipps, A; Pyle, M; Qiu, X; Ramberg, E; Rau, W; Reisetter, A; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schnee, R W; Seitz, D N; Serfass, B; Sundqvist, K M; Tarka, M; Wikus, P; Yellin, S; Yoo, J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2010-03-26

    Astrophysical observations indicate that dark matter constitutes most of the mass in our universe, but its nature remains unknown. Over the past decade, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment has provided world-leading sensitivity for the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. The final exposure of our low-temperature germanium particle detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory yielded two candidate events, with an expected background of 0.9 +/- 0.2 events. This is not statistically significant evidence for a WIMP signal. The combined CDMS II data place the strongest constraints on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross section for a wide range of WIMP masses and exclude new parameter space in inelastic dark matter models.

  18. Results on QCD Physics from the CDF-II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2006-12-01

    In this paper the authors review a selection of recent results obtained, in the area of QCD physics, from the CDF-II experiment that studies p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV provided by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. All results shown correspond to analysis performed using the Tevatron Run II data samples. In particular they will illustrate the progress achieved and the status of the studies on the following QCD processes: jet inclusive production, using different jet clustering algorithm, W({yields} e{nu}{sub e}) + jets and Z({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, {gamma} + b-jet production, dijet production in double pomeron exchange and finally exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} production. No deviations from the Standard Model have been observed so far.

  19. Plasma flow switch experiments on Pegasus-II

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, J.S.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Pegasus-II, a 4.3 MJ capacitor bank facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, has a current rise time of 5 {mu}s and requires the use of a fast ({approx} 500 ns) opening switch with long conduction time for some applications. Development of plasma flow opening switches (PFS), based on the design of the Shiva Star experiments, has been conducted during the last year. The PFS for these experiments consisted of two components: an annular aluminum conductor bridging the gap between the coaxial conductors in the Pegasus-II power-flow channel and an annular mylar foil located 6.3 mm downstream of the aluminum. The authors have investigated assemblies with 1/r{sup 2} mass distributions, designed to produce planar motion down the power flow channel. The total mass of the PFS assembly has been varied as has the construction of the aluminum component. The downstream load in the load slot was either a high inductance, 1-cm radius non-imploding pipe or a cylindrical, 12.7-mg pure aluminum imploding foil with 5-cm radius. Experiments have been conducted both with and without a trap region in the downstream inner conductor; the trap is one mechanism for preventing PFS material from entering the load slot.

  20. The PICASSO Dark Matter Experiment - Getting Ready for Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Carsten B.; Picasso Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    PICASSO is a dark matter search experiment that uses the superheated droplet technique to find spin-dependently interacting WIMPs. A set of 1 l detectors with a total active mass of 19.4 g was used to prove the validity of the technique. The data from this run disfavors WIMP-proton cross sections larger than 1.3 pb for a WIMP mass of 29 GeV. Currently phase II of PICASSO is getting started. It will consist of 32 4.5 l detectors with a projected active mass of 2.5 kg and improved detectors.

  1. Dark matter searches with the CDMS II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Saab, T.; Collaboration: CDMS Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    The CDMS II experiment ran between 2003 and 2009. A total of 30 germanium and silicon ZIP detectors were operated, producing a high quality set of data that has been analyzed for evidence of and placed leading constraints on standard, low-mass, electron-recoil, and annually modulating WIMP interactions. This article will describe the general operation principles behind the CDMS detectors, report on the results of major Ge and Si detector analyses, and describe the current and future activities of the SuperCDMS program.

  2. The high temperature superconductivity space experiment (HTSSE-II) design

    SciTech Connect

    Kawecki, T.G.; Golba, G.A.; Price, G.E.; Rose, V.S.; Meyers, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    The high temperature superconductivity space experiment (HTSSE) program, initiated by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in 1988, is described. The HTSSE program focuses high temperature superconductor (HTS) technology applications on space systems. The program phases, goals, and objectives are discussed. The devices developed for the HTSSE-II phase of the program and their suppliers are enumerated. Eight space-qualified components were integrated as a cryogenic experimental payload on DOD`s ARGOS spacecraft. The payload was designed and built using a unique NRL/industry partnership and was integrated and space-qualified at NRL.

  3. A new cylindrical drift chamber for the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A. M.; Baracchini, E.; Berretta, L.; Bianucci, S.; Cavoto, G.; Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Cei, F.; Corvaglia, A.; Dussoni, S.; Fahrni, D.; Galli, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grassi, M.; Hofer, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Ignatov, F.; Miccoli, A.; Nicolò, D.; Orsini, A.; Panareo, M.; Pepino, A.; Pinto, C.; Piredda, G.; Signorelli, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Recchia, L.; Renga, F.; Ripiccini, E.; Tassielli, G.; Tazzioli, A.; Tenchini, F.; Venturini, M.; Voena, C.; Zullo, A.

    2016-07-01

    A new cylindrical drift chamber is currently under construction for the MEG II experiment. The chamber is meant to track low momentum positrons from μ+ decays to search for μ+ →e+ γ events. The detector is segmented in very small drift cells, placed in stereo configuration and operated in a helium-isobutane gas mixture. The use of thin aluminium wires and light gas mixture set the total radiation length of the chamber to only 1.6 ×10-3X0 per track turn allowing for a momentum resolution of 120 keV/c.

  4. Design and performance of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaun, N. H.; Mauldin, L. E., III; Mccormick, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    Design and performance data are analyzed for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument, which has been developed for the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). SAGE II is designed to monitor globally, from 70 degrees S to 70 degrees N latitude, the vertical distribution of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide by measuring the extinction of solar radiation through the earth's atmosphere during the ERBS observatory solar occultations. A flat scanning mirror reflects solar radiation into a Cassegrain type telescope, which forms a solar image on the entrance slit of a grating spectrometer. The instantaneous-field-of-view of the SAGE II is scanned along the vertical solar diameter by the elevation scan mirror. The optical system is contained within an azimuth gimbal which tracks the solar radiometric centroid during the data event, while the spectrometer isolates seven spectral wavelengths from 0.385-1.02 micrometers. The seven channels of the spectrometer use silicon photodiode dedectors operated in the photovoltaic mode. The detector outputs are multiplexed into a serial data stream for readout by the ERBS telemetry system, with each output being sampled 64 times per second and digitized to 12 bit resolution.

  5. Online Data Reduction for the Belle II Experiment using DATCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernlochner, Florian; Deschamps, Bruno; Dingfelder, Jochen; Marinas, Carlos; Wessel, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The new Belle II experiment at the asymmetric e+e-accelerator SuperKEKB at KEK in Japan is designed to deliver a peak luminosity of 8 × 1035cm-2s-1. To perform high-precision track reconstruction, e.g. for measurements of time-dependent CP-violating decays and secondary vertices, the Belle II detector is equipped with a highly segmented pixel detector (PXD). The high instantaneous luminosity and short bunch crossing times result in a large stream of data in the PXD, which needs to be significantly reduced for offline storage. The data reduction is performed using an FPGA-based Data Acquisition Tracking and Concentrator Online Node (DATCON), which uses information from the Belle II silicon strip vertex detector (SVD) surrounding the PXD to carry out online track reconstruction, extrapolation to the PXD, and Region of Interest (ROI) determination on the PXD. The data stream is reduced by a factor of ten with an ROI finding efficiency of >90% for PXD hits inside the ROI down to 50MeV in pT of the stable particles. We will present the current status of the implementation of the track reconstruction using Hough transformations, and the results obtained for simulated ϒ(4S) → BB¯ events.

  6. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  7. Plasma flow switch and foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.R.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-07-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos AGEX (Above Ground EXperiments) program. A goal of the program is to produce an intense (> 100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the kinetic energy of a 1 to 10 MJ plasma implosion. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several 10`s of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. The radiating plasma source will be generated by the thermalization of the kinetic energy of an imploding cylindrical, thin, metallic foil. This paper addresses experiments done on a capacitor bank to develop a switch (plasma flow switch) to switch the bank current into the load at peak current. This allows efficient coupling of bank energy into foil kinetic energy.

  8. Direct drive foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.F.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Hockaday, M.Y.P.; Hockaday, R.G.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-05-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos Above Ground Experiments (AGEX) program. The goal of the program is to produce an intense (>100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the KE of a 1 to 10 MJ collapsing plasma source. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several tens of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. This paper addresses z-pinch experiments done on a capacitor bank where the radiating plasma source is formed by an imploding annular aluminum foil driven by the J {times} B forces generated by the current flowing through the foil.

  9. Plasma flow switch and foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.R.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos AGEX (Above Ground EXperiments) program. A goal of the program is to produce an intense (> 100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the kinetic energy of a 1 to 10 MJ plasma implosion. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several 10's of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. The radiating plasma source will be generated by the thermalization of the kinetic energy of an imploding cylindrical, thin, metallic foil. This paper addresses experiments done on a capacitor bank to develop a switch (plasma flow switch) to switch the bank current into the load at peak current. This allows efficient coupling of bank energy into foil kinetic energy.

  10. Greenhouse (III): Gas-Exchange and Seed-to-Seed Experiments on the Russian Space Station MIR and Earth-grown, Ethylene-Treated Wheat Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Bingham, Gail; Carman, John; Bubenheim, David; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor B.; Chernova, Lola; Nefodova, Yelena

    2001-01-01

    The Mir Space Station provided an outstanding opportunity to study long-term plant responses when exposed to a microgravity environment. Furthermore, if plants can be grown to maturity in a microgravity environment, they might be used in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). The primary objective of the Greenhouse experiment onboard Mir was to grow Super Dwarf and Apogee wheat through complete life cycles in microgravity; i.e., from seed-to-seed-to-seed. Additional objectives were to study chemical, biochemical, and structural changes in plant tissues as well as photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration (evaporation of water from plants). Another major objective was to evaluate the suitability clothe facilities on Mir for advanced research with plants. The Greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Russian/Bulgarian plant growth chamber, the Svet, to which the United States added instrumentation systems to monitor changes in CO2 and water vapor caused by the plants (with four infrared gas analyzers monitoring air entering and leaving two small plastic chambers). In addition, the US instrumentation also monitored O2; air, leaf (IR), cabin pressure; photon flux; and substrate temperature and substrate moisture (16 probes in the root module). Facility modifications were first performed during the summer of 1995 during Mir 19, which began after STS-72 left Mir. Plant development was monitored by daily observations and some photographs.

  11. Hypothetical explanations of the negative apparent effects of cloud seeding in the whitetop experiment.

    PubMed

    Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

    1971-11-01

    In order to explain the apparent losses of rain ascribable to seeding at the Whitetop trial, particularly large and highly significant in the stratum E (but not in the opposite stratum W) of experimental days, it has been hypothesized that seeding causes widespread cloudiness and subsequent lowering of ground temperatures. This hypothesis is flatly contradicted by the observations: the seeded E-days (but not W-days) were uniformly less cloudy and hotter than those without seeding. Curiously, these differences prevailed not only from the scheduled time of seeding but also for several hours beforehand. The average rainfall for the 10 hr that preceded the time of seeding was investigated in eight "cells", defined by the day's wind direction to be downwind, upwind, and to the sides and "far" and "near" the center of seeding. Highly significant decreases were found in the far-upwind and far-left cells, indicating an earlymorning disparity between those E-days that later were declared as experimental to be seeded and those E-days that were declared as experimental not to be seeded. This disparity, difficult to explain by chance variation, suggests that particular caution be used in treating differences in the rainfall between seeded and not-seeded days in the Whitetop trial as having been caused by seeding.

  12. Hypothetical Explanations of the Negative Apparent Effects of Cloud Seeding in the Whitetop Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Lovasich, J. L.; Neyman, J.; Scott, E. L.; Wells, M. A.

    1971-01-01

    In order to explain the apparent losses of rain ascribable to seeding at the Whitetop trial, particularly large and highly significant in the stratum E (but not in the opposite stratum W) of experimental days, it has been hypothesized that seeding causes widespread cloudiness and subsequent lowering of ground temperatures. This hypothesis is flatly contradicted by the observations: the seeded E-days (but not W-days) were uniformly less cloudy and hotter than those without seeding. Curiously, these differences prevailed not only from the scheduled time of seeding but also for several hours beforehand. The average rainfall for the 10 hr that preceded the time of seeding was investigated in eight “cells”, defined by the day's wind direction to be downwind, upwind, and to the sides and “far” and “near” the center of seeding. Highly significant decreases were found in the far-upwind and far-left cells, indicating an earlymorning disparity between those E-days that later were declared as experimental to be seeded and those E-days that were declared as experimental not to be seeded. This disparity, difficult to explain by chance variation, suggests that particular caution be used in treating differences in the rainfall between seeded and not-seeded days in the Whitetop trial as having been caused by seeding. PMID:16591951

  13. Onboard Photo: Astronauts Use Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) onboard photo of Pilot Stephen S. Oswald (wearing a headset) uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) while sitting at the pilot's station on the forward flight deck. Oswald smiled from behind the microphone as he talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of Oswald. The anterna located in the forward flight deck window is visible in the background. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques.

  14. Onboard Photo: Astronauts Use Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) onboard photo of Pilot Stephen S. Oswald (wearing a headset) uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) while sitting at the pilot's station on the forward flight deck. Oswald smiled from behind the microphone as he talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of Oswald. The anterna located in the forward flight deck window is visible in the background. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques.

  15. High-redshift formation and evolution of central massive objects - II. The census of BH seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devecchi, B.; Volonteri, M.; Rossi, E. M.; Colpi, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present results of simulations aimed at tracing the formation of nuclear star clusters (NCs) and black hole (BH) seeds in the framework of the current Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmogony. These BH seeds are considered to be progenitors of the supermassive BHs that inhabit today's galaxies. We focus on two mechanisms for the formation of BHs at high redshifts: as end-products of (1) Population III stars in metal-free haloes, and (2) runaway stellar collisions in metal-poor NCs. Our model tracks the chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback of stars on the baryonic component of the evolving haloes. This procedure allows us to evaluate when and where the conditions for BH formation are met, and to trace the emergence of BH seeds arising from the dynamical channel, in a cosmological context. BHs start to appear already at redshift ˜30 as remnants of Population III stars. The efficiency of this mechanism begins decreasing once feedbacks become increasingly important. Around redshift z˜ 15, BHs mostly form in the centre of mildly metal-enriched haloes inside dense NCs. The seed BHs that form along the two pathways have at birth a mass of around 100-1000 M⊙. The occupation fraction of BHs is a function of both halo mass and mass growth rate: at a given redshift, heavier and faster growing haloes have a higher chance to form a native BH, or to acquire an inherited BH via merging of another system. With decreasing z, the probability of finding a BH shifts towards progressively higher mass halo intervals. This is due to the fact that, at later cosmic times, low-mass systems rarely form a seed, and already formed BHs are deposited into larger mass systems due to hierarchical mergers. Our model predicts that at z= 0, all haloes above 1011 M⊙ should host a BH (in agreement with observational results), most probably inherited during their lifetime. Haloes less massive than 109 M⊙ have a higher probability to host a native BH, but their occupation fraction decreases

  16. TRIGA Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    2000-12-15

    The experimental results of criticality benchmark experiments performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor are presented. The experiments were performed with partly burned fuel in two compact and uniform core configurations in the same arrangements as were used in the fresh fuel criticality benchmark experiment performed in 1991. In the experiments, both core configurations contained only 12 wt% U-ZrH fuel with 20% enriched uranium. The first experimental core contained 43 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.22 MWd or 2.8% {sup 235}U burned. The last experimental core configuration was composed of 48 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.15 MWd or 2.6% {sup 235}U burned. The experimental determination of k{sub eff} for both core configurations, one subcritical and one critical, are presented. Burnup for all fuel elements was calculated in two-dimensional four-group diffusion approximation using the TRIGLAV code. The burnup of several fuel elements was measured also by the reactivity method.

  17. Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) (P0004-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.; Ehrlich, Nelson J.

    1992-01-01

    SEEDS, a cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company, resulted in the distribution of approximately 132,000 SEEDS kits to 3.3 million students. Kits contained Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), as well as seeds that had been stored in a climate controlled warehouse for the same time period. Preliminary data indicates the germination rate for space exposed seeds was 73.8 percent while Earth based seeds germinated at a rate of 70.3 percent. Tests conducted within the first six months after retrieval indicated space exposed seeds germinated in an average of 8.0 days, while Earth based seeds' average germination time was 8.3 days. Some mutations (assumed to be radiation induced) include plants that added a leaf instead of the usual flower at the end of the flower frond. Also, fruit produced from a flower with a variegated calyx bore seeds producing albino plants, while fruit from a flower with a green calyx from the same plant bore seeds producing green plants.

  18. Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) (P0004-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.; Ehrlich, Nelson J.

    1992-01-01

    SEEDS, a cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company, resulted in the distribution of approximately 132,000 SEEDS kits to 3.3 million students. Kits contained Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), as well as seeds that had been stored in a climate controlled warehouse for the same time period. Preliminary data indicates the germination rate for space exposed seeds was 73.8 percent while Earth based seeds germinated at a rate of 70.3 percent. Tests conducted within the first six months after retrieval indicated space exposed seeds germinated in an average of 8.0 days, while Earth based seeds' average germination time was 8.3 days. Some mutations (assumed to be radiation induced) include plants that added a leaf instead of the usual flower at the end of the flower frond. Also, fruit produced from a flower with a variegated calyx bore seeds producing albino plants, while fruit from a flower with a green calyx from the same plant bore seeds producing green plants.

  19. A numerical study of winter orographic seeding experiments in Korea using the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Yum, Seong Soo; Park, Young-San

    2016-02-01

    Ice nucleation processes by silver iodide were parameterized and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting model to perform winter orographic cloud seeding experiment in an eastern mountainous region of the Korean Peninsula. Cloud seeding at a mountain site resulted in production of ice crystals, mostly by deposition and condensation freezing nucleation of seeding material and depletion of water drops by ice crystals themselves and by snow and graupel particles grown from these ice crystals but importantly precipitation increased over the target area to the west of the seeding site. Sensitivity test showed that increasing the release rate of seeding material led to enhanced precipitation. Interestingly, dominant ice crystal nucleation mode was different for different aerosol concentrations: deposition and condensation freezing nucleation were dominantly responsible for ice crystal formation for maritime aerosol type (i.e., low concentration) while the dominant mode was contact freezing nucleation for continental aerosol type (i.e., high concentration). When seeding material was released at a low-altitude site (i.e., upslope of mountain), it was not successfully transported upward to the target area but instead dispersed along the direction of the mountain ridges by the barrier jets.

  20. STATUS OF THE NEUTRALIZED DRIFT COMPRESSION EXPERIMENT (NDCX-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Kwan, J.W.

    2011-04-21

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) is an 11 M$ induction accelerator project currently in construction at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for warm dense matter (WDM) experiments investigating the interaction of ion beams with matter at elevated temperature and pressure. The machine consists of a lithium injector, induction accelerator cells, diagnostic cells, a neutralized drift compression line, a final focus solenoid, and a target chamber. The induction cells and some of the pulsed power systems have been reused from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory after refurbishment and modification. The machine relies on a sequence of acceleration waveforms to longitudinally compress the initial ion pulse from 600 ns to less than 1 ns in {approx} 12 m. Radial confinement of the beam is achieved with 2.5 T pulsed solenoids. In the initial hardware configuration, 50 nC of Li{sup +} will be accelerated to 1.25 MeV and allowed to drift-compress to a peak current of {approx}40 A. The project started in the summer of 2009. Construction of the accelerator will be completed in the fall of 2011 and will provide a worldwide unique opportunity for ion-driven warm dense matter experiments as well as research related to novel beam manipulations for heavy ion fusion drivers.

  1. Experiments on Electron Cloud Mitigation at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; Pivi, Mauro T.F.; /SLAC

    2011-11-22

    The electron cloud effect has been observed at many accelerator facilities. It has been the subject of many workshops and reviews. An electron cloud is formed when low energy photoelectrons released from the vacuum chamber surfaces and ionized residual gas molecules, driven by the beam fields of passing positively charged bunches, impinge on the chamber walls and create secondary emission. It is an important issue for many currently operating facilities and the damping rings of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) because beam-cloud interaction can severely impact the machines performance. Systematic studies on the electron cloud effect, and its possible remedies, have been carried out in many laboratories. At SLAC, the effort has been concentrated on theoretical understanding with the aid of computer simulations, and experimental measurements with high intensity positron beams at PEP-II. Computer simulation results have been presented at ECLOUD07 and in an earlier article in this journal. In this article, we present recent results from electron cloud experiments at the positron storage ring of PEP-II. In particular, we discuss the performance of various mitigation techniques.

  2. Results from the Final Exposure of the CDMS II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Z.; Akerib, D.S.; Arrenberg, S.; Bailey, C.N.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, D.A.; Brink, P.L.; Bruch, T.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara

    2009-12-01

    We report results from a blind analysis of the final data taken with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment (CDMS II) at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. A total raw exposure of 612 kg-days was analyzed for this work. We observed two events in the signal region; based on our background estimate, the probability of observing two or more background events is 23%. These data set an upper limit on the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP)-nucleon elastic-scattering spin-independent cross-section of 7.0 x 10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for a WIMP of mass 70 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 90% confidence level. Combining this result with all previous CDMS II data gives an upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross-section of 3.8 x 10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for a WIMP of mass 70 GeV/c{sup 2}. We also exclude new parameter space in recently proposed inelastic dark matter models.

  3. The role of induced entrainment in past stratiform cloud seeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcek, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    In the late 1940s, probably the most effective and visually-obvious cloud seeding demonstrations showed that supercooled stratiform clouds could be cleared by seeding with dry ice, dropped from aircraft flying above a cloud deck. Numerous well-documents photos show areas 1-2 miles wide cleared along a flight track. The accepted mechanism of cloud clearing assumed that dry ice induced ice formation in the supercooled liquid cloud, followed by growth of ice at the expense of water, with the larger ice particles ultimately falling as snow. The mechanism was amplified by dynamic feedbacks induced by latent heat release (warming) as liquid water froze, thus propagating the dynamic and freezing/precipitation cycle laterally away from the flight track. Here we show that probably a more important effect is the entrainment and EVAPORATION of cloud water induced by turbulent mixing in the aircraft wake. Under many conditions, evaporation induced by turbulence can generate mixtures of air that are COLDER than the cloudy air or the air above the cloud, thus initiating unstable DOWNWARD (negatively-buoyant) motions, which will self-propagate laterally away from a turbulent flight track. We present here the range of environmental conditions where entrainment/evaporation would be most likely to occur in terms of the temperature difference between cloudy air and air just above cloud top, and the relative humidity of air above cloud top at different temperatures and altitudes in the atmosphere. It is suggested here that past cloud seeding experiments had little to do with glaciation, and more likely resulted from induced entrainment followed by evaporation and downward motions of negatively buoyant air resulting from cloud-top entrainment instability. Buoyancy and condensed water content of mixtures of cloudy air and cloud-free air immediately above cloud top vs. the mixing proportions. A supercooled cloud containing 0.1 g/kg liquid water at 600 mb, -20 degrees C is mixed with air

  4. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.; Belle SVD Collaboration, II

    2016-07-01

    The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.

  5. Commercial Seed Selection and Effectiveness of Sanitization Methods in Preparation for Plant Growth Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Emma

    2017-01-01

    A closed-loop food production system will be important to gain autonomy on long duration space missions. Crop growth experiments in the Veggie plant chamber aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are helping to identify methods and limitations of food production in space. Prior to flight, seeds are surface sterilized to reduce environmental and crew contamination risks.

  6. Boron-bridged RG-II and calcium are required to maintain the pectin network of the Arabidopsis seed mucilage ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Chuan; Wang, Juan; Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhou, Gong-Ke; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Kong, Ying-Zhen

    2017-06-01

    The structure of a pectin network requires both calcium (Ca(2+)) and boron (B). Ca(2+) is involved in crosslinking pectic polysaccharides and arbitrarily induces the formation of an "egg-box" structure among pectin molecules, while B crosslinks rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) side chain A apiosyl residues in primary cell walls to generate a borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (dRG-II-B) complex through a boron-bridge bond, leading to the formation of a pectin network. Based on recent studies of dRG-II-B structures, a hypothesis has been proposed suggesting that Ca(2+)is a common component of the dRG-II-B complex. However, no in vivo evidence has addressed whether B affects the stability of Ca(2+) crosslinks. Here, we investigated the L-fucose-deficient dwarf mutant mur1, which was previously shown to require exogenous B treatment for phenotypic reversion. Imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds release hydrated polysaccharides to form a halo of seed mucilage covering the seed surface, which consists of a water-soluble outer layer and an adherent inner layer. Our study of mur1 seed mucilage has revealed that the pectin in the outer layer of mucilage was relocated to the inner layer. Nevertheless, the mur1 inner mucilage was more vulnerable to rough shaking or ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction than that of the wild type. Immunolabeling analysis suggested that dRG-II-B was severely decreased in mur1 inner mucilage. Moreover, non-methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG) exhibited obvious reassembly in the mur1 inner layer compared with the wild type, which may imply a possible connection between dRG-II-B deficiency and pectin network transformation in the seed mucilage. As expected, the concentration of B in the mur1 inner mucilage was reduced, whereas the distribution and concentration of Ca(2+)in the inner mucilage increased significantly, which could be the reason why pectin relocates from the outer mucilage to the inner mucilage. Consequently, the

  7. WIND DIRECTIONS ALOFT AND EFFECTS OF SEEDING ON PRECIPITATION IN THE WHITETOP EXPERIMENT*

    PubMed Central

    Lovasich, Jeanne L.; Neyman, Jerzy; Scott, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Jerome A.

    1969-01-01

    The subdivision of all the experimental days of the Whitetop project into two approximately equal groups, group W with predominantly westerly winds aloft and group E with frequent easterly winds, shows a remarkable difference in the apparent effect of seeding. On W days there was no detectable effect of seeding on rainfall. On E days with seeding, the average 24 hour precipitation in an area of about 100,000 square miles was significantly less than that without seeding by 46 per cent of the latter. The decrease resulted from a “decapitation” of the usual afternoon rise in rainfall. It may be significant that the afternoon maximum of natural precipitation on E days occurs some two hours later than on W days. If the actual cause of the differences in rainfall was seeding, then the loss of water resulting from operational, rather than experimental, seeding would have averaged eight million acre-feet per summer. PMID:16591800

  8. SAMGrid experiences with the Condor technology in Run II computing

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Loebel-Carpenter, L.; Garzoglio, G.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.; Merritt, W.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; Veseli, S.; White, S.; St. Denis, R.; Jain, S.; Nishandar, A.; /Texas U., Arlington

    2004-12-01

    SAMGrid is a globally distributed system for data handling and job management, developed at Fermilab for the D0 and CDF experiments in Run II. The Condor system is being developed at the University of Wisconsin for management of distributed resources, computational and otherwise. We briefly review the SAMGrid architecture and its interaction with Condor, which was presented earlier. We then present our experiences using the system in production, which have two distinct aspects. At the global level, we deployed Condor-G, the Grid-extended Condor, for the resource brokering and global scheduling of our jobs. At the heart of the system is Condor's Matchmaking Service. As a more recent work at the computing element level, we have been benefiting from the large computing cluster at the University of Wisconsin campus. The architecture of the computing facility and the philosophy of Condor's resource management have prompted us to improve the application infrastructure for D0 and CDF, in aspects such as parting with the shared file system or reliance on resources being dedicated. As a result, we have increased productivity and made our applications more portable and Grid-ready. Our fruitful collaboration with the Condor team has been made possible by the Particle Physics Data Grid.

  9. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; S. L. Hayes; M. K. Meyer; H. Tsai

    2008-06-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR-II as part of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data, and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few minor actinide-bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MA’s. Of primary interest are the affect of the MA’s on fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995-1996, and currently represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior.

  10. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Carmack; M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes; H. Tsai

    2008-01-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR II as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few MA bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide, and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MAs. Of primary interest are the effect of the MAs on fuel cladding chemical interaction and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995–1996 and, currently, represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior. This report provides a summary of the X501 fabrication, characterization, irradiation, and post irradiation examination.

  11. Convoy active safety technologies war fighter experiment II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenherr, Edward W.

    2009-01-01

    The operational ability to project and sustain forces in distant, anti-access and area denial environments poses new challenges for combatant commanders. One of the new challenges is the ability to conduct sustainment operations at operationally feasible times and places on the battlefield. Combatant commanders require a sustainment system that is agile, versatile, and survivable throughout the range of military operations and across the spectrum of conflict. A key component of conducting responsive, operationally feasible sustainment operations is the ability to conduct sustainment convoys. Sustainment convoys are critical to providing combatant commanders the right support, at the right time and place, and in the right quantities, across the full range of military operations. The ability to conduct sustainment convoys in a variety of hostile environments require force protection measures that address the enemy threat and protect the Soldier. One cost effective, technically feasible method of increasing the force protection for sustainment convoys is the use of robotic follower technology and autonomous navigation. The Convoy Active Safety Technologies (CAST) system is a driver assist, convoy autopilot technology aimed to address these issues. The CAST Warfigher Experiment II, being held at The Nevada Automotive Test Center in the fall of 2008, will continue analysis of the utility of this vehicle following technology not only in measures of system integrity and performance vs. manual driving, but also the physiological effects on the operators themselves. This paper will detail this experiment's methodology and analysis. Results will be presented at the SPIE Electronic Imaging 2009 symposium.

  12. STELLA-II: Staged Monoenergetic Laser Acceleration - Experiment Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, W. D.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Campbell, L. C.; Cline, D. B.; Dilley, C. E.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pantell, R. H.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Quimby, D. C.; Skaritka, J.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhou, F.

    2002-12-01

    The goal of STELLA-II is to demonstrate staged monoenergetic laser acceleration of microbunches using an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) buncher and IFEL accelerator. A key feature of this experiment is the usage of a single high-intensity laser beam to simultaneously drive both the buncher and accelerator. A chicane between the buncher and accelerator causes microbunches to form at the entrance to the accelerator. All hardware has been installed at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory, including a new laser beam transport system to permit delivering higher laser power. Preliminary test results indicate that modulation and acceleration of the microbunches are occurring with the new system. Energy gains >13% have been observed. Current experiments are being conducted with the ATF CO2 laser operating at a pulse length of ˜180 ps. In late autumn 2002, the ATF CO2 laser will be upgraded to produce pulse lengths of <10 ps at approximately the same output pulse energy. This higher peak power will enable higher acceleration and more complete trapping of the laser-generated microbunches in the accelerator. This higher acceleration and trapping will also result in a clean separation of the accelerated microbunch electrons from the unaccelerated ones while at the same time maintaining a narrow energy spread.

  13. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references.

  14. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  15. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    PubMed

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  16. Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing altered peptide ligands of type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Mana; Wakasa, Yuhya; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Hirota, Tomoya; Kondo, Yuya; Matsumoto, Isao; Takaiwa, Fumio; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with the recognition of self proteins secluded in arthritic joints. We previously reported that altered peptide ligands (APLs) of type II collagen (CII256-271) suppress the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In this study, we generated transgenic rice expressing CII256-271 and APL6 contained in fusion proteins with the rice storage protein glutelin in the seed endosperm. These transgene products successfully and stably accumulated at high levels (7-24 mg/g seeds) in protein storage vacuoles (PB-II) of mature seeds. We examined the efficacy of these transgenic rice seeds by performing oral administration of the seeds to CIA model mice that had been immunized with CII. Treatment with APL6 transgenic rice for 14 days significantly inhibited the development of arthritis (based on clinical score) and delayed disease onset during the early phase of arthritis. These effects were mediated by the induction of IL-10 from CD4(+ ) CD25(-) T cells against CII antigen in splenocytes and inguinal lymph nodes (iLNs), and treatment of APL had no effect on the production of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-2 or Foxp3(+) Treg cells. These findings suggest that abnormal immune suppressive mechanisms are involved in the therapeutic effect of rice-based oral vaccine expressing high levels of APLs of type II collagen on the autoimmune disease CIA, suggesting that the seed-based mucosal vaccine against CIA functions via a unique mechanism.

  17. Tolerance and Acceptance Results of a Palladium-103 Permanent Breast Seed Implant Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe Rakovitch, Eileen; Keller, Brian M.; Sankreacha, Raxa; Chartier, Carole

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To test, in a prospective Phase I/II trial, a partial breast irradiation technique using a {sup 103}Pd permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) realized in a single 1-h procedure under sedation and local freezing. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had infiltrating ductal carcinoma {<=}3 cm in diameter, surgical margin {>=}2 mm, no extensive intraductal component, no lymphovascular invasion, and negative lymph nodes. Patients received a permanent seed implant, and a minimal peripheral dose of 90 Gy was prescribed to the clinical target volume, with a margin of 1.5 cm. Results: From May 2004 to April 2007, 67 patients received the PBSI treatment. The procedure was well tolerated, with 17% of patients having significant pain after the procedure. Only 1 patient (1.5%) had an acute skin reaction (Grade 3 according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria). The rates of acute moist desquamation, erythema, and indurations were 10.4%, 42%, and 27%, respectively. At 1 year the rate of Grade 1 telangiectasia was 14%. The rate of skin reaction decreased from 65% to 28% when skin received less than the 85% isodose. According to a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group questionnaire, 80-90% of patients were very satisfied with their treatment, and the remainder were satisfied. One patient (1.5%) developed an abscess, which resolved after the use of antibiotics. There was no recurrence after a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 11-49 months). Conclusions: The feasibility, safety, and tolerability of PBSI compares favorably with that of external beam and other partial breast irradiation techniques.

  18. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  19. The full stereo drift chamber for the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarello, G.

    2017-03-01

    The MEG experiment, at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich in Switzerland, aims at searching for the charged-lepton-flavor-violating decay μ+arrow e+γ, prohibited in the Standard Model but allowed, at a measurable level, in many of its extensions. MEG has already determined the world best upper limit on the branching ratio: BR(μ+arrow e+γ)<4.2×10‑13 at 90% CL with the full data set collected in the years 2009–2013. A further improvement of the MEG single event sensitivity requires a substantial upgrade of the detector performances and, in particular, the complete replacement of the positron tracker. The MEG upgrade experiment (MEG II) is currently under construction and it is conceived in order to further improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude in three years of data taking. The new positron tracker is a high transparency single volume, full stereo cylindrical Drift Chamber, immersed in a non uniform longitudinal B-field, co-axial to the muon beam line. Due to the high wire density (12 wires/cm2), the use of the traditional feed-through technique as wire anchoring system could hardly be implemented and therefore it was necessary to develop new wiring strategies. The number of wires and the stringent requirements on the precision of their position and on the uniformity of the wire mechanical tension impose the use of an automatic system to operate the wiring procedures. The drift chamber is currently under construction at INFN Lecce and Pisa, and should be completed by the summer 2017 to be then delivered to PSI for commissioning. The upgraded detector, the new drift chamber and its construction technique, will be described.

  20. A high resolution Timing Counter for the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Biasotti, M.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Pizzigoni, G.; Rossella, M.; Shibata, N.; Siccardi, F.; Simonetta, M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-07-01

    The development of a Timing Counter detector designed for the MEGII upgrade of the MEG experiment, which strives to improve the sensitivity on the μ+ →e+ γ decay of an order of magnitude, is presented. It is based on two sets of counters (sectors) arranged on a semi-cylindrical structure; each sector consists of 256 counters. Each counter consists of tile of fast scintillator with a dual-side read-out based on SiPM arrays in series connection. The high granularity has two advantages: optimized size for achieving high resolution (75 ps) for the single counter, and a signal e+ crosses several counters, so that resolution improves by averaging multiple time measurements. A prototype has been built and tested both in BTF and PSI facilities in order to prove the multi-hit scheme in MEG-like beam conditions. A 35 ps resolution with eight hits has been obtained with a e+ beam at 100 kHz. The first sector will be tested in the MEG II pre-engineering run planned at the end of 2015.

  1. Antidiabetic II drug metformin in plants: uptake and translocation to edible parts of cereals, oily seeds, beans, tomato, squash, carrots, and potatoes.

    PubMed

    Eggen, Trine; Lillo, Cathrine

    2012-07-18

    Residues of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater and sewage sludge are of concern due to their transfer to aquatic and terrestrial food chains and possible adverse effects on nontargeted organisms. In the present work, uptake and translocation of metformin, an antidiabetic II medicine, by edible plant species cultivated in agricultural soil have been investigated in greenhouse experiment. Metformin demonstrated a high uptake and translocation to oily seeds of rape ( Brassica napus cv. Sheik and Brassica rapa cv. Valo); expressed as an average bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant concentration over initial concentration in soil, both in dry weight), BCF values as high as 21.72 were measured. In comparison, BCFs for grains of the cereals wheat, barley, and oat were in the range of 0.29-1.35. Uptake and translocation to fruits and vegetables of tomato (BCFs 0.02-0.06), squash (BCFs 0.12-0.18), and bean (BCF 0.88) were also low compared to rape. BCFs for carrot, potato, and leaf forage B. napus cv. Sola were similar (BCF 1-4). Guanylurea, a known degradation product of metformin by microorganisms in activated sludge, was found in barley grains, bean pods, potato peel, and small potatoes. The mechanisms for transport of metformin and guanidine in plants are still unknown, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) in mammals are known to actively transport such compounds and may guide the way for further understanding of mechanisms also in plants.

  2. Downwind and upwind effects in the Arizona cloud-seeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

    1973-02-01

    The principal subject of this report is a comparison of precipitation on days with seeding with that without seeding, averaged over those rain gauges that on each particular day were "downwind," "upwind," or to the sides. Two estimates of relevant wind directions are used, based on successive radiosondes at Tucson that bracketed the scheduled time of seeding. By use of these radiosondes, the apparent effects of seeding on rain in downwind localities 90-180 miles (145-290 km) away from target were found to be an apparent 45% loss of rain (P = 0.002) and an apparent 34% loss of rain (P = 0.028), respectively. Other results indicate considerable geographic heterogeneity.

  3. Downwind and Upwind Effects in the Arizona Cloud-Seeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Neyman, Jerzy; Scott, Elizabeth L.; Wells, Marcella A.

    1973-01-01

    The principal subject of this report is a comparison of precipitation on days with seeding with that without seeding, averaged over those rain gauges that on each particular day were “downwind,” “upwind,” or to the sides. Two estimates of relevant wind directions are used, based on successive radiosondes at Tucson that bracketed the scheduled time of seeding. By use of these radiosondes, the apparent effects of seeding on rain in downwind localities 90-180 miles (145-290 km) away from target were found to be an apparent 45% loss of rain (P = 0.002) and an apparent 34% loss of rain (P = 0.028), respectively. Other results indicate considerable geographic heterogeneity. PMID:16592056

  4. Arabidopsis seed production limited by CO2 in simulated space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    Several generations of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown axenically from seed to seed on nutrient agar medium. The Arabidopsis plants produce seeds within 30 days after seeding, when grown either in containers open to the ambient atmosphere or in large sealed jars, but not in sealed test tubes. Moreover, the plant height was directly proportional to the size of the sealed container. Periodic analyses of the CO2 levels in the sealed containers has shown a decrease during the first week, but a tenfold increase in the following weeks. It is speculated that, by the end of the second week, the cotyledons entering the senescence stage would release ethylene into the culture atmosphere with a concomitant release of CO2, which in turn would induce further release of ethylene, hastening the senescence process in other tissues. Thus, in a controlled ecological life-support system of a space station, various components of the plant atmosphere may have to be maintained within the prescribed limits.

  5. Experiments with He II at Reynolds Number 107

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuzier, Silvie

    2000-11-01

    We report the first measurements of pressure drop and heat transport in He II at Reynolds numbers exceeding 10^7 in a 10 mm ID tube. Pressure drop measurements confirm the previously reported(P.L. Walstrom, J.G. Weisend II, J.R. Maddocks, and S.W. Van Sciver, Turbulent Flow Pressure Drop in Various He II Transfer System Components , Cryogenics 28, 101 (1988).) classical form for the friction factor. These are compared to the von Karman-Nikuradse correlation developed for classical fluids. Frictional heating due to Joule Thomson expansion is also observed and compared with analysis. Steady state and transient heat transport measurements further confirm the applicability of the He II energy equation for forced flow He II processes. We will also describe the experimental apparatus used to perform the measurements.

  6. Neighborhoods have little effect on fungal attack or insect predation of developing seeds in a grassland biodiversity experiment.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G; Dybzinski, Ray; Tilman, G David

    2014-02-01

    Numerous observational studies have documented conspecific negative density-dependence that is consistent with the Janzen-Connell Hypothesis (JCH) of diversity maintenance. However, there have been few experimental tests of a central prediction of the JCH: that removing host-specific enemies should lead to greater increases in per capita recruitment in areas of higher host density or lower relative phylogenetic diversity. Using spatially randomized plots of high and low host biomass in a temperate grassland biodiversity experiment, we treated developing seedheads of six prairie perennials to factorial applications of fungicide and insecticide. We measured predispersal seed production, seed viability, and seedling biomass. Results were highly species-specific and idiosyncratic. Effects of insect seed predators and fungal pathogens on predispersal responses varied with neither conspecific biomass nor phylogenetic diversity, suggesting that-at least at the predispersal stage and for the insect and fungal seed predators we were able to exclude-the JCH is not sufficient to contribute to negative conspecific density-dependence for these dominant prairie species.

  7. Fine specificities of two lectins from Cymbosema roseum seeds: a lectin specific for high-mannose oligosaccharides and a lectin specific for blood group H type II trisaccharide.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tarun K; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Rocha, Bruno Am; Benevides, Raquel G; Nascimento, Kyria S; de Sousa, Luiz Ag; Oscarson, Stefan; Brewer, C Fred

    2011-07-01

    The legume species of Cymbosema roseum of Diocleinae subtribe produce at least two different seed lectins. The present study demonstrates that C. roseum lectin I (CRL I) binds with high affinity to the "core" trimannoside of N-linked oligosaccharides. Cymbosema roseum lectin II (CRL II), on the other hand, binds with high affinity to the blood group H trisaccharide (Fucα1,2Galα1-4GlcNAc-). Thermodynamic and hemagglutination inhibition studies reveal the fine binding specificities of the two lectins. Data obtained with a complete set of monodeoxy analogs of the core trimannoside indicate that CRL I recognizes the 3-, 4- and 6-hydroxyl groups of the α(1,6) Man residue, the 3- and 4-hydroxyl group of the α(1,3) Man residue and the 2- and 4-hydroxyl groups of the central Man residue of the trimannoside. CRL I possesses enhanced affinities for the Man5 oligomannose glycan and a biantennary complex glycan as well as glycoproteins containing high-mannose glycans. On the other hand, CRL II distinguishes the blood group H type II epitope from the Lewis(x), Lewis(y), Lewis(a) and Lewis(b) epitopes. CRL II also distinguishes between blood group H type II and type I trisaccharides. CRL I and CRL II, respectively, possess differences in fine specificities when compared with other reported mannose and fucose recognizing lectins. This is the first report of a mannose-specific lectin (CRL I) and a blood group H type II-specific lectin (CRL II) from seeds of a member of the Diocleinae subtribe.

  8. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-09-22

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets.

  9. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    ice perticles formed by LC seeding grew to the precipitable size and resultant snowfall was detected by radar in approximately 120 min. after seeding operation. In this study, based on these observed facts, optimum design for enhancing winter-time water resources by LC seeding method was suggested. Successive low-level horizontal penetrations of operational aircraft with seeding LC into many moving super-cooled cumuli towards the Japan Islands will lead to the spreading of cloud volume and subsequent coversion of large amount of iv active cloud volume into newly exploited artificial precipitation. As a result, these experiments succeeded, and the total amount of estimated radar precipitation of the be able to secure a large amount of water resource from these experiment results.

  10. Growth and productivity of different Pleurotus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N-NH4+ and/or Mn(II).

    PubMed

    Curvetto, N R; Figlas, D; Devalis, R; Delmastro, S

    2002-09-01

    The mycelial growth rates in lineal growth assay, yield, and production rate of five Pleurotus ostreatus strains were evaluated in response to different levels of Mn(II) and/or NH4+ in a substrate containing sunflower seed hulls as a main energy and nutritional component. Each strain showed different basal values for mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency on sunflower seed-hull substrate. Adding growth limiting mineral nutrients increased the mycelial growth rate by 13-25%. Primordia initiation for the first flush appeared between day 24 and 28 and days to the second crop ranged from 39 to 51. Biological efficiency increased over control values and reached 60-112%, depending on the strain and the concentration of Mn(II) and NH4+. This study demonstrated the advantage of selecting the most productive P. ostreatus strains in a substrate formulated with sunflower seed hulls to provide the main energy and nutritional ingredients and supplemented with Mn(II) and/or NH4+.

  11. Postdispersal removal and germination of seed dispersed by Cercopithecus nictitans in a West African Montane Forest.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Hazel M; Goldson, Stephen L; Beck, Josie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that determine the effectiveness of primates as seed dispersers include (i) the microsite into which they deposit seed, (ii) secondary removal of seed by other taxa and (iii) the effect of gut passage and/or spitting on subsequent seed germination. This contribution evaluated these factors in the little studied putty-nosed monkey, Cercopithecus nictitans, in a Nigerian montane forest. Field experiments showed that C. nictitans has greatly increased in its importance as a disperser of medium-sized seed (>5 mm) because other large primates have been hunted to near extinction. C. nictitans disperses seed across habitats by spitting and defaecation. Rates of secondary seed removal were high for all seed species irrespective of the presence or absence of C. nictitans faecal matter, size or microsite variables. Gut passage enhanced germination relative to hand-cleaned seed, while spitting had either no effect or decreased the germination rate. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nitric oxide reduces seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Paul C; Libourel, Igor G L; Jones, Russell L

    2006-01-01

    Dormancy is a property of many mature seeds, and experimentation over the past century has identified numerous chemical treatments that will reduce seed dormancy. Nitrogen-containing compounds including nitrate, nitrite, and cyanide break seed dormancy in a range of species. Experiments are described here that were carried out to further our understanding of the mechanism whereby these and other compounds, such as the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bring about a reduction in seed dormancy of Arabidopsis thaliana. A simple method was devised for applying the products of SNP photolysis through the gas phase. Using this approach it was shown that SNP, as well as potassium ferricyanide (Fe(III)CN) and potassium ferrocyanide (Fe(II)CN), reduced dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds by generating cyanide (CN). The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) on dormant seeds were tested and it was confirmed that cyanide vapours were sufficient to break Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Nitrate and nitrite also reduced Arabidopsis seed dormancy and resulted in substantial rates of germination. The effects of CN, nitrite, and nitrate on dormancy were prevented by the NO scavenger c-PTIO. It was confirmed that NO plays a role in reducing seed dormancy by using purified NO gas, and a model to explain how nitrogen-containing compounds may break dormancy in Arabidopsis is presented.

  13. The Ultraviolet Spectro-Coronagraph (UVSC) Pathfinder Experiment for the Remote Detection of Suprathermal Seed Particles: Instrument Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Leonard; Laming, J. Martin; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tun Beltran, Samuel; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Brown, Charles M.; Socker, Dennis G.; Galysh, Ivan J.; Finne, Theodore T.; Eisenhower, Kevin C.; Brechbiel, David J.; Noya, Mario; Provornikova, Elena; Gardner, Larry D.

    2017-08-01

    The largest solar energetic particle (SEP) storms are produced by fast coronal mass ejection (CME) shocks. Efficient shock acceleration of ambient particles requires a near sun reservoir of suprathermal (proton) seed particles. However, the requisite seed particle reservoir has not been detected near the sun where CME shocks first appear. We are developing the Ultraviolet Spectro-Coronagraph (UVSC) Pathfinder space experiment to test for the presence or absence of the requisite suprathermal proton seed particle population within 3 solar radii of sun-center. In this poster, we present the instrument design concept, its development status, and the expected experimental results. The ultimate goal for the experiment is to demonstrate how such measurements can be used as a part of a future SEP space weather warning system. UVSC Pathfinder is scheduled to be launched in 2019 by the DoD Space Test Program. It is supported by funds from the Chief of Naval Research (via the NRL basic research program) and from NASA (via NDPR NNG13WF951 and NNH16AC29I).

  14. The response of the virus community to the SEEDS II mesoscale iron fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Julie L.; Kudo, Isao; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2009-12-01

    Although the important role of viruses in marine biogeochemical cycles has been established in recent years, virus activity (including changes in this activity) has been largely ignored during mesoscale iron (Fe)-fertilization experiments relative to other processes. This is of particular interest as viruses have been shown to be critical to the transformation of Fe from the particulate (i.e., biological) to the dissolved pools. The goal of the present study was to evaluate changes in the virus-mediated lysis of heterotrophic bacterial cells following a shift in ecosystem trophic status brought about by a mesoscale Fe addition in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Virus production rates, estimated by a reduction and reoccurrence assay, were coupled with transmission electron microscopy estimates of burst size and direct counts of virus and bacterial abundance. Fe fertilization of the upper mixed layer resulted in significant yet weak increases in virus production rates during the 12 days of observation immediately after fertilization, although the burst size (viruses produced per lytic event) and the percentage of visibly infected cells remained constant. The results imply that increases in virus production rates were most likely tied to a decreased lytic cycle length or the stimulation of lysogenized cells following the stimulation of primary and secondary productivity by the addition of Fe. The results also indicate that virus-induced cell-lysis regenerated an estimated nearly 200 pmol L -1 Fe daily, providing a significant return of Fe back to the water column, which may be critical in the maintenance of this added Fe as resident.

  15. Responses of DMS in the seawater and atmosphere to iron enrichment in the subarctic western North Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Hashimoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Koji; Toda, Shuji; Narita, Yasushi; Tsuda, Atsushi; Saito, Hiroaki; Kudo, Isao; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Simultaneous measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the seawater and atmosphere were conducted during SEEDS-II to investigate the responses of DMS to iron (Fe) fertilization in the subarctic North Pacific. No significant increases in the seawater DMS (DMSw) concentration were observed inside the fertilized patch compared to those outside the patch, while particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp) concentration inside the patch increased 2-fold compared to those outside the patch in the phytoplankton bloom of major DMSP producers such as prasinophytes, cryptophytes, diatoms and prymnesiophytes. In the decline phase of the bloom, maximum DMSw was observed both inside the patch (ca. 6.2 nM) and outside the patch (ca. 9.3 nM). In this period, increases in mesozooplankton and decreases in the DMSP producers (prymnesiophytes and diatoms) were observed both sides of the patch, but larger inside the patch than outside the patch. Large decreases in the DMSPp inside the patch, which was probably related to the large increases in mesozooplankton inside the patch, did not result in increases in the DMSw concentration. Considering biological and nonbiological parameters, we discussed these results, although they could not be completely explained. Unfortunately, the impact of Fe fertilization on the atmospheric DMS (DMSa) concentration was not detected due to no significant changes in DMSw. However, it is noted that DMSa concentrations were dependent on the sea-air DMS flux in the air from higher latitudes and/or the Eurasian continent, though the DMS flux was a minor role to the budget of DMSw. Therefore if DMSw were significantly changed by Fe fertilization, DMSa might be affected through changes in the sea-air flux in this condition.

  16. Entdeckung elektroschwacher Produktion einzelner Top-Quarks mit dem CDF II Experiment; Discovery electroweak production of single top quarks with the CDF II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a neural network search for combined as well as separate s- and t-channel single top-quark production with the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron using 3.2 fb-1 of collision data. It is the twelfth thesis dealing with single top-quark production performed within the CDF Collaboration, whereas three have been done in Run I [53–55] and eight in Run II [23, 25, 28, 39, 56–59].

  17. Limber pine seed and seedling planting experiment in Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada

    Treesearch

    Cyndi M. Smith; Graeme Poll; Cameron Gillies; Celina Praymak; Eileen Miranda; Justin Hill

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine plays an important role in the harsh environments in which it lives, providing numerous ecological services, especially because its large, wingless seeds serve as a high energy food source for many animals. Limber pine populations are declining due to a combination of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, drought, and fire suppression. Outplanting...

  18. Adult Education. Part II: Collection of Learning Experiences. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S., Ed.

    This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…

  19. Kinetics of successive seeding of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. I - Initiation via potassium persulfate. II - Azo initiators with and without inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudol, E. D.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Vanderhoff, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The polymerization kinetics of monodisperse polystyrene latexes with diameters of 1 micron are studied. The monodisperse latexes were prepared by the successive seeding method using 1 mM K2S2O8 with an 8 percent emulsifier surface coverage and 0.5 mM K2S2O8 with a 4 percent emulsifier surface coverage, and the kinetics were measured in a piston/cylinder dialometer. The data reveal that the polymerization rate decreases with increasing particle size; and the surface charge decreases with increasing particle size. The effects of initiators (AIBN and AMBN) and inhibitors (NH24SCN, NaNO2, and hydroquinone) on the product monodispersity and polymerization kinetics of latexes with diameters greater than 1 micron are investigated in a second experiment. It is observed that hydroquinone combined with AMBN are most effective in reducing nucleation without causing flocculation. It is noted that the kinetic transition from emulsion to bulk is complete for a particle size exceeding 1 micron in which the polymerization rate is independent of the particle size.

  20. Kinetics of successive seeding of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. I - Initiation via potassium persulfate. II - Azo initiators with and without inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudol, E. D.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Vanderhoff, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The polymerization kinetics of monodisperse polystyrene latexes with diameters of 1 micron are studied. The monodisperse latexes were prepared by the successive seeding method using 1 mM K2S2O8 with an 8 percent emulsifier surface coverage and 0.5 mM K2S2O8 with a 4 percent emulsifier surface coverage, and the kinetics were measured in a piston/cylinder dialometer. The data reveal that the polymerization rate decreases with increasing particle size; and the surface charge decreases with increasing particle size. The effects of initiators (AIBN and AMBN) and inhibitors (NH24SCN, NaNO2, and hydroquinone) on the product monodispersity and polymerization kinetics of latexes with diameters greater than 1 micron are investigated in a second experiment. It is observed that hydroquinone combined with AMBN are most effective in reducing nucleation without causing flocculation. It is noted that the kinetic transition from emulsion to bulk is complete for a particle size exceeding 1 micron in which the polymerization rate is independent of the particle size.

  1. Coastal Ocean Circulation Experiment off Senegal (COCES - II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    SST), chlorophyll concentration (<Chl>) and sea level height (SSH). Numerical model simulations are performed with ROMS and are compared to the...collaborators in Senegal, the COCES-II project has benefited from a synergy with the GDP (P.I.’s: Dr. Luca Centurioni, SIO, La Jolla, and Dr. R. Lumpkin

  2. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  3. The Electronic Structure of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Seeded Nanorods: Type-I or Quasi-Type-II?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure of CdSe/CdS core/shell seeded nanorods of experimentally relevant size is studied using a combination of molecular dynamics and semiempirical pseudopotential techniques with the aim to address the transition from type-I to a quasi-type-II band alignment. The hole is found to be localized in the core region regardless of its size. The overlap of the electron density with the core region depends markedly on the size of the CdSe core. For small cores, we observe little overlap, consistent with type-II behavior. For large cores, significant core-overlap of a number of excitonic states can lead to type-I behavior. When electron–hole interactions are taken into account, the core-overlap is further increased. Our calculations indicate that the observed transition from type-II to type-I is largely due to simple volume effects and not to band alignment. PMID:24215466

  4. The software library of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, DorisYangsoo; Belle II Software Group

    2016-04-01

    A next generation B factory and the detector counterpart, SuperKEKB and Belle II, are being built in Japan, as the upgrades of KEKB and Belle, respectively. The new collider will start its commissioning in 2015. This is an ambitious project. The luminosity of the e+ e- collider will be upgraded by a factor of 40, which will create a 50 times larger data set compared to the Belle sample. Both the background and the triggered event rates will be increased by a factor of at least 10. The Belle II software system is designed to accommodate these challenges and to run on grid, cloud, and local resources around the world. Various external software packages are employed to enhance the user interface. The software system, basf2, is structured as a framework built with dynamic module loading and the ability of parallel processing. The system is written in C++ with Python steering scripts, compatible with common Linux operating systems. A full detector simulation library is created based on Geant4. In this paper, we will explain the design of the Belle II software structure and the current status of the software development.

  5. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  6. Changes in developmental capacity of artemia cyst and chromosomal aberrations in lettuce seeds flown aboard Salyut-7 (Biobloc III experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzgodina, V.; Kovalev, E. E.; Maximova, E. N.; Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.; Clegg, J.

    This paper gives the results of investigations performed on the first container (A) of the Biobloc III experiment, flown aboard the orbital station Salyut 7 for 40 days. The space flight resulted in a decreased developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, hit or not hit by the HZE particles. No effect was observed in cysts in bulk. A synergetic effect of microgravity and gamma pre irradiation is described. The germination of in-flight lettuce seeds was decreased. The space flight resulted also in a higher percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations. Relations between biological response, TEL and location of HZE particles are discussed.

  7. Temperature-dependent kinetics of grape seed phenolic compounds extraction: experiment and model.

    PubMed

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Sovová, Helena; Planinić, Mirela; Tomas, Srećko

    2013-02-15

    The kinetics of a batch solid-liquid extraction of total phenolic compounds (PC) from milled grape seed (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Frankovka") using 50% ethanol at different extraction temperatures (25-80°C) was studied. The maximum yield of PC was 0.13 kg(GAE)/kg(db) after 200 min of extraction in agitated vessel at 80°C. A new model based on the assumptions of a first order kinetics mechanism for the solid-liquid extraction and a linear equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface was developed. The model involves the concept of broken and intact cells in order to describe two successive extraction periods: a very fast surface washing process followed by slow diffusion of phenolic compounds from grape seeds to the solvent. The proposed model is suited to fit experimental data and to simulate the extraction of phenolic compounds, which was confirmed by the correlation coefficient (r≥0.965), the root mean square error (RMSE≤0.003 kg(GAE)/kg(db)) and the mean relative deviation modulus (E≤2.149%). The temperature influenced both equilibrium partition coefficients of phenolic compounds and transport properties, which is manifested by a relatively high value of activation energy (23-24) kJ/mol and by values of effective diffusivity in seed particles.

  8. Computer Programs for Chemistry Experiments I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynard, Dale C.

    This unit of instruction includes nine laboratory experiments. All of the experiments are from the D.C. Health Revision of the Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) with one exception. Program six is the lab from the original version of the CHEMS program. Each program consists of three parts (1) the lab and computer hints, (2) the description…

  9. Computer Programs for Chemistry Experiments I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynard, Dale C.

    This unit of instruction includes nine laboratory experiments. All of the experiments are from the D.C. Health Revision of the Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS) with one exception. Program six is the lab from the original version of the CHEMS program. Each program consists of three parts (1) the lab and computer hints, (2) the description…

  10. Agricultural recovery of a formerly radioactive area: II. Systematic proteomic characterization of flax seed development in the remediated Chernobyl area.

    PubMed

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Hricová, Andrea; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2011-08-12

    Molecular characterization of crop plants grown in remediated, formerly radioactive, areas could establish a framework for future agricultural use of these areas. Recently, we have established a quantitative reference map for mature flax seed proteins (Linum usitatissimum L.) harvested from a remediated plot in Chernobyl town. Herein we describe results from our ongoing studies of this subject, and provide a proteomics-based characterization of developing flax seeds harvested from same field. A quantitative approach, based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry, yielded expression profiles for 379 2-DE spots through seed development. Despite the paucity of genomic resources for flax, the identity for 102 proteins was reliably determined. These proteins were sorted into 11 metabolic functional classes. Proteins of unknown function comprise the largest group, and displayed a pattern of decreased abundance throughout seed development. Analysis of the composite expression profiles for metabolic protein classes revealed specific expression patterns during seed development. For example, there was an overall decrease in abundance of the glycolytic enzymes during seed development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic enhancement of palmitic acid accumulation in cotton seed oil through RNAi down-regulation of ghKAS2 encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Baolong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Petrie, James; Green, Allan G; Singh, Surinder P

    2017-01-01

    Palmitic acid (C16:0) already makes up approximately 25% of the total fatty acids in the conventional cotton seed oil. However, further enhancements in palmitic acid content at the expense of the predominant unsaturated fatty acids would provide increased oxidative stability of cotton seed oil and also impart the high melting point required for making margarine, shortening and confectionary products free of trans fatty acids. Seed-specific RNAi-mediated down-regulation of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) catalysing the elongation of palmitoyl-ACP to stearoyl-ACP has succeeded in dramatically increasing the C16 fatty acid content of cotton seed oil to well beyond its natural limits, reaching up to 65% of total fatty acids. The elevated C16 levels were comprised of predominantly palmitic acid (C16:0, 51%) and to a lesser extent palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 11%) and hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2, 3%), and were stably inherited. Despite of the dramatic alteration of fatty acid composition and a slight yet significant reduction in oil content in these high-palmitic (HP) lines, seed germination remained unaffected. Regiochemical analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) showed that the increased levels of palmitic acid mainly occurred at the outer positions, while C16:1 and C16:2 were predominantly found in the sn-2 position in both TAG and phosphatidylcholine. Crossing the HP line with previously created high-oleic (HO) and high-stearic (HS) genotypes demonstrated that HP and HO traits could be achieved simultaneously; however, elevation of stearic acid was hindered in the presence of high level of palmitic acid.

  12. Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) - II Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.

    2009-10-01

    LBNL has received American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding to construct a new accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to significantly increase the energy on target, which will allow both the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) and Warm Dense Matter (WDM) research communities to explore scientific conditions that have not been available in any other device. For NDCX-II, a new induction linear accelerator (linac) will be constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). NDCX-II will produce nano-second long ion beam bunches to hit thin foil targets. The final kinetic energy of the ions arriving at the target varies according to the ion mass. For atomic mass unit of 6 or 7 (Lithium ions), useful kinetic energies range from 1.5 to 5 or more MeV. The expected beam charge in the 1 ns (or shorter) pulse is about 20 nanoCoulombs. The pulse repetition rate will be about once or twice per minute (of course, target considerations will often reduce this rate). Our approach to building the NDCX-II ion accelerator is to make use of the available induction modules and 200 kV pulsers from the retired ATA electron linac at LLNL. Reusing this hardware will maximize the ion energy on target at a minimum cost. Some modification of the cells (e.g., reduce the bore diameter and replace with higher field pulsed solenoids) are needed in order to meet the requirements of this project. The NDCX-II project will include the following tasks: (1) Physics design to determine the required ion current density at the ion source, the injector beam optics, the layout of accelerator cells along the beam line, the voltage waveforms for beam acceleration and compression, the solenoid focusing, the neutralized drift compression and the final focus on target; (2) Engineering design and fabrication of the accelerator components, pulsed power system, diagnostic system, and control and data acquisition system; (3) Conventional facilities; and (4) Installation and integration

  13. Halogen Occultation Experiment and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II observations of tropopause cirrus and aerosol during the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Steven; Randel, William; Wu, Fei; Baumgardner, Darrel; Hervig, Mark

    2003-04-01

    Averages of Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction at 121 hPa for 1993-1999 and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) aerosol extinction between 100 and 140 hPa for 1987-1999 are analyzed in the tropics (20°S-20°N). Multiple wavelength techniques for HALOE and SAGE II data are used to distinguish cirrus from aerosol observations following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. SAGE II and HALOE cirrus extinction values are 34 and 28% less, respectively, in 1993 than in 1995-1999, while aerosol extinction decreases over the same time period. SAGE II and HALOE decreases in the frequency of occurrence of cirrus in 1993 are qualitatively similar to the SAGE II decreases in the frequency of occurrence of cirrus, discussed by [1995], after the eruption of El Chichon. Tropopause temperature anomalies in 1993 most likely do not account for the decrease in cirrus observed in 1993 by both the HALOE and SAGE II experiments.

  14. Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS). II. Formamide in protostellar shocks: Evidence for gas-phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Balucani, N.; Barone, V.; Fontani, F.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Viti, S.; Feng, S.; Bachiller, R.; Bianchi, E.; Dulieu, F.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Holdship, J.; Neri, R.; Pineda, J. E.; Pon, A.; Sims, I.; Spezzano, S.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Alves, F.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Coutens, A.; Favre, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Kahane, C.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Laas, J.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Ospina, J.; Oya, Y.; Punanova, A.; Puzzarini, C.; Quenard, D.; Rimola, A.; Sakai, N.; Skouteris, D.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theulé, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.; Vazart, F.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Yamamoto, S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Modern versions of the Miller-Urey experiment claim that formamide (NH2CHO) could be the starting point for the formation of metabolic and genetic macromolecules. Intriguingly, formamide is indeed observed in regions forming solar-type stars and in external galaxies. Aims: How NH2CHO is formed has been a puzzle for decades: our goal is to contribute to the hotly debated question of whether formamide is mostly formed via gas-phase or grain surface chemistry. Methods: We used the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) interferometer to image NH2CHO towards the L1157-B1 blue-shifted shock, a well-known interstellar laboratory, to study how the components of dust mantles and cores released into the gas phase triggers the formation of formamide. Results: We report the first spatially resolved image (size 9″, 2300 AU) of formamide emission in a shocked region around a Sun-like protostar: the line profiles are blueshifted and have a FWHM ≃ 5 km s-1. A column density of NNH2CHO = 8 × 1012 cm-1 and an abundance, with respect to H-nuclei, of 4 × 10-9 are derived. We show a spatial segregation of formamide with respect to other organic species. Our observations, coupled with a chemical modelling analysis, indicate that the formamide observed in L1157-B1 is formed by a gas-phase chemical process and not on grain surfaces as previously suggested. Conclusions: The Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) interferometric observations of formamide provide direct evidence that this potentially crucial brick of life is efficiently formed in the gas phase around Sun-like protostars. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/L3

  15. The ultralight DEPFET pixel detector of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetticke, Florian

    2017-02-01

    An upgrade of the existing Japanese flavor factory (KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan) is under construction and foreseen for commissioning by the end of 2017. This new e+e- machine (SuperKEKB) will deliver an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the luminosity world record set by KEKB. To fully exploit the increased number of events and provide high precision measurements of B-meson decay vertices in such a harsh environment, the Belle detector will be upgraded to Belle II, featuring a new silicon vertex detector with two pixel layers close to the interaction point based on the DEPFET (DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor) technology. This technology combines particle detection together with in-pixel amplification by integrating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted silicon bulk. In Belle II, DEPFET sensors thinned down to 75 μm with low power consumption and low intrinsic noise will be used. The first large thin multi-chip production modules have been produced and characterization results on both large modules as well as small test systems will be presented in this contribution.

  16. Isac Sc-Linac Phase-II Helium Refrigerator Commissioning and First Operational Experience at Triumf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.; Kishi, D.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2010-04-01

    ISAC Phase-II is an upgrade of the radioactive isotope superconducting linear accelerator, SC-linac, at TRIUMF. The Phase-I section of the accelerator, medium-beta, is operational and is cooled with a 600 W helium refrigerator, commissioned in March 2005. An identical refrigerator is being used with the Phase-II segment of the accelerator; which is now under construction. The second refrigerator has been commissioned and tested with the Phase-I section of the linac and is used for Phase-II linac development, including new SC-cavity performance tests. The commissioning of the Phase-II refrigeration system and recent operational experience is presented.

  17. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  18. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Ronit

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Hence, they have a direct as well as an indirect impact on the earth's climate. Depending on their formation, one distinguishes between primary and secondary aerosols[1]. Important groups within the secondary aerosols are the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In order to improve predictions about these impacts on the earth's climate the existing models need to be optimized, because they still underestimate SOA formation[2]. Glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl, not only acts as a tracer for SOA formation but also as a direct contributor to SOA. Because glyoxal has such a high vapour pressure, it was common knowledge that it does not take part in gas-particle partitioning and therefore has no impact on direct SOA formation. However, the Henry's law constant for glyoxal is surprisingly high. This has been explained by the hydration of the aldehyde groups, which means that a species with a lower vapour pressure is produced. Therefore the distribution of glyoxal between gas- and particle phase is atmospherically relevant and the direct contribution of glyoxal to SOA can no longer be neglected. A high salt concentration present in chamber seed aerosols leads to an enhanced glyoxal uptake into the particle. This effect is called "salting-in". The salting effect depends on the composition of the seed aerosol as well as the soluble compound. For very polar compounds, like glyoxal, a "salting-in" is observed[3]. Glyoxal particle formation during a smog chamber campaign at Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI) in Switzerland was examined using different seed aerosols such as ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate. The aim of this campaign was to investigate Henry's law constants for different seed aerosols. During the campaign filter samples were taken to investigate the amount of glyoxal in the particle phase. After filter extraction, the analyte was derivatized and measured using UHPLC

  19. A comparison of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II tropospheric water vapor to radiosonde measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.; Chiou, E. W.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Oltmans, S.; Rind, D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparison beteen observations of the upper-tropospheric water vapor data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument and radiosonde observations for 1987 and radiosonde-based climatologies. Colocated SAGE II-radiosonde measurement pairs are compared individually and in a zonal mean sense. A straight comparison of monthly zonal means between SAGE II and radiosondes for 1987 and Global Atmospheric Statistics (1963-1973) indicates that the clear-sky SAGE II climatology is approximately half the level of clear/cloudy sky of both radiosonde climatologies. Annual zonal means calculated from the set of profile pairs again showed SAGE II to be significantly drier in many altitude bands.

  20. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  1. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  2. Effects of dust deposition on iron cycle in the surface Mediterranean Sea: results from a mesocosm seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Guieu, C.; Leblond, N.

    2010-04-01

    Soil dust deposition is recognized as a major source of iron to the open ocean at global and regional scales. However, the processes that control the speciation and cycle of iron in the surface ocean after dust deposition are poorly documented mainly due to the logistical difficulties to investigate in-situ, natural dust events. The development of clean mesocosms in the frame of the DUNE project (a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem) was a unique opportunity to investigate these processes at the unexplored scale of one dust deposition event. During the DUNE1 mesocosm seeding experiment, iron stocks (dissolved and particulate concentrations in the water column) and fluxes (export of particulate iron in sediment traps) were followed during 8 days after an artificial dust seeding mimicking a wet deposition of 10 g m-2. The addition of dust at the surface of the mesocosms was immediately followed by a decrease of dissolved iron [dFe] concentration in the 0-10 m water column. This decrease was likely due to dFe scavenging on settling dust particles and mineral organic aggregates. The scavenging ratio of dissolved iron on dust particles averaged 0.37 ± 0.12 nmol mg-1. Batch dissolution experiments conducted in parallel to the mesocosm experiment showed a increase (up to 600%) in dust iron dissolution capacity in dust-fertilized waters compared to control conditions. This study gives evidences of complex and unexpected effects of dust deposition on surface ocean biogeochemistry: (1) large dust deposition events may be a sink for surface ocean dissolved iron and (2) successive dust deposition events may induce different biogeochemical responses in the surface ocean.

  3. Effects of dust deposition on iron cycle in the surface Mediterranean Sea: results from a mesocosm seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Guieu, C.; Leblond, N.

    2010-11-01

    Soil dust deposition is recognized as a major source of iron to the open ocean at global and regional scales. However, the processes that control the speciation and cycle of iron in the surface ocean after dust deposition are poorly documented mainly due to the logistical difficulties to investigate in-situ, natural dust events. The development of clean mesocosms in the frame of the DUNE project (a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem) was a unique opportunity to investigate these processes at the unexplored scale of one dust deposition event. During the DUNE-1-P mesocosm seeding experiment, iron stocks (dissolved and particulate concentrations in the water column) and fluxes (export of particulate iron in sediment traps) were followed during 8 days after an artificial dust seeding mimicking a wet deposition of 10 g m-2. The addition of dust at the surface of the mesocosms was immediately followed by a decrease of dissolved iron [dFe] concentration in the 0-10 m water column. This decrease was likely due to dFe scavenging on settling dust particles and mineral organic aggregates. The scavenging ratio of dissolved iron on dust particles averaged 0.37 ± 0.12 nmol mg-1. Batch dissolution experiments conducted in parallel to the mesocosm experiment showed a increase (up to 600%) in dust iron dissolution capacity in dust-fertilized waters compared to control conditions. This study gives evidences of complex and unexpected effects of dust deposition on surface ocean biogeochemistry: (1) large dust deposition events may be a sink for surface ocean dissolved iron and (2) successive dust deposition events may induce different biogeochemical responses in the surface ocean.

  4. Psychoanalytic training experience and postgraduate professional development - Part II.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jorge; Wilkerson, Douglas; Solomon, Brenda; Perlman, Caryle; Duval, Denise; Shelby, Dennis; Witten, Molly

    2017-03-02

    This exploratory study looks at the training and postgraduate experience of the 2008-2014 graduates of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. It follows our former study of all living graduates through the year 2007 (Schneider et al., 2014). The survey developed and used in the first study, with a few additional questions added to increase our understanding of the training experience, was sent to 38 graduates with a return rate of 58%. As with the first survey, graduates were invited to assess, among other training experiences, their training analysis, classroom work, and supervision, and to tell of their post-graduation involvement in teaching, supervising, study groups and other professional endeavors. They were also asked to rate their satisfaction with themselves as psychoanalysts and with their analytic career. The questions added to the previous survey related to the graduates' theoretical orientation, the influence on their training experiences of the change in gender distribution, and of the diversity of professions now represented in the analytic training program. They were also encouraged to provide spontaneous narrative data. The data from our second survey showed important differences when compared with our first. In the first survey male respondents were in the majority; in the second, women held the majority. Of the professions represented in the training program, psychiatry was the majority in the first survey, psychology and social work held the majority in the second. Most respondents claimed an object-relation theoretical orientation. Analytic immersion continues to decrease, with most respondents having two patients at the time of graduation and one at the time of the survey.

  5. The Framed Standard Model (II) -- A First Test Against Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsou, Sheung Tsun

    Apart from the qualitative features described in Paper I (Ref. 1), the renormalization group equation derived for the rotation of the fermion mass matrices are amenable to quantitative study. The equation depends on a coupling and a fudge factor and, on integration, on 3 integration constants. Its application to data analysis, however, requires the input from experiment of the heaviest generation masses mt,mb,mτ,mυ3 all of which are known, except for mυ3. Together then with the theta-angle in the QCD action, there are in all 7 real unknown parameters. Determining these 7 parameters by fitting to the experimental values of the masses mc, mυ, me, the CKM elements |Vus|, |Vub|, and the neutrino oscillation angle sin2 θ13, one can then calculate and compare with experiment the following 12 other quantities ms, mu/md, |Vud|, |Vcs|, |Vtb|, |Vcd|, |Vcb|, |Vts|, |Vtd|, J, sin2 2θ12, sin2 2θ23, and the results all agree reasonably well with data, often to within the stringent experimental error now achieved. Counting the predictions not yet measured by experiment, this means that 17 independent parameters of the standard model are now replaced by 7 in the FSM...

  6. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  7. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  8. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  9. Elastic guided waves in plates with surface roughness. II. Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lobkis, O.I.; Chimenti, D.E.

    1997-07-01

    In this artice are reported fundamental experimental measurements on guided waves in plates with surface roughness; the experimental data are critically compared to theoretical calculations presented in Part I. All experiments, in either immersion or contact coupling mode, are modeled by the theory developed in I that exploits the phase-screen approximation. In this theory the effect of the rough surface on the received signal, on a local scale, is assumed to be restricted to the signal phase. The comparisons between experiment and predictions show good agreement in most regimes, despite the rather simplifying approximations contained in the calculation. The model is shown to fail only when the guided wave vector is close to a branch point, that is when the guided wave phase velocity approaches the compressional or shear wavespeeds of the plate. Near these values the internal partial waves comprising the guided wave strike the surfaces at grazing incidence or are evanescent, and a simple phase-screen model cannot account for this behavior. Elsewhere in the guided wave spectrum, agreement is quite good. Of practical significance is the finding that the rough-surface damping contrast can be maximized by configuring the experimental conditions to measure just below and well above the compressional critical angle. Aluminum samples, prepared by indenting or sandblasting and independently profiled to determine rms roughness, are measured in immersion and in contact transduction, the latter with wedge couplers and line sources. The influence of the roughness in immersion experiments is strongly affected by whether the upper or lower plate surface is rough, but only in the interaction zone between specular and nonspecular reflection components. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  10. Pleiades Experiments on the NIF: Phase II-C

    SciTech Connect

    Benstead, James; Morton, John; Guymer, Thomas; Garbett, Warren; Stevenson, Mark; Moore, Alastair; Kline, John; Schmidt, Derek; Perry, Ted; Lanier, Nick; Workman, Jonathan

    2015-06-08

    Pleiades was a radiation transport campaign fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) between 2011 and 2014. The primary goals of the campaign were to develop and characterise a reproducible ~350eV x-ray drive and to constrain a number of material data properties required to successfully model the propagation of radiation through two low-density foam materials. A further goal involved the development and qualification of diagnostics for future radiation transport experiments at NIF. Pleiades was a collaborative campaign involving teams from both AWE and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  11. The Seeds of Growth and the Winds of Change. Part II: Change and Stability: Classroom Life in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah; Riecken, Ted

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the anticipation of educational change in British Columbia associated with the Year 2000 document. The perspective on change involves positive and negative aspects dependent on values and beliefs embedded in the culture. The study of four teachers and their classrooms shows that the seeds of change have been planted. (KS)

  12. Seeding experiments demonstrate poor performance of the hatching test for detecting small numbers of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in feces.

    PubMed

    Borges, Dieli Souza; de Souza, Juliana Schilling; Romanzini, Juliano; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Parasitological methods for the evaluation of schistosomiasis tend to be limited when parasitic burdens are low, which is a major characteristic of low intensity transmission areas. While the hatching test (HT) method has been considered to be "very sensitive", reports of its capacity to detect low numbers of eggs remain scarce in the published literature. Our main hypothesis is that HT has limitations and cannot be recommended for diagnosing light infections or as a control of cure. Hence, this study aims to describe the performance of HT in detail, with respect to seeding experiments for egg numbers in the range of 4 to 24 eggs per gram (epg) of feces. Different numbers of eggs of Schistosoma mansoni were seeded in normal human feces. The first set of experiments evaluated the amount of feces (higher than 0.5 g prevented hatching), the proximity of the light source (50 cm was preferred), and the observation time required for the detection of miracidia (more than 3h did not add to sensitivity). HT was subsequently performed with 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 eggs in 0.5 g of feces. The final set of experiments was performed to analyze the initial filtration step, in which surgical gauze versus a 500 μm nylon mesh was compared and demonstrated losses of eggs that occurred with washing and gauze (better with nylon) sieving steps. The proposed method was found to produce 100% positivity for up to 12 epg, with a sharp decrease to 33% for 8 epg and less. In conclusion, HT is not recommended for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis in populations with light infections, considering the complexity of the procedure and its lack of effectiveness with fecal amounts higher than 0.5 g even at optimized conditions. © 2013.

  13. Continuous proteolysis with a stabilized protease. II. Continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Boudrant, J; Cheftel, C

    1976-12-01

    Batch proteolysis experiments were performed in order to choose a protein-protease system to prepare a correct hydrolysate suitable for the enrichment of soft-drinks. The system eventually studied was casein-Alcalase. Comparative batch and continuous proteolysis of casein by Alcalase showed that the reaction, which does not exactly follow first order kinetics with respect to the substrate concentration, is inhibited by the reaction products. Furthermore, experiments were done in order to determine the reaction conditions (pH8.8 in the reactor, casein concentration 5%, 40 degrees C). Determining the molecular weight of Alcalase (43,000) suggested the choice of ultrafiltration membrane PM 30. Sutdies of continuous proteolysis with the chemically stabilized enzyme retained by the ultrafiltration reactor showed that protease reuse for seven days at 40 degrees C is possible and that the growth of microorganisms is practically inhibited under these conditions. Gel chromatography showed the molecular weight.range of the peptides to be less than 2,000. Triangular taste tests showed that the threshold identification concentration of the dry hydrolysate in orange juice is about 0.65%.

  14. Phase II experiment test plan: solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, D. B.

    1980-01-23

    The Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal Energy Project being carried out by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy funding requires a Phase II test plan for its Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) located at the University of Texas at Arlington. This Phase II test plan is provided. The purpose of the research being conducted at the SERF is reviewed, and references describing Phase I work are listed.

  15. Experiments with air-dried seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L) heynh. and Crepis capillaris (L) wallr., aboard Salyut 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeeva, I. D.; Kostina, L. N.; Vaulina, E. N.

    Space flight factors resulted in the accumulation of genetic damage in embryonic meristem cells of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris in flights of different duration (49, 226, 408 and 827 days) aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. As a result, the viability of seeds and seedlings was reduced, and the sterility of plants grown from seeds exposed on Salyut 6 was increased. The effect depended upon the flight duration. The data obtained suggest an acceleration of seed aging under flight conditions.

  16. Dropping rates of elaiosome-bearing seeds during transport by ants ( Formica polyctena Foerst.): Implications for distance dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorb, Stanislav N.; Gorb, Elena V.

    1999-09-01

    In a deciduous forest, foraging ants collect elaiosome-bearing seeds and carry them to their nests. Some of the seeds reach the nest and are concentrated there. Others may be dropped by ants during transport. The dropped seeds enter the soil seed pool. However, they might be repeatedly removed by other ant individuals and carried again in the direction of the nest. Rates of seed dropping and repeated removals must be known to evaluate the effect of ant workers on dispersal distance of seeds. The rate of seed dropping is predicted to depend on size of seeds and of elaiosomes, both of which vary among plant species, and on the size of the ant workers. Mark-recapture experiments were used to evaluate dropping rates of seeds of five myrmecochorous and diplochorous plants ( Chelidonium majus L., Asarum europaeum L., Viola matutina Klok., V. mirabilis L., V. hirta L.) during their transport by the ant Formica polyctena Foerst. In the series of species A. europaeum - V. hirta - V. mirabilis - Ch. majus - V. matutina, the dropping rate increased. Small workers dropped seeds of A. europaeum more often than did large ones, while seeds of V. hirta were dropped by ants of different size classes with the same frequency. Across species, dropping rates of seeds were negatively correlated with the rate at which ants removed them from the depot. The number of seeds which reach the nests is the other important parameter of seed dispersal. This parameter depends on dropping rates: seeds with lower dropping rates have higher chances of being deposited in nests. Diplochores usually produce many small seeds, which are characterised by low removal rates and high dropping rates during transport by ants. Obligate myrmecochores produce rather few large seeds, which have high removal rates and low dropping rates. To analyse the significance of seed dropping in the dispersal distance of seeds, a computer simulation based on two factors [(i) seed number produced by a plant; (ii) dropping rate

  17. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    PubMed

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  18. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  19. Planetary entry aerothermodynamics. II - Computational analyses and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    Limitations concerning the possibility to simulate all the significant flow and thermal phenomena occurring during the entry of a space vehicle into a planetary atmosphere make it necessary to rely on computational analyses to obtain the required data for the design of the spacecraft needed for the NASA missions planned for the next two decades. 'Benchmark' computer programs concerned with complete, detailed, and accurate computational solutions of entry problems are considered along with programs representing engineering approximations for cases in which the accuracy provided by the benchmark programs is not needed. The information obtainable by computational analysis has to be supplemented by actual flight experience in order to meet the goals of the NASA entry-technology program. The individual space missions planned for the coming years are examined together with the possibilities for obtaining the data needed to satisfy the entry requirements in each case.

  20. Preliminary results of the Biobloc experiment on the Cosmos 782 flight: effects of cosmic rays on brine shrimp eggs and tobacco seeds.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, Y; Planel, H; Gregoriev, H G; Gasset, G; Benevolensky, V A; Delpoux, M; Jacquot, C; Popov, V J; Pianezzi, B; Marenny, A M

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the Biobloc experiment is to determine the biological effects of cosmic rays. Biobloc is a stack made up of biological layers and physical detectors (nuclear emulsions and plastic). Artemia eggs and tobacco seeds are used by French workers. Irradiation by cosmic heavy ions induces a late developmental inhibition of Artemia eggs. A light increase of emergence rate is observed for the non-hit eggs. The results are compared with those of previous space experiments. Investigations on tobacco seeds are in progress.

  1. The sequence and structure of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) seed lectin, a three-chain nontoxic homologue of type II RIPs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Jeyaprakash, A Arockia; Chandran, Thyageshwar; Mormann, Michael; Swamy, Musti J; Vijayan, M

    2013-08-01

    The sequence and structure of snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL), a nontoxic homologue of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), have been determined by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, respectively. As in type II RIPs, the molecule consists of a lectin chain made up of two β-trefoil domains. The catalytic chain, which is connected through a disulfide bridge to the lectin chain in type II RIPs, is cleaved into two in SGSL. However, the integrity of the three-dimensional structure of the catalytic component of the molecule is preserved. This is the first time that a three-chain RIP or RIP homologue has been observed. A thorough examination of the sequence and structure of the protein and of its interactions with the bound methyl-α-galactose indicate that the nontoxicity of SGSL results from a combination of changes in the catalytic and the carbohydrate-binding sites. Detailed analyses of the sequences of type II RIPs of known structure and their homologues with unknown structure provide valuable insights into the evolution of this class of proteins. They also indicate some variability in carbohydrate-binding sites, which appears to contribute to the different levels of toxicity exhibited by lectins from various sources.

  2. Magnetoreception in birds: II. Behavioural experiments concerning the cryptochrome cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Gehring, Dennis; Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural tests of the magnetic compass of birds and corresponding immunohistological studies on the activation of retinal cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule, showed oriented behaviour and activated Cry1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light, although the last wavelength does not allow the first step of photoreduction of cryptochrome to the semiquinone form. The tested birds had been kept under ‘white’ light before, hence we suggested that there was a supply of semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light that could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test the hypothesis in behavioural experiments, we tested robins, Erithacus rubecula, under various wavelengths (1) after 1 h pre-exposure to total darkness and (2) after 1 h pre-exposure to the same light as used in the test. The birds were oriented under blue and turquoise light, where the full cryptochrome cycle can run, but not under green light. This finding is in agreement with the hypothesis. Orientation under green light appears to be a transient phenomenon until the supply of semiquinone is depleted. PMID:25472973

  3. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. II. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-06-15

    A sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer has been constructed and tested. Coupling to gravity signals is obtained by having two superconducting proof masses modulate magnetic fields produced by persistent currents. The induced electrical currents are differenced by a passive superconducting circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device. The experimental behavior of this device has been shown to follow the theoretical model closely in both signal transfer and noise characteristics. While its intrinsic noise level is shown to be 0.07 E Hz/sup -1/2/ (1 Eequivalent10/sup -9/ sec/sup -2/), the actual performance of the gravity gradiometer on a passive platform has been limited to 0.3--0.7 E Hz/sup -1/2/ due to its coupling to the environmental noise. The detailed structure of this excess noise is understood in terms of an analytical error model of the instrument. The calibration of the gradiometer has been obtained by two independent methods: by applying a linear acceleration and a gravity signal in two different operational modes of the instrument. This device has been successfully operated as a detector in a new null experiment for the gravitational inverse-square law. In this paper we report the design, fabrication, and detailed test results of the superconducting gravity gradiometer. We also present additional theoretical analyses which predict the specific dynamic behavior of the gradiometer and of the test.

  4. Magnetic shielding of a laboratory Hall thruster. II. Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, Richard R. Goebel, Dan M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2014-01-28

    The physics of magnetic shielding in Hall thrusters were validated through laboratory experiments demonstrating essentially erosionless, high-performance operation. The magnetic field near the walls of a laboratory Hall thruster was modified to effectively eliminate wall erosion while maintaining the magnetic field topology away from the walls necessary to retain efficient operation. Plasma measurements at the walls validate our understanding of magnetic shielding as derived from the theory. The plasma potential was maintained very near the anode potential, the electron temperature was reduced by a factor of two to three, and the ion current density was reduced by at least a factor of two. Measurements of the carbon backsputter rate, wall geometry, and direct measurement of plasma properties at the wall indicate that the wall erosion rate was reduced by a factor of 1000 relative to the unshielded thruster. These changes effectively eliminate wall erosion as a life limitation in Hall thrusters, enabling a new class of deep-space missions that could not previously be attempted.

  5. Magnetoreception in birds: II. Behavioural experiments concerning the cryptochrome cycle.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Gehring, Dennis; Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Behavioural tests of the magnetic compass of birds and corresponding immunohistological studies on the activation of retinal cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule, showed oriented behaviour and activated Cry1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light, although the last wavelength does not allow the first step of photoreduction of cryptochrome to the semiquinone form. The tested birds had been kept under 'white' light before, hence we suggested that there was a supply of semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light that could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test the hypothesis in behavioural experiments, we tested robins, Erithacus rubecula, under various wavelengths (1) after 1 h pre-exposure to total darkness and (2) after 1 h pre-exposure to the same light as used in the test. The birds were oriented under blue and turquoise light, where the full cryptochrome cycle can run, but not under green light. This finding is in agreement with the hypothesis. Orientation under green light appears to be a transient phenomenon until the supply of semiquinone is depleted.

  6. A comparative study of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAM II and SAGE are two satellite experiments designed to measure stratospheric aerosol extinction using the technique of solar occultation or limb extinction. Although each sensor is mounted aboard a different satellite, there are occasions when their measurement locations are nearly coincident, thereby providing opportunities for a measurement comparison. In this paper, the aerosol extinction profiles and daily contour plots for some of these events in 1979 are reported. The comparisons shown in this paper demonstrate that SAM II and SAGE are producing similar aerosol extinction profiles within their measurement errors and that since SAM II has been previously validated, these results show the validity of the SAGE aerosol measurements.

  7. The application of time-dependent ice crystal trajectory and growth model for the evaluation of cloud seeding experiment using liquid carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Wakimizu, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.; Tomine, K.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the results of cloud seeding experiment conducted on 17th January, 2008, in western Kyushu, Japan, using simplified time-dependent ice crystal growth and trajectory cloud model, which is characterized by 1) depositional diffusion growth process only of an ice crystal, and 2) the pursuit of the growing ice crystal based on wind field and ice crystal terminal velocity. For the estimation of the ice crystal growth and trajectory, the model specifies ice supersaturation ratio that expresses the degree of competition growth among ice crystals formed by LC seeding for existing water vapor, assuming no effect of natural ice crystals. The model is based on ice crystal growth along a- and c-axes depending on air temperature and ice supersatuation, according to Chen and Lamb (1994). The cloud seeding experiment was conducted by applying homogeneous nucleation (rapid cooling of air mass and subsequent formation of many ice crystals~1013/g LC) of Liquid Carbon (LC) dioxide seeding under typical winter-type snowfall-inducing weather situation characterized by the outbreak of cold air masses from the Siberia. The result of aircraft horizontally-penetrating seeding of LC into lower layer (-2 degree C) of supercooled convective cloud with 1km thickness above the freezing level led to the formation of an artificially-induced 'isolated' radar echo (the left figures of Fig. 1) in dominant 'no-natural radar echo region'. In other words, natural biases were eliminated by the formation of the isolated radar echo. This fact provides the shortcut for evaluating the result of cloud seeding experiment. In the next, the observed cloud seeding results were evaluated by estimating the trajectory of artificially-induced growing ice crystal. The results show that the trajectory of artificial ice crystals depends on the degree of completion growth mode. Free growth brings rapid growth of an ice crystal and, therefore, the ice crystal falls into lower layers for a short time

  8. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Bailey, David; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Jung, Thomas; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; George Nurser, A. J.; Pirani, Anna; y Mélia, David Salas; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Simulation characteristics from eighteen global ocean-sea-ice coupled models are presented with a focus on the mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and other related fields in the North Atlantic. These experiments use inter-annually varying atmospheric forcing data sets for the 60-year period from 1948 to 2007 and are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The protocol for conducting such CORE-II experiments is summarized. Despite using the same atmospheric forcing, the solutions show significant differences. As most models also differ from available observations, biases in the Labrador Sea region in upper-ocean potential temperature and salinity distributions, mixed layer depths, and sea-ice cover are identified as contributors to differences in AMOC. These differences in the solutions do not suggest an obvious grouping of the models based on their ocean model lineage, their vertical coordinate representations, or surface salinity restoring strengths. Thus, the solution differences among the models are attributed primarily to use of different subgrid scale parameterizations and parameter choices as well as to differences in vertical and horizontal grid resolutions in the ocean models. Use of a wide variety of sea-ice models with diverse snow and sea-ice albedo treatments also contributes to these differences. Based on the diagnostics considered, the majority of the models appear suitable for use in studies involving the North Atlantic, but some models require dedicated development effort.

  9. Polarization Studies in Electron Cyclotron Heating Experiments on the Versator II Tokamak.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-30

    ae. Distribution/ POLARIZATION STUDIES IN ELECTRON Availability Codes CYCLOTRON HEATING EXPERIMENTS ON Avail and/or THE VERSATOR II TOKAMAK Dist...ON THE VERSATOR II TOKAMAK 08/25/80 - 08/25/81 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMMER _J206-82-011/6202 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMER(e) NRL...toroidally confined plasmas, only recently has it become possible to perform such an experiment on the hot, well confined plasmas in a tokamak . This advance

  10. Update of the trigger system of the PandaX-II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Ren, X.; Chen, X.; Ji, X.; Liu, J.; Lei, S.; Wang, M.; Xiao, M.; Xie, P.; Yan, B.; Yang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    PandaX-II experiment is a dark matter direct detection experiment using about half-ton of liquid xenon as the sensitive target. The electrical pulses detected by photomultiplier tubes from scintillation photons of xenon are recorded by waveform digitizers. The data acquisition of PandaX-II relies on a trigger system that generates common trigger signals for all waveform digitizers. Previously an analog device-based trigger system was used for the data acquisition system. In this paper we present a new FPGA-based trigger system. The design of this system and trigger algorithms are described. The performance of this system on real data is presented.

  11. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  12. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Petra; Moeller, Ralf; Rabbow, Elke; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Lammer, Helmut

    The experiment MARSTOX II was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN on FOTON. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a wellcharacterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, were investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated. In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly, and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a Mars-like spectral irradiance. After exposure in space the analysis of the samples was performed at CEA in Grenoble, D, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNA-photoproducts were analysed. The results from MARSTOX II gave new insights into the survivability of terrestrial organisms on Mars and will help to define adequate planetary protection measures for spacecrafts with exobiological experiments like Mars landers.

  13. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  14. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  15. Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II water vapor retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Chiou, E. W.; Larsen, J. C.; Thomason, L. W.; Rind, D.; Buglia, J. J.; Oltmans, S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    The operational inversion algorithm used for the retrieval of the water-vapor vertical profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation data is presented. Unlike the algorithm used for the retrieval of aerosol, O3, and NO2, the water-vapor retrieval algorithm accounts for the nonlinear relationship between the concentration versus the broad-band absorption characteristics of water vapor. Problems related to the accuracy of the computational scheme, the accuracy of the removal of other interfering species, and the expected uncertainty of the retrieved profile are examined. Results are presented on the error analysis of the SAGE II water vapor retrieval, indicating that the SAGE II instrument produced good quality water vapor data.

  16. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  17. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  18. Vanadium alloy irradiation experiment X530 in EBR-II{sup *}

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Hins, A.G.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the X530 experiment in EBR-II was to obtain early irradiation performance data, particularly the fracture properties, on the new 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti material before the scheduled reactor shutdown at the end of September 1994.

  19. Education and Experience in Engineering, The E3 Program. Volume II, Appendices to Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torda, T. Paul, Ed.

    Volume II of the Education and Experience in Engineering E3 Program is a collection of 21 appendices related to this program which provide information on funding, participants, meetings, and communications among participants. Appendix V, an E3 Handbook for students, contains information on student advising, placement, and evaluation. Appendix VI…

  20. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  1. Pitting of titanium. I - Titanium-foil experiments. II - One-dimensional pit experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    Pitting experiments were conducted with strips of titanium foil in beakers containing chloride, bromide, or iodide solutions. The potentials were determined in reference to the saturated calomel electrode. Corrosion occurred at the edge of a foil specimen when it was maintained at a potential between the steady-state pitting potential of about 0.9 V and a potential of about 1.4 V in neutral bromide solution. A model is discussed to account for the complex relationships observed in the experiments. Conclusions based on experiments conducted with one-dimensional pits at the ends of insulated titanium pencils in the anode-facing-up position are also presented.

  2. Abundances of La138 and Ta180 Through ν-Nucleosynthesis in 20 M ⊙ Type II Supernova Progenitor, Guided by Stellar Models for Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahkar, N.; Kalita, S.; Duorah, H. L.; Duorah, K.

    2017-03-01

    Yields of nature's rarest isotopes La138 and Ta180 are calculated by neutrino processes in the Ne-shell of density ρ ≈ 104 g/cc in a type II supernova (SN II) progenitor of mass 20 M ⊙. Two extended sets of neutrino temperature - T ν e = 3, 4, 5, 6 MeV and T ν( μ/ τ)= 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 MeV respectively for charged and neutral current processes are taken. Solar mass fractions of the seeds La 139, Ta 181, Ba 138 and Hf 180 are taken for calculation. They are assumed to be produced in some s-processing events of earlier generation massive `seed stars' with average interior density range < ρ>≈103-106 g/cc. The abundances of these two elements are calculated relative to O 16 and are found to be sensitive to the neutrino temperature. For neutral current processes with the neutron emission branching ratio, b n = 3.81 × 10-4 and b n = 9.61 × 10-1, the relative abundances of La138 lie in the ranges 4.48 × 10-14-2.94 × 10-13 and 1.13 × 10-10-7.43 × 10-10 respectively. Similarly, the relative abundances of Ta180 lie in the ranges 1.80 × 10-15-1.17 × 10-14 and 4.53 × 10-12-2.96 × 10-11 respectively for the lower and higher values of the neutron emission branching ratio. For charged current processes, the relative abundances of La138 and Ta180 are found to be in the ranges 1.38 × 10-9-7.62 × 10-9 and 2.09 × 10-11-1.10 × 10-10 respectively. Parametrized by density of the `seed stars', the yields are found to be consistent with recent supernova simulation results throughout the range of neutrino temperatures. La138 and Ta180 are found to be efficiently produced in charged current interaction.

  3. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants

  4. Fuzzy logic modeling of Pb (II) sorption onto mesoporous NiO/ZnCl2-Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Javadian, Hamedreza; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria; Asl, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini; Masomi, Mojtaba

    2018-01-01

    In this study, NiO/Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite (NiO/ACNC) was prepared by adding dropwise NaOH solution (2mol/L) to raise the suspension pH to around 9 at room temperature under ultrasonic irradiation (200W) as an efficient method and characterized by FE-SEM, FTIR and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The effect of different parameters such as contact time (0-120min), initial metal ion concentration (25-200mg/L), temperature (298, 318 and 333K), amount of adsorbent (0.002-0.007g) and the solution's initial pH (1-7) on the adsorption of Pb (II) was investigated in batch-scale experiments. The equilibrium data were well fitted by Langmuir model type 1 (R(2)>0.99). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qm) of NiO/ACNC was 1428.57mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) were also calculated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb (II) onto NiO/ACNC was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. In addition, a fuzzy-logic-based model including multiple inputs and one output was developed to predict the removal efficiency of Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Four input variables including pH, contact time (min), dosage (g) and initial concentration of Pb (II) were fuzzified using an artificial intelligence-based approach. The fuzzy subsets consisted of triangular membership functions with eight levels and a total of 26 rules in the IF-THEN approach which was implemented on a Mamdani-type of fuzzy inference system. Fuzzy data exhibited small deviation with satisfactory coefficient of determination (R(2)>0.98) that clearly proved very good performance of fuzzy-logic-based model in prediction of removal efficiency of Pb (II). It was confirmed that NiO/ACNC had a great potential as a novel adsorbent to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulations of Ion Coupling Experiments on NDCX-II relevant to IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. J.; More, R. M.; Terry, M.

    2012-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX-II) is an induction accelerator for which the construction project was completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in March, 2012, and is presently being commissioned. The baseline design for NDCX-II will accelerate ˜0.03 μC of singly charged lithium ions to 1.2 MeV (with possible upgrades up to 3.1 MeV), delivered in sub-ns pulses with sub-mm rms beam radii. The purpose of NDCX-II is to carry out beam and target interaction experiments relevant to IFE. We have carried out detailed hydrodynamic simulations of planar targets having several configurations. In this poster we will focus on experiments that maximize shock strength by traveling wave deposition (i.e. by varying ion beam energy in a velocity chirp) and/or by varying intensity profile, and we will also explore methods to optimize shock strengths in composite materials where shocks can be formed at material boundaries and at end-of-range. These results will be discussed in the context of heavy ion fusion direct drive targets.

  6. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.; Dilgen, T.; Rose, B.; Gash, W.; Ravindranath, V.; Yeddulla, M.; Papu, J.; Davila, P.; Holub, B.; Tagger, J.; Sikora, R.; Ramirez, G.; Kulpin, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  7. The First Year of the BABAR Experiment at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-12-18

    The BABAR detector, situated at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, has been recording data at energies on and around the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance since May 1999. In this paper, we briefly describe the PEP-II B Factory and the BABAR detector. The performance presently achieved by the experiment in the areas of tracking, vertexing, calorimetry and particle identification is reviewed. Analysis concepts that are used in the various papers submitted to this conference are also discussed.

  8. Relic neutralinos and the two dark matter candidate events of the CDMS II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bottino, A.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Scopel, S.

    2010-05-15

    The CDMS Collaboration has presented its results for the final exposure of the CDMS II experiment and reports that two candidate events for dark matter would survive after application of the various discrimination and subtraction procedures inherent in their analysis. We show that a population of relic neutralinos, which was already proved to fit the DAMA/LIBRA data on the annual-modulation effect, could naturally also explain the two candidate CDMS II events, if these are actually due to a dark matter signal.

  9. Instrumentation of Reentry Plasma Experiments on Trail-Blazer II Rocket A21.220-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-31

    June 1974 BLAZER II ROCKET A21. 220-1 9. PIF~~GOG REPORT NUMBER 7. &TMORCO) J. Spencer Rocbefort L. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUNIIEN(sJ Raimundas Sukys F19628...Fnittei) AFCRL-TR-74-0385 ( INSTRUMENTATION OF REENTRY PLASMA EXPERIMENTS ON TRAILBLAZER II ROCKET A21. 220-1 J. Spencer Rochefort Raimundas Sukys ...J.S. Rochefort, L. J. O’Connor, C.H. Price, Jr., and R, Sukys , "Data Transmission and ’I rajectory Determining Devices For Research Rockets and

  10. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments of colliding jets: Turbulent amplification of seed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, Petros; Fatenejad, Milad; Flocke, Norbert; Graziani, Carlo; Gregori, Gianluca; Lamb, Donald; Lee, Dongwook; Meinecke, Jena; Scopatz, Anthony; Weide, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    In this study we present high-resolution numerical simulations of laboratory experiments that study the turbulent amplification of magnetic fields generated by laser-driven colliding jets. The radiative magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations discussed here were performed with the FLASH code and have assisted in the analysis of the experimental results obtained from the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a pair of thin Carbon foils is placed in an Argon-filled chamber and is illuminated to create counter-propagating jets. The jets carry magnetic fields generated by the Biermann battery mechanism and collide to form a highly turbulent region. The interaction is probed using a wealth of diagnostics, including induction coils that are capable of providing the field strength and directionality at a specific point in space. The latter have revealed a significant increase in the field's strength due to turbulent amplification. Our FLASH simulations have allowed us to reproduce the experimental findings and to disentangle the complex processes and dynamics involved in the colliding flows. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by DOE NNSA ASC.

  11. [Use of chigo seed (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) in human nutrition. II. Process of non-industrial manufacture of chiga].

    PubMed

    Barreiro, J A; Brito, O; Hevia, P; Pérez, C; Orozco, M

    1984-09-01

    A quantitative study of the traditional process for making "chiga" flour was performed. The "chiga" flour is obtained from the seed of the "chigo" (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) and is utilized as a human food in areas of Venezuela in the Orinoco basin, especially in the State of Apure and in the Territorio Federal Amazonas. The block diagram with the description of the traditional process is presented, together with labor and time requirement studies of the different stages of the process. The yields as well as the requirements for raw materials are also discussed. This research work was carried out to study and provide quantitative information that may allow the duplication of the process, in order to improve the efficiency and yield of the product.

  12. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II),a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.

    2009-12-19

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at {approx}1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of {approx}50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  13. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II), a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-11-19

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at {approx}1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of {approx}50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  14. Evaluation of dosimetry and excess seeds in permanent brachytherapy using a modified hybrid method: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kana; Okihara, Koji; Iwata, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Norihiro; Kodani, Naohiro; Tsubokura, Takuji; Kamoi, Kazumi; Miki, Tsuneharu; Yamazaki, Hideya

    2013-05-01

    Permanent prostate brachytherapy is frequently performed worldwide, and many studies have demonstrated its favorable outcomes. Implant seeds used in this procedure contain a precise amount of radionuclide and are completely sealed. Because these seeds are not manufactured in Japan, they are expensive (6300 yen per seed) and therefore need careful management as a radioisotope. The proper implantation technique requires considerable procedure time, good dosimetric outcomes and simple radioactive isotope management. To evaluate the modified hybrid interactive technique based on these considerations, we assessed 313 patients who underwent hybrid interactive brachytherapy without additional external beam radiotherapy. We evaluated the duration of the procedure, dosimetric factors and the total number of excess seeds. The dosimetric results from computed tomography on Day 30 of follow-up were: 172 Gy (range 130-194 Gy) for pD90, 97.8% (83.5-100%) for pV100, 54.6% (27.5-82.4%) for pV150, 164 Gy (120-220 Gy) for uD90, 194 Gy (126-245 Gy) for uD30, 210 Gy (156-290 Gy) for uD5, 0.02 ml (0-1.2 ml) for rV100 and 0 ml (0-0.2 ml) for rV150. The number of excess seeds was determined by subtracting the number of implanted seeds from the expected number of seeds calculated from previously proposed nomograms. As per our method, nine excess seeds were used for two patients, whereas using the nomograms, the number of excess seeds was approximately eight per patient. Our modified hybrid interactive technique reduced the number of excess seeds while maintaining treatment quality.

  15. Assessing Climate Information Use in Agribusiness. Part II: Decision Experiments to Estimate Economic Value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonka, Steven T.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Hofing, Steven

    1988-08-01

    Difficulty in evaluating the economic effectiveness of climate information is a significant impediment to expanding the use of that information. An innovative approach, combining a decision experiment and an empirical economic analysis was implemented in this paper as a mans to conduct such an economic evaluation. The decision setting was that of planning the distribution of varieties and amounts of seed corn for a major seed corn producing firm in the midwestern United States. Actual managers, accustomed to making this decision, wore provided forecasts of July and August temperature and precipitation. Their responses to that information were evaluated in terms of cost savings for the firm. Across the range of relevant parameter values tested, savings from the use of perfect forecast information were estimated to be 2% to 5% of production costs. Interestingly, imperfect forecasts of relatively adverse conditions were shown to have considerable value. For example, forecasts of adverse condition accurate only 50% of the time, wore shown to have about two-thirds of the value of perfect forecast information.

  16. Effect of an ethanol extract of Descurainia sophia seeds on Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and P-glycoprotein activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin-Mu; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, You Jin; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, No Soo

    2015-12-18

    Descurainia sophia seeds have a variety of pharmacological functions and been widely used in traditional folk medicine. However, their effects on human drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) activities have not been elucidated. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of an ethanol extract of D. sophia seeds (EEDS) on human Phase I/II (DMEs) and P-glycoprotein (p-gp) in vitro. The enzyme activities of human Phase I (cytochrome P450s, CYPs), Phase II (uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases, UGTs) DMEs, and the drug transporter P-gp were determined in the presence of various concentrations of EEDS using commercially available luminogenic assay systems. The mode of enzyme inhibition and the inhibitory constant (Ki) value of EEDS were graphically determined with Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots and secondary plots, respectively. The enzyme activity assays showed that EEDS moderately inhibited the CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 isoforms with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 47.3, 25.8, and 38.7 μg/mL, respectively. Graphical analyses with Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots and secondary plots indicated that EEDS competitively inhibited CYP2C9 with a Ki value of 19.8 μg/mL; however, it inhibited CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in a mixed mode with Ki values of 5.2, and 11.9 μg/mL, respectively. Other Phase I (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) and Phase II (UGT1A1 and UGT2B7) enzymes as well as P-gp were weakly or negligibly affected by EEDS with concentrations up to 500 μg/mL. EEDS is a selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 with moderate enzymatic inhibition. Clinically, full consideration should be given to a potential toxic adverse effect from a herb-drug interaction when drugs that are particularly susceptible to CYP1A2, CYP2C9, or CYP2C19-mediated metabolism are taken together with EEDS. Characterization of metabolic profiles of specific herbal drugs could help consumers and medical specialists to use them safely as a

  17. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Beekman, Wendy

    2010-08-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (+/-0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L(-1), growth rates were negative and on average -0.23 (+/-0.05) .day(-1). Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (Phi(PSII)), while the Phi(PSII) was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L(-1). High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of approximately 270 microg L(-1)) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to >/=80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L(-1), the Phi(PSII) dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance.

  18. Test results of the SHARE II Mid-deck Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F.; Dominguez, Peter; Cornwell, John

    1992-01-01

    The SHARE II (Space Station Advanced Radiator Experiment II) Mid-deck Experiment was flown on board the Space Shuttle (STS-37) from April 5 to 12, 1991. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate the operation of several design changes proposed for the NASA/Grumman SHARE II heat pipe as a result of the lessons learned during the first SHARE flight (STS-29) in March 1989. Two test articles flew during the mission. The first, the Bubble Management Test Article, was a Plexiglas model of the monogroove heat pipe. This test article was primarily used to evaluate the performance of two 0-g bubble management devices; the redesigned evaporator screen artery and the condenser bubble trap. The second, the Blended Manifold Priming Test Article, also constructed of Plexiglas, was used to demonstrate passive self-priming of a heat pipe blended manifold connecting three evaporator legs to a single condenser leg. Both test articles used a 50/50 mixture of ethanol and water as the working fluid. Overall, the experiment was highly successful, with all the major test objectives fulfilled, including blended manifold priming, condenser bubble trap operation, screen artery bubble ingestion, and elimination of hydraulic diameter mismatch.

  19. The Biostack Experiments I and II aboard Apollo 16 and 17.

    PubMed

    Bucker, H

    1974-01-01

    The concept of the Biostack experiment has become practicable through European scientific collaboration and with help of NASA. The objectives of this experiment flown aboard Apollo 16 and 17 are to study the biological effects of individual heavy cosmic particles of high-energy loss (HZE) not available on earth; to study the influence of additional spaceflight factors; to get some knowledge on the mechanism by which HZE particles damage biological materials; to get information on the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic ions in the spacecraft; to estimate the radiation hazards for man in space. For this purpose the Biostack experiment comprises a widespread spectrum of biological objects, and various radiobiological end-points are under investigation. Bacterial spores, protozoa cysts, plant seeds, shrimp eggs, and insect eggs were included in the Biostack experiment packages together with different physical radiation detectors (nuclear emulsions, plastics, AgCl crystals, and LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters). By using special arrangements of biological objects and physical track detectors, individual evaluation of tracks was obtained allowing the identification of each penetrating particle in relation to the possible biological effects on its path. The response of the different biological objects to space flight and HZE ions bombardment was of different degree, presumably depending on the ability of the organism to replace the cells damaged by a hit. The results help to estimate the radiation hazard for astronauts during space missions of long duration.

  20. A comparison of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II tropospheric water vapor to radiosonde measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.C.; Chiou, E.W. ); Chu, W.P.; McCormick, M.P.; McMaster, L.R. ); Oltmans, S. ); Rind, D. )

    1993-03-20

    Upper tropospheric Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) water vapor observations are compared to correlative radiosonde observations and radiosonde based climatologies. The SAGE II 1987 monthly zonal mean water vapor climatology is compared to both the Global Atmospheric Circulation Statistics (1963-1973) climatology and to the 1987 radiosonde climatology. The clear sky SAGE II climatology is found to be approximately half the level of both the clear/cloudy sky radiosonde climatologies. To determine whether this is realistic for these two different climatologies or includes additional observational and instrumental biases, the authors took the 1987 radiosonde data set and identified approximately 800 correlative profile pairs. The observational biases inherent to SAGE II and the radiosondes produce a set of profile pairs characteristic of clear sky, land conditions. A critical review of the radiosonde measurement capability was carried out to establish the operating range and accuracy in the upper troposphere. The authors show that even with tight coincidence criterion, the quality of the profile pair comparisons varies considerably because of strong water vapor variability occurring on small time and space scales. Annual zonal means calculated from the set of profile pairs again finds SAGE II significantly drier in many latitude bands. Resolving the radiosonde data base by hygrometer type shows this to be true for all hygrometers except for the thin film capacitive type (Vaisala Humicap). For this hygrometer, between 4.5 and 6.5 km SAGE II is drier by approximately 25.%, and from 8.5 to 11.5 km they are nearly equivalent when global annual means are compared. The good agreement with the Vaisala Humicap, currently the most accurate and responsive hygrometer in operational use, suggests existing radiosonde climatologies contain a significant moist bias in the upper troposphere. 31 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. A comparison of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II tropospheric water vapor to radiosonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, J. C.; Chiou, E. W.; Chu, W. P.; McCormick, M. P.; McMaster, L. R.; Oltmans, S.; Rind, D.

    1993-03-01

    Upper tropospheric Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) water vapor observations are compared to correlative radiosonde observations and radiosonde based climatologies. The SAGE II 1987 monthly zonal mean water vapor climatology is compared to both the Global Atmospheric Circulation Statistics (1963-1973) climatology and to the 1987 radiosonde climatology. The clear sky SAGE II climatology is found to be approximately half the level of both the clear/cloudy sky radiosonde climatologies. To determine whether this is realistic for these two different climatologies or includes additional observational and instrumental biases, we took the 1987 radiosonde data set and identified approximately 800 correlative profile pairs. The observational biases inherent to SAGE II and the radiosondes produce a set of profile pairs characteristic of clear sky, land conditions. A critical review of the radiosonde measurement capability was carried out to establish the operating range and accuracy in the upper troposphere. We show that even with tight coincidence criterion, the quality of the profile pair comparisons varies considerably because of strong water vapor variability occurring on small time and space scales. Annual zonal means calculated from the set of profile pairs again finds SAGE II significantly drier in many latitude bands. Resolving the radiosonde data base by hygrometer type shows this to be true for all hygrometers except for the thin film capacitive type (Vaisala Humicap). For this hygrometer, between 4.5 and 6.5 km SAGE II is drier by approximately 25.%, and from 8.5 to 11.5 km they are nearly equivalent when global annual means are compared. The good agreement with the Vaisala Humicap, currently the most accurate and responsive hygrometer in operational use, suggests existing radiosonde climatologies contain a significant moist bias in the upper troposphere.

  2. Subtask 12H1: Vanadium alloy irradiation experiment X530 in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Hins, A.G.; Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the X530 experiment in EBR-II was to obtain early irradiation performance data, particularly the fracture properties, on the new 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti material before the scheduled reactor shutdown at the end of September 1994. To obtain early irradiation performance data on the new 500-kg production heat of the V-4Cr-4Ti material before the scheduled EBR-II shutdown, an experiment, X530, was expeditiously designed and assembled. Charpy, compact tension, tensile and TEM specimens with different thermal mechanical treatments (TMTs), were enclosed in two capsules and irradiated in the last run of EBR-II, Run 170, from August 9 through September 27. For comparison, specimens from some of the previous heats were also included in the test. The accrued exposure was 35 effective full power days, yielding a peak damage of {approx}4 dpa in the specimens. The irradiation is now complete and the vehicle is awaiting to be discharged from EBR-II for postirradiation disassembly. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Radioactive seed localization with 125I for nonpalpable lesions prior to breast lumpectomy and/or excisional biopsy: methodology, safety, and experience of initial year.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Thornton, Cynthia; Miodownik, Daniel; Boylan, Daniel; Holahan, Brian; King, Valencia; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Morris, Elizabeth A; St Germain, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The use of radioactive seed localization (RSL) as an alternative to wire localizations (WL) for nonpalpable breast lesions is rapidly gaining acceptance because of its advantages for both the patient and the surgical staff. This paper examines the initial experience with over 1,200 patients seen at a comprehensive cancer center. Radiation safety procedures for radiology, surgery, and pathology were implemented, and radioactive material inventory control was maintained using an intranet-based program. Surgical probes allowed for discrimination between 125I seed photon energies from 99mTc administered for sentinel node testing. A total of 1,127 patients (median age of 57.2 y) underwent RSL procedures with 1,223 seeds implanted. Implanted seed depth ranged from 10.3-107.8 mm. The median length of time from RSL implant to surgical excision was 2 d. The median 125I activity at time of implant was 3.1 MBq (1.9 to 4.6). The median dose rate from patients with a single seed was 9.5 µSv h-1 and 0.5 µSv h-1 at contact and 1 m, respectively. The maximum contact dose rate was 187 µSv h-1 from a superficially placed seed. RSL performed greater than 1 d before surgery is a viable alternative to WL, allowing flexibility in scheduling, minimizing day of surgery procedures, and improving workflow in breast imaging and surgery. RSL has been shown to be a safe and effective procedure for preoperative localization under mammographic and ultrasound guidance, which can be managed with the use of customized radiation protection controls.

  4. The Life-Long Mortality Risks Of World War II Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Glen H.; Brown, James Scott; Martin, Leslie R.; Friedman, Howard W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study of American veterans investigated the mortality risks of five World War II military experiences (i.e., combat exposure) and their variation among veterans in the post-war years. Methods The male subjects (N=854) are members of the Stanford-Terman study, and 38 percent served in World War II. Cox models (proportional hazards regressions) compared the relative mortality risk associated with each military experience. Results Overseas duty, service in the Pacific and exposure to combat significantly increased the mortality risks of veterans in the study. Individual differences in education, mental health in 1950, and age at entry into the military, as well as personality factors made no difference in these results. Conclusions A gradient is observable such that active duty on the home front, followed by overseas duty, service in the Pacific, and combat exposure markedly increased the risk of relatively early mortality. Potential linking mechanisms include heavy drinking. PMID:20161074

  5. Analysis of complex vessel experiments using the Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian containment code ALICE-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Ku, J.L.; Zeuch, W.R.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the ALICE-II analysis of and comparison with complex vessel experiments. Tests SM-2 through SM-5 were performed by SRI International in 1978 in studying the structural response of 1/20 scale models of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor to a simulated hypothetical core-disruptive accident. These experiments provided quality data for validating treatments of the nonlinear fluid-structure interactions and many complex excursion phenomena, such as flow through perforated structures, large material distortions, multi-dimensional sliding interfaces, flow around sharp corners, and highly contorted fluid boundaries. Correlations of the predicted pressures with the test results of all gauges are made. Wave characteristics and arrival times are also compared. Results show that the ALICE-II code predicts the pressure profile well. Despite the complexity, the code gave good results for the SM-5 test.

  6. Regeneration of the intervertebral disc with nucleus pulposus cell-seeded collagen II/hyaluronan/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer constructs in a rabbit disc degeneration model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Zhuang, Ying; Li, Chang-Qing; Liu, Lan-Tao; Zhou, Yue

    2011-12-15

    Advancement in tissue engineering provides a promising approach to recover the functionality of the degenerated intervertebral disc. In our study, a nucleus pulposus (NP) cell-seeded collagen II/hyaluronan/chondroitin-6-sulfate (CII/HyA/CS) tri-copolymer construct was implanted into the disc space directly after nucleotomy in a rabbit model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the NP cell-seeded CII/HyA/CS tri-copolymer constructs could regenerate the degenerated disc in vivo after implantation into the rabbit nucleotomy model. Nucleotomy is one of the most prevalent surgical modalities to treat degenerative disc disease, which could achieve good short-term effects of pain relieve, whereas removal of the entire or partial NP changes the biomechanical characteristics of the remaining disc and the adjacent vertebral segments and a series of long-term complications such as accelerated annulus and the facet joints degeneration may ensue. Therefore, it is necessary to think about possible procedures immediately after the primary nucleotomy surgery to avoid these complications. NP cells isolated from thoracic and lumbar spines of New Zealand White rabbits of approximately 3 weeks of age and 1 kg in weight were labeled with a 5- (and-6) -carboxyflurescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) fluorescent dye and seeded within the CII/HyA/CS scaffold by a centrifugation method. After in vitro culture for 1 week, NP cell-seeded CII/HyA/CS tri-copolymer constructs were allografted into the disc defects of recipient rabbit immediately after nucleotomy of the lumbar spine. The Bradner Disc Index and the T2-weighted signal intensity index were determined using lateral plane radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the operation. Finally, the operated discs were explanted for gross morphological observation, histological evaluation, and cell viability assessment. Animals with only nucleotomy and cell-free CII/HyA/CS scaffold

  7. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0-2,000 mg kg(-1)] for salinity and [0-4.0 mg kg(-1)] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg(-1) available Cd and 778.6 mg kg(-1) salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-04-01

    Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n = 44) or placebo (n = 22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm(2)) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. At 12 months post-randomisation, > or =50% reduction in surface area (cm(2)) of breast induration was recorded in 13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. The study failed to show efficacy of orally-administered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer.

  9. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    The experiment MARSTOX II on FOTON M-3 mission (September 14 - 26, 2007) was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN (Fig. 1) on FOTON M-2. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a well-characterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, was investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated.In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'DUST MARS' and 'DUST SPACE'), and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a mars-like spectral irradiance compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'MIXED MARS' and 'MIXED SPACE') (Fig. 2 and 3). After exposure to space during the FOTON M-3 mission the sample analysis was performed at CEA in Grenoble, F, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNAphotoproducts were analysed.From the results of MARSTOX II the following conclusions can be drawn: (i) Spores mixed with martian soil analogue are protected only to a low degree against UV radiation. The protective effect of several defined layers of spores mixed with Martian soil analogue were quantified. (ii) The two investigated martian soil analogues, MRS07 (47

  10. Fiber optic timing, firing and control system for high energy density physics experiments at Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.R.; Rohlev, L.; Earley, L.; Cochrane, J.

    1995-12-01

    Several fiber optic systems have been designed and implemented for the high energy density experiments at Pegasus II. The main fiber optic system developed for Pegasus II, remotely controls both the charging and discharging of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU). This fiber optic system is also used to distribute the timing and firing information specific to each experiment to the operators and experimenters. The timing and firing information includes the voltage on the CDU as it is being charged, a confirmation signal indicating the CDU has discharged and common timing signals based on the output signals on the load ring of the CDU. Various fiber optic systems were implemented to transfer diagnostic information related to the discharge of the main capacitor bank to the control room. The diagnostics include the current, electric field, and vacuum pressure at the target area. Not only do these fiber optic systems provide the control and monitor signals for the experiments at Pegasus II, they have the added value of preventing premature firing of the capacitor bank, eliminating ground loops between the test area and the control room and providing overall increased operator safety.

  11. SHEFEX II - Aerodynamic Re-Entry Controlled Sharp Edge Flight Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, J. M. A.; Turner, J.; Weihs, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the basic goals and architecture of the SHEFEX II mission is presented. Also launched by a two staged sounding rocket system SHEFEX II is a consequent next step in technology test and demonstration. Considering all experience and collected flight data obtained during the SHEFEX I Mission, the test vehicle has been re-designed and extended by an active control system, which allows active aerodynamic control during the re-entry phase. Thus, ceramic based aerodynamic control elements like rudders, ailerons and flaps, mechanical actuators and an automatic electronic control unit has been implemented. Special focus is taken on improved GNC Elements. In addition, some other experiments including an actively cooled thermal protection element, advanced sensor equipment, high temperature antenna inserts etc. are part of the SHEFEX II experimental payload. A final 2 stage configuration has been selected considering Brazilian solid rocket boosters derived from the S 40 family. During the experiment phase a maximum entry velocity of Mach around 10 is expected for 50 seconds. Considering these flight conditions, the heat loads are not representative for a RLV re-entry, however, it allows to investigate the principal behaviour of such a facetted ceramic TPS, a sharp leading edge at the canards and fins and all associated gas flow effects and their structural response.

  12. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  13. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Treesearch

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  14. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  15. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  16. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Nadia; Ziegler, Greg; Dilkes, Brian P; Brenton, Zachary; Boyles, Richard; Connolly, Erin L; Kresovich, Stephen; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Seed Germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  18. Intercomparison of stratospheric water vapor observed by satellite experiments - Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II versus Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiou, E. W.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Larsen, J. C.; Rind, D.; Oltmans, S.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison is made of the stratospheric water vapor measurements made by the satellite sensors of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II), the Nimbus-7 LIMS, and the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment. It was found that, despite differences in the measurement techniques, sampling bias, and observational periods, the three experiments have disclosed a generally consistent pattern of stratospheric water vapor distribution. The only significant difference occurs at high southern altitudes in May below 18 km, where LIMS measurements were 2-3 ppmv greater than those of SAGE II and ATMOS.

  19. Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan; Klinger, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, the focal species suffers from Associational Susceptibility. In contrast, if seeds of the focal species are harvested less when in association with a second species, the focal species benefits from Associational Resistance.To evaluate density dependence and associational effects among seeds in mixtures, we conducted seed removal experiments using a completely additive design patterned after a two-species competition experiment using seeds of either Achnatherum hymenoides(Indian ricegrass), Leymus cinereus (basin wildrye) or Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), all native perennial grasses, combined with seeds of Bromus tectorum(cheatgrass), a non-native annual grass. The experiment involved placing five fixed quantities of the native seeds mixed with five fixed quantities of B. tectorum seeds in a factorial design, resulting in 35 seed mixture combinations. The seed-eating rodent community at our study sites, in order of abundance, is composed of Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse), Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse).Native seed harvesting was density dependent, with a greater proportion of seeds being harvested as density increased. In the mixed density model, the presence of B. tectorumdid not affect harvest of any of the native species' seeds when analysed individually. However, when all three native species were analysed together, increasing quantities of B. tectorum resulted in reduced harvest of native seeds, demonstrating weak but significant Associational Resistance. In contrast, harvest of B. tectorum seeds increased

  20. Search for charged lepton flavour violation with the MEG and MEG II experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Marco

    2016-11-01

    In the next decade Charged Lepton Flavour Violation (CLFV) experiments will play a key role in the search for new physics. Given that flavour oscillations occur among neutrinos, unmeasurably small amplitudes are expected for CLFV processes, while in many new physics scenarios such processes are strongly enhanced. A new generation of experiments looking for CLFV muon decays will be performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (MEG II, Mu3e), at Fermilab (Mu2e) and at J-Parc (DeeMee, COMET), with sensitivities improved by one or two order of magnitudes with respect to current limits. The MEG experiment has performed the most recent improvement in the search for the CLFV decay μ+ → e+γ. With the analysis of half of the collected statistics, a new upper limit on the branching ratio has been set BR(μ → eγ) < 5.7×10-13 at 90% CL, and the final result is soon to be released. A substantial improvement of MEG results requires an improvement of detector performances, in order to reject the background contributions which limit the signal sensitivity. This will be carried out by a short-term upgrade of the apparatus, MEG II. The major modifications of the experimental apparatus consist in the replacement of the current positron tracking system with a new high transparency and high granularity spectrometer and the substitution and rearrangement of some of the photosensors in the liquid-xenon photon detector. MEG II will start taking data in 2016, with a sensitivity on the μ+ → e+γ decay of about 5 × 10-14. Therefore as MEG performed the last improvement in the search for CLFV, MEG II will start a new era probing unexplored regions of new physics scenarios.

  1. Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Homelessness and the Impact of Axis I and II Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O.; Katz, Laurence Y.; Distasio, Jino

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. Methods. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001–2002 and 2004–2005, and included 34 653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Results. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%–60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Conclusions. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways. PMID:24148049

  2. Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiments I and II comparisons with ozonesondes

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, R.E.; Cunnold, D.M.; Chu, W.P.

    1995-05-20

    Ozone profiles measured by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE) I and II are compared with ozonesonde profiles at 24 stations over the period extending from 1979 through 1991. Ozonesonde/satellite differences at 21 stations with SAGE II overpasses were computed down to 11.5 km in the midlatitudes, to 15.5 km in the lower latitudes, and for nine stations with SAGE I overpasses down to 15.5 km. The set of individual satellite and ozonesonde profile comparisons most closely colocated in time and space shows mean absolute differences relative to the satellite measurement of 6 {plus_minus} 2% for SAGE II and 8 {plus_minus}3% for SAGE I. The ensemble of ozonesonde/satellite differences, when averaged over all altitudes, shows that for SAGE II, 70% were less than 5%, whereas for SAGE I, 50% were less than 5%. The best agreement occurred in the altitude region near the ozone density maximum where almost all the relative differences were less than 5%. Most of the statistically significant differences occurred below the ozone maximum down to the tropopause in the region of steepest ozone gradients and typically ranged between 0 and {minus}20%. Correlations between ozone and aerosol extinction in the northern midlatitudes indicate that aerosols had no discernible impact on the ozonesonde/satellite differences and on the stratosphere during 1984 to mid-1991. 42 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Liquid xenon calorimeter for MEG II experiment with VUV-sensitive MPPCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    The MEG II experiment is an upgrade of the MEG experiment to search for the charged lepton flavor violating decay of muon, μ+ →e+ γ . The MEG II experiment is expected to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 4 ×10-14 , which is one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of the current MEG experiment. The performance of the liquid xenon (LXe) γ-ray detector will be greatly improved with a highly granular scintillation readout realized by replacing 216 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on the γ-ray entrance face with 4092 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs). For this purpose, we have developed a new type of MPPC which is sensitive to the LXe scintillation light in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range, in collaboration with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. We have measured the performance of the MPPC in LXe, and an excellent performance has been confirmed including high photon detection efficiency (> 15 %) for LXe scintillation light. An excellent performance of the LXe detector has been confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations based on the measured properties of the MPPC. The construction of the detector is in progress, aiming to start physics data taking in 2017.

  4. Particle identification performance of the prototype aerogel RICH counter for the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, S.; Adachi, I.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yusa, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a new type of particle identification device, called an aerogel ring imaging Cherenkov (ARICH) counter, for the Belle II experiment. It uses silica aerogel tiles as Cherenkov radiators. For detection of Cherenkov photons, hybrid avalanche photo-detectors (HAPDs) are used. The designed HAPD has a high sensitivity to single photons under a strong magnetic field. We have confirmed that the HAPD provides high efficiency for single-photon detection even after exposure to neutron and γ -ray radiation that exceeds the levels expected in the 10-year Belle II operation. In order to confirm the basic performance of the ARICH counter system, we carried out a beam test at the using a prototype of the ARICH counter with six HAPD modules. The results are in agreement with our expectations and confirm the suitability of the ARICH counter for the Belle II experiment. Based on the in-beam performance of the device, we expect that the identification efficiency at 3.5 GeV/c is 97.4% and 4.9% for pions and kaons, respectively. This paper summarizes the development of the HAPD for the ARICH and the evaluation of the performance of the prototype ARICH counter built with the final design components.

  5. The Woody Plant Seed Manual

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner; Robert P. Karrfalt

    2008-01-01

    The first comprehensive handbook on the seeds of trees and shrubs produced by the USDA Forest Service was USDA Misc. Pub. 654, Woody-Plant Seed Manual. The manuscript was ready for publication in 1941, but World War II delayed publication until 1948. The boom in tree planting in the 1950s and 1960s created a large demand for seeds and exposed the gaps in our knowledge...

  6. Charge exchange contamination of CRIT-II barium CIV experiment. [critical ionization velocity in ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Meyerott, R. E.; Rairden, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have been recently performed which attempted to confirm critical ionization velocity (CIV) ionization by deploying chemicals at high velocity in the ionosphere. Specifically, the CRIT-II rocket performed a barium release in the ionosphere, where observations of Ba(+) resonant emissions following the release are believed to have resulted from the CIV process. Calculations are presented which suggest a significant fraction (if not all) of the Ba(+) observed likely resulted from charge exchange with the thermosphere ions and not through CIV processes. The results presented here are pertinent to other CIV experiments performed in the ionosphere. It is recommended that laboratory measurements should be made of the charge exchange cross section between O(+) and Ba as well as other metal vapors used in CIV experiments.

  7. Operational-safety advantages of LMFBR's: the EBR-II experience and testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.; Lindsay, R.W.; Golden, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    LMFBR's contain many inherent characteristics that simplify control and improve operating safety and reliability. The EBR-II design is such that good advantage was taken of these characteristics, resulting in a vary favorable operating history and allowing for a program of off-normal testing to further demonstrate the safe response of LMFBR's to upsets. The experience already gained, and that expected from the future testing program, will contribute to further development of design and safety criteria for LMFBR's. Inherently safe characteristics are emphasized and include natural convective flow for decay heat removal, minimal need for emergency power and a large negative reactivity feedback coefficient. These characteristics at EBR-II allow for ready application of computer diagnosis and control to demonstrate their effectiveness in response to simulated plant accidents. This latter testing objective is an important part in improvements in the man-machine interface. (MMI)

  8. An active Mitochondrial Complex II Present in Mature Seeds Contains an Embryo-Specific Iron-Sulfur Subunit Regulated by ABA and bZIP53 and Is Involved in Germination and Seedling Establishment.

    PubMed

    Restovic, Franko; Espinoza-Corral, Roberto; Gómez, Isabel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Jordana, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is an essential mitochondrial enzyme involved in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, its iron-sulfur subunit (SDH2) is encoded by three genes, one of them (SDH2.3) being specifically expressed during seed maturation in the embryo. Here we show that seed SDH2.3 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and we define the promoter region (-114 to +49) possessing all the cis-elements necessary and sufficient for high expression in seeds. This region includes between -114 and -32 three ABRE (ABA-responsive) elements and one RY-enhancer like element, and we demonstrate that these elements, although necessary, are not sufficient for seed expression, our results supporting a role for the region encoding the 5' untranslated region (+1 to +49). The SDH2.3 promoter is activated in leaf protoplasts by heterodimers between the basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP53 (group S1) and bZIP10 (group C) acting through the ABRE elements, and by the B3 domain transcription factor ABA insensitive 3 (ABI3). The in vivo role of bZIP53 is further supported by decreased SDH2.3 expression in a knockdown bzip53 mutant. By using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and sdh2 mutants we have been able to conclusively show that complex II is already present in mature embryos before imbibition, and contains mainly SDH2.3 as iron-sulfur subunit. This complex plays a role during seed germination sensu-stricto since we have previously shown that seeds lacking SDH2.3 show retarded germination and now we demonstrate that low concentrations of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, a complex II inhibitor, also delay germination. Furthermore, complex II inhibitors completely block hypocotyl elongation in the dark and seedling establishment in the light, highlighting an essential role of complex II in the acquisition of photosynthetic competence and the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

  9. An active Mitochondrial Complex II Present in Mature Seeds Contains an Embryo-Specific Iron–Sulfur Subunit Regulated by ABA and bZIP53 and Is Involved in Germination and Seedling Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Restovic, Franko; Espinoza-Corral, Roberto; Gómez, Isabel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Jordana, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is an essential mitochondrial enzyme involved in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, its iron–sulfur subunit (SDH2) is encoded by three genes, one of them (SDH2.3) being specifically expressed during seed maturation in the embryo. Here we show that seed SDH2.3 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and we define the promoter region (-114 to +49) possessing all the cis-elements necessary and sufficient for high expression in seeds. This region includes between -114 and -32 three ABRE (ABA-responsive) elements and one RY-enhancer like element, and we demonstrate that these elements, although necessary, are not sufficient for seed expression, our results supporting a role for the region encoding the 5’ untranslated region (+1 to +49). The SDH2.3 promoter is activated in leaf protoplasts by heterodimers between the basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP53 (group S1) and bZIP10 (group C) acting through the ABRE elements, and by the B3 domain transcription factor ABA insensitive 3 (ABI3). The in vivo role of bZIP53 is further supported by decreased SDH2.3 expression in a knockdown bzip53 mutant. By using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and sdh2 mutants we have been able to conclusively show that complex II is already present in mature embryos before imbibition, and contains mainly SDH2.3 as iron–sulfur subunit. This complex plays a role during seed germination sensu-stricto since we have previously shown that seeds lacking SDH2.3 show retarded germination and now we demonstrate that low concentrations of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, a complex II inhibitor, also delay germination. Furthermore, complex II inhibitors completely block hypocotyl elongation in the dark and seedling establishment in the light, highlighting an essential role of complex II in the acquisition of photosynthetic competence and the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy. PMID

  10. Fluxes at experiment facilities in HEU and LEU designs for the FRM-II.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-16

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm{sup 3} and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime(50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}-s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm{sup 3} has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues that were raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-3. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses four additional issues that have been raised in several forums, including Ref 4: heat generation in the cold neutron source (CNS), the gamma and fast neutron fluxes which are components of the reactor noise in neutron scattering experiments in the experiment hall of the reactor, a fuel cycle length difference, and the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities. The results show that: (a) for the same thermal neutron flux, the neutron and gamma heating in the CNS is smaller in the LEU design than in the HEU design, and cold neutron fluxes as good or better than those of the HEU design can be obtained with the LEU desin; (b) the gamma and fast neutron components of the reactor noise in the experiment hall are about the same in both designs; (c) the fuel cycle length is 50 days for both designs; and (d) the absolute value of the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities is smaller in the LEU design, allowing its fuel cycle length to be increased to 53 or 54 days. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no

  11. Plant Growth During the Greenhouse II Experiment on the MIR Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; Podolsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 sq m growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (three, then four of six lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 C), and sometimes excessive-substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 days, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the US Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experiment procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 days in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible.

  12. Spectroscopic properties of photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus elongatus revealed by single-molecule experiments.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Marc; Skandary, Sepideh; Hellmich, Julia; Glöckner, Carina; Konrad, Alexander; Hussels, Martin; Meixner, Alfred J; Zouni, Athina; Schlodder, Eberhard

    2014-06-01

    In this study we use a combination of absorption, fluorescence and low temperature single-molecule spectroscopy to elucidate the spectral properties, heterogeneities and dynamics of the chlorophyll a (Chla) molecules responsible for the fluorescence emission of photosystem II core complexes (PS II cc) from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. At the ensemble level, the absorption and fluorescence spectra show a temperature dependence similar to plant PS II. We report emission spectra of single PS II cc for the first time; the spectra are dominated by zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) in the range between 680 and 705nm. The single-molecule experiments show unambiguously that different emitters and not only the lowest energy trap contribute to the low temperature emission spectrum. The average emission spectrum obtained from more than hundred single complexes shows three main contributions that are in good agreement with the reported bands F685, F689 and F695. The intensity of F695 is found to be lower than in conventional ensemble spectroscopy. The reason for the deviation might be due to the accumulation of triplet states on the red-most chlorophylls (e.g. Chl29 in CP47) or on carotenoids close to these long-wavelength traps by the high excitation power used in the single-molecule experiments. The red-most emitter will not contribute to the fluorescence spectrum as long as it is in the triplet state. In addition, quenching of fluorescence by the triplet state may lead to a decrease of long-wavelength emission.

  13. [Contribution of temozolomide chemotherapy for intramedullary grade II spinal cord astrocytomas in adults: Our experience].

    PubMed

    Chaskis, E; Minichini, V; Luce, S; Devriendt, D; Goldman, S; De Witte, O; Sadeghi, N; Lefranc, F

    2017-09-04

    Grade II intramedullary astrocytomas are rare tumors. Despite a well-defined role of adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for brain gliomas, the contribution of this therapy for intramedullary gliomas is not yet clearly defined. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 5 adult patients treated with temozolomide between 2008 and 2015 for a grade II intramedullary astrocytoma with progression after surgery. Five patients from 19 to 70 years of age (median, 37years) underwent a second surgery for the progression of a grade II intramedullary astrocytoma (median progression-free survival 26months [8-90]). All tumors remained grade II. Due to a second clinical or/and radiological tumor progression, the patients were treated with temozolomide after a 37months median progression-free survival (5-66). All patients received at minimum 12 cycles (mean 14 ± 5; range 12-24) of temozolomide (150-200mg/m(2)/day, 5days/28days). All patients were alive after a 10-year median follow-up after diagnosis (6-13). All patients were able to walk except one, who was previously in McCormick autonomy grade IV before chemotherapy. The McCormick autonomy rating after temozolomide was stable for 4 patients and improved for 1 patient. The treatment was delayed once for hematological toxicity. Temozolomide stabilized all 5 patients without any major toxicity. Based on this experience that needs to be confirmed, we consider that temozolomide should be envisaged within the therapeutic arsenal for progressive intramedullary grade II astrocytomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. First radiobiological results of LDEF-1 experiment A0015 with Arabidopsis seed embryos and Sordaria fungus spores.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M W; Gartenbach, K E; Kranz, A R

    1994-10-01

    This article highlights the first results of investigations on the general vitality and damage endpoints caused by cosmic ionizing radiation in dry, dormant plant seeds of the crucifer plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and the ascomycete Sordaria fimicola after 69 month stay in space. Wild-type and mutant gene marker lines were included in Free Flyer Biostack containers and exposed on earth and side tray of the LDEF-1 satellite. The damage in biological endpoints observed in the seeds increased in the side tray sample compared to the earth tray sample. For the ascospores we found different effects depending on the biological endpoints investigated for both expositions.

  15. First radiobiological results of LDEF-1 experiment A0015 with Arabidopsis seed embryos and Sordaria fungus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M. W.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Kranz, A. R.

    1994-10-01

    This article highlights the first results of investigations on the general vitality and damage endpoints caused by cosmic ionizing radiation in dry, dormant plant seeds of the crucifer plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Hennh. and the ascomycete Sordaria fimicola after 69 month stay in space. Wild-type and mutant gene marker lines were included in Free Flyer Biostack containers and exposed on earth and side tray of the LDEF-1 satellite. The damage in biological endpoints observed in the seeds increased in the side tray sample compared to the earth tray sample. For the ascospores we found different effects depending on the biological endpoints investigated for both expositions.

  16. Belle2Link: A Global Data Readout and Transmission for Belle II Experiment at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dehui; Liua, Zhen'an.; Zhao, Jingzhou; Xu, Hao

    The Belle II experiment is an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK B-Factory, which will be also upgraded to SuperKEKB with a luminosity of 8 x 1035 cm-2 s-1. Belle II will be composed of new detector components: a new pixel vertex detector (PXD), a significantly larger silicon vertex detector (SVD), new design of central drift chamber (CDC), new particle identification (PID) detector, an improved electromagnetic calorimeter (ECL), higher rate KL and muon detector (KLM), and also a completely new trigger (TRG) and data acquisition systems (DAQ) to handle data produced in a 40 times higher rate. The collaboration has decided to use serial data transmission and unified readout techniques to reach simple, reliable connections between Front-End Electronics (FEE) and DAQ system with easy maintenance. A so-called Belle2Link - a unified readout and high speed data transmission has been designed for use both in the FEE of all sub-detector systems and in DAQ system. Proto-types of key modules for a HS link with 3.125Gbps line rate and <10-16 Bit Error Rate had been designed together with firmware development based on which a model system with CDC detector system had been setup. Overall test with CDC detector prototype and DAQ file server system showed that the present design satisfies the experiment requirement. This paper describes the techniques and also some test results.

  17. The shelf edge exchange processes experiment, SEEP-II: an introduction to hypotheses, results and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaye, Pierre E.; Flagg, Charles N.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    The SEEP (Shelf Edge Exchange Processes)-II experiment was the second of two that took place in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) of the eastern U.S. continental shelf and slope. The experiment included an array of 10 multi-instrumented moorings deployed for 15 months and 10 oceanographic cruises, all designed to address the problem of the fate of continental shelf particulate matter in general, and organic carbon in particular. This paper provides the setting and background for the SEEP Program, the SEEP-II experiment and an introduction to the 18 papers constituting the subject of this special volume. Because those papers lack one of a general nature on the physical oceanographic setting of the experiment, that aspect is treated in somewhat more detail here. The results of the experiment overwhelmingly show that the working hypothesis on which the SEEP Program was undertaken and sponsored by the Department of Energy is not valid. That is, there is not an export to the adjacent slope and open ocean of a large proportion of the particulate matter introduced to and biologically generated in the waters of the continental shelf; most of the biogenic particulate matter is recycled by consumption (bacterial and otherwise) and oxidation on the shelf, and only a small proportion (of order ≪5%) is exported to the adjacent slope. The small amount that is exported appears to be deposited preferentially in the sediments of an area of the slope centered at about 1000 m, and the export and sedimentation to that depocenter appears to increase from the northern to the southern MAB.

  18. Examination of the Mechanism of Rh2(II)-Catalyzed Carbazole Formation Using Intramolecular Competition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Benjamin J.; Richert, Kathleen J.; Driver, Tom G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of a rhodium(II) carboxylate catalyst enables the mild and stereoselective formation of carbazoles from biaryl azides. Intramolecular competition experiments of triaryl azides suggested the source of the selectivity. A primary intramolecular kinetic isotope effect was not observed and correlation of the product ratios with Hammett σ+-values produced a plot with two intersecting lines with opposite ρ-values. These data suggest that electronic donation by the biaryl π-system accelerates the formation of rhodium nitrenoid and that C–N bond formation occurs through a 4π-electron-5-atom electrocyclization. PMID:19663433

  19. Plant growth during the greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; Podolsky, I.

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 °C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible.

  20. Plant growth during the Greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; hide

    2003-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 degrees C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Plant growth during the Greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, F B; Campbell, W F; Carman, J G; Bingham, G E; Bubenheim, D L; Yendler, B; Sytchev, V; Levinskikh, M A; Ivanova, I; Chernova, L; Podolsky, I

    2003-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 degrees C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Plant growth during the Greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; Podolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 degrees C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Integration of experiments across diverse environments identifies the genetic determinants of variation in Sorghum bicolor seed element composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing the bioavailable elemental nutrient content in the edible portions of the crop has the potential to increase the value of sorghum for human and animal nutrition. Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality are in part determined by the sequestration of sufficient mineral nutrients...

  4. Development of a Waveguide FEL Seeded in the 1-3 THz Range for Microbunching Experiment at the Neptune Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, C.; Tochitsky, S. Ya.; Reiche, S.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kimura, W. D.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Pellegrini, C.; Joshi, C.

    2006-11-01

    IFEL and FEL techniques can be used to modulate an electron beam on the scale of the radiation wavelength. However, the lack of a high power radiation source in the 100-300 μm range hinders the progress on THz IFEL microbunching. In this paper, we discuss microbunching of an electron beam using a single-pass FEL seeded with a low power THz pulse generated by frequency mixing of CO2 laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal. A narrowband THz seed source is pumped by a dual beam TEA CO2 laser and can be tuned in the 1-3 THz range. The THz radiation is guided through a hollow waveguide inside the planar FEL undulator driven by a photoinjector. By using a time-dependent FEL code GENESIS 1.3, we optimized the undulator parameters and analyzed the dynamics of the modulated electron beam. By using a ˜ 8 MeV electron beam with a peak current of 40 A and a ˜1kW THz seed with wavelength 200 μm, the energy modulation up to 1.3% can be achieved in a ˜1.8-m long undulator with a constant period of 2.7 cm. At present, the THz seed source is built and fully characterized. The results of transmission measurements for THz waveguides are also discussed.

  5. Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (Mohave, Mohave II): Results Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.; McGee, Thomas G.; Twigg, Laurence W.; Sumnicht, Grant K.; Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt D.; Cadirola, Martin P.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Connell, R.; Demoz, Belay B.; Vomel, Holger; Miloshevich, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE, MOHAVE-II) inter-comparison campaigns took place at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.5(sup o)N) in October 2006 and 2007 respectively. Both campaigns aimed at evaluating the capability of three Raman lidars for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). During each campaign, more than 200 hours of lidar measurements were compared to balloon borne measurements obtained from 10 Cryogenic Frost-point Hygrometer (CFH) flights and over 50 Vaisala RS92 radiosonde flights. During MOHAVE, fluorescence in all three lidar receivers was identified, causing a significant wet bias above 10-12 km in the lidar profiles as compared to the CFH. All three lidars were reconfigured after MOHAVE, and no such bias was observed during the MOHAVE-II campaign. The lidar profiles agreed very well with the CFH up to 13-17 km altitude, where the lidar measurements become noise limited. The results from MOHAVE-II have shown that the water vapor Raman lidar will be an appropriate technique for the long-term monitoring of water vapor in the UT/LS given a slight increase in its power-aperture, as well as careful calibration.

  6. Latest experiences and future plans on NSLS-II insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, T.; Hidaka, Y.; Kitegi, C.; Hidas, D.; Musardo, M.; Harder, D. A.; Rank, J.; Cappadoro, P.; Fernandes, H.; Corwin, T.

    2016-07-27

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The horizontal emittance of the electron beam with the currently installed six damping wigglers is 0.9 nm.rad, which could be further reduced to 0.5 nm.rad with more insertion devices (IDs). With only one RF cavity the beam current is restricted to 200 mA. Five hundred mA operation is envisaged for next year with an addition of the second cavity. Six (plus two branches) beamlines have been commissioned in the initial phase of the project. In July 2015, three NIH funded beamlines called “Advanced Beamlines for Biological Investigations with X-rays” (ABBIX) will be added for operation. This paper describes the experiences of ID development, installation, and commissioning for the NSLS-II project as well as our future plans to improve the performance of the facility in terms of source development.

  7. Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (Mohave, Mohave II): Results Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.; McGee, Thomas G.; Twigg, Laurence W.; Sumnicht, Grant K.; Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt D.; Cadirola, Martin P.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Connell, R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE, MOHAVE-II) inter-comparison campaigns took place at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.5(sup o)N) in October 2006 and 2007 respectively. Both campaigns aimed at evaluating the capability of three Raman lidars for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). During each campaign, more than 200 hours of lidar measurements were compared to balloon borne measurements obtained from 10 Cryogenic Frost-point Hygrometer (CFH) flights and over 50 Vaisala RS92 radiosonde flights. During MOHAVE, fluorescence in all three lidar receivers was identified, causing a significant wet bias above 10-12 km in the lidar profiles as compared to the CFH. All three lidars were reconfigured after MOHAVE, and no such bias was observed during the MOHAVE-II campaign. The lidar profiles agreed very well with the CFH up to 13-17 km altitude, where the lidar measurements become noise limited. The results from MOHAVE-II have shown that the water vapor Raman lidar will be an appropriate technique for the long-term monitoring of water vapor in the UT/LS given a slight increase in its power-aperture, as well as careful calibration.

  8. Tocopherol from seeds of Cucurbita pepo against diabetes: validation by in vivo experiments supported by computational docking.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Prakash, Om; Jaiswal, Sudhir Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2013-11-01

    Tocopherol from raw pumpkin seeds has been reported to be effective in the alleviation of diabetes through its antioxidant activities. This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of the tocopherol fraction of raw seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. (CPSE) in a diabetic rat model. In addition, the putative action mechanisms of its botanicals were computationally investigated. Seed water activity (Aw) was assessed. Tocopherol was extracted and quantified from raw seed oil. The effect of CPSE was studied in poloxamer-407 (PX-407)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. Glycemic, insulinemic, and lipid profiles, as well as lipid peroxidation status, were evaluated. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content in the cecum was evaluated and histopathological analysis of the pancreas was performed. Further, HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 10 documented CPSE botanicals, for putative action mechanisms concerning three proteins [protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)] known to have diabetic therapeutic potential. The Aw of raw seeds was found to be 0.544 ± 0.002. Using tocopherol standards, HPLC determination of CPSE revealed the presence of tocopherol isomers (α, β, γ, and δ). The tocopherol content was found to be 107.4 ± 2.9 mg/100 g of CPSE. When compared to diabetic control (DC) rats, the CPSE-treated diabetic rats presented a significant amelioration of glycemia, insulinemia, and lipid dysmetabolism. A remarkable reduction in oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics were also observed. Tocopherol isomers have shown a considerable interaction potential with the aforesaid proteins in docking. The results provide pharmacological evidence of CPSE as an antihyperglycemic mediated by the interaction of various botanicals with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus (DM).

  9. Search for electroweak single top-quark production with the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Svenja

    2007-11-02

    Understanding the world -- This aim drives humankind since the beginning of conscious thinking. Especially the nature of matter has been of major interest. Nowadays, we have a complex image of the constitution of matter. Atoms consist of electrons and nucleons. But even nucleons are not elementary. Their basic constituents are called quarks. Physicists developed a model describing the elementary components of matter as well as the forces between them: the standard model of elementary particle physics. The substructure of matter is only visible in scattering experiments. In high energy physics, these experiments are done at particle accelerators. The world's highest energetic collider, the Tevatron, is hosted by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), also called Fermilab, in the vicinity of Chicago. The proton-antiproton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are recorded by two multipurpose detectors, namely D0 and CDF II.

  10. Comparison of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and balloon-borne stratospheric water vapor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruvost, P.; Ovarlez, J.; Lenoble, J.; Chu, W. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II has one channel at 940 nm related to water vapor. Two inversion procedures were developed independently in order to obtain the water vapor profile: the Chahine method by the Langley Research Center, and the Mill method by the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique. Comparisons were made between these two algorithms and some results are presented at midlatitudes (about 45 deg N) and tropical latitudes (12-25 deg S). They are compared with in situ frost point hygrometer data provided by balloon experiments from the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique. At +/- 0.5 ppmv, agreement between the inversion results and the experimental results was obtained in the altitude range from 18-19 to 26-27 km. Below 18-19 km and above 26-27 km the error is larger (sometimes 1 ppmv and more).

  11. Comparison of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and balloon-borne stratospheric water vapor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruvost, P.; Ovarlez, J.; Lenoble, J.; Chu, W. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II has one channel at 940 nm related to water vapor. Two inversion procedures were developed independently in order to obtain the water vapor profile: the Chahine method by the Langley Research Center, and the Mill method by the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique. Comparisons were made between these two algorithms and some results are presented at midlatitudes (about 45 deg N) and tropical latitudes (12-25 deg S). They are compared with in situ frost point hygrometer data provided by balloon experiments from the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique. At +/- 0.5 ppmv, agreement between the inversion results and the experimental results was obtained in the altitude range from 18-19 to 26-27 km. Below 18-19 km and above 26-27 km the error is larger (sometimes 1 ppmv and more).

  12. Indirect-drive ablative Rayleigh-Taylor growth experiments on the Shenguang-II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. F.; Fan, Z. F.; Zheng, W. D.; Wang, M.; Pei, W. B.; Zhu, S. P.; Zhang, W. Y.; Miao, W. Y.; Yuan, Y. T.; Cao, Z. R.; Deng, B.; Jiang, S. E.; Liu, S. Y.; Ding, Y. K.; Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H. He, X. T.

    2014-04-15

    In this research, a series of single-mode, indirect-drive, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability experiments performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility [X. T. He and W. Y. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 227 (2007)] using planar target is reported. The simulation results from the one-dimensional hydrocode for the planar foil trajectory experiment indicate that the energy flux at the hohlraum wall is obviously less than that at the laser entrance hole. Furthermore, the non-Planckian spectra of x-ray source can strikingly affect the dynamics of the foil flight and the perturbation growth. Clear images recorded by an x-ray framing camera for the RT growth initiated by small- and large-amplitude perturbations are obtained. The observed onset of harmonic generation and transition from linear to nonlinear growth regime is well predicted by two-dimensional hydrocode simulations.

  13. Implications of nonrandom seed abscission and global stilling for migration of wind-dispersed plant species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sally E; Katul, Gabriel G

    2013-06-01

    Migration of plant populations is a potential survival response to climate change that depends critically on seed dispersal. Biological and physical factors determine dispersal and migration of wind-dispersed species. Recent field and wind tunnel studies demonstrate biological adaptations that bias seed release toward conditions of higher wind velocity, promoting longer dispersal distances and faster migration. However, another suite of international studies also recently highlighted a global decrease in near-surface wind speeds, or 'global stilling'. This study assessed the implications of both factors on potential plant population migration rates, using a mechanistic modeling framework. Nonrandom abscission was investigated using models of three seed release mechanisms: (i) a simple drag model; (ii) a seed deflection model; and (iii) a 'wear and tear' model. The models generated a single functional relationship between the frequency of seed release and statistics of the near-surface wind environment, independent of the abscission mechanism. An Inertial-Particle, Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Closure model (IP-CELC) was used to investigate abscission effects on seed dispersal kernels and plant population migration rates under contemporary and potential future wind conditions (based on reported global stilling trends). The results confirm that nonrandom seed abscission increased dispersal distances, particularly for light seeds. The increases were mitigated by two physical feedbacks: (i) although nonrandom abscission increased the initial acceleration of seeds from rest, the sensitivity of the seed dispersal to this initial condition declined as the wind speed increased; and (ii) while nonrandom abscission increased the mean dispersal length, it reduced the kurtosis of seasonal dispersal kernels, and thus the chance of long-distance dispersal. Wind stilling greatly reduced the modeled migration rates under biased seed release conditions. Thus, species that require

  14. Early Experience with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II for Occlusive Purposes in Arteriovenous Hemodialysis Access

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Steven Narlawar, Ranjeet; Odetoyinbo, Tolulola; Littler, Peter; Oweis, Deyana; Sharma, Ajay; Bakran, Ali

    2010-02-15

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug Type II (AVP II) has proven effective in the therapeutic embolization of various vascular lesions. It benefits from very rapid occlusion of the target lesion and can be deployed, retrieved, and redeployed if required. There is no literature available on use of the AVP II in the maintenance, closure, and management of complicated arteriovenous access in hemodialysis patients. In this series, we present our clinical experience with the use of the AVP II for embolization of problematic hemodialysis access. The AVP II is a self-expandable Nitinol wire-mesh device. Mounted on a delivery wire it has the capability to be deployed, recaptured, and redeployed. In total seven patients (four males: one diabetic, all nonsmokers), with ages ranging from 44 to 81 years (mean, 63 years), were treated between July 2008 and January 2009. One patient had not started dialysis. The remaining six patients had varied histories, with the time on hemodialysis ranging from 1 to 21 years. Retrospective review of clinical notes revealed patient demographics, type of access, device size, deployment site, and outcomes. Indications for embolization included steal syndrome (one patient), high-flow tributaries (two patients), and limb swelling (four patients). All patients had clinical and sonographical follow-up to 3 months. Surgical ligation had either failed, was considered a contraindication due to concerns regarding wound healing, or was considered difficult due to complex venous anatomy. Only one device was used in each patient, ranging from 6 to 16 mm in diameter. Immediate technical success was seen in 100%. All these patients were followed up clinically in the vascular access radiology clinic at 4 weeks and 3 months. Occlusion of the treated vessel and resolution of symptoms were reconfirmed in 100% of cases at 3 months. It was also noted whether patients were having successful dialysis, if required. There were no complications. Average procedural time was 19

  15. Direct seeding

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; G. A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    At present, direct seeding of hardwoods in the Lake States is more of a supplemental than a primary means of artificial regeneration. Direct seeding may be used to augment a poor seed crop or increase the proportion of a preferred species. In the future, it will no doubt play a bigger role-in anticipation of this we need to collect and store the amounts of seed needed...

  16. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II) Experiment: First Results from the Soudan Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Clarence Leeder

    2004-09-01

    There is an abundance of evidence that the majority of the mass of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic non-luminous matter that was non-relativistic at the time when matter began to dominate the energy density. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, are attractive cold dark matter candidates because they would have a relic abundance today of ~0.1 which is consistent with precision cosmological measurements. WIMPs are also well motivated theoretically. Many minimal supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model have WIMPs in the form of the lightest supersymmetric partner, typically taken to be the neutralino. The CDMS II experiment searches for WIMPs via their elastic scattering off of nuclei. The experiment uses Ge and Si ZIP detectors, operated at <50 mK, which simultaneously measure the ionization and athermal phonons produced by the scattering of an external particle. The dominant background for the experiment comes from electromagnetic interactions taking place very close to the detector surface. Analysis of the phonon signal from these interactions makes it possible to discriminate them from interactions caused by WIMPs. This thesis presents the details of an important aspect of the phonon pulse shape analysis known as the ''Lookup Table Correction''. The Lookup Table Correction is a position dependent calibration of the ZIP phonon response which improves the rejection of events scattering near the detector surface. The CDMS collaboration has recently commissioned its experimental installation at the Soudan Mine. This thesis presents an analysis of the data from the first WIMP search at the Soudan Mine. The results of this analysis set the world's lowest exclusion limit making the CDMS II experiment at Soudan the most sensitive WIMP search to this date.

  17. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Bubelev, Vladimir G.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Gomin, Evgeny A.; Kompanietz, Georgy V.; Krutov, Aleksei M.; Lobynstev, Vyacheslav A.; Maiorov, Lev V.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Chunyaev, Evgeny I.; Marshall, Albert C.; Sapir, Joseph L.; Pelowitz, Denise B.

    1995-01-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

  18. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.

    1994-11-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated.

  19. Men’s Appraisals of Their Military Experiences in World War II: A 40-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Settersten, Richard A.; Day, Jack; Elder, Glen H.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on veterans from the longitudinal Harvard Study of Adult Development (N=241), we focused on subjective aspects of military service. We examined how veterans of World War II appraised specific dimensions of military service directly after the war and over 40 years later, as well as the role of military service in their life course. In addition to examining change in appraisals, we examined how postwar appraisals of service mediated the effects of objective aspects of service, and how postwar psychological adjustment and health mediated the effects of postwar appraisals, on later-life appraisals. Men’s appraisals at both time points were generally, but not highly, positive, and revealed remarkable consistency over four decades. Postwar appraisals strongly predicted later-life appraisals and mediated the effects of objective service variables. The effects of postwar appraisals were not carried forward through psychological adjustment or midlife health. Better adjustment, however, was negatively related to later-life appraisals. Results reinforce the idea that how men perceive their military experiences may be more important in predicting outcomes than the experiences themselves. Results are discussed in light of the sample characteristics, the historical context of World War II, and the complexities of appraisal and retrospection. PMID:23284272

  20. Men's Appraisals of Their Military Experiences in World War II: A 40-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Settersten, Richard A; Day, Jack; Elder, Glen H; Waldinger, Robert J

    2012-07-01

    Using data on veterans from the longitudinal Harvard Study of Adult Development (N=241), we focused on subjective aspects of military service. We examined how veterans of World War II appraised specific dimensions of military service directly after the war and over 40 years later, as well as the role of military service in their life course. In addition to examining change in appraisals, we examined how postwar appraisals of service mediated the effects of objective aspects of service, and how postwar psychological adjustment and health mediated the effects of postwar appraisals, on later-life appraisals. Men's appraisals at both time points were generally, but not highly, positive, and revealed remarkable consistency over four decades. Postwar appraisals strongly predicted later-life appraisals and mediated the effects of objective service variables. The effects of postwar appraisals were not carried forward through psychological adjustment or midlife health. Better adjustment, however, was negatively related to later-life appraisals. Results reinforce the idea that how men perceive their military experiences may be more important in predicting outcomes than the experiences themselves. Results are discussed in light of the sample characteristics, the historical context of World War II, and the complexities of appraisal and retrospection.

  1. Comparisons between Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and microwave limb sounder ozone measurements and aliasing of SAGE II ozone trends in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H.; Chu, W. P.; Froidevaux, L.

    1996-04-01

    SAGE II ozone measurements are compared with coincident microwave limb sounder (MLS) measurements over the period September 1991 to December 1993. Between 1.5 and 10 mbar the MLS ozone values are approximately 5% larger than the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II values. These differences are remarkably systematic in space and time. At 1 mbar the mean differences are zero and the mean differences oscillate with level at lower pressures. A month of comparisons against Halogen Occultation Experiment ozone measurements suggests that the differences at pressures less than 1.5 mbar are a feature of the MLS measurements. There are also differences between SAGE II sunrise and sunset measurements at 1 mbar which may be associated with the diurnal tide. At pressures greater than 10 mbar the comparisons indicate that the SAGE II ozone retrievals are being biased by the large aerosol concentrations resulting from the Mount Pinatubo eruption. For a fixed aerosol extinction the SAGE II/MLS difference (ppm) is larger at higher altitudes. It also depends nonlinearly on the aerosol extinction at pressures greater than 20 mbar. These effects are probably caused by the interpolation of the SAGE II aerosol extinction to 0.6 μm and by the evolution of the aerosol size distribution. For UARS layer aerosol optical depths less than 2 × 10-3 at 1.02 μm, the aerosol effect on the SAGE II ozone retrievals is inferred to be 3 × 1010 cm-3/10-3 aerosol layer optical depth at pressures greater than 20 mbar. This is equivalent to approximately 3% of the aerosol extinction at 0.6 μm being interpreted as ozone. At low aerosol concentrations and between 10 and 31 mbar, MLS ozone values are found to be approximately 5% larger than SAGE II ozone values (in agreement with the higher-altitude differences). Atmospheric aerosol concentrations prior to the Mount Pinatubo eruption were large enough, particularly in the tropics after Ruiz in 1985, that long-term trends in SAGE II ozone

  2. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  3. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  4. Universal Length Dependence of Rod-to-Seed Exciton Localization Efficiency in Type I and Quasi-Type II CdSe@CdS Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaifeng; Hill, Lawrence J; Chen, Jinquan; McBride, James R; Pavlopolous, Nicholas G; Richey, Nathaniel E; Pyun, Jeffrey; Lian, Tianquan

    2015-04-28

    A critical step involved in many applications of one-dimensional seeded CdSe@CdS nanorods, such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical gains, and photocatalysis, is the localization of excitons from the light-harvesting CdS nanorod antenna into the light-emitting CdSe quantum dot seed. We report that the rod-to-seed exciton localization efficiency decreases with the rod length but is independent of band alignment between the CdSe seed and CdS rod. This universal dependence can be well modeled by the competition between exciton one-dimensional diffusion to the CdSe seed and trapping on the CdS rod. This finding provides a rational approach for optimizing these materials for their various device applications.

  5. Preliminary Results from the PrimEx-II experiment at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparian, Ashot

    2016-06-01

    Properties of the neutral pion, as the lightest hadron in Nature, are most sensitive to the basic symmetries and their partial breaking effects in the theory of the strong interaction (QCD). In particular, the po →gg decay width is primarily defined by the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking effect (chiral anomaly) in QCD. The next order corrections to the anomaly have been shown to be small and are known to a 1% precision level. The PrimEx Collaboration at JLab has developed and performed two Primakoff type experiments to measure the po →gg decay width with a similar precision. The published result from the PrimEx-I experiment, G(p0 →gg ) = 7.82±0.14 (stat.)±0.17 (syst.) eV, was a factor of two more precise than the average value quoted in PDG-2010 [1]. The second experiment was performed in 2010 with a goal of 1.4% total uncertainty to address the next-to-leading-order theory calculations. The preliminary results from the PrimEx-II experiment are presented and discussed in this note.

  6. Results on Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.; Delpoux, M.; Clegg, J.; Kovalev, E. E.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.; Miller, A. T.

    Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds were flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 for 19 days. A correlative method was used in order to determine the passage of cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles) through the biological test objects. This space flight resulted in a decrease on hatchability, nucleic acid and protein synthesis in hydrated Artemia cysts. HZE particle effects on plant cellular chromosomes are confirmed. In tobacco seeds, a stimulating effect on germination rate and a higher frequency of abnormalities were observed. Dormant biological objects are a very suitable material to study cosmic ray effects: these objects can be arranged in monolayers and sandwiched between visual track detectors in order to determine the passage of the cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles). On the other hand this method allows us to study effects of microgravity and those of the protonic component of cosmic rays in the objects not hit by the HZE particles.

  7. Use of Ar pellet ablation rate to estimate initial runaway electron seed population in DIII-D rapid shutdown experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Moyer, R. A.; Parks, P. B.; Austin, M. E.; Bykov, I.; Cooper, C.; Eidietis, N. W.; O'Mullane, M.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rudakov, D. L.; Shiraki, D.

    2017-01-01

    Small (2-3 mm, 0.9-2 Pa · m3) argon pellets are used in the DIII-D tokamak to cause rapid shutdown (disruption) of discharges. The Ar pellet ablation is typically found to be much larger than expected from the thermal plasma electron temperature alone; the additional ablation is interpreted as being due to non-thermal runaway electrons (REs) formed during the pellet-induced temperature collapse. Simple estimates of the RE seed current using the enhanced ablation rate give values of order 1-10 kA, roughly consistent with estimates based on avalanche theory. Analytic estimates of the RE seed current based on the Dreicer formula tend to significantly underestimate it, while estimates based on the hot tail model significantly overestimate it.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulation of the TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jeraj, Robert; Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-03-15

    Monte Carlo calculations of a criticality experiment with burned fuel on the TRIGA Mark II research reactor are presented. The main objective was to incorporate burned fuel composition calculated with the WIMSD4 deterministic code into the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code and compare the calculated k{sub eff} with the measurements. The criticality experiment was performed in 1998 at the ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the same fuel elements and loading pattern as in the TRIGA criticality benchmark experiment with fresh fuel performed in 1991. The only difference was that in 1998, the fuel elements had on average burnup of {approx}3%, corresponding to 1.3-MWd energy produced in the core in the period between 1991 and 1998. The fuel element burnup accumulated during 1991-1998 was calculated with the TRIGLAV in-house-developed fuel management two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code. The burned fuel isotopic composition was calculated with the WIMSD4 code and compared to the ORIGEN2 calculations. Extensive comparison of burned fuel material composition was performed for both codes for burnups up to 20% burned {sup 235}U, and the differences were evaluated in terms of reactivity. The WIMSD4 and ORIGEN2 results agreed well for all isotopes important in reactivity calculations, giving increased confidence in the WIMSD4 calculation of the burned fuel material composition. The k{sub eff} calculated with the combined WIMSD4 and MCNP4B calculations showed good agreement with the experimental values. This shows that linking of WIMSD4 with MCNP4B for criticality calculations with burned fuel is feasible and gives reliable results.

  9. Electronic Transitions as a Probe of Tetrahedral versus Octahedral Coordination in Nickel(II) Complexes: An Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Carlos A. L.; Carazza, Fernando

    1980-01-01

    Discusses procedures, theoretical considerations, and results of an experiment involving the preparation of a tetrahedral nickel(II) complex and its transformation into an octahedral species. Suggests that fundamental aspects of coordination chemistry can be demonstrated by simple experiments performed in introductory level courses. (Author/JN)

  10. Electronic Transitions as a Probe of Tetrahedral versus Octahedral Coordination in Nickel(II) Complexes: An Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Carlos A. L.; Carazza, Fernando

    1980-01-01

    Discusses procedures, theoretical considerations, and results of an experiment involving the preparation of a tetrahedral nickel(II) complex and its transformation into an octahedral species. Suggests that fundamental aspects of coordination chemistry can be demonstrated by simple experiments performed in introductory level courses. (Author/JN)

  11. The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (Care II) to Study Artificial Dusty Plasmas in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Gatling, G.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Vierinen, J.; Bhatt, A.; Holzworth, R. H., II; McCarthy, M.; Gustavsson, B.; La Hoz, C.; Latteck, R.

    2015-12-01

    A sounding rocket launched from Andoya, Norway in September 2015 carried 37 rocket motors and a multi-instrument daughter payload into the ionosphere to study the generation of plasma wave electric fields and ionospheric density disturbances by the high-speed injection of dust particles. The primary purpose of the CARE II mission is to validate the dress-particle theory of enhanced incoherent scatter from a dusty plasma and to validate models of plasma instabilities driven by high-speed charged particles. The CARE II chemical payload produces 66 kg of micron-sized dust particles composed of aluminium oxide. In addition to the dust, simple molecular combustion products such as N2, H2, CO2, CO, H20 and NO will be injected into the bottomside of the F-layer. Charging of the dust and ion charge exchange with the molecules yields plasma particles moving at hypersonic velocities. Streaming instabilities and shear electric fields causes plasma turbulence that can be detected using ground radars and in situ plasma instruments. The instrument payload was separated from the chemical release payload soon after launch to measure electric field vectors, electron and ion densities, and integrated electron densities from the rocket to the ground. The chemical release of high speed dust was directed upward on the downleg of the rocket trajectory to intersect the F-Layer. The instrument section was about 600 meters from the dust injection module at the release time. Ground HF and UHF radars were operated to detected scatter and refraction by the modified ionosphere. Optical instruments from airborne and ground observatories were used to map the dispersal of the dust using scattered sunlight. The plasma interactions are being simulated with both fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. CARE II is a follow-on to the CARE I rocket experiment conducted from Wallops Island Virginia in September 2009.

  12. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1999-07-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed.

  13. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Contrasting Effects of Resident Vegetation on Establishment, Growth and Reproduction of Dry Grassland Plants: Implications for Seed Addition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle. PMID:23755288

  15. Spatio-temporal variation in contrasting effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland plants: implications for seed addition experiments.

    PubMed

    Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle.

  16. Survival and DNA Damage in Plant Seeds Exposed for 558 and 682 Days outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Leach, Sydney

    2017-03-01

    For life to survive outside the biosphere, it must be protected from UV light and other radiation by exterior shielding or through sufficient inherent resistance to survive without protection. We tested the plausibility of inherent resistance in plant seeds, reporting in a previous paper that Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seeds exposed for 558 days outside the International Space Station (ISS) germinated and developed into fertile plants after return to Earth. We have now measured structural genetic damage in tobacco seeds from this EXPOSE-E experiment by quantitatively amplifying a segment of an antibiotic resistance gene, nptII, inserted into the chloroplast genome. We also assessed the survival of the antibiotic resistance encoded by nptII, using marker rescue in a soil bacterium. Chloroplast DNA damage occurred, but morphological mutants were not detected among the survivors. In a second, longer mission (EXPOSE-R), a nearly lethal exposure was received by Arabidopsis seeds. Comparison between a ground simulation, lacking UV<200nm, and fully exposed seeds in space indicated severe damage from these short wavelengths and again suggested that DNA degradation was not limiting seed survival. To test UV resistance in long-lived, larger seeds, we exposed Arabidopsis, tobacco, and morning glory seeds in the laboratory to doses of UV254nm, ranging as high as 2420 MJ m(-2). Morning glory seeds resisted this maximum dose, which killed tobacco and Arabidopsis. We thus confirm that a naked plant seed could survive UV exposures during direct transfer from Mars to Earth and suggest that seeds with a more protective seed coat (e.g., morning glory) should survive much longer space travel. Key Words: UV light-Flavonoids-Sinapate-DNA degradation-Arabidopsis-Tobacco-Seeds-Space-International Space Station-EXPOSE-E-EXPOSE-R. Astrobiology 17, 205-215.

  17. Status of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter Trigger system at the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Lee, I. S.; Unno, Y.; Cheon, B. G.

    2017-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan has been under the construction toward a physics run in 2018 with an ultimate target of 40 times higher instantaneous luminosity than the KEKB collider. The main physics motivation is to search for the New Physics from heavy quark/lepton flavor decays. In order to select an event of interest efficiently under much higher luminosity and beam background environment than the KEKB, we have upgraded the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECL) hardware trigger system. It would be realized by the improvement of ECL trigger logic based on two main triggers, the total energy and the number of clusters, with an FPGA-based flexible architecture and a high speed serial link for the data transfer. We report the current status of hardware, firmware, and software that has been achieved so far. The overall scheme of the system will be presented as well.

  18. Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries: our experience with a new external fixator.

    PubMed

    Lollino, Nicola; Assom, Marco; Fumero, Sergio; Collura, Maurizio; Merolla, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Proximal humeral fractures in the pediatric population are commonly treated conservatively. When there is an indication for surgery, percutaneous pinning is considered to be the elective choice. We report our experience with a new external fixator that reduces the risk of pin migration and permits an early rehabilitation. The range of motion was completely restored in all patients and no pain or discomfort was detected at follow-up. According to the literature, a small varus malunion at the first x-ray control can be tolerated in the pediatric population because of the remodeling ability of the bone. We conclude that this system provides a good stability and healing of Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries.

  19. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience. Part II: Ceramic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Makenas, Bruce J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is Part II of a review focusing on the United States experience with oxide, carbide, and nitride fast reactor fuel fabrication. Over 60 years of research in fuel fabrication by government, national laboratories, industry, and academia has culminated in a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate these fuel types. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies in the United States for each of these fuel types, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  20. Health as Submission and Social Responsibilities: Embodied Experiences of Javanese Women With Type II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitaloka, Dyah; Hsieh, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    By examining women's experiences with type II diabetes, we explore how illness can provide resources to construct meanings of everyday life in Javanese culture. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants in Central Java, Indonesia, and adopted grounded theory for data analysis. We identified four themes that diabetes serves as resources for women in Indonesia to (a) normalize suffering, (b) resist social control, (c) accept fate, and (d) validate faith. We concluded by noting three unique aspects of Javanese women's illness management. First, through the performance of submission, our participants demonstrated spirituality and religiosity as essential elements of health. Second, diabetes empowers individuals in everyday suffering through two divergent processes: embracing submission and resisting control. Finally, diabetes provides opportunities for individuals within a social network to (re)negotiate social responsibilities. In summary, diabetes provides unique resources to empower our participants to obtain voices that they otherwise would not have had.

  1. Monitoring complex detectors: the uSOP approach in the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, F.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Anastasio, A.; Branchini, P.; Giordano, R.; Izzo, V.; Tortone, G.

    2017-08-01

    uSOP is a general purpose single board computer designed for deep embedded applications in control and monitoring of detectors, sensors and complex laboratory equipments. It is based on the AM3358 (1 GHz ARM Cortex A8 processor), equipped with USB and Ethernet interfaces. On-board RAM and solid state storage allows hosting a full LINUX distribution. In this paper we discuss the main aspects of the hardware and software design and the expandable peripheral architecture built around field busses. We report on several applications of uSOP system in the Belle II experiment, presently under construction at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). In particular we will report the deployment of uSOP in the monitoring system framework of the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

  2. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Emily; Snelson, Catherine M; Chipman, Veraun D; Emer, Dudley; White, Bob; Emmit, Ryan; Wright, Al; Drellack, Sigmund; Huckins-Gang, Heather; Mercadante, Jennifer; Floyd, Michael; McGowin, Chris; Cothrun, Chris; Bonal, Nedra

    2013-12-05

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined.

  3. Creating an occupational therapy Level II fieldwork experience in a county jail setting.

    PubMed

    Provident, Ingrid M; Joyce-Gaguzis, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Although occupational therapy services have been rendered in prisons historically, only one occupational therapy program currently exists in a county jail: the Allegheny County Jail Project (ACJ Project). The offenders who populate county jails experience occupational deprivation. The participants of the ACJ Project have benefited from occupational therapy intervention that was initiated during incarceration and continued following their release from jail in order to help them resume productive life roles and to reduce the reoccurrence of engagement in criminal behaviors (recidivism rate). As of June 2003, the ACJ Project has successfully affected the lifestyle patterns of its participants and overall public safety by helping 63% of participants secure gainful employment and by helping 91.8% of participants maintain their freedom after prison. The purpose of this report is to describe the process and benefits of implementing fieldwork opportunities for Level II occupational therapy students in a best practice occupational therapy program in a nontraditional environment: a county jail.

  4. Latest Results of the Edelweiss-II Dark Matter Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, P.

    2011-04-01

    A search for WIMP dark matter has been undertaken with new-generation germanium heat-and-ionization cryogenic detectors in the EDELWEISS-II experiment. The InterDigit bolometers, with an interleaved electrode design, have proven excellent rejection performance against gamma-ray and surface event backgrounds which are limiting germanium bolometer dark matter searches. One year of continuous operation at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been achieved with an array of ten 400 g detectors. Preliminary resultats for WIMP search are presented with an effective exposure of 322 kg.days, which corresponds to a 5×10-8 pb sensitivity to the spin independant WIMP-nucleon cross-section at 90% C.L. for a WIMP mass of 80 GeV/c2.

  5. Searches for New Physics Using High Mass Dimuons at the CDF II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Karagoz Unel, Muge

    2004-12-01

    This work describes the measurement of inclusive jets cross section in the D0 experiment. This cross section is computed as a function of jet transverse momentum, in several rapidity intervals. This quantity is sensitive to the proton structure and is crucial for the determination of parton distribution functions (PDF), essentially for the gluon at high proton momentum fraction. The measurement presented here gives the first values obtained for Tevatron Run II for the cross section in several rapidity intervals, for an integrated luminosity of 143 pb-1. The results are in agreement, within the uncertainties, with theoretical Standard Model predictions, showing no evidence for new physics. This work points out the aspects of the detector which need better understanding to reach Run I precision and to constrain the PDFs.

  6. Intercomparison of stratospheric water vapor observed by satellite experiments: Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II versus Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, E. W.; McCormick, M. P.; McMaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Larsen, J. C.; Rind, D.; Oltmans, S.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the stratospheric water vapor measurements made by the satellite-borne sensors the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II), the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS), and the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment. LIMS obtained data for 7 months between November 1978 and May 1979; ATMOS was carried on Shuttle and observed eight profiles from April 30 to May 6, 1985 at approximately 30°N and 50°S; and, SAGE II continues to make measurements since its launch in October 1984. For both 30°N and 50°S in May, the comparisons between SAGE II and ATMOS show agreement within the estimated combined uncertainty of the two experiments. Several important features identified by LIMS observations have been confirmed by SAGE II: a well-developed hygropause in the lower stratosphere at low- to mid-latitudes, a poleward latitudinal gradient, increasing water vapor mixing ratios with altitude in the tropics, and the transport of dry lower stratospheric water vapor upward and southward in May, and upward and northward in November. A detailed comparative study also indicates that the two previously suggested corrections for LIMS, a correction in tropical lower stratosphere due to a positive temperature bias and the correction above 28 km based on improved emissivities will bring LIMS measurements much closer to those of SAGE II. The only significant difference occurs at high southern latitudes in May below 18 km, where LIMS measurements are 2-3 ppmv greater. It should be noted that LIMS observations are from 16 to 50 km, ATMOS from 14 to 86 km, and SAGE II from mid-troposphere to 40 km. With multiyear coverage, SAGE II observations should be useful for studying tropospheric-stratospheric exchange, for stratospheric transport, and for preparing water vapor climatologies for the stratosphere and the upper troposphere.

  7. Intercomparison of stratospheric water vapor observed by satellite experiments: Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II versus Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, E.W.; Larsen, J.C. ); McCormick, M.P.; McMaster, L.R.; Chu, W.P. ); Rind, D. ); Oltmans, S. )

    1993-03-20

    This paper presents a comparison of the stratospheric water vapor measurements made by the satellite-borne sensors the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II), the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS), and the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment. LIMS obtained data for 7 months between November 1978 and May 1979; ATMOS was carried on Shuttle and observed eight profiles from April 30 to May 6, 1985 at approximately 30[degrees]N and 50[degrees]S; and, SAGE II continues to make measurements since its launch in October 1984. For both 30[degrees]N and 50[degrees]S in May, the comparisons between SAGE II and ATMOS show agreement within the estimated combined uncertainty of the two experiments. Several important features identified by LIMS observations have been confirmed by SAGE II: a well-developed hygropause in the lower stratosphere at low- to mid-latitudes, a poleward latitudinal gradient, increasing water vapor mixing ratios with altitude in the tropics, and the transport of dry lower stratospheric water vapor upward and southward in May, and upward and northward in November. A detailed comparative study also indicates that the two previously suggested corrections for LIMS, a correction in tropical lower stratosphere due to a positive temperature bias and the correction above 28 km based on improved emissivities will bring LIMS measurements much closer to those of SAGE II. The only significant difference occurs at high southern latitudes in May below 18 km, where LIMS measurements are 2-3 ppmv greater. It should be noted that LIMS observations are from 16 to 50 km, ATMOS from 14 to 86 km, and SAGE II from mid-troposphere to 40 km. With multiyear coverage, SAGE II observations should be useful for studying tropospheric-stratospheric exchange, for stratospheric transport, and for preparing water vapor climatologies for the stratosphere and the upper troposphere. 32 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  9. LASNEX modeling of target expansion in the ETA-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D D-M

    1998-05-20

    We have used the hydrodynamics code LASNEX to model the hydro-expansion of the tantalum target for the ETA-II experiment. The electron beam has kinetic energy of 6 MeV and has a total energy ranges from 720 to 1440 J. The electron beam profile resembles that of a Bennett pinch. The radius for the full-width-at-half-maximum ranges from 1 to 3 mm. For all these parameters, simulations show that the electron beam is able to ablate the central portion of the target. The expansion velocity of the target ranges from about 104 to 5 x 105 cm/s. The target is hot enough so that the surrounding low-density air is ionized and is expanding at a considerably higher velocity than the target itself. Therefore, care must be taken during the experiment to ensure that the measurement is for the tantalum and not for the ionized air.

  10. The Plume Impingement Contamination II Experiment: Motivation, Design, and Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, Forrest E., III; Albyn, Keith C.; Farrell, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will have a long service life during which it must be able to serve as a capable platform for a wide variety of scientific investigations. In order to provide this capability, the ISS has, at the system level, a design requirement of no more than 100 Angstroms of contaminant deposition per year from "non-quiescent" sources. Non-quiescent sources include the plumes resulting from the firing of reaction control system (ReS) engines on space vehicles visiting the ISS as well as the engines on the ISS itself. Unfortunately, good general plume contamination models do not yet exist. This is due both to the complexity of the problem, making the analytic approach difficult, and to the difficulty in obtaining empirical measurements of contaminant depositions. To address this lack of flight data, NASA Johnson Space Center is planning to fly an experiment, Plume Impingement Contamination-II, to measure the contamination deposition from the Shuttle Orbiter's primary RCS engines as a function angle from plume centerline. This represents the first direct on-orbit measurement of plume impingement contamination away from the nozzle centerline ever performed, and as such is extremely important in validating mathematical models which will be used to quantify the cumulative plume impingement contamination to the ISS over its lifetime. The paper will elaborate further upon the motivation behind making these measurements as well as present the design and implementation plan of this planned experiment.

  11. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  12. Outstanding in the Field II: Citizen Science Experiences for Middle Schools in Northeast Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case Hanks, A. T.; Bhattacharjee, J.; Clark, L.; Pugh, A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to prepare middle school teachers for the next generation sciences standards and the new common core, the University of Louisiana at Monroe (ULM) Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Education and Human Development launched the Outstanding in the Field II program. Through the creation of a mesonet with the weather stations at middle school sites, this project aims to foster and enrich the experience of teacher/student-collected data while logging the data into a larger scientific database, producing citizen scientists. By empowering students and teachers to actively participate in 'real science', they generate data to be analyzed from both the physical and life science perspective and thus, highlight the next generation science standards and core disciplinary ideas. This project also promotes collaboration between the life and physical sciences while highlighting scientific practices and cross-cutting concepts within science and literacy. To ensure the successful implementation of the program, faculty and will provide several follow-up workshops during the academic year. These workshops will focus on the common core connections of math and literacy as well as ways in which the project can be supported at each site through face-to-face observations and online collaborations. This year-long program began with a field intensive workshop in July 2012 and enrolled 30 6th, 7th, and 8th science teachers from the Northeast region of Louisiana to provide a genuine scientific experience that would be taken back and applied within the classroom. By becoming students, teachers began by collecting data in the field and establishing and refining the intricate connection between real- world experiments and science taught in classrooms. . They returned to the ULM campus to build and deploy weather stations. Teachers were then tasked with the development of a plan to install the weather station and collect data at their school site with emphasis on implementation within their

  13. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  14. Influence of iron and temperature on growth, nutrient utilization ratios and phytoplankton species composition in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean during the SEEDS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiri, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Isao; Kiyosawa, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    On-board bottle incubation experiments were carried out by adding different amounts of iron as part of the SEEDS (Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study) experiment to elucidate the phytoplankton community response to various iron concentrations. A temperature gradient from 5 to 18 °C was also applied to the incubation experiment because temperature also affects growth rate and metabolic functions such as enzyme reactions. Chlorophyll- a increased with increasing iron concentration, while the increase in chlorophyll- a in the control bottles (no iron addition) was nominal. Size-fractionated chlorophyll- a indicated that micro-phytoplankton (>10 μm) became dominant in the iron-enriched bottles below 13 °C, which was consistent with the results from in situ observations in the simultaneous mesoscale iron-enrichment experiment and similar experiments for the other high nitrate and low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Macronutrients (silicate, nitrate and phosphate) were consumed in the bottles below 13 °C. The consumption ratio of silicate to nitrate was around 1:1 for iron-enriched bottles, but this ratio was slightly higher for control bottles, indicating a physiological stress due to low iron concentration on the diatoms. In contrast, nanophytoplankton (<10 μm) were dominant in the iron-enriched bottles at 18 °C. There was no silicate utilization, but nitrate and phosphate were consumed in these bottles. Bacillariophyceae were dominant in the bottles below 13 °C, but Prymnesiophyceae became dominant at 18 °C. This is the first report demonstrating that temperature influences phytoplankton composition after iron addition in HNLC waters. The Chlorophyll- a specific increase rate for micro-plankton (>10 μm) doubled from 5 to 8 °C and was the highest between 8 and 13 °C at the same iron concentration. The surface mixed layer temperature was 8 °C at the beginning of iron fertilization, but it had been 5 °C just 2 weeks before the

  15. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  16. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  17. [Testicular seminoma in stages I and II non-bulky. 16 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Maranzano, E; Latini, P; Leggio, M; Aristei, C; Panizza, B M; Perrucci, E; Lupattelli, M

    1994-06-01

    From June 1977 through June 1993, ninety-five patients with testicular seminoma were treated in our center. This paper reports on 67 assessable patients--52 with stage I and 15 with non-bulky stage II disease. Median follow-up is 8 years (range: 4-16 years). Postorchiectomy radiotherapy consisted in 30 Gy (1.5 Gy/day) precautionary treatment to ipsilateral hemipelvis and paraaortic nodes (stage I) or 40-45 Gy to the same area plus 25.5-30 Gy prophylactic irradiation to mediastinum and supraclavicular fossae (stage II). Ten-year actuarial survival is 100%-96.8% +/- 2.2 considering deaths from other diseases. Ten-year disease-free survival is 95.3% +/- 2.6. The 3 relapsed patients were rescued with chemotherapy or radiotherapy (1 and 2 cases, respectively). Acute side-effects were nausea (30% of cases) and vomiting (18%) which disappeared after oral antiemetics. Late toxicity-asymptomatic osteolysis of the ipsilateral pubic region--was observed in 1 patient only (1.5%) who received cobalt therapy to inguinal canal and hemiscrotum (40.5 Gy in 27 fractions). The current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to testicular seminoma are discussed. In stage I the conventional treatment is low-dose (20-25 Gy) subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy and a policy of surveillance is justified only for clinical trials. In non-bulky stage II disease lumboaortic and hemipelvic irradiation (36-40 Gy) is the treatment of choice whereas precautionary irradiation should not be given to the mediastinum. If abdominal CT scans show nodal metastases, chest CT is necessary for staging instead of chest X-ray films. When abdominal CT findings are negative or questionable, bi-pedal lymphography must be performed. Residual testis US should be the routine examination for the early diagnosis of metachronous contralateral seminoma. The semen should be tested for further storage and sexual functions should be accurately analyzed to distinguish between organic and psychologic causes. Although limited, our

  18. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (±0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L−1, growth rates were negative and on average −0.23 (±0.05) .day−1. Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII), while the ΦPSII was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L−1. High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of ∼270 µg L−1) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to ≥80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L−1, the ΦPSII dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance. PMID:20676212

  19. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, Jan

    2009-07-24

    The standard model of elementary particle physics (SM) predicts, besides the top-quark pair production via the strong interaction, also the electroweak production of single top-quarks [19]. Up to now, the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton-collider is the only place to produce and study top quarks emerging from hadron-hadron-collisions. Top quarks were directly observed in 1995 during the Tevatron Run I at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.8 TeV simultaneously by the CDF and D0 Collaborations via the strong production of top-quark pairs. Run II of the Tevatron data taking period started 2001 at √s = 1.96 TeV after a five year upgrade of the Tevatron accelerator complex and of both experiments. One main component of its physics program is the determination of the properties of the top quark including its electroweak production. Even though Run II is still ongoing, the study of the top quark is already a successful endeavor, confirmed by dozens of publications from both Tevatron experiments. A comprehensive review of top-quark physics can be found in reference. The reasons for searching for single top-quark production are compelling. As the electroweak top-quark production proceeds via a Wtb vertex, it provides the unique opportunity of the direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vtb|, which is expected to be |Vtb| ~ 1 in the SM. Significant deviations from unity could be an indication of a fourth quark generation, a production mode via flavor-changing neutral currents, and other new phenomena, respectively. There are two dominating electroweak top-quark production modes at the Fermilab Tevatron: the t-channel exchange of a virtual W boson striking a b quark and the s-channel production of a timelike W boson via the fusion of two quarks. In proton-antiproton-collisions the third electroweak production mode, the associated Wt production of an on-shell W boson in conjunction with a top quark has a comparatively negligible small

  20. Permanent prostate implant using high activity seeds and inverse planning with fast simulated annealing algorithm: A 12-year Canadian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Andre-Guy; Roy, Jean; Beaulieu, Luc; Pouliot, Jean; Harel, Francois; Vigneault, Eric . E-mail: Eric.Vigneault@chuq.qc.ca

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes and toxicity of the first Canadian permanent prostate implant program. Methods and Materials: 396 consecutive patients (Gleason {<=}6, initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 and stage T1-T2a disease) were implanted between June 1994 and December 2001. The median follow-up is of 60 months (maximum, 136 months). All patients were planned with fast-simulated annealing inverse planning algorithm with high activity seeds ([gt] 0.76 U). Acute and late toxicity is reported for the first 213 patients using a modified RTOG toxicity scale. The Kaplan-Meier biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) is reported according to the ASTRO and Houston definitions. Results: The bFFS at 60 months was of 88.5% (90.5%) according to the ASTRO (Houston) definition and, of 91.4% (94.6%) in the low risk group (initial PSA {<=}10 and Gleason {<=}6 and Stage {<=}T2a). Risk factors statistically associated with bFFS were: initial PSA >10, a Gleason score of 7-8, and stage T2b-T3. The mean D90 was of 151 {+-} 36.1 Gy. The mean V100 was of 85.4 {+-} 8.5% with a mean V150 of 60.1 {+-} 12.3%. Overall, the implants were well tolerated. In the first 6 months, 31.5% of the patients were free of genitourinary symptoms (GUs), 12.7% had Grade 3 GUs; 91.6% were free of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIs). After 6 months, 54.0% were GUs free, 1.4% had Grade 3 GUs; 95.8% were GIs free. Conclusion: The inverse planning with fast simulated annealing and high activity seeds gives a 5-year bFFS, which is comparable with the best published series with a low toxicity profile.

  1. Survival and DNA Damage in Plant Seeds Exposed for 558 and 682 Days outside the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Sydney

    2017-01-01

    Abstract For life to survive outside the biosphere, it must be protected from UV light and other radiation by exterior shielding or through sufficient inherent resistance to survive without protection. We tested the plausibility of inherent resistance in plant seeds, reporting in a previous paper that Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seeds exposed for 558 days outside the International Space Station (ISS) germinated and developed into fertile plants after return to Earth. We have now measured structural genetic damage in tobacco seeds from this EXPOSE-E experiment by quantitatively amplifying a segment of an antibiotic resistance gene, nptII, inserted into the chloroplast genome. We also assessed the survival of the antibiotic resistance encoded by nptII, using marker rescue in a soil bacterium. Chloroplast DNA damage occurred, but morphological mutants were not detected among the survivors. In a second, longer mission (EXPOSE-R), a nearly lethal exposure was received by Arabidopsis seeds. Comparison between a ground simulation, lacking UV<200nm, and fully exposed seeds in space indicated severe damage from these short wavelengths and again suggested that DNA degradation was not limiting seed survival. To test UV resistance in long-lived, larger seeds, we exposed Arabidopsis, tobacco, and morning glory seeds in the laboratory to doses of UV254nm, ranging as high as 2420 MJ m−2. Morning glory seeds resisted this maximum dose, which killed tobacco and Arabidopsis. We thus confirm that a naked plant seed could survive UV exposures during direct transfer from Mars to Earth and suggest that seeds with a more protective seed coat (e.g., morning glory) should survive much longer space travel. Key Words: UV light—Flavonoids—Sinapate—DNA degradation—Arabidopsis—Tobacco—Seeds—Space—International Space Station—EXPOSE-E—EXPOSE-R. Astrobiology 17, 205–215. PMID:28263676

  2. Survival and DNA Damage in Plant Seeds Exposed for 558 and 682 Days outside the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepfer, David; Leach, Sydney

    2017-03-01

    For life to survive outside the biosphere, it must be protected from UV light and other radiation by exterior shielding or through sufficient inherent resistance to survive without protection. We tested the plausibility of inherent resistance in plant seeds, reporting in a previous paper that Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seeds exposed for 558 days outside the International Space Station (ISS) germinated and developed into fertile plants after return to Earth. We have now measured structural genetic damage in tobacco seeds from this EXPOSE-E experiment by quantitatively amplifying a segment of an antibiotic resistance gene, nptII, inserted into the chloroplast genome. We also assessed the survival of the antibiotic resistance encoded by nptII, using marker rescue in a soil bacterium. Chloroplast DNA damage occurred, but morphological mutants were not detected among the survivors. In a second, longer mission (EXPOSE-R), a nearly lethal exposure was received by Arabidopsis seeds. Comparison between a ground simulation, lacking UV<200nm, and fully exposed seeds in space indicated severe damage from these short wavelengths and again suggested that DNA degradation was not limiting seed survival. To test UV resistance in long-lived, larger seeds, we exposed Arabidopsis, tobacco, and morning glory seeds in the laboratory to doses of UV254nm, ranging as high as 2420 MJ m-2. Morning glory seeds resisted this maximum dose, which killed tobacco and Arabidopsis. We thus confirm that a naked plant seed could survive UV exposures during direct transfer from Mars to Earth and suggest that seeds with a more protective seed coat (e.g., morning glory) should survive much longer space travel.

  3. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of the quasi-biennial oscillations in ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Joseph M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    The first measurements ever to show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in NO2 have been made by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II) (SAGE II) and are presented in this work along with observations of the well-known QBO in stratospheric ozone. The SAGE II instrument was launched aboard the Earth Radiation Budget satellite near the end of 1984. Measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide through early 1990 are analyzed for the presence of a quasi-biennial oscillation. The measurements show the global extent of both the O3 and NO2 QBO in the 25- to 40-km region of the stratosphere. The SAGE II QBO results for ozone compare favorably to theory and previous measurements. The QBO in NO2 is found to be consistent with the vertical and horizontal transport of NOy. Both species exhibit a QBO at extratropical latitudes consistent with strong meridional transport into the winter hemisphere.

  4. Search for Electroweak Single-Top Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, Matthias; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-08-01

    The CDF II experiment and the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider are parts of the Fermi National Laboratories (Fermilab). The Fermilab is located in the vicinity of Chicago, USA. Today, the Tevatron is the only collider which is able to produce the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and the D0 collaborations in 1995 [1]. So far, all the top quarks found are produced via the strong interaction as top-antitop pairs. The Standard Model of elementary particle physics also predicts single-top quark production via the electroweak interaction. This production mode has not yet been observed. The CDF and the D0 collaborations have set upper limits on the cross section for that process in Run I [2, 3] and improved those results in Run II [4, 5]. Single-top quark production is one of the major interests in Run II of the Tevatron as it offers several ways to test the Standard Model and to search for potential physics beyond the Standard Model. The measurement of the cross section of singly produced top quarks via the electroweak interaction offers the possibility to determine the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element V{sub tb} directly. The CKM matrix defines the transformation from the eigenstates of the electroweak interactions to the mass eigenstates of the quarks. V{sub tb} gives the strength of the coupling at the Wtb vertex. The single-top quark is produced at this vertex and therefore the cross section of the single-top quark production is directly proportional to |V{sub tb}|{sup 2}. In the Standard Model, three generations of quarks and the unitarity of the CKM matrix are predicted. This leads to V{sub tb} {approx} 1. Up to now, there is no possibility to measure V{sub tb} without using the assumption that there are a certain number of quark generations. Since the measurement of the cross section of single-top quark production is independent of this assumption it could verify another

  5. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I.; Marshall, A.C.; Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B.

    1995-01-20

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  6. Differential predation of forage seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  7. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Treesearch

    T. E. Russell

    1971-01-01

    Upland oaks can be established by seeding or planting, but additional experience is needed before these methods become economical alternatives to natural regeneration. Recently forested sites are generally more favorable than abandoned fields. Lack of repellents to protect acorns from animals severely limits direct seeding, but oaks can be planted readily by...

  8. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  9. HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist Device Pump Exchange: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Asad F; Joseph, Susan M; Lima, Brian; Hall, Shelley A; Malyala, Rajasekhar; Rafael, Aldo E; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V; Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles

    2016-11-30

    Background Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized the treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. These devices are replaced when pump complications arise if heart transplant is not possible. We present our experience with HeartMate II (HMII (Thoratec, Plesanton, California, United States)) LVAD pump exchange. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases that required pump exchange due to LVAD complication from November 2011 until June 2016 at a single high-volume institution. The indications, demographics, and outcome were extracted and analyzed. Results Of 250 total patients with implanted HMII LVADs, 16 (6%) required pump exchange during the study period. The initial indications for LVAD placement in these patients were bridge to transplantation (n = 6 [37.5%]) or destination therapy (n = 10 [62.5%]). Fifteen patients (93.8%) required pump exchange due to pump thrombosis and 1 (6.2%) due to refractory driveline infection. Nine patients (56.2%) underwent repeat median sternotomy while a left subcostal approach was used in the remaining seven patients. Fifteen patients (93.7%) survived until hospital discharge. During the follow-up period (median, 155 days), 11 patients remained alive and 4 of these underwent successful cardiac transplantation. Conclusion HMII LVAD pump exchange can be safely performed for driveline infection or pump thrombosis when heart transplantation is not an option.

  10. Hospitalization experience of Navajo subjects with type II diabetes and matched controls: an historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Crabtree, B F; Nakamura, R M; Kelley, D

    1990-01-01

    Using an historical cohort study design with a 12 year follow-up, we found that 77 Navajo adults with type II diabetes mellitus were hospitalized at a rate of 335 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years compared to a rate of 167 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years for 77 age, sex, and residence matched non-diabetic controls, yielding a risk ratio of 2.0. Using matched pairs analysis (sign test), the observed difference in number of hospital admissions is statistically significant (z = 2.30, p less than 0.05). The average duration of hospitalization, however, was not statistically different in matched pairs analysis (z = 0.95, p greater than 0.05). The 136 excess hospitalizations of the diabetic subjects included 45 admissions for poor metabolic control of diabetes, 50 excess admissions for infectious disease, and 26 excess admissions for conditions of the heart, eye, kidney, or non-traumatic amputation. In multivariate analyses, variables found to be associated with greater hospitalization experience among the 77 diabetic subjects in the 12 years follow-up period included older age at entry to the study, poorer metabolic control early in the study period, and presence of diabetic complications.

  11. [Supercritical CO2 extraction and component analysis of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Yu; Shi, Zhao-Hua; Li, Hai-Chi; Ge, Fa-Huan; Zhan, Hua-Shu

    2013-03-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsonii seed. Using the yield of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil as the index, optimized supercritical CO2 extraction parameter by orthogonal experiment methodology and analysed the compounds of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil by GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsoniit seed were determined: the extraction pressure was 28 MPa and the temperature was 38 degrees C, the separation I pressure was 12 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the separation II pressure was 5 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the extraction time was 110 min. The average extraction rate of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil was 1.264%. 26 kinds of compounds were identified by GC-MS in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2. The main components were fatty acids. Comparing with the petroleum ether extraction, the supercritical CO2 extraction has higher extraction rate, shorter extraction time, more clarity oil. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil have differences.

  12. Two-colour pump–probe experiments with a twin-pulse-seed extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Allaria, E.; Bencivenga, F.; Borghes, R.; Capotondi, F.; Castronovo, D.; Charalambous, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Danailov, M. B.; De Ninno, G.; Demidovich, A.; Di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Fausti, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Ferrari, E.; Froehlich, L.; Gauthier, D.; Gessini, A.; Giannessi, L.; Ivanov, R.; Kiskinova, M.; Kurdi, G.; Mahieu, B.; Mahne, N.; Nikolov, I.; Masciovecchio, C.; Pedersoli, E.; Penco, G.; Raimondi, L.; Serpico, C.; Sigalotti, P.; Spampinati, S.; Spezzani, C.; Svetina, C.; Trovò, M.; Zangrando, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the dynamics of matter driven to extreme non-equilibrium states by an intense ultrashort X-ray pulse is becoming reality, thanks to the advent of free-electron laser technology that allows development of different schemes for probing the response at variable time delay with a second pulse. Here we report the generation of two-colour extreme ultraviolet pulses of controlled wavelengths, intensity and timing by seeding of high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser with multiple independent laser pulses. The potential of this new scheme is demonstrated by the time evolution of a titanium-grating diffraction pattern, tuning the two coherent pulses to the titanium M-resonance and varying their intensities. This reveals that an intense pulse induces abrupt pattern changes on a time scale shorter than hydrodynamic expansion and ablation. This result exemplifies the essential capabilities of the jitter-free multiple-colour free-electron laser pulse sequences to study evolving states of matter with element sensitivity. PMID:24048228

  13. Background identification system in MEG II experiment based on high-rate scintillation detector with SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, R.

    2017-02-01

    The MEG experiment has been searching for the lepton flavor violating process, μ+ arrow e+γ, which is a clear evidence of new physics models beyond the Standard Model. The upgrade experiment (MEG II) is currently being prepared to obtain one order higher branching ratio sensitivity Script B < 5.0 × 10-14 by using the world's most intense muon beam up to ~108 μ+/s and upgraded detectors with considerably improved performance. One of the keys for the upgrade is to suppress the background rate which is significantly increased with the higher muon decay rate. In the MEG II experiment, the Radiative Decay Counter (RDC) will be newly introduced for active background identification. The RDC is able to identify the most dominant background due to photons from Radiative Muon Decay and improve the sensitivity by 22%. In this paper, the concept of the RDC and its development are described.

  14. Direct seeding for forestation

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1980-01-01

    Direct seeding, an attractive alternative to planting, is not a simple method of forestation. Past experiences show far more failures than successes. Well documented procedures must be followed to insure any degree of success. In general, conifers have given the best results. Black walnut and black locust are notable exceptions. Current research suggests that other...

  15. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  16. Seed proteomics.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, Ján A; Hajduch, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cell biologists, and many of the complicated aspects of their processing, assembly, and compartmentation are now well understood. Unfortunately, the abundance and complexity of the SSP requires that they be avoided or removed prior to gel-based analysis of non-SSP. While much of the extant data from MS-based proteomic analysis of seeds is descriptive, it has nevertheless provided a preliminary metabolic picture explaining much of their biology. Contemporary studies are moving more toward analysis of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, and functions of metabolic networks. Many aspects of the biology of seeds make then an attractive platform for heterologous protein expression. Herein we present a broad review of the results from the proteomic studies of seeds, and speculate on a potential future research directions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electroweak production of the top quark in the Run II of the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Benoit

    2006-04-28

    The work exposed in this thesis deals with the search for electroweak production of top quark (single top) in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. This production mode has not been observed yet. Analyzed data have been collected during the Run II of the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. These data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 370 pb-1. In the Standard Model, the decay of a top quark always produce a high momentum bottom quark. Therefore bottom quark jets identification plays a major role in this analysis. The large lifetime of b hadrons and the subsequent large impact parameters relative to the interaction vertex of charged particle tracks are used to tag bottom quark jets. Impact parameters of tracks attached to a jet are converted into the probability for the jet to originate from the primary vertex. This algorithm has a 45% tagging efficiency for a 0.5% mistag rate. Two processes (s and t channels) dominate single top production with slightly different final states. The searched signature consists in 2 to 4 jets with at least one bottom quark jet, one charged lepton (electron or muon) and missing energy accounting for a neutrino. This final state is background dominated and multivariate techniques are needed to separate the signal from the two main backgrounds: associated production of a W boson and jets and top quarks pair production. The achieved sensitivity is not enough to reach observation and we computed upper limits at the 95% confidence level at 5 pb (s-channel) and 4.3 pb (t-channel) on single top production cross-sections.

  18. ALICE Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II in the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanillas, J. C.; Martínez, M. I.; León, I.

    2016-10-01

    The ALICE Diffractive (AD0) detector has been installed and commissioned for the second phase of operation (RUN-II). With this new detector it is possible to achieve better measurements by expanding the range of pseudo-rapidity in which the production of particles can be detected. Specifically the selection of diffractive events in the ALICE experiment which was limited by the range over which rapidity gaps occur. Any new detector should be able to take data synchronously with all other detectors and to be operated through the ALICE central systems. One of the key elements developed for the AD0 detector is the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS is designed to operate safely and correctly this detector. Furthermore, the DCS must also provide optimum operating conditions for the acquisition and storage of physics data and ensure these are of the highest quality. The operation of AD0 implies the configuration of about 200 parameters, as electronics settings and power supply levels and the generation of safety alerts. It also includes the automation of procedures to get the AD0 detector ready for taking data in the appropriate conditions for the different run types in ALICE. The performance of AD0 detector depends on a certain number of parameters such as the nominal voltages for each photomultiplier tube (PMT), the threshold levels to accept or reject the incoming pulses, the definition of triggers, etc. All these parameters affect the efficiency of AD0 and they have to be monitored and controlled by the AD0 DCS.

  19. Relationship between biomass, seed components and seed Cd concentration in various peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars grown on Cd-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gangrong; Su, Gengqiang; Lu, Ziwei; Liu, Caifeng; Wang, Xvming

    2014-12-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) exhibit high genotypic variations in seed Cd accumulation, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to reveal the main factors that determine Cd concentration in peanut seeds. The biomasses and Cd accumulation in plant tissues as well as the Cd distribution in the seeds of 15 peanut cultivars were analyzed in a pot experiment at 4mgkg(-1) Cd (treatment) and 0mgkg(-1) Cd (control). Peanuts exhibited large variations among cultivars in terms of Cd accumulation and distribution at the whole-plant and seed levels. The peanut cultivars were divided into three groups based on [Cd]embryos as follows: (i) high Cd accumulators (Zhenghong 3 and Haihua 1), (ii) low Cd accumulators (Qishan 208, Luhua 8, and Yuhua 15), and (iii) intermediate Cd accumulators (10 remaining cultivars). [Cd]embryos was significantly correlated with [Cd]testae and [Cd]oils at control conditions, whereas in the 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatment, [Cd]embryos was negatively correlated with plant biomass, total Cd and its proportion in vegetative organs, and seed oil contents. [Cd]embryos was positively correlated with protein contents, [Cd]oils, and proportion of Cd in protein extracts at 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatments. The attenuation of Cd by high biomass of vegetative tissues and Cd-binding proteins in seeds mainly determined the Cd concentration in peanut seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrorefining Experience For Pyrochemical Reprocessing of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; B. R. Westphal; K. M. Goff; R. W. Benedict

    2005-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. This report summarizes technical advancements made in electrorefining of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mk-IV electrorefiner since the pyrochemical processing was integrated into the AFCI program in 2002. The significant advancements include improving uranium dissolution and noble metal retention from chopped fuel segments, increasing cathode current efficiency, and achieving co-collection of zirconium along with uranium from the cadmium pool.

  1. Nuclear instrumentation system operating experience and nuclear instrument testing in the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Yingling, G. E.; Curran, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    In March of 1972 three wide range nuclear channels were purchased from Gulf Atomics Corporation and installed in EBR-II as a test. The three channels were operated as a test until April 1975 when they became a permanent part of the reactor shutdown system. Also described are the activities involved in evaluating and qualifying neutron detectors for LMFBR applications. Included are descriptions of the ANL Components Technology Division Test Program and the EBR-II Nuclear Instrument Test Facilities (NITF) used for the in-reactor testing and a summary of program test results from EBR-II.

  2. IPv6 transport experiment using the GMPLS-controlled network of JGN II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, S.; Otani, T.

    2005-11-01

    IPv6 transport over the GMPLS-controlled optical network of JGN II was experimentally investigated, and four FastEthernet IPv6 streams were successfully transported with OSPFv3 routing information exchange.

  3. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  4. Phase-II trials in osteosarcoma recurrences: A systematic review of past experience.

    PubMed

    Omer, Natacha; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Marec-Berard, Perrine; Italiano, Antoine; Corradini, Nadège; Bellera, Carine; Brugières, Laurence; Gaspar, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The most appropriate design of Phase-II trials evaluating new therapies in osteosarcoma remains poorly defined. To study consistency in phase-II clinical trials evaluating new therapies for osteosarcoma recurrences with respect to eligibility criteria, response assessment, end-points, statistical design and reported results. Systematic review of clinical trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialsregister.eu and French National Cancer Institute website or referenced in PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology websites, between 2003 and 2016, using the following criteria: (osteosarcoma OR bone sarcoma) AND (Phase-II). Among the 99 trials identified, 80 were Phase-II, 17 I/II and 2 II/III, evaluating mostly targeted therapy (n = 40), and chemotherapy alone (n = 26). Results were fully (n = 28) or partially (abstract, n = 6) published. Twenty-four trials were dedicated to osteosarcoma, 22 had an osteosarcoma stratum. Twenty-eight out of 99 trials refer to the age range observed at recurrence (28%). Overall, 65 trials were run in multicentre settings, including 17 international trials. Only 9 trials were randomised. The primary end-point was tumour response in 71 trials (response rate, n = 40 or best response, n = 31), with various definitions (complete + partial ± minor response and stable disease), mainly evaluated with RECIST criteria (n = 69); it was progression-free survival in 24 trials and OS in 3. In single-arm trials evaluating response rate, the null hypothesis tested (when available, n = 12) varied from 5% to 25%. No robust historical data can currently be derived from past efficacy Phase-II trials. There is an urgent need to develop international randomised Phase-II trials across all age ranges with standardised primary end-point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of closed flux during CHI formation of a spherical tokamak in the HIT-II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Raman, R.; Redd, A. J.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Smith, R. J.

    2007-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - II (HIT-II) experiment has demonstrated current drive by transformer action (OH), Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and combinations of both. The electron temperature and density profiles of plasmas in HIT-II are measured by multi-point Thomson scattering (MPTS), and magnetic equilibria are reconstructed with EFIT. Internal probing of relaxed CHI discharges shows significant poloidal flux amplification. EFIT reconstructions of relaxed CHI discharges indicate significant closed flux, and poloidal flux increase in time. CHI initiated OH plasmas generate closed flux during the purely CHI startup. Temperature profiles of purely CHI plasmas do not match open flux models. When CHI is added to an ohmic plasma, the edge temperature drops by 75%, and the edge density doubles, while the core plasma properties remain similar to OH only discharges, indicating a transport barrier. The simplest explanation of the data is the formation and sustainment of closed flux during CHI current drive. The limitations on HIT-II CHI discharges are discussed, suggesting refinements to future experiments.

  6. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  7. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  8. Particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in laser-plasma experiments on Shenguang-II facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui; Dong, Quanli; Zhu, Jianqiang; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Recently, magnetic reconnection has been realized in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas. Plasma bubbles with self-generated magnetic fields are created by focusing laser beams to small-scale spots on a foil. The bubbles expand into each other, which may then drive magnetic reconnection. The reconnection experiment in laser-produced plasmas has also been conducted at Shenguang-II (SG-II) laser facility, and the existence of a plasmoid was identified in the experiment [Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215001 (2012)]. In this paper, by performing two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate such a process of magnetic reconnection based on the experiment on SG-II facility, and a possible explanation for the formation of the plasmoid is proposed. The results show that before magnetic reconnection occurs, the bubbles squeeze strongly each other and a very thin current sheet is formed. The current sheet is unstable to the tearing mode instability, and we can then observe the formation of plasmoid(s) in such a multiple X-lines reconnection.

  9. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  10. The Woven EndoBridge cerebral aneurysm embolization device (WEB II): initial clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Joachim; Sychra, Vojtech; Strasilla, Christoph; Liebig, Thomas; Fiorella, David

    2011-08-01

    The Woven Endobridge (WEB II) device (Sequent Medical, Inc., Aliso Viejo, CA, USA) is an intra-saccular, oblate, braided-wire embolization device designed to provide flow disruption at the aneurysm neck-parent artery interface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and short-term performance of the WEB II device regarding the immediacy, degree, and durability of aneurysm occlusion in two patients. The WEB II device was implanted in one patient with an unruptured MCA trifurcation aneurysm and one patient with an unruptured basilar tip aneurysm. The degree of intra-aneurysmal flow disruption was graded based on serial digital subtraction aneurysm angiography performed over 30 min immediately following device implantation and at 8 weeks. Immediate and 8-week post-treatment CT and 3-T MRI studies were also performed. Delivery and deployment of the WEB II device was technically straightforward and achieved without complications. Neither device required retrieval or repositioning after full deployment. There were no peri-procedural thrombembolic or hemorrhagic complications. In both cases, complete aneurysm occlusion was observed within minutes of device deployment. Short-term angiographic follow-up confirmed stable complete occlusion at 8 weeks. Early technical and clinical results from the first WEB II cases have been encouraging and suggest that the intra-saccular deployment of self-expanding, compliant, cylindrical, high-density, braided metallic mesh constructs may represent a feasible approach for the endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms.

  11. Validation of the ORA spatial inversion algorithm with respect to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data.

    PubMed

    Fussen, D; Arijs, E; Nevejans, D; Van Hellemont, F; Brogniez, C; Lenoble, J

    1998-05-20

    We present the results of a comparison of the total extinction altitude profiles measured at the same time and at same location by the ORA (Occultation Radiometer) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II solar occultation experiments at three different wavelengths. A series of 25 events for which the grazing points of both experiments lie within a 2 degrees window has been analyzed. The mean relative differences observed over the altitude range 15-45 km are -8.4%, 1.6%, and 3% for the three channels (0.385, 0.6, and 1.02 microm). Some systematic degradation occurs below 20 km (as the result of signal saturation and possible cloud interference) and above 40 km (low absorption). The fair general agreement between the extinction profiles obtained by two different instruments enhances our confidence in the results of the ORA experiment and of the recently developed vertical inversion algorithm applied to real data.

  12. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jason; Lanka, Srinivas; Stout, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates. PMID:26462952

  13. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jason; Lanka, Srinivas; Stout, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  14. Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

    2006-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

  15. Ecotypic variability in the metabolic response of seeds to diurnal hydration-dehydration cycles and its relationship to seed vigor.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Sikron, Noga; Gendler, Tanya; Kazachkova, Yana; Barak, Simon; Grafi, Gideon; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Seeds in the seed bank experience diurnal cycles of imbibition followed by complete dehydration. These conditions pose a challenge to the regulation of germination. The effect of recurring hydration-dehydration (Hy-Dh) cycles were tested on seeds from four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions [Col-0, Cvi, C24 and Ler]. Diurnal Hy-Dh cycles had a detrimental effect on the germination rate and on the final percentage of germination in Col-0, Cvi and C24 ecotypes, but not in the Ler ecotype, which showed improved vigor following the treatments. Membrane permeability measured by ion conductivity was generally increased following each Hy-Dh cycle and was correlated with changes in the redox status represented by the GSSG/GSH (oxidized/reduced glutathione) ratio. Among the ecotypes, Col-0 seeds displayed the highest membrane permeability, whilst Ler was characterized by the greatest increase in electrical conductivity following Hy-Dh cycles. Following Dh 2 and Dh 3, the respiratory activity of Ler seeds significantly increased, in contrast to the other ecotypes, indicative of a dramatic shift in metabolism. These differences were associated with accession-specific content and patterns of change of (i) cell wall-related laminaribiose and mannose; (ii) fatty acid composition, specifically of the unsaturated oleic acid and α-linoleic acid; and (iii) asparagine, ornithine and the related polyamine putrescine. Furthermore, in the Ler ecotype the content of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates fumarate, succinate and malate increased in response to dehydration, in contrast to a decrease in the other three ecotypes. These findings provide a link between seed respiration, energy metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, nitrogen mobilization and membrane permeability and the improved germination of Ler seeds following Hy-Dh cycles.

  16. Experiences from nonevaporable getter-coated vacuum chambers at the MAX II synchrotron light source

    SciTech Connect

    Hansson, A.; Wallen, E.; Berglund, M.; Kersevan, R.; Hahn, M.

    2010-03-15

    Vacuum chambers coated with nonevaporable getter (NEG) materials have been used in straight sections of synchrotron light sources for the past 10 years. The MAX II storage ring, where four NEG-coated insertion device vacuum chambers and three NEG-coated dipole vacuum chambers have been installed, is the first synchrotron light source to also use NEG-coated dipole vacuum chambers. In connection with the installation of the latest two NEG-coated dipole chambers in April 2009, the evolution of the pressure and lifetime-limiting effects in MAX II has been determined from measurements with movable scrapers. The results have been compared with results from scraper measurements done in 2003, before any NEG-coated vacuum chambers were installed in the storage ring. Less than three months after the installation of the latest dipole chambers the vacuum system in MAX II was performing well with a pressure already lower than the pressure measured in 2003.

  17. Biological effects of high-LET particles on corn-seed embryos in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project--Biostack III experiment.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D D; Benton, E V; Tran, M; Yang, T; Freeling, M; Craise, L; Tobias, C A

    1977-01-01

    High-LET particle hits in embryos of Zea mays corn seeds, flown as part of Biostack III in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, were determined via plastic nuclear track detectors. Based on etched particle-track measurements, 41 embryos were hit in seed layer 1 which contained 80 seeds, and 49 hits occurred in layer 2 which contained 79 seeds. The mean LET value and range of atomic numbers of recorded hits is, respectively, 210 +/- 57 keV micrometers -1 and 9 < or approximately Z < or approximately 26. Detailed analysis of one particular seed showing marked growth anomalies revealed two hits in the central region of the embryo. These two hits had LET values in the region of 100-150 keV micrometers-1, and Z > or approximately 20.

  18. Postfire drill-seeding of Great Basin plants: Effects of contrasting drills on seeded and nonseeded species

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey E. Ott; Robert D. Cox; Nancy L. Shaw; Beth A. Newingham; Amy C. Ganguli; Mike Pellant; Bruce A. Roundy; Dennis L. Eggett

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of postfire seeding in the Great Basin include reestablishment of perennial cover, suppression of exotic annual weeds, and restoration of diverse plant communities. Nonconventional seeding techniques may be required when seeding mixes of grasses, forbs, and shrubs containing seeds of different sizes. We conducted an operational-scale experiment to...

  19. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Activities for the Fall Semester, 1987 focused on investigating the mechanical/electrical properties of wheat seeds and forming various Seed Planting System (SPS) concepts based on those properties. The Electrical Division of the design group was formed to devise an SPS using electrostatic charge fields for seeding operations. Experiments concerning seed separation using electrical induction (rearranging of the charges within the seed) were conducted with promising results. The seeds, when exposed to the high voltage and low current field produced by a Van de Graff generator, were observed to move back and forth between two electrodes. An SPS concept has been developed based on this phenomena, and will be developed throughout the Spring Semester, 1988. The Mechanical Division centered on SPS concepts involving valves, pumps, and fluids to separate and deliver seeds. An SPS idea utilizing the pressure difference caused by air as it rushes out of holes drilled in the wall of a closed container has been formulated and will be considered for future development. Also, a system of seed separation and delivery employing a combination of centrifugal force, friction, and air flow was considered.

  20. Seed dormancy in alpine species.

    PubMed

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-10-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field.

  1. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  2. Microscale Organic Laboratory II: The Benefits Derived from Conversion to the Program and Representative Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Dana W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Smaller amounts of materials are used in organic chemistry experiments as a means of improving air quality in the laboratory. Outlines benefits from this approach and describes two representative experiments in detail. These experiments are the Cannizzaro reaction and preparation of an aromatic nitrile. (JN)

  3. Results of site validation experiments. Volume II. Supporting documents 5 through 14

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains the following supporting documents: Summary of Geologic Mapping of Underground Investigations; Logging of Vertical Coreholes - ''Double Box'' Area and Exploratory Drift; WIPP High Precision Gravity Survey; Basic Data Reports for Drillholes, Brine Content of Facility Internal Strata; Mineralogical Content of Facility Interval Strata; Location and Characterization of Interbedded Materials; Characterization of Aquifers at Shaft Locations; and Permeability of Facility Interval Strate.

  4. Scalability of Robotic Controllers: An Evaluation of Controller Options-Experiment II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    release; distribution unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the...endorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Army Research...Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT

  5. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California; Part II, Data tables and plots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Janice M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Okaya, D.A.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Rybert, Trond; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), was conducted to produce seismic images of the subsurface in the Los Angeles region. Primary targets were major fault systems and sedimentary basins; the goal of the project was to address the earthquake hazard posed by these geologic features. The first phase of data collection (LARSE 1) was completed in 1994; the second phase (LARSE 2) was completed in 1999. A description of the 1999 survey and an overview of both phase I and II is given in Fuis and others (2001). In this report, we present the technical details for the explosion data collected in 1999.

  6. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-antitop quark production with the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Weinelt, Julia; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-12-01

    The Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab) operates the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, the is therefore the only collider which is today able to produce the heaviest known particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and D0 collaborations in 1995. At the Tevatron, most top quarks are produced via the strong interaction, whereby quark-antiquark annihilation dominates with 85%, and gluon fusion contributes with 15%. Considering next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions in the cross section of top-antitop quark production, leads to a slight positive asymmetry in the differential distribution of the production angle {alpha} of the top quarks. This asymmetry is due to the interference of certain NLO contributions. The charge asymmetry A in the cosine of {alpha} is predicted [14] to amount to 4-6%. Information about the partonic rest frame, necessary for a measurement of A in the observable cos {alpha}, is not accessible in the experiment. Thus, they use the rapidity difference of the top and the antitop quark as sensitive variable. This quantity offers the advantage of Lorentz invariance and is uniquely correlated with the cosine of {alpha}, justifying the choice of the rapidity difference to describe the behavior of cos {alpha}. In preparation for a measurement of the charge asymmetry, they conduct several Monte Carlo based studies concerning the effect of different event selection criteria on the asymmetry in the selected event samples. They observe a strong dependence of the measured asymmetry on the number of required jets in the particular event sample. This motivates further studies to understand the influence of additional gluon radiation, which leads to more than four observed jets in an event, on the rapidity distribution of the produced top quarks. They find, that events containing hard gluon radiation are correlated with a strong negative shift of the rapidity

  7. Maternity care during the post-World War II Baby Boom: the experience of general duty nurses.

    PubMed

    Martell, L K

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe maternity nursing during the post-World War II Baby Boom from the perspective of general duty nurses. During the Baby Boom, maternity care changed with medical advances and the highest birth rate ever in the United States. This study provides insight into the impact of context on nurses' work experiences. Seven general duty postpartum or nursery nurses were interviewed about their nursing experiences during the Baby Boom. Constant comparative analysis was used to synthesize the transcripts of the interviews into in-depth descriptions of participants' work experiences. The large numbers of mothers and babies in their care, the prevailing concerns for infections, and paternalism influenced these nurses' work. Expectations about and by the nurses as well as work relationships contributed to the nurses' acceptance and rejection of changes in care of mothers and babies.

  8. Domestic residence to multi-storey building. The lived experience of hospital grounds in Melbourne before World War II.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Hospital grounds in Melbourne, Australia, before World War I resembled imposing residential sites with grand mansions surrounded by shrubberies, circular drives and tennis courts. By World War II hospitals had become multi-storey buildings surrounded by car parks and grass. Although there have been numerous studies that link the changing built environment of hospitals to social, medical and architectural narratives, there has been little emphasis on the impact of these changes on the experience of the hospital as a place, and its identity as an institution. The broader meanings for staff and patients are not explored. This paper then investigates the outdoor grounds of hospitals as places before World War II in Melbourne, Australia. This analysis illuminates a hitherto neglected aspect of hospital history that not only enriches an understanding of this period but provides insights into the role of outdoor grounds that has implications for twenty-first century hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissolution and dissolution/permeation experiments for predicting systemic exposure following oral administration of the BCS class II drug clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Kristin, Forner; René, Holm; Boontida, Morakul; Buraphacheep, Junyaprasert Varaporn; Maximilian, Ackermann; Johanna, Mazur; Peter, Langguth

    2017-04-01

    In order to save time and resources in early drug development, in vitro methods that correctly predict the formulation effect on oral drug absorption are necessary. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate various BCS class II drug formulations with in vitro methods and in vivo in order to 2) determine which in vitro method best correlates with the in vivo results. Clarithromycin served as model compound in formulations with different particle sizes and content of excipients. The performed in vitro experiments were dissolution and dissolution/permeation experiments across two types of membrane, Caco-2 cells and excised rat intestinal sheets. The in vivo study was performed in rats. The oral absorption was enhanced by downsizing drug particles and by increasing the excipient concentration. This correlated strongly with the flux across Caco-2 cells but not with the other in vitro experiments. The insufficient correlation with the dissolution experiments can be partly explained by excipient caused problems during the filtration step. The very poor correlation of the in vivo data with the flux across excised rat intestinal sheets might be due to an artificially enlarged mucus layer ex vivo. In conclusion, downsizing BCS class II drug particles and the addition of surfactants enhanced the in vivo absorption, which was best depicted by dissolution/permeation experiments across Caco-2 cells. This setup is proposed as best model to predict the in vivo formulation effect. Also, this is the first study to evaluate the impact of the nature of the permeation membrane in dissolution/permeation experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Online monitoring for the CDF Run II experiment and the remote operation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arisawa, T.; Fabiani, D.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Ikado, K.; Kubo, T.; Kusakabe, Y.; Maeshima, K.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Plager, C.; Schmidt, E.; /Fermilab /INFN, Pisa /Karlsruhe U.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of the CDF Run II online event monitoring framework, placed well before the physics runs start, allowed to develop coherent monitoring software across all the different subsystems which consequently made maintenance and operation simple and efficient. Only one shift person is needed to monitor the entire CDF detector, including the trigger system. High data quality check is assured in real time and well defined monitoring results are propagated coherently to offline datasets used for physics analyzes. We describe the CDF Run II online event monitoring system and operation, with emphasis on the remote monitoring shift operation started since November 2006 with Pisa-INFN as pilot Institution and exploiting the WEB based access to the data.

  11. Development of a small He II cryostat with optical windows for a microgravity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, N.; Takada, S.; Gotoh, S.; Kawamata, H.; Iida, M.; Murakami, M.; Nagai, H.; Mamiya, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study film-boiling phenomena in saturated superfluid helium (He IIs) under a microgravity environment, a very compact visualization setup was designed and fabricated at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). It consists of a cryostat, a vacuum pump, a high-speed video camera and electrical circuits for measurement. The cryostat in the setup is equipped with optical windows for the visualization of film boiling in He IIs. The setup was tested to verify its thermal and safety performance under a microgravity environment using a 10 m free-drop tower at the Hokkaido Center of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Successful system operation from 1.94 to 2.05 K under microgravity conditions below 1 × 10 -3 g was confirmed. The design and test results are described in this technical note.

  12. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  13. Experience with the PEP-II RF System at High Beam Currents

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, Paul L.

    2000-07-06

    The PEP-II Factory Low-Level RF System (LLRF) is a fully programmable VXI based design running under an EPICS control environment. Several RF feedback loops are used to control longitudinal coupled-bunch modes driven by the accelerating mode of the RF cavities. This paper updates the performance of the LLRF system as beam currents reach design levels. Modifications which enhance the stability, diagnostics, and overall operational performance are described. Recent data from high current operation is included.

  14. Bounds on diurnal modulations from the COSME-II dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collar, J. I.; Avignone, F. T.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Garcia, E.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nuñez-Lagos, R.; Reeves, J. H.; Saenz, C.; Villar, J. A.

    1992-07-01

    A search was conducted for diurnal modulation in the background of the 0.234 kg germanium detector, COSME-II, due to the hypothetized scattering of cold dark matter (CDM) particles in the Earth. Bounds on CDM are presented, and a theory of CDM scattering in the Earth is discussed. Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830.

  15. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II device: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Türkmen, Esma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Off-label use of different devices has been described for percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defects (VSD) because of the unacceptable rate of post-procedure heart block associated with special VSD devices. Aim To describe the early single-center clinical experience with closure of a VSD using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO II) device in children. Material and methods Between May 2013 and June 2015, 26 patients between 13 days and 16 years of age underwent percutaneous closure of a VSD with an ADO II device at our institute. The decision to use the ADO II device was based primarily on lower risk of total atrioventricular block (TAVB) after VSD closure reported in the literature, reduction of the cost of the procedure and the need to close symptomatic VSDs in young patients. Results The location of the VSD was perimembranous in 21 patients, postsurgical residual in 2, midmuscular in 2 and apical muscular in 1. Complex procedures including newborn, combined procedures and postsurgical residual VSD were performed in 5 (19%) patients. The median duration of follow-up was 12 months. The complete VSD closure rate was 81% immediately after the procedure, 85% at 24 h, and 93% at the last follow-up. There was no device embolization. During the entire follow-up period, TAVB did not develop. Conclusions The ADO II constitutes a safe and effective therapeutic alternative for morphologically varied VSDs in all pediatric age groups. A larger range of sizes and configurations of this occluder may be required to successfully occlude a wider range of VSDs. PMID:27980548

  16. PBFA II-Z: A 20-MA driver for z-pinch experiments

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Sandia is modifying the PBFA II accelerator into a dual use facility. While maintaining the present ion-beam capability, we are developing a long-pulse, high-current operating mode for magnetically-driven implosions. This option, called PBFA II-Z, will require new water transmission lines, a new insulator stack, and new magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Each of the existing 36, coaxial water pulse-forming sections will couple to a 4.5-{Omega}, bi-plate water-transmission line. The water transmission lines then feed a four-level insulator stack. The insulators are expected to operate at a maximum, spatially-averaged electric field of {approximately}l00 kV/cm. The MITL design is based on the successful biconic Saturn design. The four ``disk`` feeds will each have a vacuum impedance of {approximately}2.0 {Omega}. The disk feeds are added in parallel using a double post-hole convolute at a diameter of 15 cm. We predict that the accelerator will deliver 20 MA to a 15-mg z-pinch load in 100 ns, making PBFA II-Z the most powerful z-pinch driver in the world providing a pulsed power and load physics scaling testbed for future 40-80-MA drivers.

  17. Case report of treatment experience with idursulfase beta (Hunterase) in an adolescent patient with MPS II.

    PubMed

    Ngu, Lock-Hock; Ong Peitee, Winnie; Leong, Huey Yin; Chew, Hui Bein

    2017-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II or Hunter syndrome is a chronic, progressive, multi-systemic illness associated with significant morbidity and early mortality. Available evidence in Asian populations shows that Hunter syndrome has a mean age of onset of 2 to 5 years and a life expectancy of 13 years in more severely affected individuals, with respiratory failure reported as the leading cause of death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase, Shire Pharmaceuticals) and idursulfase beta (Hunterase, Green Cross Corp) are the only approved treatment for patients with MPS II. While these agents have the same amino acids, they have different glycosylation patterns because they are produced in different cell lines via different manufacturing processes. In previous studies, the beneficial effects of idursulfase beta have been confirmed in patients up to 35 years of age, without serious treatment-related safety concerns. The major drawbacks associated with ERT include the potential development of serious infusion-related anaphylactic reactions and up to 50% of treated patients develop anti-IDS antibodies. Here we report the case of a 13-year-old Malaysian patient with attenuated MPS II who developed troublesome infusion-associated reactions while receiving idursulfase treatment but tolerated and responded favorably to idursulfase beta.

  18. Long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for stage II testicular seminoma--the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Hallemeier, Christopher L; Pisansky, Thomas M; Davis, Brian J; Choo, Richard

    2013-11-01

    To report long-term outcomes of patients with stage II testicular seminoma treated with radiotherapy (RT). A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients who received megavoltage RT for stage II testicular seminoma at Mayo Clinic between 1974 and 2007. Forty-eight patients (92%) had computed tomography staging. Overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and cause-specific survival (CSS) were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Major cardiac event (MCE) was defined as myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting or stenting, or valve replacement. Second malignancy (SM) was defined as biopsy-confirmed malignancy occurring in the RT field. The median patient age at diagnosis was 36 years. Stage was IIA (n = 24), IIB (n = 7), IIC (n = 17), and II not otherwise specified (NOS, n = 4). The median infradiaphragmatic RT dose was 30.7 Gy. Twenty-six patients (50%) received prophylactic mediastinal/supraclavicular (MSCV) RT. The median follow-up was 19 years. Estimates of OS, RFS, and CSS were 94%, 80%, and 96% at 10 years, and 83%, 72%, and 96% at 20 years, respectively. RFS at 10 years for stage IIA, IIB, IIC, and II NOS were 83%, 54%, 81%, and 100%, respectively (log-rank P = 0.21). Ten patients (19%) experienced disease relapse in the MSCV region (n = 7), para-aortic lymph nodes (n = 1), lung (n = 1), or peritoneal cavity (n = 1). Eight patients were successfully salvaged with chemotherapy and/or surgery, while 2 died of seminoma. Risk of MSCV relapse was significantly lower in patients who received MSCV RT vs. those who did not (10-year estimates: 4% vs. 21%, respectively, log-rank P = 0.01). MCE occurred in 10 patients (19%) at a median of 18 years (range 7-30) after RT. SM occurred in 5 patients (10%) at a median of 27 years (range 20-34) after RT. In patients with stage II testicular seminoma treated with RT, relapse in the irradiated site was uncommon. Infradiaphragmatic RT alone was associated with a significant risk of MSCV failure

  19. Pegasus II Experiments and Plans for the Atlas Pulsed Power Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    concepts have been identified for the first experimental campaigns on Atlas. These experiments include Rayleigh -Taylor instability studies, convergent...e.g., Bell- Plesset type) instability studies, material strength experiments at very high strain and strain rate, hydrodynamic flows in 3...dimensional geometries, equation of state measurements along the hugoniot and adiabats, transport and shock propagation in dense strongly-coupled plasmas

  20. A One-Pot Self-Assembly Reaction to Prepare a Supramolecular Palladium(II) Cyclometalated Complex: An Undergraduate Organometallic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Alberto; Lopez-Torres, Margarita; Fernandez, Jesus J.; Vazquez-Garcia, Digna; Vila, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in advanced inorganic chemistry is described. Students prepare palladium(II) cyclometalated complexes. A terdentate [C,N,O] Schiff base ligand is doubly deprotonated upon reaction with palladium(II) acetate in a self-assembly process to give a palladacycle with a characteristic tetranuclear structure. This…

  1. A One-Pot Self-Assembly Reaction to Prepare a Supramolecular Palladium(II) Cyclometalated Complex: An Undergraduate Organometallic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Alberto; Lopez-Torres, Margarita; Fernandez, Jesus J.; Vazquez-Garcia, Digna; Vila, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in advanced inorganic chemistry is described. Students prepare palladium(II) cyclometalated complexes. A terdentate [C,N,O] Schiff base ligand is doubly deprotonated upon reaction with palladium(II) acetate in a self-assembly process to give a palladacycle with a characteristic tetranuclear structure. This…

  2. Cognitive Experiences Reported by Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 16-year Prospective Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Wedig, Michelle M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assesses three main types of cognition: nonpsychotic thought (odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and non-delusional paranoia), quasi-psychotic thought, and true-psychotic thought in borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years. It also compares the rates of these disturbed cognitions to those reported by axis II comparison subjects. Method The cognitive experiences of 362 inpatients—290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects—were assessed at study entry using the cognitive section of the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Their cognitive experiences were reassessed every two years using the same interview. Results Each of the five main types of thought studied was reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects over time. Each of these types of thought, except true-psychotic thought, declined significantly over time for those in both groups. Eleven of the 17 more specific forms of thought studied were also reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients over the years of follow-up: magical thinking, overvalued ideas, recurrent illusions, depersonalization, derealization, undue suspiciousness, ideas of reference, other paranoid ideation, quasi-psychotic delusions, quasi-psychotic hallucinations, and true-psychotic hallucinations. Fourteen specific forms of thought were found to decline significantly over time for those in both groups: all forms of thought mentioned above except true-psychotic hallucinations plus marked superstitiousness, sixth sense, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Conclusions Disturbed cognitions are common among borderline patients and distinguishing for the disorder. They also decline substantially over time but remain a problem, particularly those of a nonpsychotic nature. PMID:23558452

  3. The overvoltage protection module for the power supply system for the pixel detector at Belle II experiment at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, P.; Kisielewski, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the overvoltage protection modules (OVP) for the power supply (PS) system of the Belle II pixel detector (PXD) are described. The aim of the OVP is to protect the detector and associated electronics against overvoltage conditions. Most critical in the system are voltages supplying the front-end ASICs. The PXD detector consists of the DEPFET sensor modules with integrated chips like the Drain Current Digitizer, the Switcher and the Data Handling Processor. These chips, implemented in modern sub-micron technologies, are quite vulnerable to variations in the supply voltages. The PXD will be placed in the Belle II experiment as close as possible to the interaction point, where access during experiment is very limited or even impossible, thus the PS and OVP systems exploit the remote-sensing method. Overvoltage conditions are due to failures of the PS itself, wrong setting of the output voltages or transient voltages coming out of hard noisy environment of the experiment. The OVP modules are parts of the PS modules. For powering the PXD 40 PS modules are placed 15 m outside the Belle II spectrometer. Each one is equipped with the OVP board. All voltages (22) are grouped in 4 domains: Analog, Digital, Steering and Gate which have independent grounds. The OVP boards are designed from integrated circuits from Linear Technology. All configurations were simulated with the Spice program. The control electronics is designed in a Xilinx CPLD. Two types of integrated circuits were used. LT4356 surge stopper protects loads from high voltage transients. The output voltages are limited to a safe value and also protect loads against over current faults. For less critical voltages, the LTC2912 voltage monitors are used that detect under-voltage and overvoltage events. It has to be noted that the OVP system is working independently of any other protection of the PS system, which increases its overall reliability. (authors)

  4. The first results of He II boiling visualization experiment conducted under 4.7 seconds microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, S.; Kimura, N.; Pietrowicz, S.; Grunt, K.

    2017-09-01

    An experiment regarding boiling of superfluid helium (He II) has been carried out under conditions of microgravity, in order to investigate the dynamics of the phase transition. A small cryostat equipped with visualization setup has been utilized for this purpose. Presence of two orthogonal optical axes allowed for registering of 3-dimensional images of a vapor bubble induced by a micro heater. Microgravity environment has been produced for about 4.7 s using the 122 m high drop tower facility at ZARM (Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity), University of Bremen, Germany. The experimental campaign consisting of 32 drops has been successfully conducted, while avoiding any damage to the equipment.

  5. Title: Development of Single photon Quantum Optical Experiments using Type-I and Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugharn, Andrew; Maleki, Seyfollah

    We constructed a quantum optical apparatus to control and detect single photons. We generated these photons via Type-I and Type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion by pumping a GaN laser (405nm) incident on a BBO crystal. We detected the two down converted photons (810nm), denoted signal and idler, in coincidence so as to measure and control single photons. We implemented a coincidence counting unite onto an Altera DE2 board and used LabView for data acquisition. We used these photon pairs to demonstrate quantum entanglement and indistinguishability using multiple optical experiments.

  6. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  7. Type II cryoglobulinemia is not associated with hepatitis C infection: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, J W Cohen; Van Paassen, P; Damoiseaux, J

    2007-06-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) are cryoprecipitable immunocomplexes. In type II MC, a combination of polyclonal and monoclonal immunoglobulins is found, whereas in type III a combination of polyclonal immunoglobulins is detected. MC is usually associated with hepatitis C (HCV) infection as has been found in studies that have been performed in countries with a high prevalence of HCV. Because HCV has an extremely low prevalence in the Netherlands (<0.1% of the population), we wondered whether HCV is also associated with MC in our regional referral center. To answer this question, we tested consecutive patients with type II MC for HCV antibodies and for HCV-mRNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Between January 2000 and June 2005, 22 patients tested positive for type II MC. Seven patients had essential MC, 2 patients had MC due to a lymphoproliferative disease, 10 patients had MC in the context of a systemic autoimmune disease, and 3 patients had MC without a clear diagnosis. HCV antibodies were not detected in any of the 22 patients. Also, all samples tested negative for HCV-mRNA. During follow-up none of these patients developed an HCV infection. In summary, the estimated occurrence of HCV in 60-90% of patients with MC is not found in our region where MC is only infrequently associated with HCV. In a substantial proportion of our patients a really "essential MC" is observed. A search for yet unknown etiological factors is clearly needed in these patients, who frequently have severe renal involvement warranting aggressive immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutter, W.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Benthien, M.L.; Godfrey, N.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C.H.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using

  9. Zero-g experiments with a He II active phase separator for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, H. D.; Klipping, G.; Lueders, K.; Ruppert, U.; Stahnke, F.; Szuecs, Z.; Elleman, D.; Petrac, D.

    An active phase separator (APS) for temperature control of He II space cooling systems was tested in a zero-g environment during a series of parabolic flights on a NASA KC 135 aircraft. The APS provides for liquid-gas separation and features an annular gap, a downstream heat exchanger and an upstream ball closure. The apparatus was operated during acceleration and floating and in two different heat load situations. The tests confirmed that adequate mass flow rates could be maintained using a vacuum pump to simulate space vacuum and that residual liquid could be evaporated from the heat exchanger after closing a ball valve to seal off flows.

  10. Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II Global Positioning System Interactive Simulation (GPS DIS) Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RWA Manned Simulators 11 3.2.6 Voice Radio Communications: SRE & ASTi 11 3.2.7 ModSAF Operations 11 3.2.8 Data Logger 12 3.2.9 Time Stamper 12...utilized were the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) Radio Emulator (SRE), the ASTi Radio, and the Tactical Internet Model (TIM...SGIs at the MWTB and ASTi radios at Ft. Rucker. These two Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 4 ADST-II-CDRL-GPSDIS-9800018A

  11. Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    The SAGE II satellite system was launched on October 5, 1984. It has seven radiometric channels and is beginning to provide water vapor, NO2, and O3 concentration profiles and aerosol extinction profiles at a minimum of three wavelengths. A simple, fast and operational method of retrieving characteristics of stratospheric aerosols from the water vapor and three-wavelength aerosol extinction profiles is proposed. Some examples are given to show the practicality of the scheme. Possible sources of error for the retrieved values and the limitation of the proposed method are discussed. This method may also prove applicable to the study of aerosol characteristics in other multispectral extinction measurements.

  12. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  13. Lasers in the Undergraduate Curriculum II: Coursework Experiments and Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steehler, Jack K.

    1990-01-01

    Described are 14 experiments that use lasers. Topic areas include physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry. Instrumentation and the use of the laser in undergraduate research are discussed. (CW)

  14. Corneal topography measurement by means of radial shearing interference: Part II - experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garncarz, Beata E.; Kowalik, Waldemar W.; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

    The method of the measurement of the corneal topography was worked out. This measurement system uses an interferometer based on radial shearing. This paper presents the preliminary results of the experiments. The results are compared with other methods.

  15. Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, M.P.; McMaster, L.R.; Chu, W.P. ); Chiou, E.W.; Larsen, J.C. ); Rind, D. ); Oltmans, S. )

    1993-03-20

    This paper presents a description of the annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere derived from observations of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II). The altitude-time cross sections exhibit annually repeatable patterns in both hemispheres. The appearance of a yearly minimum in water vapor in both hemispheres at approximately the same time supports the idea of a common source(s) for stratospheric dry air. Annual patterns observed at northern mid-latitudes, like the appearance of a hygropause in winter and the weakening and upward shifting of the hygropause from January to May, agree with in situ balloon observations previously obtained over Boulder and Washington, DC. An increase in water vapor with altitude in the tropics is consistent with methane oxidation in the upper stratosphere to lower mesosphere as a source for water vapor. A poleward gradient is also shown as expected based on a Lagrangian mean circulation. A linear regression analysis using SAGE II data from January 1986 to December 1988 shows that little annual variation occurs in the middle and upper stratosphere with the region of large annual variability near the tropopause. The semi-annual variability is relatively marked at altitudes of 24 and 40 km in the tropics. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Milkweed Seed Dispersal: A Means for Integrating Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisbee, Gregory D.; Kaiser, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates biology and physics concepts by experimenting with the seed dispersal of common milkweed or similar wind-dispersed seeds. Student teams collect seeds and measure several parameters, review principles of trajectory motion, perform experiments, and graph data. Students examine the ideas of…

  17. Milkweed Seed Dispersal: A Means for Integrating Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisbee, Gregory D.; Kaiser, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates biology and physics concepts by experimenting with the seed dispersal of common milkweed or similar wind-dispersed seeds. Student teams collect seeds and measure several parameters, review principles of trajectory motion, perform experiments, and graph data. Students examine the ideas of…

  18. Uncommon Mixed Type I and II Choledochal Cyst: An Indonesian Experience.

    PubMed

    Siahaya, Fransisca J; Lalisang, Toar J M; Jeo, Wifanto S; Simanjuntak, Arnold B H; Philippi, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Bile duct cyst is an uncommon disease worldwide; however, its incidence is remarkably high in Asian population, primarily in children. Nevertheless, the mixed type choledochal cysts are extremely rare especially in adults. A case report of a 20-year-old female with a history of upper abdominal pain that was diagnosed with cholecystitis with stone and who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy is discussed. Choledochal malformation was found intraoperatively. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) and USG after first surgery revealed extrahepatic fusiform dilatation of the CBD; therefore, provisional diagnosis of type I choledochal cyst was made. Complete resection of the cyst was performed, and a mixed type I and II choledochal cyst was found intraoperatively. Bile duct reconstruction was carried out with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The mixed type I and II choledochal cysts are rare in adults, and this is the third adult case that has been reported. The mixed type can be missed on radiology imaging, and diagnosing the anomaly is only possible after a combination of imaging and intraoperative findings. Mixed type choledochal cyst classification should not be added to the existing classification since it does not affect the current operative techniques.

  19. JUPITER-II Molten Salt Flibe Research: An Update On Tritium, Mobilization and Redox Chemistry Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Petti; D. A. Petti; G. R. Smolik; Michael F. Simpson; John P. Sharpe; R. A. Anderl; S. Fukada; Y. Hatano; Masanori Hara; Y. Oya; T. Terai; D.-K. Sze; S. Tanaka

    2005-05-01

    The second Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Research (JUPITER-II) began on April 1, 2001. Part of the collaborative research centers on studies of the molten salt 2LiF2–BeF2 (also known as Flibe) for fusion applications. Flibe has been proposed as a self-cooled breeder in both magnetic and inertial fusion power plant designs over the last 25 years. The key feasibility issues associated with the use of Flibe are the corrosion of structural material by the molten salt, tritium behavior and control in the molten salt blanket system, and safe handling practices and releases from Flibe during an accidental spill. These issues are all being addressed under the JUPITER-II program at the Idaho National Laboratory in the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility. In this paper, we review the program to date in the area of tritium/deuterium behavior, Flibe mobilization under accident conditions and testing of Be as a redox agent to control corrosion. Future activities planned through the end of the collaboration are also presented.

  20. Uncommon Mixed Type I and II Choledochal Cyst: An Indonesian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Siahaya, Fransisca J.; Lalisang, Toar J. M.; Jeo, Wifanto S.; Simanjuntak, Arnold B. H.; Philippi, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Bile duct cyst is an uncommon disease worldwide; however, its incidence is remarkably high in Asian population, primarily in children. Nevertheless, the mixed type choledochal cysts are extremely rare especially in adults. A case report of a 20-year-old female with a history of upper abdominal pain that was diagnosed with cholecystitis with stone and who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy is discussed. Choledochal malformation was found intraoperatively. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) and USG after first surgery revealed extrahepatic fusiform dilatation of the CBD; therefore, provisional diagnosis of type I choledochal cyst was made. Complete resection of the cyst was performed, and a mixed type I and II choledochal cyst was found intraoperatively. Bile duct reconstruction was carried out with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The mixed type I and II choledochal cysts are rare in adults, and this is the third adult case that has been reported. The mixed type can be missed on radiology imaging, and diagnosing the anomaly is only possible after a combination of imaging and intraoperative findings. Mixed type choledochal cyst classification should not be added to the existing classification since it does not affect the current operative techniques. PMID:23781379

  1. The Neuro-Z-Vertex Trigger of the Belle II Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skambraks, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Sara; Kiesling, Christian

    2016-11-01

    A neural network z vertex trigger is planned for the upcoming Belle II detector at the SuperKEKB collider. This neural algorithm is based on a single track 3D parameter estimation using only hit and drift time information from the central drift chamber. Due to the high luminosity (L = 8 × 1035 cm-2 s-1) Belle II will have to face high levels of beam induced background, making a z vertex reconstruction at the first level trigger mandatory. Using the neural z vertex algorithm, the requirements of the standard track trigger can be strongly relaxed. By this, the trigger efficiencies, especially for low multiplicity events, e.g. τ pair production, can be significantly increased. This contribution presents the foreseen neural network trigger setup and the preceding 2D track finder. Special focus is put on the proposal and evaluation of a possible 3D upgrade of the 2D track finder. Additionally, details are given on a dedicated setup for the upcoming cosmic ray test.

  2. Low background stainless steel for the pressure vessel in the PandaX-II dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Fu, C.; Ji, X.; Liu, J.; Liu, X.; Wang, X.; Yao, C.; Yuan, Xunhua

    2016-09-01

    We report on the custom produced low radiation background stainless steel and the welding rod for the PandaX experiment, one of the deep underground experiments to search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay using xenon. The anthropogenic 60Co concentration in these samples is at the range of 1 mBq/kg or lower. We also discuss the radioactivity of nuclear-grade stainless steel from TISCO which has a similar background rate. The PandaX-II pressure vessel was thus fabricated using the stainless steel from CISRI and TISCO. Based on the analysis of the radioactivity data, we also made discussions on potential candidate for low background metal materials for future pressure vessel development.

  3. Cytokeratin-based assessment of tumour budding in colorectal cancer: analysis in stage II patients and prospective diagnostic experience.

    PubMed

    Koelzer, Viktor H; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Dawson, Heather; Mitrovic, Bojana; Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Kirsch, Richard; Riddell, Robert H; Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti

    2017-07-01

    Tumour budding in colorectal cancer is an important prognostic factor. A recent consensus conference elaborated recommendations and key issues for future studies, among those the use of pan-cytokeratin stains, especially in stage II patients. We report the first prospective diagnostic experience using pan-cytokeratin for tumour budding assessment. Moreover, we evaluate tumour budding using pan-cytokeratin stains and disease-free survival (DFS) in stage II patients. To this end, tumour budding on pan-cytokeratin-stained sections was evaluated by counting the number of tumour buds in 10 high-power fields (0.238 mm(2)), then categorizing counts as low/high-grade at a cut-off of 10 buds, in two cohorts. Cohort 1: prospective setting with 236 unselected primary resected colorectal cancers analysed by 17 pathologists during diagnostic routine. Cohort 2: retrospective cohort of 150 stage II patients with information on DFS. In prospective analysis of cohort 1, tumour budding counts correlated with advanced pT, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion (all p < 0.0001), and distant metastasis (p = 0.0128). In cohort 2, tumour budding was an independent predictor of worse DFS using counts [p = 0.037, HR (95% CI): 1.007 (1.0-1.014)] and the low-grade/high-grade scoring approach [p = 0.02; HR (95% CI): 3.04 (1.2-7.77), 90.7 versus 73%, respectively]. In conclusion, tumour budding assessed on pan-cytokeratin slides is feasible in a large pathology institute and leads to expected associations with clinicopathological features. Additionally, it is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in stage II patients and should be considered for risk stratification in future clinical studies.

  4. Cytokeratin‐based assessment of tumour budding in colorectal cancer: analysis in stage II patients and prospective diagnostic experience

    PubMed Central

    Koelzer, Viktor H; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Dawson, Heather; Mitrovic, Bojana; Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Kirsch, Richard; Riddell, Robert H; Lugli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tumour budding in colorectal cancer is an important prognostic factor. A recent consensus conference elaborated recommendations and key issues for future studies, among those the use of pan‐cytokeratin stains, especially in stage II patients. We report the first prospective diagnostic experience using pan‐cytokeratin for tumour budding assessment. Moreover, we evaluate tumour budding using pan‐cytokeratin stains and disease‐free survival (DFS) in stage II patients. To this end, tumour budding on pan‐cytokeratin‐stained sections was evaluated by counting the number of tumour buds in 10 high‐power fields (0.238 mm2), then categorizing counts as low/high‐grade at a cut‐off of 10 buds, in two cohorts. Cohort 1: prospective setting with 236 unselected primary resected colorectal cancers analysed by 17 pathologists during diagnostic routine. Cohort 2: retrospective cohort of 150 stage II patients with information on DFS. In prospective analysis of cohort 1, tumour budding counts correlated with advanced pT, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion (all p < 0.0001), and distant metastasis (p = 0.0128). In cohort 2, tumour budding was an independent predictor of worse DFS using counts [p = 0.037, HR (95% CI): 1.007 (1.0–1.014)] and the low‐grade/high‐grade scoring approach [p = 0.02; HR (95% CI): 3.04 (1.2–7.77), 90.7 versus 73%, respectively]. In conclusion, tumour budding assessed on pan‐cytokeratin slides is feasible in a large pathology institute and leads to expected associations with clinicopathological features. Additionally, it is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in stage II patients and should be considered for risk stratification in future clinical studies. PMID:28770101

  5. The use of Apatite II™ to remove divalent metal ions zinc(II), lead(II), manganese(II) and iron(II) from water in passive treatment systems: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Josep; De Pablo, Joan; Cortina, José-Luis; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos

    2010-12-15

    The conventional passive treatments for remediation of acid mine drainage using calcite are not totally efficient in the removal of certain heavy metal ions. Although pH increases to 6-7 and promotes the precipitation of trivalent and some divalent metals as hydroxides and carbonates, the remaining concentrations of some divalent metals ions do not fulfill the environmental regulations. In this study, Apatite II™, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, is used as an alternative reactive material to remove Zn(II), Pb(II), Mn(II) and Fe(II). Apatite II™ reacted with acid water releasing phosphate and increasing pH up to 6.5-7, inducing metals to precipitate mainly as metal-phosphates: zinc precipitated as hopeite, Zn(3)(PO(4))(2)·4H(2)O, lead as pyromorfite, Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, manganese as metaswitzerite, Mn(3)(PO(4))(2)·4H(2)O and iron as vivianite, Fe(3)(PO(4))(2)·8H(2)O. Thus, metal concentrations from 30 to 75 mg L(-1) in the inflowing water were depleted to values below 0.10 mg L(-1). Apatite II™ dissolution is sufficiently fast to treat flows as high as 50 m/a. For reactive grain size of 0.5-3mm, the treatment system ends due to coating of the grains by precipitates, especially when iron and manganese are present in the solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular structures, charge distributions, and vibrational analyses of the tetracoordinate Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) bromide complexes of p-toluidine investigated by density functional theory in comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardakçı, Tayyibe; Kumru, Mustafa; Altun, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    The Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) bromide complexes of p-toluidine have been studied with B3LYP calculations by using def2-TZVP basis set at the metal atoms and using def2-TZVP and 6-311G+(d,p) basis sets at the remaining atoms. Both basis set combinations give analogous results, which validate the use of quickly converging 6-311G+(d,p) basis set in future studies. The molecular structures, atomic charge and spin distributions, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the complexes have been calculated. The Zn, Cd and Hg complexes have been found to have distorted tetrahedral environments around the metal atoms whereas Cu complex has a square planar geometry. The NBO charge analysis have been found more accurate and less misleading compared with the Mulliken scheme. The present vibrational spectra calculations allow accurate assignment of the vibrational bands, which otherwise assigned tentatively in previous experimental-only studies.

  7. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  8. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  9. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  10. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  11. Measurements of plasma profiles using a fast swept Langmuir probe in the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shesterikov, I.; Von Stechow, A.; Grulke, O.; Stenzel, R.; Klinger, T.

    2017-07-01

    A fast-swept Langmuir probe capable to be biased at a high voltages has been constructed and successfully operated at the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment. The presented circuit has two main features beneficial for fast transient parameter changes in laboratory experiments as, e.g., plasma guns or magnetic reconnection: the implementation simplicity and the high voltage sweep range. This work presents its design and performance for time-dependent measurements of VINETA-II plasmas. The probe is biased with a sinusoidal voltage at a fixed frequency. Current - voltage characteristics are measured along the falling and rising slopes of the probe bias. The sweep frequency is fsweep= 150 kHz. The spatiotemporal evolution of radial plasma profiles is obtained by evaluation of the probe characteristics. The plasma density measurements agree with those derived from a microwave interferometer, demonstrating the reliability of the measurements. As a model plasma system, a plasma gun discharge with typical pulse times of 60 μ s is chosen.

  12. An analysis of error propagation in AERMOD lateral dispersion using Round Hill II and Uttenweiller experiments in reduced averaging times.

    PubMed

    Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; de Melo Lisboa, Henrique

    2017-03-01

    Dispersion modelling was proved by researchers that most part of the models, including the regulatory models recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (AERMOD and CALPUFF), do not have the ability to predict under complex situations. This article presents a novel evaluation of the propagation of errors in lateral dispersion coefficient of AERMOD with emphasis on estimate of average times under 10 min. The sources of uncertainty evaluated were parameterizations of lateral dispersion ([Formula: see text]), standard deviation of lateral wind speed ([Formula: see text]) and processing of obstacle effect. The model's performance was tested in two field tracer experiments: Round Hill II and Uttenweiller. The results show that error propagation from the estimate of [Formula: see text] directly affects the determination of [Formula: see text], especially in Round Hill II experiment conditions. After average times are reduced, errors arise in the parameterization of [Formula: see text], even after observation assimilations of [Formula: see text], exposing errors on Lagrangian Time Scale parameterization. The assessment of the model in the presence of obstacles shows that the implementation of a plume rise model enhancement algorithm can improve the performance of the AERMOD model. However, these improvements are small when the obstacles have a complex geometry, such as Uttenweiller.

  13. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and III Aerosol Extinction Measurements in the Arctic Middle and Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffeisen, R. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Strom, J.; Herber, A. B.; Burton, S. P.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, substantial effort has been expended toward understanding the impact of tropospheric aerosols on Arctic climate and chemistry. A significant part of this effort has been the collection and documentation of extensive aerosol physical and optical property data sets. However, the data sets present significant interpretive challenges because of the diverse nature of these measurements. Among the longest continuous records is that by the spaceborne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. Although SAGE tropospheric measurements are restricted to the middle and upper troposphere, they may be able to provide significant insight into the nature and variability of tropospheric aerosol, particularly when combined with ground and airborne observations. This paper demonstrates the capacity of aerosol products from SAGE II and its follow-on experiment SAGE III to describe the temporal and vertical variations of Arctic aerosol characteristics. We find that the measurements from both instruments are consistent enough to be combined. Using this combined data set, we detect a clear annual cycle in the aerosol extinction for the middle and upper Arctic troposphere.

  14. Development of a 30 cm-cube Electron-Tracking Compton Camera for the SMILE-II Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumura, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Sonoda, S.; Tomono, D.; Sawano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Komura, S.; Nakamura, S.; Oda, M.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Iwaki, S.

    2014-05-01

    To explore the sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray window for astronomy, we have developed the Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), and carried out the first performance test in laboratory conditions using several gamma-ray sources in the sub-MeV energy band. Using a simple track analysis for a quick first test of the performance, the gamma-ray imaging capability was demonstrated with clear images and 5.3 degrees of angular resolution measure (ARM) measured at 662 keV. As the greatest impact of this work, a gamma-ray detection efficiency on the order of 10-4 was achieved at the sub-MeV gamma-ray band, which is one order of magnitude higher than our previous experiment. This angular resolution and detection efficiency enables us to detect the Crab Nebula at the 5σ level with several hours observation at balloon altitude in middle latitude. Furthermore, good consistency of efficiencies between this performance test and simulation including only physical processes is very important; it means we achieve nearly 100% detection of Compton recoil electrons and means that our predictions of performance enhancement resulting from future upgrades are more realistic. We are planning to confirm the imaging capability of the ETCC by observation of celestial objects in the SMILE-II (Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment II). The SMILE-II and following SMILE-III project will be an important key of sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray astronomy.

  15. Stalking by patients: doctors' experiences in a Canadian urban area (Part II)--physician responses.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Karen M; Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2013-07-01

    Stalking involves recurrent unwanted communication, harassment, and intrusive behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine physicians' experiences of being stalked by their patients, with particular attention to the emotional impact on the physicians and their actions taken. A questionnaire designed to study the nature and the impact of stalking experiences among physicians was sent to 3159 randomly chosen physicians in the Greater Toronto Area. Approximately 15% (14.9%) of the 1190 physicians who responded reported having been stalked. The physicians reported feeling angry, frustrated, anxious, frightened, lacking control, and helpless. The physicians coped in a number of ways including terminating the physician-patient relationship, but many just ignored the problem. Most had no previous knowledge about stalking. Physicians experience a range of emotions as a result of being a victim of stalking. In view of the prevalence and the impact, physicians may benefit from education to help prepare them for the possibility of being stalked.

  16. [Research under reduced gravity. Part II: experiments in variable gravitational fields].

    PubMed

    Volkmann, D; Sievers, A

    1992-03-01

    Recently, the reduced gravitational field of space laboratories, rockets, or satellites in Earth orbits offers a gravitational field which is variable from 10(-4) g to 1 g by the use of centrifuges. Especially with plants, data concerning gravisensitivity are based on experiments with clinostats. First experiments in reduced gravitational fields, however, demonstrate the uncertainty of these results. Thus, the main task of gravitational biologists is to test the validity of results obtained with the aid of clinostats. On this basis it should be possible to find a common mechanism to explain the influence of gravity on organisms. Experiments under reduced gravity in sounding rockets provided new knowledge on the perception of the gravity stimulus in plant cells.

  17. What prognosis for Ebstein's anomaly without surgery? Hassan II teaching hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Garba, Moumouni; Atmani, Samir; Sani, Rabiou; Nouhou, Kaled Adamou

    2016-04-01

    Background From the first description in 1886, significant progress was made on the treatment of Ebstein disease by mono and bi-ventricular surgery. Aim To highlight the prognosis of Ebstein's anomaly in the pediatric department of Hassan II hospital in Fez. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study of 4 years. Results We collected nine patients (seven boys and two girls) with a mean age of 5.3 years. Cyanosis was the main mode of revelation of the disease. In three patients Ebstein's anomaly was part of a malformative syndrome. All patients had only symptomatic medical treatment. Five patients are still alive at a follow up of one to six years. Conclusion Symptomatic medical treatment of Ebstein malformation may improve the prognosis of the disease.

  18. Commissioning Experience with the PEP-II Low Level RF System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredoura, P.; Allison, S.; Claus, R.; Ross, W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Schwarz, H.; Tighe, R.; Yee, C.; Ziomek, C.

    1997-05-01

    The low-level RF system for PEP-II is a modular design housed in a VXI environment. Remotely configurable feedback loops are used to control coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the accelerating mode of the RF cavities. A programmable DSP based feedback loop is implemented to control phase variations across the klystron due to required adjustment of the cathode voltage to limit cathode power dissipation. The DSP loop also adaptively cancels modulations caused by klystron power supply ripple at selected power line harmonics between 60 Hz and 10 kHz. An adaptive technique is used to generate the station RF reference which tracks the ion clearing gap induced cavity transients. All RF signal processing and measurements are done using inphase and quadrature (IQ) techniques. This paper presents observations and measured data from the system.

  19. Ion heating during magnetic relaxation in the helicity injected torus-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Hamp, W.T.; Smith, R.J.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-12-15

    Ion doppler spectroscopy (IDS) is applied to the helicity injected torus (HIT-II) spherical torus to measure impurity ion temperature and flows. [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] The IDS instrument employs a 16-channel photomultiplier and can track temperature and velocity continuously through a discharge. Data for the coaxial helicity injection (CHI), transformer, and combined current drive configurations are presented. Ion temperatures for transformer-driven discharges are typically equal to or somewhat lower than electron temperatures measured by Thomson scattering. Internal reconnection events in transformer-driven discharges cause rapid ion heating. The CHI discharges exhibit anomalously high ion temperatures >250 eV, which are an order of magnitude higher than Thomson measurements, indicating ion heating through magnetic relaxation. The CHI discharges that exhibit current and poloidal flux buildup after bubble burst show sustained ion heating during current drive.

  20. Radiative Transfer in Earth Re-entry: Application to the Project Fire II Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamet, J.-M.; Babou, Y.; Riviere, Ph.; Soufiani, A.; Perrin, M.-Y.

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the test case 6 by computing the radiative heat intensities at the stagnation point for four points of Fire II re-entry trajectory. The prescribed flow-fields provided in the test case booklet are used. The radiative heat flux computations are based on a line by line approach combined with the exhaustive database which has been developed previously [1, 2]. The previous benchmarking of air radiative properties on a LTE air plasma have shown the quality of this database [3]. Since then, the use of this database has been extended to non LTE applications. In addition to the radiation computations defined in test case 6, the spectral distribution of the different intensities is predicted on a wide spectral range from far UV to IR. This will be important for further flow/radiation coupling studies. Different modelling levels are tested: pure emission, absorption effects, and chemical nonequilibrium effects.