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Sample records for experimental da reciclagem

  1. Significance of a common 65 kDa antigen in the experimental fasciolosis and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; Toaleb, Nagwa Ibrahim; Abdel-Rahman, Eman Hussein

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, cross-reaction between two important zoonotic parasites; extracellular helminthes Fasciola gigantica and intracellular protozoa Toxoplasma gondii was proved by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Five antigens were used to identify and compare the cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera. Two F. gigantica antigens; adult flukes (FgA) and eggs (FgEA) were used to detect IgG in T. gondii naturally infected human sera (TgIHS) and experimentally infected sera of sheep (TgISS), mice (TgIMS) and rats (TgIRS). Three types of T. gondii antigens; RH (TgRHA), local sheep isolate (TgLA) and ME49 isolate (TgMEA) were used to detect cross binding activities in F. gigantica experimental infected rabbit sera (FgIRS) and F. gigantica naturally infected bovine sera (FgIBS). The cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera were strongly directed towards FgA and TgLA rather than the other antigens. The characterization of the five antigens using SDS-PAGE showed 4 common bands of FgA and TgLA; 165, 97, 76, and 65 kDa. While two common bands were observed between TgRHA, TgMEA and FgA; 165, and 65 kDa. Whereas, two common bands found between three types of T. gondii antigens and FgEA were identified; 165 and 65 kDa. The immunogenic cross-reactive bands between FgA and TgLA with F. gigantica infected bovine sera were identified by immunoblot. In FgA, the common immunogenic bands were 165, 65 and 14 kDa. While in TgLA, common immunogenic bands were 165 and 65 kDa. Whereas, the common immunogenic band between FgA and TgLA identified with T. gondii experimentally infected sheep sera was 65 kDa. The current research proves cross reaction between F. gigantica and T. gondii. One common band of 65 kDa showed broad immunogenic cross-reactivity with the developed antisera raising the prospect of being putative common immunodiagnostic candidate of both infections.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Dioscorea Extract (DA-9801) in Comparison with Alpha Lipoic Acid on the Peripheral Nerves in Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Kim, Sun Hee; Yu, Hea Min; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2013-01-01

    DA-9801, a mixture of extracts from Dioscorea japonica Thunb. and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, was reported to have neurotrophic activity. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DA-9801, in comparison with alpha lipoic acid (ALA), for peripheral nerves preservation in experimental diabetes. Experimental animals were divided into 4 groups, and each group was designated according to the type of treatment administered as follows: normal, DM, DM+DA-9801, and DM+ALA. After 16 weeks, response thresholds to tactile and thermal stimuli were higher in DM+DA-9801 group than in nontreated DM group. This degree of increase in DM+DA-9801 group indicates more therapeutic potency of DA-9801 than ALA. Western blot analysis showed more significant increase in NGF and decrease in TNF-α and IL-6 in DM+DA-9801 group than in DM or DM+ALA groups (P < 0.05). IENF density was reduced less significantly in the DM+DA-9801 group than in other DM groups (7.61 ± 0.32, 4.2 ± 0.26, and 6.5 ± 0.30 in DM+DA-9801, DM, and DM+ALA, resp., P < 0.05). Mean myelinated axonal area in the sciatic nerves was significantly greater in DM+DA-9801 group than in other DM groups (69.2 ± 5.76, 54.0 ± 6.32, and 63.1 ± 5.41 in DM+DA-9801, DM, and DM+ALA, resp., P < 0.05). Results of this study demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of DA-9801 for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  3. Detrimental Effect of Fungal 60-kDa Heat Shock Protein on Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Landgraf, Taise Natali; Peron, Gabriela; Costa, Marcelo Vieira; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A. M.; Bonato, Vânia L. D.; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson

    2016-01-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Mice were subcutaneously injected with nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 emulsified in complete’s Freund Adjuvant (CFA) at three weeks after intravenous injection of P. brasiliensis yeasts. Infected control mice were injected with CFA or isotonic saline solution alone. Thirty days after the nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 administration, mice showed remarkably increased fungal load, tissue inflammation, and granulomas in the lungs, liver, and spleen compared with control mice. Further, rPbHsp60 treatment (i) decreased the known protective effect of CFA against PCM and (ii) increased the concentrations of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the lungs. Together, our results indicated that PbHsp60 induced a harmful immune response, exacerbated inflammation, and promoted fungal dissemination. Therefore, we propose that PbHsp60 contributes to the fungal pathogenesis. PMID:27598463

  4. Tissue Pharmacology of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianlin; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Juan; Wan, Meihua; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Hui; Xiang, Jin; Thrower, Edwin C.; Tang, Wenfu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD) can ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the potential pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the potential effective components and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DCQD in target tissue in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Methods. Acute pancreatitis-like symptoms were first induced in rats and then they were given different doses of DCQD (6 g/kg, 12 g/kg, and 24 g/kg body weight) orally. Tissue drug concentration, tissue pathological score, and inflammatory mediators in pancreas, intestine, and lung tissues of rats were examined after 24 hours, respectively. Results. Major components of DCQD could be found in target tissues and their concentrations increased in conjunction with the intake dose of DCQD. The high-dose compounds showed maximal effect on altering levels of anti-inflammatory (interleukin-4 and interleukin-10) and proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6) and ameliorating the pathological damage in target tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusions. DCQD could alleviate pancreatic, intestinal, and lung injury by altering levels of inflammatory cytokines in AP rats with tissue distribution of its components. PMID:26199633

  5. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  6. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V. Tkachenko, N. P.

    2015-12-15

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  7. Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-González, Nelly Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Choi, Sung-Hak; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-11

    Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157) and its corresponding pro-drug (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218), have shown very good activity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. In the present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardia brasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c mice using several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetoma murine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg) and the control group(saline solution) (p=0.001), proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option for patients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  8. Immune Response Induced by an Immunodominant 60 kDa Glycoprotein of the Cell Wall of Sporothrix schenckii in Two Mice Strains with Experimental Sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Alba-Fierro, Carlos A; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Toriello, Conchita; Pulido-Camarillo, Evelyn; López-Romero, Everardo; Romo-Lozano, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo; Ruiz-Baca, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall (CW) components of fungus Sporothrix schenckii are the major inductors antigens of immune responses. The immunodominant 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) has been shown to be associated with the virulence of this fungus but its role in experimental sporotrichosis is unknown. In this work, the immunological effects of CW-purified gp60 were investigated in a model of experimental subcutaneous sporotrichosis in normal and gp60-preimmunized C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice strains which were then infected with S. schenckii conidia. Results showed that both mice strains use different cytokine profiles in order to fight S. schenckii infection; C57BL/6 mice seem to use a Th17 response while BALB/c mice tend to depend on a Th1 profile. Preimmunization with gp60 showed a downregulatory effect on the immune response since cytokines levels were diminished in both strains. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of dorsoplantar inflammation between gp60-preimmunized and nonimmunized mice of both strains. However, skin lesions due to the infection in gp60-preimmunized mice were more severe in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that the antigen exerts a higher downregulatory effect on the Th1 response.

  9. Immune Response Induced by an Immunodominant 60 kDa Glycoprotein of the Cell Wall of Sporothrix schenckii in Two Mice Strains with Experimental Sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Fierro, Carlos A.; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Toriello, Conchita; Pulido-Camarillo, Evelyn; Romo-Lozano, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall (CW) components of fungus Sporothrix schenckii are the major inductors antigens of immune responses. The immunodominant 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) has been shown to be associated with the virulence of this fungus but its role in experimental sporotrichosis is unknown. In this work, the immunological effects of CW-purified gp60 were investigated in a model of experimental subcutaneous sporotrichosis in normal and gp60-preimmunized C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice strains which were then infected with S. schenckii conidia. Results showed that both mice strains use different cytokine profiles in order to fight S. schenckii infection; C57BL/6 mice seem to use a Th17 response while BALB/c mice tend to depend on a Th1 profile. Preimmunization with gp60 showed a downregulatory effect on the immune response since cytokines levels were diminished in both strains. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of dorsoplantar inflammation between gp60-preimmunized and nonimmunized mice of both strains. However, skin lesions due to the infection in gp60-preimmunized mice were more severe in BALB/c than in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that the antigen exerts a higher downregulatory effect on the Th1 response. PMID:27051673

  10. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Issazadeh, S; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I; Höjeberg, B; Müssener, A; Olsson, T

    1996-09-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disease with sparse demyelination. However, inbred DA rats develop a demyelinating, prolonged and relapsing encephalomyelitis after immunization with rat spinal cord in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This model enables studies of mechanisms related to chronicity and demyelination, two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we have investigated, in situ, the dynamics of cytokine mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral lymphoid organs (lymph node cells and splenocytes) of diseased DA rats. We demonstrate that peripheral lymphoid cells stimulated in vitro with encephalitogenic peptides 69-87 and 87-101 of myelin basic protein responded with high mRNA expression for proinflammatory cytokines; interferon-gamma, interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta, IL-1 beta and cytolysin. A high expression of mRNA for these proinflammatory cytokines was also observed in the CNS where it was accompanied by classical signs of inflammation such as expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, CD4, CD8 and IL-2 receptor. The expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines was remarkably long-lasting in DA rats as compared to LEW rats which display a brief and monophasic EAE. Furthermore, mRNAs for putative immunodownmodulatory cytokines, i.e. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and IL-4 were almost absent in DA rats, in both the CNS and in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphoid cells, while their levels were elevated in the CNS of LEW rats during the recovery phase. We conclude that the MS-like prolonged and relapsing EAE in DA rats is associated with a prolonged production of proinflammatory cytokines and/or low or absent production of immunodownmodulatory cytokines.

  11. Role of the kidney in the production of a low molecular weight growth factor (MW < 1000 Da): experimental study in the pig.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C; Hubert, J; Maachi, F; Punga-Maole, A; Dousset, B; Junke, E; Belleville, F

    1995-07-01

    Small peptide molecules known as low molecular weight growth factor (LMW-GF) have been identified in human serum. They enhance the effect of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor) on proteoglycan synthesis. In the present work we investigated the role played by the kidney in the production of LMW-GF, using the pig as an experimental model. Six pigs underwent bilateral nephrectomy followed 24 h later by orthotopic autotransplantation of the kidney. Renal and liver functions were evaluated by measurement of serum creatinine, urea, electrolytes, amino transferases (ASAT, ALAT), proteins, and bilirubin. LMW-GF was measured by bioassay using 11-day-old pelvic chick embryo cartilages. We observed that LMW-GF quickly disappeared from pig serum after nephrectomy and only reappeared when transplantation was successful. Reappearance of LMW-GF can precede improvement of renal function evaluated by plasma creatinine levels. These data appear to demonstrate that the kidney is involved in LMW-GF production.

  12. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity.

  13. Berengario da Carpi.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, L S; De Santo, R M; Di Leo, V A; Papalia, T; Cirillo, M; Touwaide, A

    1999-01-01

    Berengario da Carpi was magister of anatomy and surgery at the University of Bologna from 1502 to 1527. Eustachio and Falloppia defined him as 'the restaurator of anatomy'. He was a great surgeon, anatomist and physician of illustrious patients including Lorenzo II dei Medici, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, Galeazzo Pallavicini, Cardinal Colonna, and Alessandro Soderini. He had strong links to the intellectuals of his time (Forni, Bonamici, Manuzio, Pomponazzi) as well as with the Medici family. He was respected by the Popes Julius II, Leo X and Clement VII. His main contributions are the Isogogae Breves, De Fractura calvae sive cranei, and the illustrated Commentaria on the Anatomy of Mondino de Liucci, a textbook utilized for more than 200 years, which Berengario aimed to restore to its initial text. The Commentaria constitutes the material for the last part of this paper which concludes with a personal translation of some passages on 'The kidney', where the author gives poignant examples of experimental ingenuity.

  14. An extension of PPLS-DA for classification and comparison to ordinary PLS-DA.

    PubMed

    Telaar, Anna; Liland, Kristian Hovde; Repsilber, Dirk; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Classification studies are widely applied, e.g. in biomedical research to classify objects/patients into predefined groups. The goal is to find a classification function/rule which assigns each object/patient to a unique group with the greatest possible accuracy (classification error). Especially in gene expression experiments often a lot of variables (genes) are measured for only few objects/patients. A suitable approach is the well-known method PLS-DA, which searches for a transformation to a lower dimensional space. Resulting new components are linear combinations of the original variables. An advancement of PLS-DA leads to PPLS-DA, introducing a so called 'power parameter', which is maximized towards the correlation between the components and the group-membership. We introduce an extension of PPLS-DA for optimizing this power parameter towards the final aim, namely towards a minimal classification error. We compare this new extension with the original PPLS-DA and also with the ordinary PLS-DA using simulated and experimental datasets. For the investigated data sets with weak linear dependency between features/variables, no improvement is shown for PPLS-DA and for the extensions compared to PLS-DA. A very weak linear dependency, a low proportion of differentially expressed genes for simulated data, does not lead to an improvement of PPLS-DA over PLS-DA, but our extension shows a lower prediction error. On the contrary, for the data set with strong between-feature collinearity and a low proportion of differentially expressed genes and a large total number of genes, the prediction error of PPLS-DA and the extensions is clearly lower than for PLS-DA. Moreover we compare these prediction results with results of support vector machines with linear kernel and linear discriminant analysis.

  15. Th1-stimulatory polyproteins of soluble Leishmania donovani promastigotes ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa offers long-lasting protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Shraddha; Samant, Mukesh; Misra, Pragya; Khare, Prashant; Sisodia, Brijesh; Shasany, Ajit K; Dube, Anuradha

    2008-10-23

    Our earlier studies identified a fraction (F2) of Leishmania donovani soluble promastigote antigen belonging to 97.4-68 kDa for its ability to stimulate Th1-type cellular responses in cured visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients as well as in cured hamsters. A further fractionation of F2-fraction into seven subfractions (F2.1-F2.7) and re-assessment for their immunostimulatory responses revealed that out of these, only four (F2.4-F2.7) belonging to 89.9-97.1 kDa, stimulated remarkable Th1-type cellular responses either individually or in a pooled form (P4-7). In this study these potential subfractions were further assessed for their prophylactic potential in combination with BCG against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. Optimum parasite inhibition ( approximately 99%) was obtained in hamsters vaccinated with pooled subfractions and they survived for 1 year. The protection was further supported by remarkable lymphoproliferative, IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses along with profound delayed type hypersensitivity and increased levels of Leishmania-specific IgG2 antibody as observed on days 45, 90 and 120 post-challenge suggesting that a successful subunit vaccine against VL may require multiple Th1-immunostimulatory proteins. MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis of these subfractions further revealed that of the 19 identified immunostimulatory proteins, Elongation factor-2, p45, Heat shock protein-70/83, Aldolase, Enolase, Triosephosphate isomerase, Disulfideisomerase and Calreticulin were the major ones in these subfractions.

  16. Rational design of D-A1-D-A2 conjugated polymers with superior spectral coverage.

    PubMed

    Hedström, Svante; Tao, Qiang; Wang, Ergang; Persson, Petter

    2015-10-28

    The spectral coverage of a light-harvesting polymer largely determines the maximum achievable photocurrent in organic photovoltaics, and therefore constitutes a crucial parameter for improving their performance. The D-A1-D-A2 copolymer motif is a new and promising design strategy for extending the absorption range by incorporating two acceptor units with complementary photoresponses. The fundamental factors that promote an extended absorption are here determined for three prototype D-A1-D-A2 systems through a combination of experimental and computational methods. Systematic quantum chemical calculations are then used to reveal the intrinsic optical properties of ten further D-A1-D-A2 polymer candidates. These investigated polymers are all predicted to exhibit intense primary absorption peaks at 615-954 nm, corresponding to charge-transfer (CT) transitions to the stronger acceptor, as well as secondary absorption features at 444-647 nm that originate from CT transitions to the weaker acceptors. Realization of D-A1-D-A2 polymers with superior spectral coverage is thereby found to depend critically on the spatial and energetic separation between the two distinct acceptor LUMOs. Two promising D-A1-D-A2 copolymer candidates were finally selected for further theoretical and experimental study, and demonstrate superior light-harvesting properties in terms of significantly extended spectral coverage. This demonstrates great potential for enhanced light-harvesting in D-A1-D-A2 polymers via multiple absorption features compared to traditional D-A polymers.

  17. Experimental Pi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corris, G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of pi by means of experimental methods. Polygon circle ratios, Archimedes' method, Buffon's needles, a Monte Carlo method, and prime number approaches are used. Presents three BASIC programs for the calculations. (YP)

  18. Experimental philosophy.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  19. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. Experimental macroevolution†

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  1. Experimental strategy to identify genes susceptible to oxidative stress in nigral dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myung S; Kawamata, Hibiki; Kim, Dae J; Chun, Hong S; Son, Jin H

    2004-06-01

    Neuropathological evidence from both human and experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) firmly supports a significant role for oxidative stress (OS) in the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra. Largely unknown are the genes underlying selective susceptibility of nigral DA neuron to OS and how they effect nigral DA cell death. The major barriers to high-throughput identification of candidate genes are the paucity of nigral DA neurons as well as the dilution effect of non-DA cells both in primary cultures and brain tissues. To overcome these barriers, we have developed a DA cell line model, SN4741, appropriate for cDNA microarray analysis. Candidate genes were selected from both the microarray analysis and the molecular implication of their pathological mechanisms (i.e., decreased mitochondrial complex I activity and proteasomal dysfunction) of PD. Subsequent secondary validation tests were devised to characterize genes including clone #45 that may underlie selective vulnerability of nigral DA neuron to OS.

  2. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene.

  3. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  4. PanDaTox: A tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-07-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  5. Polarization-switching D/A converter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shunming; Kalkur, Thottam S

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a novel digital-to-analog (D/A) conversion technique, which uses the analog quantity polarization as a D/A conversion medium. It can be implemented by CMOS capacitors or by ferroelectric capacitors, which exhibit strong nonlinearity in charge versus voltage behavior. Because a ferroelectric material inherently has spontaneous polarization and generally has a large dielectric constant, the effective capacitance of a ferroelectric capacitor is much larger than that of a CMOS capacitor of the same size. This ensures less influence of bottom-electrode parasitic capacitance on a ferroelectric capacitor. Furthermore, a data converter based on ferroelectric capacitors possesses the potential nonvolatile memory function owing to ferroelectric hysteresis. Along with the architecture proposed for polarization-switching digital-to-analog converter (PDAC), its circuit implementation is introduced. Described is implementation of two 9-bit bipolar PDACs: one is based on CMOS capacitors and the other on off-chip ferroelectric capacitors. Experimental results are presented for the performance of these two prototypes.

  6. Comment: Spurious Correlation and Other Observations on Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the paper "Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis" by Albrecht et al. (2013, Technometrics). That paper provides and overview of engineering dimensional analysis (DA) for use in developing DA models. The paper proposes methods for generating model-robust experimental designs to supporting fitting DA models. The specific approach is to develop a design that maximizes the efficiency of a specified empirical model (EM) in the original independent variables, subject to a minimum efficiency for a DA model expressed in terms of dimensionless groups (DGs). This discussion article raises several issues and makes recommendations regarding the proposed approach. Also, the concept of spurious correlation is raised and discussed. Spurious correlation results from the response DG being calculated using several independent variables that are also used to calculate predictor DGs in the DA model.

  7. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Souvik Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  8. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  9. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  10. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  11. Therapeutic effect of DA-9601 on chronic reflux gastritis induced by sodium taurocholate in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Young; Shin, Chang Yell; Sohn, Yong Sung; Kim, Dong Hwan; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Lee, Eun Bang; Park, Cho Hyun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of DA-9601 on sodium taurocholate (TCA)-induced chronic reflux gastritis in SD rats. METHODS: In this study, we have investigated the therapeutic effects of DA-9601 on chronic erosive and atrophic gastritis induced by 6 mo of TCA administration (5 mmol/L in drinking water) in SD rats. RESULTS: Four weeks of DA-9601 administration (0.065%, 0.216% in rat chow), following the withdrawal of TCA treatment, resulted in a significant decrease in total length of erosions in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the indicators of atrophic gastritis, such as reduced mucosal thickness and reduction in the number of parietal cells, were improved by the administration of DA-9601 in a dose-related manner. DA-9601 also attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and the proliferation of collagenous fiber in the gastric mucosa. The improvement in the reduction of the gastric mucus was observed in the rats receiving a high dose of DA-9601 (0.216%). The therapeutic effect of DA-9601 on experimental chronic erosive gastritis was superior to that of rebamipide (1.08% in rat chow). Biochemical analyses showed increased mucosal prostaglandin E2 and reduced glutathione levels by DA-9601 treatment. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DA-9601 is a promising agent for the treatment of chronic erosive and atrophic gastritis with an etiological factor of bile reflux. Increased mucosal prostaglandin E2 and reduced glutathione by DA-9601 treatment may be therapeutic mechanisms for chronic erosive and atrophic gastritis. PMID:16437712

  12. The Experimental College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiklejohn, Alexander

    "The Experimental College" tells the story of a 4-year academic experiment at the University of Wisconsin established by Alexander Meiklejohn. Aimed at finding a method of teaching that would help students develop "intelligence in the conduct of their own lives," the Experimental College discarded major requirements,…

  13. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  14. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  15. 7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST GARAGE, AND FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST RESIDENCE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic generator experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The results for an experimental study of a one wavelength MHD induction generator operating on a liquid flow are presented. First the design philosophy and the experimental generator design are summarized, including a description of the flow loop and instrumentation. Next a Fourier series method of treating the fact that the magnetic flux density produced by the stator is not a pure traveling sinusoid is described and some results summarized. This approach appears to be of interest after revisions are made, but the initial results are not accurate. Finally, some of the experimental data is summarized for various methods of excitation.

  17. Experimental Semiotics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21369364

  18. A quasi-passive CMOS pipeline D/A converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Fong-Jim; Temes, Gabor C.; Law, Simon

    1989-01-01

    A novel pipeline digital-to-analog converter configuration, based on switched-capacitor techniques, is described. An n-bit D/A conversion can be implemented by cascading n + 1 unit cells. The device count of the circuit increases linearly, not exponentially, with the conversion accuracy. The new configuration can be pipelined. Hence, the conversion rate can be increased without requiring a higher clock rate. An experimental 10-bit DAC prototype has been fabricated using a 3-micron CMOS process. The results show that high-speed, high-accuracy, and low-power operation can be achieved without special process or postprocess trimming.

  19. Summary of experimental talks

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1999-12-08

    This final talk of the meeting briefly discussed a number of experimental topics that the author found particularly interesting in the area of High Energy Physics. It also includes some critical comments about the future direction of their discipline.

  20. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  1. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  2. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  3. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  4. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  5. Rare decays experimental summary and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1996-12-31

    I review the status and future prospects of searches for forbidden and highly kaon suppressed decays. This workshop comes as we are poised at the threshold of a new generation of rare K decay experiments. There are new experiments running or about to run at KEK, BNL, FNAL, and CERN. In another year or so these will be joined by the KLOE experiment at DA{Phi}NE. The good news is that it`s a very exciting time. The bad news, at least for a reviewer, is that there aren`t too many new results. Thus I`ll be giving a little more attention than usual to what the experimenters expect to do. My discussion of rare K decays covers processes that are forbidden in the Standard Model, those that highly suppressed and to a smaller extent, those that are merely discouraged.

  6. The Experimental College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiklejohn, Alexander; Powell, John Walker, Ed.

    In the early twentieth century, Alexander Meiklejohn believed the undergraduate college must teach students how to think. He aspired to make students into thinking, caring, active citizens with the intellectual skills to participate in a democratic society. In 1927, with the founding of the Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin, he…

  7. Experimental fluvial geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, S.A.; Mosley, M.P.; Weaver, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors bring together the results of several years of experimental work in drainage basin evolution, hydrology, river-channel morphology, and sedimentology. These investigations are related to real-world applications, particularly geological exploration and mapping. This text shows how awareness of natural phenomena can improve management of the natural environment, such as the control of rivers and eroding gullies.

  8. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  10. Diagnostic epitope variability within Taenia solium 8 kDa antigen family: implications for cysticercosis immunodetection.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; Sánchez, Jipsy; Milano, Adriana; Alvarez, Suhei; La Rosa, Rosamelia; Lares, María; González, Luís Miguel; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    To study diagnostic epitopes within the Taenia solium 8 kDa antigen family, six overlapping synthetic peptides from an 8 kDa family member (Ts8B2) were synthesized and evaluated by ELISA and MABA with sera from patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), from infected pigs and from rabbits immunized with recombinant Ts8B2 protein. The pre-immune rabbit sera and the Ts8B2 recombinant protein served as negative and positive controls, respectively. A similar analysis was done with the already described antigenic peptides from another member of the 8 kDa family, highly similar to Ts8B2, the CyDA antigen. Surprisingly, neither the Ts8B2 peptides nor the CyDA peptides were recognized by infected human and porcine sera. However, the entire Ts8B2 recombinant, as well as amino and carboxy-terminal halves were recognized by the positive serum samples. The observed lack of recognition of linear Ts8B2 peptides suggests that the principal serological response to the Ts8B2 family is focused on conformational epitopes in contrast to the previously observed antigenicity of the CyDA peptides. This differential antigenicity of 8 kDa family peptides could be related with parasite antigenic variability. The fact that rabbits experimentally immunized with Ts8B2 did make anti-peptide antibodies to peptides Ts8B2-6 and CyDA-6, located in the carboxy-terminal region demonstrated that the Ts8B2 peptides are not intrinsically non-immunogenic.

  11. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  12. Experimental design and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Festing, M F

    1997-01-01

    Rodent gerontology experiments should be carefully designed and correctly analyzed so as to provide the maximum amount of information for the minimum amount of work. There are five criteria for a "good" experimental design. These are applicable both to in vivo and in vitro experiments: (1) The experiment should be unbiased so that it is possible to make a true comparison between treatment groups in the knowledge that no one group has a more favorable "environment." (2) The experiment should have high precision so that if there is a true treatment effect there will be a good chance of detecting it. This is obtained by selecting uniform material such as isogenic strains, which are free of pathogenic microorganisms, and by using randomized block experimental designs. It can also be increased by increasing the number of observations. However, increasing the size of the experiment beyond a certain point will only marginally increase precision. (3) The experiment should have a wide range of applicability so it should be designed to explore the sensitivity of the observed experimental treatment effect to other variables such as the strain, sex, diet, husbandry, and age of the animals. With in vitro data, variables such as media composition and incubation times may also be important. The importance of such variables can often be evaluated efficiently using "factorial" experimental designs, without any substantial increase in the overall number of animals. (4) The experiment should be simple so that there is little chance of groups becoming muddled. Generally, formal experimental designs that are planned before the work starts should be used. (5) The experiment should provide the ability to calculate uncertainty. In other words, it should be capable of being statistically analyzed so that the level of confidence in the results can be quantified.

  13. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance.

  14. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  15. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering.

  16. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    PubMed Central

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  17. MSFC Skylab experimenter's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined in the main text and amplified, as appropriate, in appendixes. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  18. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2016-07-12

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  19. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Predilution and Postdilution Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration on Clearance Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Shinya; Masuda, Yoshiki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    We compared the clearance characteristics of low-to-high molecular weight substances during pre-and postdilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in experimental and clinical conditions. Experimental circuits for pre- and postdilution CVVH were prepared using a test solution containing creatinine (110 Da), inulin (5,000 Da), interleukin (IL)-8 (8,000 Da), IL-6 (22,000 Da), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (51,000 Da). Quantity of test solution flow and filtration flow (QF) were set to 150 ml/min and 10, 20, and 35 ml/min, respectively. Clinical CVVH settings were blood flow (QB): 150 ml/min and QF: 35 ml/min. Samples were obtained from pre- and posthemofilters, and clearance of target substances was determined during pre- and postdilution CVVH in experimental and clinical conditions. Clearance changed according to QF during both pre- and postdilution CVVH in the experiment. Clearance of creatinine, inulin (experiment only), and IL-8 during postdilution CVVH was superior to that during predilution CVVH. Few differences were seen in clearance of IL-6 and TNF-α between dilution methods in the experiment and clinical practice. Clearance of IL-8 and IL-6 decreased during postdilution CVVH over 24 hr but did not change during predilution CVVH in clinical practice. Predilution CVVH is useful for stable cytokine clearance in septic patients with acute kidney injury.

  20. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  1. SAA drift: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  2. Genetics of experimental hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dominiczak, A F; Clark, J S; Jeffs, B; Anderson, N H; Negrin, C D; Lee, W K; Brosnan, M J

    1998-12-01

    Experimental models of genetic hypertension are used to develop paradigms to study human essential hypertension while removing some of the complexity inherent in the study of human subjects. Since 1991 several quantitative trait loci responsible for blood pressure regulation have been identified in various rat crosses. More recently, a series of interesting quantitative trait loci influencing cardiac hypertrophy, stroke, metabolic syndrome and renal damage has also been described. It is recognized that the identification of large chromosomal regions containing a quantitative trait locus is only a first step towards gene identification. The next step is the production of congenic strains and substrains to confirm the existence of the quantitative trait locus and to narrow down the chromosomal region of interest. Several congenic strains have already been produced, with further refinement of the methodology currently in progress. The ultimate goal is to achieve positional cloning of the causal gene, a task which has so far been elusive. There are several areas of cross-fertilization between experimental and human genetics of hypertension, with a successful transfer of two loci directly from rats to humans and with new pharmacogenetic approaches which may be utilized in both experimental and clinical settings.

  3. A candidate molecule for the matrix assembly receptor to the N-terminal 29-kDa fragment of fibronectin in chick myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Moon, K Y; Shin, K S; Song, W K; Chung, C H; Ha, D B; Kang, M S

    1994-03-11

    Myoblast surface proteins with binding activity toward the N-terminal 29-kDa fragment of fibronectin were identified by two different experimental techniques: one involves radioiodination of the cell surface proteins, followed by solubilization with Triton X-100 and affinity purification on a Sepharose column conjugated with the 29-kDa fragment, and the other involves cross-linking of the 29-kDa fragment to the cells metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-29-kDa IgG. Both approaches revealed that primary cultures of chick myoblasts contain the 66- and 48-kDa proteins that bind to the 29-kDa fragment. These binding proteins were then purified to apparent homogeneity by two successive chromatographies of the solubilized extracts of 12-day-old embryonic muscle on wheat germ agglutinin-agarose and 29-kDa fragment-Sepharose columns. However, the 48-kDa protein was found to be derived from contaminating fibroblasts upon immunoblot analysis of the myogenic cell lines, rat L8E63 and mouse C2A3, and cultured fibroblasts using the antibody raised against the 66-kDa protein. Anti-66-kDa IgG inhibited the binding of the 125I-29-kDa protein to the primary culture of myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the same antibody showed little or no effect on the initial binding of 125I-fibronectin to the cell surface, but dramatically inhibited its incorporation into deoxycholate-insoluble matrices. Furthermore, Fab fragments of anti-66-kDa IgG completely blocked the incorporation of fluoresceinated fibronectin into matrices but not its binding to the cell surface. These results suggest that fibronectin matrix assembly is mediated at least in part by the interaction of the 66-kDa protein with the N-terminal type I domain of fibronectin.

  4. Experimental alcohol blastopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandor, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated

  5. Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.

    PubMed

    Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities.

  6. Lack of Apoptosis of Infiltrating Cells as the Mechanism of High Susceptibility to EAE in DA Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mensah-Brown, Eric; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Shahin, Allen

    2001-01-01

    Dark Agouti (DA) rats are highly susceptible to induction of Th-l-mediated autoimmunity disease, including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast to other susceptible rat strains in which disease is induced only with encephalitogen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvants (CFA), in DA rats EAE develops after injection of encephalitogen in incomplete Freund's adjuvants (IFA) or Titermax, putative Th-2 directed adjuvant. Lymph node cells derived from immunized DA rats and stimulated in vitro produce significantly more Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than resistant Albino Oxford (AO) rats. However, cells derived from both strains produce large amounts of IL-10 but not IL-4. Immunized lymph node cells derived from EAE susceptible (AO × DA) F1rats induce clinical signs of disease in sublethally irradiated parental DA but not AO rats. The pathohistology of the target tissue in these recipients clearly demonstrated infiltration of mononuclear cells in both parental strains. However, the number of CD4+ cells was significantly higher and number of apoptotic cells significantly lower in DA rats sacrificed 8 days after passive transfer. We postulate that in addition to higher IFN-γ and TNF-α production, resistance to early apoptosis of the invading cells in the target tissue possibly due to lack of downregulation by TGF-β leads to exceptional susceptibility to EAE in DA rats. PMID:11785669

  7. Experimental turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Pavel; Milčák, Petr; Noga, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The experimental air turbine VT400 is located in hall laboratories of the Department of Power System Engineering. It is a single-stage air turbine located in the suction of the compressor. It is able to solve various problems concerning the construction solution of turbine stages. The content of the article will deal mainly with the description of measurements on this turbine. The up-to-now research on this test rig will be briefly mentioned, too, as well as the description of the ongoing reconstruction.

  8. Experimental models of stress

    PubMed Central

    Patchev, Vladimir K.; Patchev, Alexandre V.

    2006-01-01

    Illustrating the complexity of the stress response and its multifaceted manifestations is the leading idea of this overview of experimental paradigms used for stress induction in laboratory animals. The description of key features of models based on naturalistic stressors, pharmacological challenges, and genomic manipulations is complemented by comprehensive analysis of physiological, behavioral, neurochemical, and endocrine changes and their appropriatness as outcome readouts. Particular attention has been paid to the role of sex and age as determinants of the dynamics of the stress response. Possible translational applications of stress-inducing paradigms as models of disease are briefly sketched. PMID:17290800

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  10. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  11. Reduction of Aggressive Behaviors with Changes in Activity: Linking Descriptive and Experimental Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Arlene; Neuharth-Prichett, Stacey; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    1997-01-01

    A study utilized both Descriptive Analysis (DA) and Experimental Analysis (EA) to examine the function of aggressive and destructive behavior for a boy (age 9) with Down syndrome and moderate mental retardation. By linking the two methods, an intervention was designed that decreased the student's aggressive/destructive behavior. (Author/CR)

  12. The potentially dangerous asteroid 2012 DA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present computing methods that allow us to study the behaviour of the dynamically interesting potentially dangerous asteroid 2012 DA14. Using the freely available ORBFIT software, we can follow the orbit of the asteroid backward and forward in the future, searching for close approaches to the Earth that might lead to possible impacts. The possible impact orbit for 2026 is computed. We show that it should be possible to recover asteroid 2012 DA14, mainly in 2013 February. It is highly unlikely that asteroid 2012 DA14 will hit any geosynchronous satellites during its close approach on 2013 February 15.

  13. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  14. Experimentation in machine discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    KEKADA, a system that is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments on problems from the history of science, is described. The system incorporates a set of experimentation strategies that were extracted from the traces of the scientists' behavior. It focuses on surprises to constrain its search, and uses its strategies to generate hypotheses and to carry out experiments. Some strategies are domain independent, whereas others incorporate knowledge of a specific domain. The domain independent strategies include magnification, determining scope, divide and conquer, factor analysis, and relating different anomalous phenomena. KEKADA represents an experiment as a set of independent and dependent entities, with apparatus variables and a goal. It represents a theory either as a sequence of processes or as abstract hypotheses. KEKADA's response is described to a particular problem in biochemistry. On this and other problems, the system is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments to refine domain theories. Analysis of the system and its behavior on a number of different problems has established its generality, but it has also revealed the reasons why the system would not be a good experimental scientist.

  15. Experimental Models of Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by interstitial edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and acinar cell necrosis, depending on its severity. Regardless of the extent of tissue injury, acute pancreatitis is a completely reversible process with evident normal tissue architecture after recovery. Its pathogenic mechanism has been known to be closely related to intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In contrast to acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irreversible tissue damage such as acinar cell atrophy and pancreatic fibrosis that results in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Recently, many studies of chronic pancreatitis have been prompted by the discovery of the pancreatic stellate cell, which has been identified and distinguished as the key effector cell of pancreatic fibrosis. However, investigations into the pathogenesis and treatment of pancreatitis face many obstacles because of its anatomical location and disparate clinical course. Due to these difficulties, most of our knowledge on pancreatitis is based on research conducted using experimental models of pancreatitis. In this review, several experimental models of pancreatitis will be discussed in terms of technique, advantages, and limitations. PMID:24944983

  16. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  17. Future experimental programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    I was asked to discuss future experimental programs even though I am a theorist. As a result, I present my own personal views on where the field is, and where it is going, based on what I myself have been working on. In particular, I discuss why we need expeditions into high energies to find clues to where the relevant energy scale is for dark matter, baryon asymmetry and neutrino mass. I also argue that the next energy frontier machine should be justified on the basis of what we know, namely the mass of the Higgs boson, so that we will learn what energy we should aim at once we nail the Higgs sector. Finally, I make remarks on dark energy.

  18. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  19. Experimental evolution gone wild

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, M.; Riebesell, U.; Rynearson, T. A.; Lohbeck, K. T.; Collins, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  20. Fusion of experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gesú, Vito; Maccarone, Maria Concetta

    The integration of information from various sensory systems is one of the most difficult challenges in understanding both perception and cognition. For example, the problem of auditory-visual integration is a correspondence problem between perceived auditory and visual scenes. Two main questions arise when designing data analysis systems: what is the useful information to be integrated?, and what are the integration rules? The problem of integrating information becomes relevant whenever: (a) the same kind of data are detected by spatially distributed sensors; (b) heterogeneous data are detected by different sensors; (c) heterogeneous distributed data are involved. General problems concerning the integration of experimental data are reviewed. The case of the BeppoSAX X-ray astronomical satellite is given as an example.

  1. Experimental adaptive process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.

  2. Experimentalism in bioethics research.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, T F

    1983-05-01

    Basson's commentary on my proposals regarding the structure and function of research in bioethics provides a welcome opportunity for extended comparison of standard approaches with the suggestions made in 'What Bioethics Should Be.' I begin by noting a common assumption underlying our respective views. I then address points of fundamental difference, indicating why the experimental method proposed in my original essay presents a potentially more productive strategy for examining moral issues in biomedicine. In the latter respect, I certainly disagree with Basson's contention that "we are unable to test" metaethical hypotheses "against reality" (Basson, p. 185) - a proposition which seems no more defensible than the equally untenable claim that we cannot refine methods of natural science research through examination of their usefulness in advancing our understanding of the correlation of events in nature.

  3. An Experimental LISP Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Wang

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-microprocessor LISP machine whose goal is to exploit the inherent parallelism in the LISP programs fully. The base architecture is a MIMD architecture based on a hybrid model for combinating data driven, demand driven and VoN Neumann process schemes. The basic evaluation strategy is data driven. Lazy evaluation mechanism is introduced to avoid unnecessary and unsafe computations. An experimental system with the four processor elements has been built in HIT, China. The system consists of a Z80 microcomputer and three TP8O1s interconnected through three buses. Each processor evaluates a part of programs asynchronously. The shared memory is divided into two parts: list cell area and enviroment area, each of which has the indepen-dent common bus to avoid the bus bottleneck.

  4. Planetary impact experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Schultz, Peter H.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of impact processes in low- and microgravity environments would be advanced significantly by the construction and use of an impact facility on the Space Station. It is proposed that initial studies begin as soon as possible in ground-based impact laboratories, on the NASA KC-135 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft, and in existing drop towers. The resulting experience and information base could then be applied toward an experiment package designed for use on Shuttle orbiters to support pilot studies in orbital environments. These experiments, as well as the first efforts made on the IOC Space Station, should involve the impact of various free-floating targets; such studies would yield a substantial scientific return while providing valuable experience and engineering information for use in refining the design of the dedicated Space Station Impact Facility. The dedicated facility should be designed to support impact experimentation, including but not limited to cratering, asteroid and ring-particle dynamics, and accretional processes.

  5. Experimental Quantum Coin Tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, G.; Vaziri, A.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin-tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of “two-party” cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits, resulting in a higher security than using qubits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.

  6. Experimental Sloshing Reference Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, C.; Such-Taboada, M.; Ngan, I.; Grigore, L.; Appolloni, M.; Roure, S.; Murray, N.; Mendes Leal, M.; de Wilde, D.; Longo, J.; Bureo-Dacal, R.; Cozzani, A.; Laine, B.

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the sloshing experiment performed on the HYDRA multi-axis hydraulic shaker at ESTEC. Two tank geometries, a rectangular tank and a pill shaped tank, were excited in the lateral direction. Both tanks, manufactured from a transparent material in order to provide high visibility of the phenomenon, were filled with water and several fill ratios were tested, varying the amplitude of the input and the sweep rate. The results of the test are presented from a structural point of view, with the main objective to study the interface force due to dynamic fluid sloshing motion. An investigation of the behaviour of the water around the main resonance of the assembly is conducted through the observation of the identified modes and the damping values. The experimental results confirm the amplification effect at low frequency caused by water sloshing motion and a comparison with data from numerical simulation is provided.

  7. Experimental Literacy Assessment Battery (LAB).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    READING, * LITERACY , EDUCATION, HUMAN RESOURCES, MODELS, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, AIR FORCE TRAINING, LANGUAGE, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, VOCABULARY, INFORMATION PROCESSING, COMPREHENSION.

  8. Experimental overview on flow observables in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Soumya

    2016-12-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental results on flow phenomena that were presented at Quark matter 2015, with a focus on new flow observables and correlations in small systems. The results presented include event-shape selected pT spectra and vn measurements, correlations between flow harmonics of different orders, study of factorization breakdown in two-particle correlations, and principal component analysis of two-particle correlations. Recent developments in investigation of collective effects in small collisions systems, namely, p+A, d+A and 3He + A as well as in pp collisions are also presented.

  9. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment

  10. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  11. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Hutchison, W. M.; Siim, J. Chr.; Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Two chimpanzees were given by mouth large numbers of viable oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected cats. Before the experiment the first chimpanzee had a positive dye test reaction (1:250), an indication that it had undergone an earlier infection of toxoplasmosis; the serum antibody titres remained unchanged, no evidence of illness was found, and oocysts did not appear in its faeces during the subsequent six weeks. The second chimpanzee showed a negative dye test reaction before infection, and this converted to positive on the 7th day, rose to a peak on the 35th day, and remained high for six months. This animal appeared unwell during the first week, and on the 7th day its blood proved infective to mice; on the 40th day the lymph nodes became enlarged and biopsy specimens of a node and muscle in the 11th week were also infective to mice. No oocysts were passed in the faeces. The presumed cycle in the chimpanzee and in man and the relationships between Toxoplasma and Isospora are discussed. PMID:5575975

  12. Experimental quantum data locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  13. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  14. X-38 Experimental Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Fitzgerald, Steve M.

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 program seeks to demonstrate an autonomously returned orbital test flight vehicle to support the development of an operational Crew Return Vehicle for the International Space Station. The test flight, anticipated in 2002, is intended to demonstrate the entire mission profile of returning Space Station crew members safely back to earth in the event of medical or mechanical emergency. Integral to the formulation of the X-38 flight data book and the design of the thermal protection system, the aerothermodynamic environment is being defined through a synergistic combination of ground based testing and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the X-38 development. Global and discrete surface heat transfer force and moment, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on scaled models of the proposed X-38 configuration in different test gases at Mach 6, 10 and 20. The test parametrics include angle of attack from 0 to 50 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10 (exp 6) to 16 x 10 (exp 6)/ ft, rudder deflections of 0, 2, and 5 deg. and body flap deflections from 0 to 30 deg. Results from hypersonic aerodynamic screening studies that were conducted as the configuration evolved to the present shape at, presented. Heavy gas simulation tests have indicated that the primary real gas effects on X-38 aerodynamics at trim conditions are expected to favorably influence flap effectiveness. Comparisons of the experimental heating and force and moment data to prediction and the current aerodynamic data book are highlighted. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition were investigated at Mach 6 and the development of a transition correlation for the X-38 vehicle is described. Extrapolation of ground based heating measurements to flight radiation equilibrium wall temperatures at Mach 6 and 10 were

  15. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  16. The protective effects of DA-9801 (Dioscorea extract) on the peripheral nerves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Ae; Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that DA-9801, an extract mixture of Dioscorea japonica Thunb and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, produces a neurotrophic activity. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of DA-9801 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The experimental rats were divided into six groups: the control group, Group I (non-diabetic rats treated with DA-9801), Group II (diabetic, non-treated rats) and Groups III, IV, and V (diabetic rats treated with DA-9801 at doses of 10, 50 or 100 mg/kg/d). Following a 16-wk course of oral treatment with DA-9801, functional parameters (von Frey filament test, hot plate test), biochemical parameters (nerve growth factor (NGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6) were measured. An immunohistochemical staining was done to assess the neuroprotective effects of DA-9081 in the skin, sciatic nerve, gastric mucosa and renal cortex. In Week 8, pain was evoked by either tactile or thermal stimuli, whose threshold was significantly higher in Group III, IV and V than Group II. Western blot analysis showed a more significant increase in NGF and decrease in TNF-α and IL-6 in Group III, IV and V than in Group II (p<0.05). Moreover, following the treatment with DA-9801, a loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) was inhibited to a significant level in the skin, myelinated axonal fibers of the sciatic nerve and small nerve fibers innervating the gastric mucosa or renal cortex (p<0.05). Our results demonstrated that DA-9801 is a beneficial agent that protects the peripheral nerves in diabetic rats.

  17. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of a New Synthetic Aspirin-decursinol Adduct in Experimental Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Bich Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Jung Hoon; Park, Jeong Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Suh, Hong-Won; Jun, Jong-Gab; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Her, Song; Kim, Jin Su; Hyun, Byung-Hwa; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Choong Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death. Experimental animal models of cerebral ischemia are widely used for researching mechanisms of ischemic damage and developing new drugs for the prevention and treatment of stroke. The present study aimed to comparatively investigate neuroprotective effects of aspirin (ASA), decursinol (DA) and new synthetic aspirin-decursinol adduct (ASA-DA) against transient focal and global cerebral ischemic damage. We found that treatment with 20 mg/kg, not 10 mg/kg, ASA-DA protected against ischemia-induced neuronal death after transient focal and global ischemic damage, and its neuroprotective effect was much better than that of ASA or DA alone. In addition, 20 mg/kg ASA-DA treatment reduced the ischemia-induced gliosis and maintained antioxidants levels in the corresponding injury regions. In brief, ASA-DA, a new synthetic drug, dramatically protected neurons from ischemic damage, and neuroprotective effects of ASA-DA may be closely related to the attenuation of ischemia-induced gliosis and maintenance of antioxidants. PMID:24073226

  19. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

  20. Experimental Learning Enhancing Improvisation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira Christopoulos, Tania; Wilner, Adriana; Trindade Bestetti, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present improvisation training and experimentation as an alternative method to deal with unexpected events in which structured processes do not seem to work. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the literature of sensemaking and improvisation, the study designs a framework and process model of experimental learning…

  1. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  2. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  3. Psychopharmacology's debt to experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Lori A; Steinberg, Hannah; Sykes, Elizabeth A B

    2006-05-01

    The role of experimental psychology in the development of psychopharmacology has largely been ignored in recent historical accounts. In this article the authors attempt to redress that gap by outlining work in early experimental psychology that contributed significantly to the field. While psychiatrists focused on the therapeutic nature of drugs or their mimicry of psychopathology, experimental psychologists used psychoactive drugs as tools to study individual differences in normal behavior as well as to develop methodologies using behavior to study mechanisms of drug action. Experimental work by Kraepelin, Rivers, and Hollingworth was particularly important in establishing drug-screening protocols still used today. Research on nitrous oxide and on the effects of drug combinations is discussed to illustrate the importance of experimental psychology to psychopharmacology.

  4. DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. Using atmospheric models, we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows. (i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these 11 happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 d. (ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation time-scales.

  5. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  6. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  7. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  8. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  9. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  10. Correlation of Gut Microbiota Composition with Resistance to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Lukić, Jovanka; Soković, Svetlana; Mihajlovic, Sanja; Mostarica Stojković, Marija; Miljković, Djordje; Golić, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is widely accepted that autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is the essential pathogenic force in the disease. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that activated encephalitogenic cells tend to migrate toward gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) and that interrupted balance between regulatory and inflammatory immunity within the GALT might have decisive role in the initiation and propagation of the CNS autoimmunity. Gut microbiota composition and function has the major impact on the balance in the GALT. Thus, our aim was to perform analyses of gut microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Albino Oxford (AO) rats that are highly resistant to EAE induction and Dark Agouti (DA) rats that develop EAE after mild immunization were compared for gut microbiota composition in different phases after EAE induction. Microbial analyses of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria showed higher diversity of Lactobacillus spp. in EAE-resistant AO rats, while some members of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum) were detected only in feces of DA rats at the peak of the disease (between 13 and 16 days after induction). Interestingly, in contrast to our previous study where Turicibacter sp. was found exclusively in non-immunized AO, but not in DA rats, in this study it was detected in DA rats that remained healthy 16 days after induction, as well as in four of 12 DA rats at the peak of the disease. Similar observation was obtained for the members of Lachnospiraceae. Further, production of a typical regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 was compared in GALT cells of AO and DA rats, and higher production was observed in DA rats. Our data contribute to the idea that gut microbiota and GALT considerably influence multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:28018327

  11. Antigenic secreted proteins from Haemophilus paragallinarum. A 110-kDa putative RTX protein.

    PubMed

    Mena-Rojas, Erika; Vázquez Cruz, Candelario; Vaca Pacheco, Sergio; García González, Octavio; Pérez-Márquez, Víctor M; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Ibarra-Caballero, Jorge; de la Garza, Mireya; Zenteno, Edgar; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2004-03-12

    Haemophilus paragallinarum is the causal agent of infectious coryza, an economically important disease for the poultry industry. This bacterium secreted proteins of 25-110 kDa during its growth in brain heart infusion, tryptic soy broth, or Luria-Bertani glucose phosphate media, all lacking serum. Some of these proteins were recognized by sera from chickens experimentally infected with H. paragallinarum. A 110-kDa protein was recognized by a serum pool from convalescent-phase pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and also by a rabbit polyclonal serum against Apx I as well as a rabbit serum against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, suggesting the presence of an RTX-like protein in H. paragallinarum. H. paragallinarum secreted proteins could be important immunogens in the control of infectious coryza.

  12. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.

    PubMed

    Pluhar, Evelyn B

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation.

  13. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  14. Experimental studies: randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gjorgov, A N

    1998-01-01

    There are two major approaches to medical investigations: observational studies and experimental trials. The classical application of the experimental design to studies of human populations is the randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a new drug or treatment. A further application of the experimental studies is to the testing of hypotheses about the etiology of a disease, already tested and corroborated from various forms of observational studies. Ethical considerations and requirements for consent of the experimental subjects are of primary concern in the clinical trials, and those concerns set the first and final limits for implementing a trial. General moral principles in research with human and animal beings, defined by the "Nuremberg Code," deal with strict criteria for approval, endorsement and evaluation of a clinical trial.

  15. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  16. Experimental models of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Paula L; Caissie, Amanda L; Burnier, Miguel N

    2004-06-01

    Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been directed toward developing suitable experimental models for the study of uveal melanoma. Animal models of uveal melanoma have undergone many improvements, leading to the development of experimental systems that better represent the disease in human beings. A major advance has come from the use of human uveal melanoma cell lines capable of inducing tumour growth and metastatic disease in immunodeficient hosts. Knowledge gained from the use of experimental models will ultimately be translated into better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with uveal melanoma. In this review the authors describe the current state-of-the-art designs of experimental models of uveal melanoma, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of the available models. Novel findings from a rabbit model of uveal melanoma are also presented.

  17. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  18. An Experimental Study of Plunging Liquid Jet Induced Air Carryunder and Dispersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-24

    jet . This jet impacted at 90* a pool of water and, when a threshold velocity was exceeded, it was observed that the plunging liquid jet caused air ... Entrainment by Plunging Laminar Liquid Jets ," AIChE Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, 563, 1966. McKeogh, E.J. and Ervine, D.A., " Air Entrainment Rate and Diffusion...transmit the fourth quarterly report for ONR grant N00014-91-J-1271, "An Experimental Study of Plunging Liquid

  19. Induction of in vitro heart block is not restricted to affinity purified anti-52 kDa Ro/SSA antibody from mothers of children with neonatal lupus.

    PubMed

    Viana, V S; Garcia, S; Nascimento, J H; Elkon, K B; Brot, N; Campos de Carvalho, A C; Bonfá, E

    1998-01-01

    The ability of affinity purified anti-52 kDa Ro/SSA antibody from patients without obstetric history of neonatal lupus to cause heart block using an experimental model was investigated. IgG-enriched fractions from sera of 20 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and one Sjögren's syndrome (SS) all positives for anti-Ro/SSA antibodies as detected by CIE, were perfused on isolated whole rabbit hearts. Only six (29%) samples induced A-V block, five of them presenting low anti-Ro/SSA titre. All of them recognized the 52 kDa isoform on ELISA whereas only one had a concomitant binding to the 60 kDa protein. Moreover, affinity purified antibodies from two sera previously known to induce A-V block were obtained by affinity chromatography using a column containing the full-length 52 kDa Ro/SSA fusion protein. Paired eluate and effluent devoid of anti-52 kDa activity from the same patient were individually perfused in whole hearts. The ability to cause cardiac blockade was restricted to the affinity anti-52 kDa eluates. In addition, anti-52 kDa eluates from three IgG fractions that primarily failed to induce blockade remained ineffective. The present study has added to our knowledge that affinity anti-52 kDa Ro/SSA antibodies from mothers with healthy infants are capable of causing in vitro cardiac conduction disturbances. A prospective follow up of these patients will better delineate the clinical usefulness of this experimental model.

  20. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  1. DA 495: An Aging Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.; Reich, W.; Safi-Harb, S.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2008-11-01

    We present a radio continuum study of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) DA 495 (G65.7+1.2), including images of total intensity and linear polarization from 408 to 10550 MHz based on the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and observations with the Effelsberg 100 m Radio Telescope. Removal of flux density contributions from a superimposed H II region and from compact extragalactic sources reveals a break in the spectrum of DA 495 at 1.3 GHz, with a spectral index α = - 0.45 +/- 0.20 below the break and α = - 0.87 +/- 0.10 above it (Sν propto να). The spectral break is more than 3 times lower in frequency than the lowest break detected in any other PWN. The break in the spectrum is likely the result of synchrotron cooling, and DA 495, at an age of ~20,000 yr, may have evolved from an object similar to the Vela X nebula, with a similarly energetic pulsar. We find a magnetic field of ~1.3 mG inside the nebula. After correcting for the resulting high internal rotation measure, the magnetic field structure is quite simple, resembling the inner part of a dipole field projected onto the plane of the sky, although a toroidal component is likely also present. The dipole field axis, which should be parallel to the spin axis of the putative pulsar, lies at an angle of ~50° east of the north celestial pole and is pointing away from us toward the southwest. The upper limit for the radio surface brightness of any shell-type supernova remnant emission around DA 495 is Σ1GHz ~ 5.4 × 10-23 W m-2 Hz-1 sr-1 (assuming a radio spectral index of α = - 0.5), lower than the faintest shell-type remnant known to date.

  2. [Leonardo da Vinci--a dyslectic genius?].

    PubMed

    Røsstad, Anna

    2002-12-10

    Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

  3. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

  4. An experimental study of nanoparticle focusing with aerodynamic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; McMurry, Peter H.

    2006-12-01

    High sampling efficiencies of analyte ions, molecules or particles are needed to maximize the sensitivity of mass spectrometers. "Ion funnels", which utilize electrodynamic focusing, have been shown to effectively focus ions with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) ranging from ~100 to 5000. Focusing efficiencies of ion funnels drop for higher m/z values because very high voltages are needed to overcome the particle inertia. Conventional "aerodynamic lenses" utilize inertia to focus down to 25 nm in diameter (~5 MDa); to date, Brownian diffusion has prevented the effective focusing of particles smaller than this. We recently reported a design procedure that should, in principle, extend focusing with aerodynamic lenses to particles as small as 3 nm (~10 kDa), thereby bridging the gap between the ion funnel and the conventional aerodynamic lenses. In this paper, we report for the first time experimental results for the performance of these new "nanolenses". Measurements were done using spherical oil droplets, proteins, and sodium chloride particles ranging in size from 3 to 30 nm diameter. We found that particle transport efficiencies from atmospheric pressure to vacuum through the aerodynamic lens system were greater than 80% for 10-30 nm particles, and greater than 50% for a ~3.8 nm protein (Lysozyme from chicken egg white, molecular weight 14.3 kDa). Particle beam diameters were about a factor of two greater than predicted by our numerical simulations, but provide clear evidence that the nanolenses effectively focus all three particle types.

  5. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  6. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded.

  7. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  8. Trichinella spiralis: strong antibody response to a 49 kDa newborn larva antigen in infected rats.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Tobon, Maria Del Rosario; Navarrete-Leon, Anaid; Mendez-Loredo, Blanca Esther; Esquivel-Aguirre, Dalia; Martínez-Abrajan, Dulce Maria; Hernandez-Sanchez, Javier

    2007-02-01

    differences in the kinetics of anti-NBL and ML Ab responses. While anti-NBL Abs declined slowly from day 19 until the end of the experiment, Abs to ML antigen remained high in the same period. It is remarkable the optimal Ab response to NBL antigens with 2000 ML infective dose and the reduced number of NBL antigens identified throughout the experimental T. spiralis infection, standing out the immunodominant 49 kDa antigen. Interestingly, this antigen, which was prominently expressed in NBL somatic proteins, was also detected in NBL-ESP.

  9. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  10. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  11. Experimental Disability: A Gestalt Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofaro, Gregory A.; James, Fleming, III

    1980-01-01

    Experimental disability offers rehabilitation counselor educators and trainers a vehicle for developing student-counselor awareness and sensitivity to psychosocial problems of disability. Gestalt counseling techniques, which emphasize the bipolarities of the disability experience, are used to explore the feelings, behaviors, and attitudes…

  12. Learning Experimentation through Science Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Jürgen; Lederman, Norman G.; Groß, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are essential for both doing science and learning science. The aim of the German youth science fair, "Jugend forscht," is to encourage scientific thinking and inquiry methods such as experimentation. Based on 57 interviews with participants of the competition, this study summarises students' conceptions and steps of learning…

  13. Evaluating E-Labs' Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisent, Michel; Maguiraga, Lassana; Bernard, Prosper; Larhrib, Samir

    2004-01-01

    This communication discusses preliminary results on an experimentation of e-Learning with MIS students, mainly in order to cope with the logistics of lab organization. A learning management software was installed which changed completely the learning process, from content to logistics. Students have expressed their satisfaction with the e-Learning…

  14. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  15. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  16. An experimenter and his methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonovich, S. R.

    1990-12-01

    A review of experimental works by Ernst Mach has been given. The works reffer to optics and acoustics. The author is representing Ernst Mach as a physicist rather than a phylosopher, which contradicts the point of view obviously accepted in Soviet history of sciences and philosophy.

  17. Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Carman

    2005-02-01

    The present experimental evidence for the existence of light pentaquarks is reviewed, including both positive and null results. I also discuss the CLAS experiments at Jefferson Laboratory that are forthcoming in the near future to address questions regarding existence, mass, width, and other quantum numbers of these five-quark baryon states.

  18. Effects of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist Propranolol on dyskinesia and L-DOPA-induced striatal DA efflux in the hemi-parkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Nirmal; Lindenbach, David; Barnum, Christopher J; George, Jessica A; Surrena, Margaret A; Bishop, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with L-DOPA continues to be the primary treatment of Parkinson's disease; however, long-term therapy is accompanied by L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID). Several experimental and clinical studies have established that Propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reduces LID without affecting L-DOPA's efficacy. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-dyskinetic profile of Propranolol against a panel of DA replacement strategies, as well as elucidate the underlying neurochemical mechanisms. Results indicated that Propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, reduced LID, without affecting motor performance. Propranolol failed to alter dyskinesia produced by the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297 (0.08 mg/kg, sc), or the D2 receptor agonist, Quinpirole (0.05 mg/kg, sc). These findings suggested a pre-synaptic mechanism for Propranolol's anti-dyskinetic effects, possibly through modulating L-DOPA-mediated DA efflux. To evaluate this possibility, microdialysis studies were carried out in the DA-lesioned striatum of dyskinetic rats and results indicated that co-administration of Propranolol (20 mg/kg, ip) was able to attenuate L-DOPA- (6 mg/kg, sc) induced DA efflux. Therefore, Propranolol's anti-dyskinetic properties appear to be mediated via attenuation of L-DOPA-induced extraphysiological efflux of DA.

  19. Effects of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist Propranolol on dyskinesia and L-DOPA-induced striatal DA efflux in the hemi-parkinsonian rat

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, Nirmal; Lindenbach, David; Barnum, Christopher J.; George, Jessica A.; Surrena, Margaret A.; Bishop, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with L-DOPA continues to be the primary treatment of Parkinson's disease; however, long-term therapy is accompanied by L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID). Several experimental and clinical studies have established that Propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reduces LID without affecting L-DOPA's efficacy. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-dyskinetic profile of Propranolol against a panel of DA replacement strategies, as well as elucidate the underlying neurochemical mechanisms. Results indicated that Propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, reduced LID, without affecting motor performance. Propranolol failed to alter dyskinesia produced by the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297 (0.08 mg/kg, sc), or the D2 receptor agonist, Quinpirole (0.05 mg/kg, sc). These findings suggested a presynaptic mechanism for Propranolol's anti-dyskinetic effects, possibly through modulating L-DOPA-mediated DA efflux. To evaluate this possibility, microdialysis studies were carried out in the DA-lesioned striatum of dyskinetic rats and results indicated that co-administration of Propranolol (20 mg/kg, ip) was able to attenuate L-DOPA- (6 mg/kg, sc) induced DA efflux. Therefore, Propranolol's anti-dyskinetic properties appear to be mediated via attenuation of L-DOPA-induced extraphysiological efflux of DA. PMID:25866285

  20. Inhibitory effects of the standardized extract (DA-9601) of Artemisia asiatica Nakai on phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, papilloma formation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear transcription factor kappa B activation in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyo-Joung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Han, Seong Su; Chung, Won-Yoon; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Won-Bae; Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    Artemisia asiatica Nakai has been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and other disorders. Previous studies have revealed that the formulated ethanol extract (DA-9601) of A. asiatica has pronounced antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects against experimentally induced gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic damage. In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on tumor promotion, which is closely linked to inflammatory tissue damage. As an initial approach to evaluating the possible antitumor-promoting potential of DA-9601, its effects on TPA-induced ear edema were examined in female ICR mice. Pretreatment of the inner surface of the mouse ear with DA-9601 30 min prior to topical application of TPA inhibited ear edema at 5 hr. TPA-stimulated expression of epidermal COX-2 and iNOS was also mitigated by topical application of the same extract. Moreover, DA-9601 abrogated the TPA-mediated activation of NF-kappa B/Rel and AP-1 in mouse epidermis. Suppression of epidermal NF-kappa B by DA-9601 appeared to be mediated in part through inhibition of I kappa B alpha degradation, thereby blocking the nuclear translocation of p65, the functional subunit of NF-kappa B. DA-9601 also significantly suppressed TPA-induced ODC activity and papilloma formation in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that DA-9601 derived from A. asiatica possesses potential chemopreventive activities.

  1. Rheology of welding: experimental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quane, S. L.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    The rheological behavior of pyroclastic deposits during welding is incompletely understood and is based on a surprisingly small number of experimental studies. Previous pioneering experimental studies were done on small (1 cm thick) samples of ash/crystal mixtures under constant load. They established minimum welding temperatures between 600 and 700^oC under loads of 0.7 MPa (˜40 m of ignimbrite) to 3.6 MPa (˜250 m depth of ignimbrite). However, these data are neither sufficiently comprehensive nor coherent enough to fully describe the rheology of pyroclastic mixtures. In addition, previous studies did not examine the microstructural and geometric changes associated with welding compaction. Our goal is to provide accurate and comprehensive constitutive relationships between material properties, temperature, load and strain rate for pyroclastic material undergoing welding. Here we present results from a newly designed experimental apparatus. The experimental apparatus consists of a LoadTrac II fully automated uniaxial compression load frame manufactured by Geocomp Corporation. The load frame has a built in displacement transducer and can run both constant strain rate (10-6 to 0.25 cm/s) and constant load (up to 1150 kg) tests to a maximum displacement of 7.5 cm. The sample assembly comprises 5 cm diameter cylindrical upper and lower pistons (insulating ceramic with steel conductive ends) housed in a copper jacket. Samples are 5 cm diameter cores and can vary in length from 1 to 15 cm depending on experimental needs. A fiber insulated tube furnace capable of reaching temperatures ≈1000^oC surrounds the sample assembly. Temperature is measured using a thermocouple located inside the sample through the bottom piston; the furnace controller is capable of maintaining temperature fluctuations to <5^oC. Deformation experiments are performed on pre-fabricated cylinders of soda-lime glass beads and rhyolitic volcanic ash, as well as, cores of pumiceous rhyodacite

  2. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  3. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  4. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  5. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  6. Multimodal MRI of experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Brain imaging data from experimental stroke models and stroke patients have shown that there is often a gradual progression of potentially reversible ischemic injury toward infarction. Reestablishing tissue perfusion and/or treating with neuroprotective drugs in a timely fashion are expected to salvage some ischemic tissues. Diffusion-weighted imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in which contrast is based on water motion can detect ischemic injury within minutes after onsets, whereas computed tomography and other imaging modalities fail to detect stroke injury for at least a few hours. Along with quantitative perfusion imaging, the perfusion-diffusion mismatch which approximates the ischemic penumbra could be imaged non-invasively. This review describes recent progresses in the development and application of multimodal MRI and image analysis techniques to study ischemic tissue at risk in experimental stroke in rats. PMID:24323751

  7. Experimental Determination of Ramsey Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  8. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  9. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  10. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  11. Experimental Equipment for Powder Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-20

    1 Final Report Experimental Equipment for Powder Processing Contract Number FA9550-06- 1 -0417 Patrick Kwon...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE

  12. Data archiving in experimental physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L.R.; Watson, W. III; Bickley, M. |; Clausen, M. |

    1998-07-01

    In experimental physics, data is archived from a wide variety of sources and used for a wide variety of purposes. In each of these environments, trade-offs are made between data storage rate, data availability, and retrieval rate. This paper presents archive alternatives in EPICS, the overall archiver design and details on the data collection and retrieval requirements, performance studies, design choices, design alternatives, and measurements made on the beta version of the archiver.

  13. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nonisothermal hydrologic transport experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1992-09-01

    A field heater experimental plan is presented for investigating hydrologic transport processes in unsaturated fractured rock related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground repository. The experimental plan provides a methodology for obtaining data required for evaluating conceptual and computer models related to HLW isolation in an environment where significant heat energy is produced. Coupled-process models are currently limited by the lack of validation data appropriate for field scales that incorporate relevant transport processes. Presented in this document is a discussion of previous nonisothermal experiments. Processes expected to dominate heat-driven liquid, vapor, gas, and solute flow during the experiment are explained, and the conceptual model for nonisothermal flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock is described. Of particular concern is the ability to confirm the hypothesized conceptual model specifically, the establishment of higher water saturation zones within the host rock around the heat source, and the establishment of countercurrent flow conditions within the host rock near the heat source. Field experimental plans are presented using the Apache Leap Tuff Site to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology. Both small-scale preliminary experiments and a long-term experiment are described.

  15. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of inhibition of terazosin metabolism via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 by DA-8159, an erectogenic, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oh, E Y; Bae, S K; Kwon, J W; You, M; Lee, D C; Lee, M G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recently, orthostatic hypotension was observed in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who are taking vardenafil (a PDE 5 inhibitor) and terazosin (a long acting alpha blocker). Therefore, this study was performed with DA-8159 (a long acting PDE 5 inhibitor) and terazosin in rats to find whether or not pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the two drugs were observed. Experimental approach: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (changes in blood pressure) interactions between DA-8159 and terazosin were evaluated after simultaneous i.v. and p.o. administration of DA-8159 (30 mg kg−1) and terazosin (5 mg kg−1) to male Sprague–Dawley rats. Key results: After simultaneous i.v. and p.o. administration of terazosin and DA-8159, the total area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) of terazosin became significantly greater (57.4 and 75.4% increase for i.v. and p.o. administration, respectively) than those of without DA-8159. The blood pressure dropping effect was considerable after simultaneous p.o. administration of DA-8159 and terazosin compared with each drug alone. Conclusions and implications: The significantly greater AUC of terazosin after both simultaneous i.v. and p.o. administration of both drugs could be due to the hepatic (both i.v. and p.o.) and intestinal (p.o.) inhibition of the metabolism of terazosin via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 by DA-8159, since both DA-8159 and terazosin are metabolized via CYP3A1 and/or 3A2 in rats. The blood pressure lowering effect after simultaneous p.o. administration of both drugs could be due to significant increase in plasma concentrations of terazosin. PMID:17351661

  17. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Radder, Hans

    2009-10-29

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science.

  18. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  19. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  20. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  1. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private organizations on DA installations. 643... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.121 Private organizations on DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops...

  2. Non-shock initiation model for explosive families : experimental results.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark U.; Jensen, Charles B.; Todd, Steven N.; Hugh, Chance G.; Caipen, Terry L.

    2010-03-01

    The 'DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction' (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  3. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  4. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. (Specialized Interface)

  5. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  6. Experimental Cryosurgery Investigations In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gage, A.A.; Baust, J.M.; Baust, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cryosurgery is the use of freezing temperatures to elicit an ablative response in a targeted tissue. This review provides a global overview of experimentation in vivo which has been the basis of advancement of this widely applied therapeutic option. The cellular and tissue-related events that underlie the mechanisms of destruction, including direct cell injury (cryolysis), vascular stasis, apoptosis and necrosis, are described and are related to the optimal methods of technique of freezing to achieve efficacious therapy. In vivo experiments with major organs, including wound healing, the putative immunological response following thawing, and the use of cryoadjunctive strategies to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to freezing, are described. PMID:19833119

  7. Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.

  8. Experimental studies of glass refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.; Kondos, P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic components of the experimental apparatus were selected and acquired. Techniques were developed for the fabrication of the special crucibles necessary for the experiments. Arrangements were made for the analysis of glass and gas bubble samples for composition information. Donations of major equipment were received for this project from Owens, Illinois where a similar study had been conducted a few year ago. Decisions were made regarding the actual glass composition to be used, the gas to be used in the first experiments, and the temperatures at which the experiments should be conducted. A microcomputer was acquired, and work was begun on interfacing the video analyzer to it.

  9. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  10. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  11. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond...

  12. Experimental telemanipulation in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Schurr, M O; Breitwieser, H; Melzer, A; Kunert, W; Schmitt, M; Voges, U; Buess, G

    1996-06-01

    Today's rigid endoscopic instruments limit the intracorporeal mobility of the surgical tool and are a severe impediment for the further spread of endoscopic techniques in operative medicine. Since 1992 flexible, steerable instruments with additional links for pivoting and rotating the tip have been developed and experimentally evaluated. The latest versions of this series of instruments are equipped with electromotors for better handling. The next aim in this development is a fully mobile telemanipulator with six motion axes dedicated to use in endoscopic surgery. Its first tests are planned for 1995. For successful operation of an electric telemanipulator, the man-machine interface (MMI) is of cardinal importance. For the definition of surgical requirements for the MMI, a conventional master-slave manipulator designed for technical application was modified for use in guiding a laparoscopic instrument. Master and slave sites of the system were 1.3 km apart and linked by means of a fiber-optic cable. Using this modified telepresence system, remote laparoscopic cholecystectomy was feasible in a phantom model. In a standardized test series using a test parcours, different parameters of the control system were modified, and their influence on the execution time of the parcours tasks was recorded. Well-suited parameter configurations were found and allowed experimental verification and completion of the important aspects of our concepts for development of an endoscopic manipulator MMI.

  13. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  14. Experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Argumedo, G S; Sanz, C R; Olguín, H J

    2012-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a systemic disease resulting from either thyroid gland's anatomical and functional absence or lack of hypophyseal stimulation, both of which can lead to deficiency in thyroid hormone (TH) production. TH is essential for human and animal development, growth, and function of multiple organs. Children with deficient TH can develop alterations in central nervous system (CNS), striated muscle, bone tissue, liver, bone marrow, and cardiorespiratory system. Among the clinical outlook are signs like breathing difficulty, cardiac insufficiency, dysphagia, and repeated bronchial aspiration, constipation, muscle weakness, cognitive alterations, cochlear dysfunction, reduced height, defects in temperature regulation, anaemia, jaundice, susceptibility to infection, and others. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that TH is very essential for normal brain development. Other research work based on mice pointed out that a reduced level of TH in pregnant mother leads to congenital hypothyroidism in animal models and it is associated with mental retardation, deep neurologic deficiency that impacts on cognitive, learning, and memory functions. The principal experimental model studies that have focused on hypothyroidism are reviewed in this study. This is important on considering the fact that almost all animal species require thyroid hormones for their metabolism.

  15. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  16. X-38 Experimental Controls Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Steve; Estes, Jay; Bordano, Aldo J.

    2000-01-01

    X-38 Experimental Control Laws X-38 is a NASA JSC/DFRC experimental flight test program developing a series of prototypes for an International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle, often called an ISS "lifeboat." X- 38 Vehicle 132 Free Flight 3, currently scheduled for the end of this month, will be the first flight test of a modem FCS architecture called Multi-Application Control-Honeywell (MACH), originally developed by the Honeywell Technology Center. MACH wraps classical P&I outer attitude loops around a modem dynamic inversion attitude rate loop. The dynamic inversion process requires that the flight computer have an onboard aircraft model of expected vehicle dynamics based upon the aerodynamic database. Dynamic inversion is computationally intensive, so some timing modifications were made to implement MACH on the slower flight computers of the subsonic test vehicles. In addition to linear stability margin analyses and high fidelity 6-DOF simulation, hardware-in-the-loop testing is used to verify the implementation of MACH and its robustness to aerodynamic and environmental uncertainties and disturbances.

  17. [Experimental models of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is a severe disease with high mortality. Clinical studies can bring some data about etiology, pathogenesis and the course of acute pancreatitis. However, studies concerning early events of this disease and the new concepts of treatment cannot be performed on humans, due to ethical reasons. Animal models of acute pancreatitis have been developed to solve this problem. This review presents currently used experimental models of acute pancreatitis, their properties and clinical relevance. Experimental models of acute pancreatitis can be divided into in vivo (non-invasive and invasive) and ex vivo models. The onset, development, severity and extent of acute pancreatitis, as well as the mortality, vary considerably between these different models. Animal models reproducibly produce mild, moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. One of the most commonly used models of acute pancreatitis is created by administration of supramaximal doses of cerulein, an analog of cholecystokinin. This model produces acute mild edematous pancreatitis in rats, whereas administration of cerulein in mice leads to the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis evoked by retrograde administration of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct is the most often used model of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Ex vivo models allow to eliminate the influence of hormonal and nervous factors on the development of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  19. SAA drift:experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Kudela, K.; Romashova, V. V.; Drozdov, A. Yu.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth's magnetic field connected with magnetic momentum changing. Besides these variations affects on the trapped belt South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations including Space Shuttle short-time flights approved the existence SAA westward drift with speed 0.1-1.0 (deg/year) and northward drift with speed approximately 0.1 (deg/year). In this work we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in SINP MSU in 1972-2003 from different satellites. There were analyzed the fluxes of protons with energy > 50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy > 500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1-1.0 MeV in SAA area and their maxima location. The data about fluxes were obtained onboard the orbital stations ``Salut-6'' (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the identical experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact of the SAA westward drift. Moreover the same analysis of maximum flux location of electrons with hundreds keV energy (satellites ``Kosmos-484'' (1972), ``Interkosmos-17'' (1977) and ``Activny'' (``Interkosmos-24'', 1991)) confirmed not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  20. Current Status of the Hot White Dwarf Luminosity Function and non-DA to DA Ratio from SDSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesinski, J.; Stachowski, G.

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in the determination of the hot white dwarf (WD) luminosity function have reached the point where we have good agreement between the observed and theoretical DA and non-DA LFs for WDs from SDSS DR4. The main progress in calculation of the DA LF was obtained when the WD sample was restricted to only carbon-oxygen core WDs. However, one remaining effect which could influence the LF and the non-DA to DA ratio is the difference in visibility of helium- and hydrogen-atmosphere WDs in a magnitude-limited sample. In this work we explore this effect for the SDSS g filter as a function of effective temperature, as well as make an attempt to evaluate data relevant to the WD sample and LFs from more recent data releases of the SDSS.

  1. Experimental stress remagnetization of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.

    1996-09-01

    Pseudo-single-domain (PSD) and multidomain (MD) magnetite grains remagnetize in weak magnetic field (30 μT) during experimental triaxial deformation. The magnetite is supported in a calcite-cement matrix. Minor remagnetization occurs with hydrostatic stress of 100 MPa. Significant remagnetization requires hydrostatic pressure of 150 MPa with differential stress of ≥5 MPa superposed on the sample. Intergranular differential stresses must be much higher due to amplification at grain asperities. Stress remagnetization does not need chemical or thermal energy. New components of magnetic remanence are added parallel to the remagnetizing field. However, this only happens in grains or parts of grains with coercivities of remanence < 15 and > 60 mT. Grains with coercivities of 20-55 mT remember the primary magnetization and are not stress magnetized. These coercivity limits do not depend on the differential stress or strain rate of the experiment. The spatial distribution of vector components of remanence was isolated by AF demagnetization. After deforming a magnetized sample, the components of remanence spread along a partial great circle between the initial remanence and the direction of the remagnetizing field. The directions of the original magnetization and the remagnetizing field are the only factors controlling the course of the remagnetization path. Triaxial deformation shortened these samples by < 17%. Thus, grain rotation fails to explain the changes in directions of magnetism. The remagnetization is attributed to the low field during stress deflection of domain walls that were possibly locked in place by deformation features. If the experimental results are transferable to nature, it is possible that a pulse of excess crustal stress > 25 MPa could partially remagnetize low-dislocation-density magnetite. The experiments show that the directions of the remagnetizing field and the primary magnetization are the only variables that affect the demagnetization

  2. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Lane-Petter, W

    1976-09-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee.

  3. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma☆

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L.; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

  4. Experimental applications of smart composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Yang, Qiang; MacDonald, Douglas O.; Westhaver, Paul A. D.

    1997-03-01

    The issues of fabrication, evaluation and experimental testing of smart composites are discussed. The technology for the fabrication of fiber reinforced polymer composites with embedded fiber optic sensors is developed. Smart composites are produced by a custom built pultruder. It is shown that the mechanical properties of pultruded carbon reinforced composites with and without optical fiber are superior to that of pultruded glass analogue. The embedded optical fibers do not have significant effect on the tensile properties of pultruded FRP, but they deteriorate the shear strength of composites. Polyimide coating on optical fiber results in a good interface between optical fiber and host material; whereas acrylate coating cannot withstand the high production temperature and causes sever debonding of optical fiber and resin. The specific application in view is the use of smart reinforcements for innovative concrete structures.

  5. Experimental contextuality in classical light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright’s inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields. PMID:28291227

  6. Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G

    2008-11-14

    Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.

  7. VENUS-2 Experimental Benchmark Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    The VENUS critical facility is a zero power reactor located at SCK-CEN, Mol, Belgium, which for the VENUS-2 experiment utilized a mixed-oxide core with near-weapons-grade plutonium. In addition to the VENUS-2 Core, additional computational variants based on each type of fuel cycle VENUS-2 core (3.3 wt. % UO{sub 2}, 4.0 wt. % UO{sub 2}, and 2.0/2.7 wt.% MOX) were also calculated. The VENUS-2 critical configuration and cell variants have been calculated with MCU-REA, which is a continuous energy Monte Carlo code system developed at Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' and is used extensively in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The calculations resulted in a k{sub eff} of 0.99652 {+-} 0.00025 and relative pin powers within 2% for UO{sub 2} pins and 3% for MOX pins of the experimental values.

  8. Experimental Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, David

    2012-07-01

    Our knowledge of the γ-ray sky has dramatically changed due to the advent of the new ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VEPJTAS) and the satellite-borne instruments (AGILE and Fermi). These facilities boosted the number of γ-ray sources by one order of magnitude in the last 6 years, providing us with about 2000 sources detected above 100 MeV (from space) and about 100 sources detected above 100 GeV (from the ground). The combination of this large leap in experimental capabilities together with the fact that the Universe is still quite unexplored at these extreme energies is evidence of a large scientific discovery potential that will surely make the decade 2010-2020 a golden age for γ-ray astronomy. In this manuscript I provide a subjective review of some of the most exciting observations from this rapidly evolving field during the last two years.

  9. CHLORIDE RETENTION IN EXPERIMENTAL HYDRONEPHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Norman M.; Pulford, D. Schuyler

    1923-01-01

    1. In acute experimental hydronephrosis chloride retention occurs as well as retention of water, urea, and phenolsulfonephthalein. 2. If both water and chlorides are retained there may be no appreciable rise in the plasma chloride content. 3. When chlorides are retained, but not water, the chloride content of the plasma rises strikingly. 4. After the removal of the ureteral obstruction in acute hydronephrosis all renal functions, water, urea, and chloride excretion, may be rapidly restored in equal degree, or the chlorides may be retained temporarily while there is free excretion of water and urea. 5. In chronic hydronephrosis adequate daily excretion of urea and chlorides may be maintained by a compensatory polyuria. 6. Chloride retention or an abnormal chloride excretion may occur in certain renal lesions when there is no change in the urea, phenolsulfonephthalein, or water excretion. PMID:19868720

  10. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  11. A device for experimental radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bova, F; Spiegelmann, R; Friedman, W A

    1991-01-01

    As radiosurgery evolves into a widely available treatment modality for a variety of intracranial lesions, the need for basic research concerning the radiobiology of high-dose single-fraction ionizing radiation becomes crucial. A device especially designed for experimental radiosurgery in the cat is described. It incorporates basic parts of the Kopf stereotactic frame for accurate target positioning. A motorized pendular movement of the machine is used to describe a radiation arc, while the radiation source (either a linear accelerator or a cobalt machine) remains stationary. The pathway of the different radiation arcs is modified by rotation of the animal platform around the machine isocenter. Mechanical accuracy tests have shown a maximal alignment error of 0.15 mm, comparing favorably with that reported for modern clinical radiosurgical systems.

  12. Experimental computation with oscillatory integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-06-26

    A previous study by one of the present authors, together with D. Borwein and I. Leonard [8], studied the asymptotic behavior of the p-norm of the sinc function: sinc(x) = (sin x)/x and along the way looked at closed forms for integer values of p. In this study we address these integrals with the tools of experimental mathematics, namely by computing their numerical values to high precision, both as a challenge in itself, and also in an attempt to recognize the numerical values as closed-form constants. With this approach, we are able to reproduce several of the results of [8] and to find new results, both numeric and analytic, that go beyond the previous study.

  13. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  14. Experimental compressive phase space tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Lee, Justin; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

    2012-01-01

    Phase space tomography estimates correlation functions entirely from snapshots in the evolution of the wave function along a time or space variable. In contrast, traditional interferometric methods require measurement of multiple two–point correlations. However, as in every tomographic formulation, undersampling poses a severe limitation. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of compressive reconstruction of the classical optical correlation function, i.e. the mutual intensity function. Our compressive algorithm makes explicit use of the physically justifiable assumption of a low–entropy source (or state.) Since the source was directly accessible in our classical experiment, we were able to compare the compressive estimate of the mutual intensity to an independent ground–truth estimate from the van Cittert–Zernike theorem and verify substantial quantitative improvements in the reconstruction. PMID:22513541

  15. Experimental Investigation of Microstructured Evaporators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibel, W.; Westermann, S.; Maikowske, S.; Brandner, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Microfluidic devices have become more and more popular over the last decades [1]. Cooling is a topic where microstructures offer significant advantages compared to conventional techniques due the much higher possible surface to volume ratios and short heat transfer lengths. By evaporating of a fluid in microchannels, compact, fast and powerful cooling devices become possible [2]. Experimental results for different designs of microstructured evaporators are presented here. They have been obtained either using water as evaporating coolant or the refrigerant R134a (Tetrafluoroethane). A new microstructured evaporator design consisting of bended microchannels instead of straight channels for a better performance is shown and compared to previous results [2] for the evaporation of R134a in straight microchannels.

  16. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  17. 'Impulsar': Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2008-04-28

    The Objective of the 'Impulsar' project is to accomplish a circle of experimental, engineering and technological works on creation of a high efficiency laser rocket engine. The project includes many organizations of the rocket industry and Academy of Sciences of Russia. High repetition rate pulse-periodic CO{sub 2} laser system project for launching will be presented. Optical system for 15 MW laser energy delivery and optical matrix of laser engine receiver will by discussed as well. Basic characteristics of the laser-based engine will be compared with theoretical predictions and important stages of further technology implementation (low frequency resonance). Relying on a wide cooperation of different branches of science and industry organizations it is very possible to use the accumulated potential for launching of nano-vehicles during the upcoming 4-5 years.

  18. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  19. Experimental Ten-Photon Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, W.; Huang, H.-L.; Liu, C.; Chen, C.; Luo, Y.-H.; Su, Z.-E.; Wu, D.; Li, Z.-D.; Lu, H.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, X.; Peng, C.-Z.; Li, L.; Liu, N.-L.; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement among ten spatially separated single photons. A near-optimal entangled photon-pair source was developed with simultaneously a source brightness of ˜12 MHz /W , a collection efficiency of ˜70 % , and an indistinguishability of ˜91 % between independent photons, which was used for a step-by-step engineering of multiphoton entanglement. Under a pump power of 0.57 W, the ten-photon count rate was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to previous experiments, while maintaining a state fidelity sufficiently high for proving the genuine ten-particle entanglement. Our work created a state-of-the-art platform for multiphoton experiments, and enabled technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks, such as the realization of Shor's error correction code and high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling.

  20. Experimental contextuality in classical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-03-01

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright’s inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.

  1. Experimental Ten-Photon Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, W; Huang, H-L; Liu, C; Chen, C; Luo, Y-H; Su, Z-E; Wu, D; Li, Z-D; Lu, H; Hu, Y; Jiang, X; Peng, C-Z; Li, L; Liu, N-L; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement among ten spatially separated single photons. A near-optimal entangled photon-pair source was developed with simultaneously a source brightness of ∼12  MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ∼70%, and an indistinguishability of ∼91% between independent photons, which was used for a step-by-step engineering of multiphoton entanglement. Under a pump power of 0.57 W, the ten-photon count rate was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to previous experiments, while maintaining a state fidelity sufficiently high for proving the genuine ten-particle entanglement. Our work created a state-of-the-art platform for multiphoton experiments, and enabled technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks, such as the realization of Shor's error correction code and high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling.

  2. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    ScienceCinema

    Roberts, Tom [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  3. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  4. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Dijkman, Karin; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A; Kap, Yolanda S

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset, a small-bodied Neotropical primate, is a well-known and validated animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). This model can be used for exploratory research, i.e., investigating the pathogenic mechanisms involved in MS, and applied research, testing the efficacy of new potential drugs.In this chapter, we will describe a method to induce EAE in the marmoset. In addition, we will explain the most common immunological techniques involved in the marmoset EAE research, namely isolation of mononuclear cells (MNC) from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue, assaying T cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation, MNC phenotyping by flow cytometry, antibody measurement by ELISA, generation of B cell lines and antigen-specific T cell lines, and assaying cytotoxic T cells.

  5. Cervical carcinoma: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    A mouse model system was used to investigate the preventive efficacy of a subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine on the development of HSV induced cervical carcinoma. Ten groups of mice were vaccinated before receiving repeated intravaginal exposure to HSV-type 2 inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. At 20 months postvaccination, neutralizing antibody activity to herpes simplex viruses was detected in the sera of the mice which had received the highest vaccine dose. Although three experimental mice and one control mouse developed cervical tumours and five mice developed preinvasive malignant changes, 87% of cervices were of normal or koilocytotic appearance on histological examination. There was therefore no evidence from this study that repeated exposure of mouse cervices to inactivated HSV-2 induced a significant incidence of preinvasive or invasive cervical carcinoma.

  6. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Petter, W.

    1976-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee. PMID:966259

  7. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  8. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Graeff, F G; Parente, A; Del-Ben, C M; Guimarães, F S

    2003-04-01

    This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  9. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  10. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  11. Small Delay and High Performance AD/DA Converters of Lease Circuit System for AM&FM Broadcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Kenji; Suzuki, Dai; Ishii, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masato; Yamada, Hirokazu; Amano, Shigeru

    Many AM&FM broadcasting stations in Japan are connected by the leased circuit system of NTT. Small delay and high performance AD/DA converter was developed for the system. The system was designed based on ITU-T J.41 Recommendation (384kbps), the transmission signal is 11bit-32 kHz where the Gain-frequency characteristics between 40Hz to 15kHz have to be quite flat. The ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs for audio application in the market today realize very high performance. However the performance is not enough for the leased circuit system. We found that it is not possible to meet the delay and Gain-frequency requirements only by using ΔΣAD/DA converter LSI in normal operation, because 15kHz the highest frequency and 16kHz Nyquist frequency are too close, therefore there are aliasing around Nyquist frequency. In this paper, we designed AD/DA architecture having small delay (1msec) and sharp cut off LPF (100dB attenuation at 16kHz, and 1500dB/Oct from 15kHz to 16kHz) by operating ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs over-sampling rate such as 128kHz and by adding custom LPF designed Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. The IIR filter is a 16th order elliptic type and it is consist of eight biquad filters in series. We described how to evaluate the stability of IIR filter theoretically by calculating frequency response, Pole and Zero Layout and impulse response of each biquad filter, and experimentally by adding overflow detection circuit on each filters and input overlord signal.

  12. The 1986 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium will provide a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that will be flown in the future.

  13. Experimental "evolutional machines": mathematical and experimental modeling of biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilkov, A. V.; Loginov, I. A.; Morozova, E. V.; Shuvaev, A. N.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Experimentalists possess model systems of two major types for study of evolution continuous cultivation in the chemostat and long-term development in closed laboratory microecosystems with several trophic structure If evolutionary changes or transfer from one steady state to another in the result of changing qualitative properties of the system take place in such systems the main characteristics of these evolution steps can be measured By now this has not been realized from the point of view of methodology though a lot of data on the work of both types of evolutionary machines has been collected In our experiments with long-term continuous cultivation we used the bacterial strains containing in plasmids the cloned genes of bioluminescence and green fluorescent protein which expression level can be easily changed and controlled In spite of the apparent kinetic diversity of evolutionary transfers in two types of systems the general mechanisms characterizing the increase of used energy flow by populations of primer producent can be revealed at their study According to the energy approach at spontaneous transfer from one steady state to another e g in the process of microevolution competition or selection heat dissipation characterizing the rate of entropy growth should increase rather then decrease or maintain steady as usually believed The results of our observations of experimental evolution require further development of thermodynamic theory of open and closed biological systems and further study of general mechanisms of biological

  14. The '3Is' of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    2012-05-29

    Animal experimentation in scientific research is a good thing: important, increasing and often irreplaceable. Careful experimental design and reporting are at least as important as attention to welfare in ensuring that the knowledge we gain justifies using live animals as experimental tools.

  15. Control design for the SERC experimental testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, Robert; Blackwood, Gary; Macmartin, Douglas G.; How, Jonathan; Anderson, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on control design for the Space Engineering Research Center experimental testbeds are presented. Topics covered include: SISO control design and results; sensor and actuator location; model identification; control design; experimental results; preliminary LAC experimental results; active vibration isolation problem statement; base flexibility coupling into isolation feedback loop; cantilever beam testbed; and closed loop results.

  16. Experimental Trichinella infection in seals.

    PubMed

    Kapel, C M O; Measures, L; Møller, L N; Forbes, L; Gajadhar, A

    2003-11-01

    The susceptibility of seals to infection with Trichinella nativa and the cold tolerant characteristics of muscle larvae in seal meat were evaluated. Two grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, were inoculated with 5000 (100 larvae/kg) T. nativa larvae and two grey seals with 50000 (1000 larvae/kg). One seal from each dose group and two control seals were killed at 5 and 10 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). At 5 weeks p.i., infection was established in both low and high dose seals with mean larval densities of 68 and 472 larvae per gram (lpg), respectively, using eight different muscles for analyses. At 10 weeks p.i., mean larval densities were 531 and 2649 lpg, respectively, suggesting an extended persistence of intestinal worms. In seals with high larval density infections, the distribution of larvae in various muscles was uniform, but in one seal with a low larval density infection, predilection sites of larvae included muscle groups with a relative high blood flow, i.e. diaphragm, intercostal and rear flipper muscles. Trichinella-specific antibody levels, as measured by ELISA, increased during the 10 week experimental period. Infected seal muscle was stored at 5, -5 and -18 degrees C for 1, 4 and 8 weeks. Muscle larvae released from stored seal muscle by artificial digestion were inoculated into mice to assess viability and infectivity. Larvae from seal muscle 10 weeks p.i. tolerated -18 degrees C for 8 weeks but larvae from seal muscle 5 weeks p.i. tolerated only 1 week at -18 degrees C, supporting the hypothesis that freeze tolerance increases with the age of the host-parasite tissue complex. The expressed susceptibility to infection, extended production of larvae, antibody response and freeze tolerance of T. nativa in seals are new findings from the first experimental Trichinella infection in any marine mammal and suggest that pinnipeds (phocids, otariiids or walrus) may acquire Trichinella infection by scavenging even small amounts of infected tissue left by hunters or

  17. Der Telemanipulator daVinci als mechanisches Trackingsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käst, Johannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Nickel, Felix; Kenngott, Hannes; Engel, Markus; Short, Elaine; Reiter, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    Der Telemanipulator daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Kalifornien) ist ein M aster-Slave System für roboterassistierte minimalinvasive Chirurgie. Da er über integrierte Gelenksensoren verfügt, kann er unter Verwendung der daVinci-API als mechanisches Trackingsystem verwendet werden. In dieser Arbeit evaluieren wir die Präzision und Genauigkeit eines daVinci mit Hilfe eines Genauigkeitsphantoms mit bekannten Maßen. Der ermittelte Positionierungsfehler liegt in der Größenordnung von 6 mm und ist somit für einen Großteil der medizinischen Fragestellungen zu hoch. Zur Reduktion des Fehlers schlagen wir daher eine Kalibrierung der Gelenksensoren vor.

  18. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... emission rates (so) and inlet emission rates (si) as applicable. (3) The lower confidence limit for...

  19. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... emission rates (so) and inlet emission rates (si) as applicable. (3) The lower confidence limit for...

  20. Experimental overview of axion searches

    SciTech Connect

    van Bibber, K.

    1995-06-28

    Experimental methods to search for the ``invisible axion`` (f{sub a} {much_gt} 250 GeV) are reviewed. The report focuses on the axion-photon coupling, both for laboratory experiments as well as those looking for stellar or cosmologically produced axions. The conclusion is that while the axion-photon mixing in principle would permit laboratory axion searches which are broadband in mass, in fact no such experiment could have the sensitivity to the axion, where m{sub afa} {approx} m{sub {pi}f{pi}}. The only experiments which promise to have any chance to find the axion are the microwave cavity experiments, which presume axions to constitute our galactic halo dark matter. The conversion of axions into a monochromatic microwave signal in a resonant circuit affords the experiment the extraordinary sensitivity required to see the axion, at the expense of being narrow-band in mass, i.e. a tuning experiment. Two such efforts are underway in the world.

  1. Experimental Tests Of Paleoclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J D; Anderson, J K; Arlen, T C; Bateman, G; Budny, R V; Fujita, T; Greenfield, C M; Greenwald, M; Groebner, R J; Hill, D N; Hogeweij, G D; Kaye, S M; Kritz, A H; Lazarus, E A; Leonard, A C; Mahdavi, M A; McLean, H S; Osborne, T H; Pankin, A Y; Petty, C C; Sarff, J S; St. John, H E; Stacey, W M; Stutman, D; Synakowski, E J; Tritz, K

    2006-09-12

    Predictions of the recently developed paleoclassical transport model are compared with data from many toroidal plasma experiments: electron heat diffusivity in DIII-D, C-Mod and NSTX ohmic and near-ohmic plasmas; transport modeling of DIII-D ohmic-level discharges and of the RTP ECH 'stair-step' experiments with eITBs at low order rational surfaces; investigation of a strong eITB in JT-60U; H-mode Te edge pedestal properties in DIII-D; and electron heat diffusivities in non-tokamak experiments (NSTX/ST, MST/RFP, SSPX/spheromak). The radial electron heat transport predicted by the paleoclassical model is found to agree with a wide variety of ohmic-level experimental results and to set the lower limit (within a factor {approx} 2) for the radial electron heat transport in most resistive, current-carrying toroidal plasmas -- unless it is exceeded by fluctuation-induced transport, which often occurs in the edge of L-mode plasmas and when the electron temperature is high ({approx}>T{sub e}{sup crit} {approx}B{sup 2/3}{bar {alpha}}{sup 1/2} keV) because then paleoclassical transport becomes less than gyro-Bohm-level anomalous transport.

  2. Experimental high-speed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Klein, William P.; Vercillo, Richard; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Parra, Miguel V.; Dallas, William J.

    1993-09-01

    Many existing local area networking protocols currently applied in medical imaging were originally designed for relatively low-speed, low-volume networking. These protocols utilize small packet sizes appropriate for text based communication. Local area networks of this type typically provide raw bandwidth under 125 MHz. These older network technologies are not optimized for the low delay, high data traffic environment of a totally digital radiology department. Some current implementations use point-to-point links when greater bandwidth is required. However, the use of point-to-point communications for a total digital radiology department network presents many disadvantages. This paper describes work on an experimental multi-access local area network called XFT. The work includes the protocol specification, and the design and implementation of network interface hardware and software. The protocol specifies the Physical and Data Link layers (OSI layers 1 & 2) for a fiber-optic based token ring providing a raw bandwidth of 500 MHz. The protocol design and implementation of the XFT interface hardware includes many features to optimize image transfer and provide flexibility for additional future enhancements which include: a modular hardware design supporting easy portability to a variety of host system buses, a versatile message buffer design providing 16 MB of memory, and the capability to extend the raw bandwidth of the network to 3.0 GHz.

  3. Experimental evolution meets marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Boyd, Philip W

    2013-07-01

    Our perspective highlights potentially important links between disparate fields-biological oceanography, climate change research, and experimental evolutionary biology. We focus on one important functional group-photoautotrophic microbes (phytoplankton), which are responsible for ∼50% of global primary productivity. Global climate change currently results in the simultaneous change of several conditions such as warming, acidification, and nutrient supply. It thus has the potential to dramatically change phytoplankton physiology, community composition, and may result in adaptive evolution. Although their large population sizes, standing genetic variation, and rapid turnover time should promote swift evolutionary change, oceanographers have focussed on describing patterns of present day physiological differentiation rather than measure potential adaptation in evolution experiments, the only direct way to address whether and at which rate phytoplankton species will adapt to environmental change. Important open questions are (1) is adaptation limited by existing genetic variation or fundamental constraints? (2) Will complex ecological settings such as gradual versus abrupt environmental change influence adaptation processes? (3) How will increasing environmental variability affect the evolution of phenotypic plasticity patterns? Because marine phytoplankton species display rapid acclimation capacity (phenotypic buffering), a systematic study of reaction norms renders them particularly interesting to the evolutionary biology research community.

  4. Experimental investigation of plasmofluidic waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Bonwoo; Kwon, Min-Suk; Shin, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-16

    Plasmofluidic waveguides are based on guiding light which is strongly confined in fluid with the assistance of a surface plasmon polariton. To realize plasmofluidic waveguides, metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, are employed. The insulator of the MISIM waveguide is removed to form 30-nm-wide channels, and they are filled with fluid. The plasmofluidic waveguide has a subwavelength-scale mode area since its mode is strongly confined in the fluid. The waveguides are experimentally characterized for different fluids. When the refractive index of the fluid is 1.440, the plasmofluidic waveguide with 190-nm-wide silicon has propagation loss of 0.46 dB/μm; the coupling loss between it and an ordinary silicon photonic waveguide is 1.79 dB. The propagation and coupling losses may be reduced if a few fabrication-induced imperfections are removed. The plasmofluidic waveguide may pave the way to a dynamically phase-tunable ultracompact device.

  5. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  6. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  7. Experimental investigations of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various experimental studies of elastohydrodynamic lubrication have been reviewed. The various types of machines used in these investigations, such as the disc, two and four ball, crossed-cylinders, and crossed-axes rolling disc machine, are described. The measurement of the most important parameters, such as film shape, film thickness, pressure, temperature, and traction, is considered. Determination of the film thickness is generally the most important of these effects since it dictates the extent to which the asperities on opposing surfaces can come into contact and thus has a direct bearing on wear and fatigue failure of the contacting surfaces. Several different techniques for measuring film thickness have been described, including electrical resistance, capacitance, X-ray, optical interferometry, laser beam diffraction, strain gage, and spring dynamometer methods. An attempt has been made to describe the basic concepts and limitations of each of these techniques. These various methods have been used by individual researchers, but there is no universally acceptable technique for measuring elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Capacitance methods have provided most of the reliable data for nominal line or rectangular conjunctions, but optical interferometry has proved to be the most effective procedure for elliptical contacts. Optical interferometry has the great advantage that it reveals not only the film thickness, but also details of the film shape over the complete area of the conjunction.

  8. Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

  9. ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment Comparison Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Self-Assessment Comparison (SAC) Tool is for state Part C and Section 619/Preschool programs to use to assess changes in the implementation of one or more components of the ECTA System Framework and/or subcomponenets of the DaSy Data System Framework. It is a companion to the ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment. Key features of the SAC are…

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein promotes neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Neufert, C; Pai, R K; Noss, E H; Berger, M; Boom, W H; Harding, C V

    2001-08-01

    Certain microbial substances, e.g., LPS, can activate neutrophils or prime them to enhance their response to other activating agents, e.g., fMLP. We investigated the role of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) 19-kDa lipoprotein in activation of human neutrophils. MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein initiated phenotypic changes characteristic of neutrophil activation, including down-regulation of CD62 ligand (L-selectin) and up-regulation of CD35 (CR1) and CD11b/CD18 (CR3, Mac-1). In addition, exposure of neutrophils to MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein enhanced the subsequent oxidative burst in response to fMLP as assessed by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (determined by flow cytometry). LPS also produced these effects with similar kinetics, but an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a CpG motif failed to induce any priming or activation response. Although the effects of LPS required the presence of serum, neutrophil activation by MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein occurred independently of serum factors, suggesting the involvement of different receptors and signaling mechanisms for LPS and MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein. Thus, MTB 19-kDa lipoprotein serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern that promotes neutrophil priming and activation.

  11. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; Emanuel De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; Wenaus, Torre

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  12. DaTo: an atlas of biological databases and tools.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilin; Zhou, Yincong; Jiao, Yingmin; Zhang, Zhao; Bai, Lin; Tong, Li; Yang, Xiong; Sommer, Björn; Hofestädt, Ralf; Chen, Ming

    2016-12-18

    This work presents DaTo, a semi-automatically generated world atlas of biological databases and tools. It extracts raw information from all PubMed articles which contain exact URLs in their abstract section, followed by a manual curation of the abstract and the URL accessibility. DaTo features a user-friendly query interface, providing extensible URL-related annotations, such as the status, the location and the country of the URL. A graphical interaction network browser has also been integrated into the DaTo web interface to facilitate exploration of the relationship between different tools and databases with respect to their ontology-based semantic similarity. Using DaTo, the geographical locations, the health statuses, as well as the journal associations were evaluated with respect to the historical development of bioinformatics tools and databases over the last 20 years. We hope it will inspire the biological community to gain a systematic insight into bioinformatics resources. DaTo is accessible via http://bis.zju.edu.cn/DaTo/.

  13. The Ubiquitin Receptor DA1 Interacts with the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase DA2 to Regulate Seed and Organ Size in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Li, Na; Dumenil, Jack; Li, Jie; Kamenski, Andrei; Bevan, Michael W.; Gao, Fan; Li, Yunhai

    2013-01-01

    Seed size in higher plants is determined by the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissue. Several factors that act maternally to regulate seed size have been identified, such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2, APETALA2, KLUH, and DA1, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms of these factors in seed size control are almost totally unknown. We previously demonstrated that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 acts synergistically with the E3 ubiquitin ligase ENHANCER1 OF DA1 (EOD1)/BIG BROTHER to regulate the final size of seeds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe another RING-type protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, encoded by DA2, which regulates seed size by restricting cell proliferation in the maternal integuments of developing seeds. The da2-1 mutant forms large seeds, while overexpression of DA2 decreases seed size of wild-type plants. Overexpression of rice (Oryza sativa) GRAIN WIDTH AND WEIGHT2, a homolog of DA2, restricts seed growth in Arabidopsis. Genetic analyses show that DA2 functions synergistically with DA1 to regulate seed size, but does so independently of EOD1. Further results reveal that DA2 interacts physically with DA1 in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our findings define the genetic and molecular mechanisms of three ubiquitin-related proteins DA1, DA2, and EOD1 in seed size control and indicate that they are promising targets for crop improvement. PMID:24045020

  14. Experimental Volcanology: Fragmentation and Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieler, O.

    2005-12-01

    An increasing number of scientists design new experiments to analyse processes that control the dynamics of explosive eruptions. There research is mostly coupled to numerical models and aims toward its controlling parameters. The fragmentation process, its threshold and the speed of the fragmentation wave as well as the energy consumed by the fragmentation are some hot spots of the experimental volcanology. Analysing the fragmentation behaviour of volcaniclastics as close to the natural system as possible, we found a number of physical constrains. Identifying the porosity as determining factor of the threshold, we realised that neither threshold nor the speed of the fragmentation process are solely controlled by the rock density. The later results of the shock tube type apparatus lead to the analysis of the specific surface area and permeability as direct links to textural features. Permeability analysis performed in a modified shock tube type apparatus, show two clear, distinct trends for dome rock and pyroclastic samples. The specific surface determined by Argon sorbtion (BET) as well as textural features of pumices from Campi Flegrei, Montserrat and Krakatoa (1883) give in contrary evidence of a more complex story. Large spherical, or ellipsoidal bubbles around fractured crystals prove that the high permeability of the pumice has partially developed after the fixing of the bubble size distribution. This puts up the question, if permeability measurements on pyroclastic samples reveal relevant numbers! The surface tension controlled 'self sealing' behaviour of surfaces from foaming obsidian hinders in situ measurements. Close textural investigations will have to clarify how the 'post process' samples deviate from the syneruptive conduit filling.

  15. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  16. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  17. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrieri, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

  18. [Regeneration of planarians: experimental object].

    PubMed

    Sheĭman, I M; Kreshchenko, I D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the expediency of using invertebrates, such as flatworms and planarians, as experimental objects. Free-living planarian flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria) are invertebrate animals in which a bilateral symmetry appears for the first time in evolution and organs and tissues form. As the highest ecological link of the food chain--predators--these animals are characterized by a set of behavioral reactions controlled by a differentiated central nervous system. Planarians have unsurpassed ability to regenerate lost or damaged body parts. Owing to the ease of their breeding and their convenience for manipulations, these animals are used to study the influence of chemical and physical factors on the processes of life, growth, and reproduction. Currently, planarians are recognized as a model for biological research in the field of regeneration, stem cell biology, study of their proliferation and differentiation, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The genome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea was fully sequenced, which opened up the opportunity to work with this object at the molecular biological level. Furthermore, planarians are used in neurobiological and toxicological studies, in studying the evolutionary aspects of centralization of the nervous system, mechanisms of muscle contraction, and in the development of new antiparasitic drugs. This review aims to demonstrate the relevance and diversity of research conducted on simple biological objects--planarians--to awider audience to show the historical continuity of these studies and their wide geographical distribution and to focus on the studies carried out in Russia, which, as a rule, are not included in the foreign reviews on planarian regeneration.

  19. Experimental Tests of Nucleation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dea, Jack Yuen

    1982-03-01

    In recent years there has been controversy surrounding experimental nucleation data that did not conform to classical nucleation theory. More recent data, however, suggest good agreement between theory and experiment. At the Desert Research Institute (DRI), it was decided to perform sensitive tests of nucleation in soluble aerosol particles using newly developed instruments and techniques. Very steady aerosol generation was accomplished with a newly developed atomizer; very high monodispersity in the sample aerosol was achieved using two electrical mobility analyzers in series; and, very fine control over the supersaturation was achieved using a newly developed CFD (Continuous Flow Diffusion) cloud chamber built for NASA for use in zero -gravity situations. The results of a series of experiments indicated that the supersaturation needs to be about 15% greater than predicted by theory. However, a mass correction, taking into account the shape of the salt particles produced data that are in excellent agreement with theory. Moreover, the relative hygroscopicity of several soluble substances and the slopes of the Kohler curves obtained agreed very well with theory. The results mean that the hygroscopicity of various substances can be rated using the Kohler curves. Calculations have been done to determine the hygroscopicity of a number of sulfate compounds. The results of these calculations indicate that under restricted conditions (aerosol diameters < 0.1 (mu)m and aerosol particles composed of either one soluble compound or one soluble compound plus an insoluble component), it is possible to distinguish apart most of the sulfate species using either the DFC cloud chamber or an instantaneous version of the CFD cloud chamber. These results point to a possible application of nucleation theory to aerosol species differentiation in the atmosphere.

  20. Evaluation of Babesia bigemina 200 kDa recombinant antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Khukhuu; Alhassan, Andy; Iseki, Hiroshi; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    A truncated fragment of the gene encoding the 200-kDa protein (P200) of Babesia bigemina was cloned into a plasmid vector, pGEX-4 T-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione-S-transferase fused protein. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rp200/CT detected specific antibodies in cattle experimentally infected with B. bigemina. Furthermore, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to Babesia bovis, a closely related Babesia parasite indicating that rp200/CT is a specific antigen for the diagnosis of B. bigemina infection. Additionally, ELISA using p200/CT and polymerase chain reaction were conducted on serum and corresponding DNA samples obtained from field cattle to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the p200/CT antigen. Results from the current study suggest that p200/CT ELISA is a sensitive and specific method for improved serodiagnosis of B. bigemina infection.

  1. [Dr Guillermo Contreras Da Silva, a relevant figure in the development of Chilean microbiology].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2008-02-01

    The influence of the work of Dr. Guillermo Contreras Da Silva and his colaborators on the evolution of microbiology in Chile is briefly analyzed. Dr. Contreras was trained in modern virology at Yale University with Dr. J. Melnick under the sponsorhip of the Rockefeller Foundation. During this training, he used serological methods to classify Cocksakie viruses. After his return to Chile, he studied the epidemiology of enteroviruses, including poliovirus. His laboratory, the country's first in modern virology, took an active role in Chile's first Sabin polio vaccination in 1961. Dr. Contreras and his group transformed the teaching and the character of microbiology in Chile from a descriptive medically oriented discipline into an autonomous, quantitative and experimental science. They modernized microbiology with the introduction of molecular biology and microbial genetics and fostered collaborations with allied biological sciences. Dr. Contreras was a Guggenheim Fellow, and until his retirement, was the Chief of the Viral Products Division, Bureau of Biologies, Ottawa, Canada.

  2. [The experimental surgery and your relation with the university: an experience report].

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Feijo, Daniel Haber; Silva, José Antonio Cordero da; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Henriques, Marcus Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory of experimental surgery represents one of the key points for the university, especially in the biomedical area. This focuses on the university's tripod of primary structure that are teaching, research and extension, which are essential for formation of humanistic and practice of a good doctor that is based, first of all, on scientific evidence and critical knowledge. The importance of a laboratory of experimental surgery centers for medical education was regulated from the new curriculum guidelines of the Ministério da Educação e Cultura, establishing a mandatory laboratory within college centers. Therefore, it is of great importance to the contribution of the laboratories of experimental surgery in the curriculum, both in the discipline of surgical technics and experimental surgery, and an incentive for basic research. Thus, the study presents the experience of 15 years of the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery from Universidade do Estado do Pará, with the goal show the importance of this to medical graduation and the university.

  3. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect.

  4. Secretion of 10-kDa and 12-kDa thioredoxin species from blood monocytes and transformed leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sahaf, B; Rosén, A

    2000-01-01

    Thioredoxins (TRX) are ubiquitous, small redox-active proteins with multiple functions, including antioxidant, cytoprotective, and chemoattractant activities. In addition to a 12-kDa intracellular form, extracellular 10-kDa and 12-kDa TRX have been defined. The biological activities of the 10-kDa TRX were previously measured as eosinophil cytotoxicity enhancing activity or B-cell stimulatory activity. Cytotrophoblastic cell lines also release a 10-kDa TRX form. To study the biological role of 10-kDa TRX, we established two highly sensitive enzyme-linked immuno-spot assays (ELISPOT), which detect secreted truncated 10-kDa and full-length 12-kDa TRX at the single cell level. TRX secretion was investigated in several cell lines including the T-helper cell hybridoma MP6, the Jurkat T-cell leukemia, the U-937 myelomonocytic leukemia, and the 3B6, EBV-transformed, lymphoblastoid B-cell line. The highest number of secreting cells was found in 3B6 cultures, median = 34 (quartiles, 27-39) per well (10(5) cells). Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from healthy donors secreted significantly more TRX after stimulation with ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), fMLP, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), compared to unstimulated cells. Oxidative stress induced by thioloxidant diamide also induced the secretion of both truncated and full-length TRX measured in ELISPOT (p = 0.047 and p = 0.031, respectively). The biological activity of the truncated and full-length forms was tested in a cell migration assay. Truncated TRX was devoid of protein disulfide reductase activity, but retained strong chemoattractant activity for human monocytes, in the same range as full-length TRX, as previously reported (Bertini et al., 1999).

  5. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange

  6. Purification and characterization of 94kDa and 80kDa forms of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fracek, S.P. Jr.; Venter, J.C.; Kerlavage, A.R.

    1986-05-01

    Two molecular forms of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor have been consistently observed in a variety of species, albeit in variable amounts. Proteins which are specifically labeled by (/sup 3/H)propylbenzilylcholine mustard ((/sup 3/H)PrBCM) were observed at 94kDa and 80kDa upon SDS-PAGE of membrane proteins prepared from brains and hearts of trout, frog, turtle, chicken, rat, and pig. They have developed a purification procedure which yields each of these proteins in a homogeneous form suitable for structural analysis. The four step procedure involves affinity chromatography on 3-(2'-aminobenzhydryloxy)tropane-sepharose, concentration on hydroxylapatite, preparative SDS-PAGE and extraction of individual bands from the gel. Limited tryptic digestion of purified (/sup 3/H)PrBCM-labeled porcine atrial muscarinic receptor yields (/sup 3/H)-labeled fragments of 75, 65, 52, 40, 35, 30, 25, and 20kDa, in close agreement with results of analogous digestions of muscarinic receptor from other species and tissues. Complete tryptic digestion and subsequent mapping by reverse-phase HPLC yields very similar profiles for (/sup 125/I)-labeled 94kDa and 80kDA receptor forms. Most peaks which elute in the hydrophobic region of the profile overlap for the two proteins while the 94kDa protein contains several additional peaks of apparent low hydrophobicity.

  7. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  8. Experimental reproduction of tsunami deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, T.; Matsuyama, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2015-12-01

    in reproducing tsunami deposit and would show typical pattern of topography change and deposition caused by the tsunami incursion. The experimental method used in this study and the obtained deposition patterns will help understanding the relationship between hydraulic condition and resulting tsunami deposition.

  9. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  10. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    the plume that emerge as the key variables in volcanic lightning generation. A proportionality between fine ash content of the jet and number of lightning strikes is also evident in our experiments. This first recorded experimental generation of volcanic lightning means that rapid progress can now be expected (under controlled laboratory conditions) in understanding electrical phenomena produced during explosive volcanic eruptions. This in turn may aid the development of lightning monitoring systems for the forecasting of volcanic ash emissions into the atmosphere. Furthermore, our experiments are significant for the investigation of self-charging mechanism of particles that are relevant for atmospheric phenomena (such as dust storms) on Earth and other planetary bodies.

  11. Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to

  12. [Experimental antitriatomic program in Santiago].

    PubMed

    Neghme, A; Schenone, H; Villarroel, F; Rojas, A

    1991-01-01

    The rural migration to urban centers occurred since the 40s in many Latin American countries, including Santiago the capital city of Chile, originated a growing belt of premises built with light poor material (the rests of previous rural habitations, mud, pieces of timber, plastic and cardboard for walls, and cane stalks and artificial clinkstones for roofs) giving raise to many types of slums. This situation facilitated the passive transport of the different instars, including eggs, of triatomine bugs. Due to the fact that in the 1959-1960 warm seasons, the Santiago province health institutions had received an increasing reported number of triatomine bugs (Triatoma infestans) in dwellings from different periurban, even urban and rural sections of the province, the central local health authorities with the advise of the University of Chile, Department of Parasitology decided to carry out an experimental program against these vectors of Chagas' disease. The program consisted basically in an spray and thorough application of liquid forms (emulsion, suspension, solution) of 1% lindane (average > or = 500 mg per 1 m2), depending on the material of the constructions, to all the surfaces of walls, ceilings, attics and peridomiciliary structures of all the infested dwellings in a sector and those located less than 100 m around. In order to reach triatomine bugs not affected, for different reasons, in the first spraying, a second application, identical to the first was performed to the total number of premises between 30 and 120 days later. Periodical evaluations were made, and positive dwellings found and neighboring ones were sprayed again. During insecticide applications adequate protection measures for spraying workers, inhabitants, domestic animals, household goods and food were adopted. All the steps of the program were accompanied by health education activities directed to individuals, families, school teachers and community institutions, tending to motivate the

  13. Experimental Aerobraking with Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    Venus Express has successfully orbited Venus in its polar 24 hour, 250km by 66000 km, orbit since April 2006 and has provided a wealth of new data from our sister planet. Approaching the end of the mission we are now planning an experimental campaign dedicated to aerobraking at altitudes down to as low as about 130km. These low pericentre passes will provide direct measurements of density, temperature, magnetic field and energetic particles in a region not accessible by other methods. Experience of operations and studies of spacecraft responses will be valuable knowledge for possible future missions that might need this techniques as a part of its nominal operations. Aerobraking was considered in the early design phase of the mission but it was fairly soon realised that the nominal mission would not need this. However, a few important design features were maintained in order to allow for this in case it should be needed at a later stage. The inherently stable geometry of the spacecraft configuration and the inclusion of a software mode for aerobraking are the two most important elements from this early design phase. An recent study by industry has determined the constraints for the spacecraft and identified several potential scenarios. The present highly elliptical orbit has as one of its inherent features a downward drift of the pericentre altitude of between 1 and 4 km/day. However, at certain times, when the Sun is in the orbital plane, this drift disappears for a period of up to two weeks. This is a very well suited time to carry out these initial experiments as it is makes operations safer and it reduces the heat input on the spacecraft as the solar panels will be edge-on towards the sun during the aerobraking. Already a number of low altitude operations have been carried out during the so called atmospheric drag campaigns. The spacecraft has then dipped down to altitudes as low as 165 km and a good characterisation of this region has been performed. This

  14. The Experimental Discovery of Double-Charm Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelfried, Jürgen; Selex Collaboration

    2005-04-01

    In 2002, the SELEX [The SELEX (Fermilab E781) Collaboration: Ball State University, Bogazici University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Fermilab, Institute For High Energy Physics (Protvino), Institute of High Energy Physics (Beijing), Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow), Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Tel Aviv University, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, University of Iowa, University of Michigan-Flint, University of Rochester, University of Rome La Sapienza and INFN, University of São Paulo, University of Trieste and INFN. http://www-selex.fnal.gov] Experiment (Fermilab E781) reported the first observation of a member of the family of doubly charmed baryons [SELEX Collaboration, M. Mattson et al.: First observation of the doubly charmed baryonΞcc+. Phys. Rev. Letters 89 (2002) 112001, [ arXiv:hep-ex/0208014

  15. Charge of the containerless experimentation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    The experimentation was undertaken to study the elimination or reduction of surface contamination for which there is adequate Earth-based technology along with the reduction of dynamic nucleation for which there a paucity of reliable data. One objective is to delineate scientific justification of the U.S. Containerless Experimentation Program in Microgravity for the next decade and beyond. Another objective is for the guidance of NASA to define the next generation of containerless experimentation instruments in microgravity.

  16. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been replaced because of damage found on the hinge. Diamond Aircraft Industries conducted analyses...

  17. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such machines; and (3) Use by laboratories, hospitals, medical centers, institutes, colleges, or universities, for scientific, technical, or medical research. (b) What purposes are not experimental? The...

  18. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... such machines; and (3) Use by laboratories, hospitals, medical centers, institutes, colleges, or universities, for scientific, technical, or medical research. (b) What purposes are not experimental? The...

  19. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... such machines; and (3) Use by laboratories, hospitals, medical centers, institutes, colleges, or universities, for scientific, technical, or medical research. (b) What purposes are not experimental? The...

  20. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... such machines; and (3) Use by laboratories, hospitals, medical centers, institutes, colleges, or universities, for scientific, technical, or medical research. (b) What purposes are not experimental? The...

  1. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... such machines; and (3) Use by laboratories, hospitals, medical centers, institutes, colleges, or universities, for scientific, technical, or medical research. (b) What purposes are not experimental? The...

  2. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  3. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  4. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  5. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno T.; De K.; Wenaus T.; Nilsson P.; Stewart G. A.; Walker R.; Stradling A.; Caballero J.; Potekhin M.; Smith D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  6. The 1985 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. R. (Editor); Mosier, F. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium provided a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus is on payloads that have been flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the near future.

  7. A new dimension in space experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space experimentation, cosmic origins, the long-term effects of the space environment on living things, the long-term effects of space environment on materials and hardware, seeds in space, power generation in space, experimentation with crystals, and thermal control are discussed.

  8. Optimizing Experimental Designs: Finding Hidden Treasure.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical experimental design theory, the predominant treatment in most textbooks, promotes the use of blocking designs for control of spatial variability in field studies and other situations in which there is significant variation among heterogeneity among experimental units. Many blocking design...

  9. The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelme, Neal (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's symposium provides a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium was on payloads that were flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future.

  10. Experimental Influence Coefficients and Vibration Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Kordes, Eldon E.

    1959-01-01

    Test results are presented for both symmetrical and antisymmetrical static loading of a wing model mounted on a three-point support system. The first six free-free vibration modes were determined experimentally. A comparison is made of the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies with the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies calculated from the experimental influence coefficients.

  11. New model systems for experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sinéad

    2013-07-01

    Microbial experimental evolution uses a few well-characterized model systems to answer fundamental questions about how evolution works. This special section highlights novel model systems for experimental evolution, with a focus on marine model systems that can be used to understand evolutionary responses to global change in the oceans.

  12. Assessing Students' Experimentation Processes in Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emden, Markus; Sumfleth, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In recent science education, experimentation features ever more strongly as a method of inquiry in science classes rather than as a means to illustrate phenomena. Ideas and materials to teach inquiry abound. Yet, tools for assessing students' achievement in their processes of experimentation are lacking. The present study assumes a basal,…

  13. FELIX construction status and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Praeg, W.F.; Knott, M.J.; Lari, R.J.; McGhee, D.G.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    FELIX (Fusion Electromagnetic Induction Experiment) is an experimental test facility being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the study of electromagnetic effects in the first wall/blanket/shield (FWBS) systems of fusion reactors. The facility design, construction status, experimental program, instrumentation, and associated computer-code comparisons are described.

  14. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  15. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  16. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  17. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  18. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  19. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  20. The 1988 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium was held to provide a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that have been flown on shuttle missions and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future. Experiment design and payload integration issues are also examined.

  1. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  2. Mainstreaming Caenorhabditis elegans in experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jeremy C.; Cutter, Asher D.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evolution provides a powerful manipulative tool for probing evolutionary process and mechanism. As this approach to hypothesis testing has taken purchase in biology, so too has the number of experimental systems that use it, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The depth of biological knowledge about Caenorhabditis nematodes, combined with their laboratory tractability, positions them well for exploiting experimental evolution in animal systems to understand deep questions in evolution and ecology, as well as in molecular genetics and systems biology. To date, Caenorhabditis elegans and related species have proved themselves in experimental evolution studies of the process of mutation, host–pathogen coevolution, mating system evolution and life-history theory. Yet these organisms are not broadly recognized for their utility for evolution experiments and remain underexploited. Here, we outline this experimental evolution work undertaken so far in Caenorhabditis, detail simple methodological tricks that can be exploited and identify research areas that are ripe for future discovery. PMID:24430852

  3. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  4. 1991 DA: An asteroid in a bizarre orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Duncan; Mcnaught, Robert H.; Asher, David

    1992-01-01

    Asteroidal object 1991 DA has an orbit of high inclination, crossing the planets from Mars to Uranus. This is unique for an asteroid, but not unusual for a comet of the Halley-type: it therefore seems likely that 1991 DA is an extinct or dormant comet. Previous CCD imaging has shown no indication of a coma; spectroscopic observations of 1991 DA which lack any evidence of strong comet-like emissions are reported. Numerical integrations of the orbit of this object were performed which show that is has been remarkably stable for the past approximately 20,000 yr, but chaotic before that. This may allow a new estimate to be made of the physical lifetimes of comets.

  5. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  6. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  7. The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-05-01

    GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

  8. Using DA White Dwarfs to Calibrate Synthetic Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.

    2007-04-01

    Four widely used photometric systems, namely the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Strömgren uvby, the 2MASS JHKs and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz systems have been directly compared with the HST absolute photometric scale of Bohlin & Gilliland (2004). These comparisons are subsequently used to construct a large grid of accurate synthetic magnitudes for DA white dwarfs. This grid is, in turn, critically evaluated with respect to the observed photometry from substantial samples of actual white dwarfs. The advantages of DA white dwarfs as photometric stars are emphasized, and the prospects for extending the use of these stars into the near infrared are highlighted.

  9. Evaluation of baculovirus-derived recombinant 53-kDa protein of Trichinella spiralis for detection of Trichinella-specific antibodies in domestic pigs by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Jung, Doreen; Teifke, Jens Peter; Karger, Axel; Michael, Kathrin; Venz, Simone; Wittmann, Wolfgang; Kindermann, Katharina; Nöckler, Karsten; Mundt, Egbert

    2007-02-01

    The complete gene encoding the 53-kDa protein derived from Trichinella spiralis was cloned and expressed using a baculovirus-based system. Characterization of a purified fusion protein consisting of the 53-kDa protein and the glutathione S-transferase protein showed unspecific reactivity with swine pre-immune serum in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Subsequently, a purified C-terminal 6xHis-tagged 53-kDa protein was used in an ELISA. The evaluation of the test using a negative serum panel showed a high specificity for the ELISA. Serum panels of pigs infected with T. spiralis of two independent experiments showed that pigs of one experiment were tested positive by the ELISA, whereas all sera of the second experiment were negative, indicating a low sensitivity of the ELISA. Furthermore, experimental evidence was found by using mass spectroscopy and Western blot analysis that the 53-kDa protein was not part of the excretory/secretory antigen of T. spiralis as shown in this study.

  10. The NOX2-mediated ROS producing capacity of recipient cells is associated with reduced T cell infiltrate in an experimental model of chronic renal allograft inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, Marina D; Koekkoek, Karin M; Gelderman, Kyra A; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-03-01

    We previously showed that anti-inflammatory Mph (Mph2) can both in vitro and in vivo induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent fashion. As influx of Mph is an important characteristic of chronic inflammatory responses, we investigated the impact of NOX2-mediated ROS production by recipient cells in an experimental model of chronic allograft inflammation. We used a kidney transplantation (Tx) model with Lewis (Lew) rats as donor and congenic DA.Ncf1(DA/DA) (low ROS) and DA.Ncf1(E3/E3) (normal ROS) rats as recipients. At day 7 the contralateral kidney was removed, and the animals were sacrificed four weeks after Tx. Renal function and injury were monitored in serum and urine and the composition of the infiltrate was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Four weeks after Tx, large leukocyte clusters were observed in the allograft, in which signs of ROS production could be demonstrated. These clusters showed no difference regarding composition of myeloid cells or the number of FoxP3 positive cells. However, T cell infiltrate was significantly reduced in the DA.Ncf1(E3/E3) recipients having normal ROS production. Therefore, this study suggests a regulatory effect of ROS on T cell infiltration, but no effect on other inflammatory cells in the allograft.

  11. Combined use of omeprazole and a novel antioxidative cytoprotectant for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Facilitation of ulcer healing in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Mi; Choi, Seul Min; Kim, Dong Hwan; Oh, Tae Young; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, Won Bae

    2005-01-01

    Peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux are common acid-peptic related diseases. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease has been centered on an imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors. This study was conducted to examine whether the combined use of omeprazole (CAS 73590-58-6), a proton pump inhibitor, and DA-9601, a novel anti-ulcer formulation of the extract of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, has synergistic effects on various peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux diseases in animal models. An optimal combination ratio of omeprazole and DA-9601 was investigated in an acetic acid-induced ulcer model. In the results, oral pretreatment with omeprazole and DA-9601 (combination ratio, 1:3) significantly reduced alcohol-, indometacin-, acetic acid-, and cysteamine-induced gastrointestinal lesions in a synergistical manner in rats. The combination treatment also significantly attenuated the gross and histopathological lesions in an experimental reflux esophagitis model as compared to the single treatment of omeprazole or DA-9601. In an alcohol-induced gastritis model, the combined treatment resulted in a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation with concomitant increases in glutathione content and prostaglandin E2 level, which was proportional to the inhibitory effect of the combination therapy. These results suggest that the combined therapy with omeprazole and DA-9601, a cytoprotectant, can be beneficial for the treatment of peptic ulcer and reflux esophagitis.

  12. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception.

  13. EXFOR Library of Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The EXFOR library contains an extensive compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data up to 1 GeV. Neutron reactions have been compiled systematically since the discovery of the neutron, while charged particle(up to carbon) and photon reactions have been covered less extensively. Files contain nuclear reaction data such as cross sections, spectra, angular distributions, polarizations, etc, along with information on experimental technique, error analysis, and applied standards. Numerous search parameters include: target, beam, product, experimental method, and even author and publication names. The library contains data from more than 20,000 experiments. (Specialized Interface)

  14. Experimental millimeter-wave satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Shimada, Masaaki; Arimoto, Yoshinori; Shiomi, Tadashi; Kitazume, Susumu

    This paper describes an experimental system of millimeter-wave satellite communications via Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) and a plan of experiments. Two experimental missions are planned using ETS-VI millimeter-wave (43/38 GHz bands) transponder, considering the millimeter-wave characteristics such as large transmission capacity and possibility to construct a small earth station with a high gain antenna. They are a personal communication system and an inter-satellite communication system. Experimental system including the configuration and the fundamental functions of the onboard transponder and the outline of the experiments are presented.

  15. Experimental area power monitoring during shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Pathiyil, J.

    1989-03-01

    The power consumption at the site is increasing every year and the power consumption in the fixed target beam lines is constantly changing for each run. Since we do not have an energy monitoring program in effect in the experimental areas; we are not in a position to tell whether we are using the electrical energy efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the summer and winter base load of the three experimental areas while the beamlines are off and also to identify what kind loads are on. The most important purpose was to find the base loads in each of the big experimental halls during the shutdown.

  16. Drought Adaptation Mechanisms Should Guide Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew E; Medina, Viviana

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism, or hypothesis, of how a plant might be adapted to drought should strongly influence experimental design. For instance, an experiment testing for water conservation should be distinct from a damage-tolerance evaluation. We define here four new, general mechanisms for plant adaptation to drought such that experiments can be more easily designed based upon the definitions. A series of experimental methods are suggested together with appropriate physiological measurements related to the drought adaptation mechanisms. The suggestion is made that the experimental manipulation should match the rate, length, and severity of soil water deficit (SWD) necessary to test the hypothesized type of drought adaptation mechanism.

  17. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  18. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used in combined cycle systems, either of the procedures described in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this... (O2) (or carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da. Alternatively, data from a NOX... shall constitute the NOX emission rate from the duct burner of the combined cycle system. (k)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combined cycle systems, either of the procedures described in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section may... carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da. Alternatively, data from a NOX emission... shall constitute the NOX emission rate from the duct burner of the combined cycle system. (k)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using the CEMS specified under § 60.49Da for measuring NOX and oxygen (O2) (or carbon dioxide (CO2)) and... using electronic or other means (e.g., using a strip chart recorder or a data logger.) (C) The bag...

  1. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.51Da Reporting... the quarter; reasons for non-compliance with the emission standards; and, description of...

  2. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  3. The DaVinci Project: Multimedia in Art and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the DaVinci Project, a collaboration of students, teachers, and researchers in chemistry and art to develop multimedia materials for grades 3-12 visualizing basic concepts in chemistry and visual art. Topics addressed include standards in art and science; the conceptual framework for the project; and project goals,…

  4. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da Commercial... technology may apply to the Administrator for a commercial demonstration permit. The Administrator will...

  5. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  6. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  7. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  8. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  9. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  10. Experimental Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigations of flow past spinning cylinders is presented in the context of their application and relevance to flow past projectiles. A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on flow past spinning cylinders that are sting-mounted and oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number range of up to 300000 and rotation numbers of up to 2 (based on cylinder diameter). The experimental validation of the tunnel characteristics and the benchmarking of the flow field in the tunnel are described. The experimental results for spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented along with available computational and experimental findings. This work was funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC.

  11. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  13. Experimental evidence of the compressibility of arteries.

    PubMed

    Yosibash, Zohar; Manor, Itay; Gilad, Ilan; Willentz, Udi

    2014-11-01

    A definitive answer to the question whether artery walls are incompressible is to our opinion not yet categorically provided. Experimental-based evidence on the level of compressibility in artery walls is not easily achieved because of the difficulties associated with the measurement of very small differences in volumes under physiological pressure in these biological tissues. Past experiments aimed at addressing the question considered different species, different arteries, the experimental devices were not accurate enough and a statistical analysis of the results was missing. A precise experimental device together with a thorough testing protocol, a careful selection of arteries and a statistical analysis is presented for a definitive evaluation of the artery wall compressibility. We provide experimental evidence that in saphenous and femoral porcine arteries under physiological pressure range a relative compressibility of 2-6% is observed. The pre-assumption of incompressibility in many phenomenological constitutive models of artery walls should probably be re-evaluated.

  14. Demonstration before Experimentation: A Laboratory Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ding-Yu; Bedworth, David D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the need for laboratory demonstrations prior to experimentation. Describes an introductory computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) course and includes suggestions for teachers. Provides a model exercise on train control. (YP)

  15. Teaching the Inquiry Process through Experimental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudwell, Lara

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Experimental Mathematics course taught at Valparaiso University since 2009. We focus on aspects of the course that facilitate students' abilities to ask and explore their own research questions.

  16. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog), F (NE multispecies and monkfish), G (summer flounder), H (scup), I...) Experimental fishing for surf clams or ocean quahogs will not require an allocation permit. (d)...

  17. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  18. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  19. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  20. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  1. International review of experimental pathology. Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, G.W.; Epstein, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the experimental pathology advancements made in recent years. Specifically discussed are - Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, immune deficient diseases, Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas and other lymphoproliferative disorders.

  2. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  3. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke.

  4. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  5. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  6. An experimental study on microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    We report both the simulation and experimental results of using a ring cathode instead of the solid cathode to reduce the back bombardment effect of a thermionic cathode microwave electron gun. The result shows that the back bombardment power is decreased about 2/3 without changing the beam quality apparently which allows operation at higher repetition rate. Experimental results are compared with the simulation with good agreement.

  7. New experimental techniques for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenk, R.

    1993-01-01

    Solar cell capacitance has special importance for an array controlled by shunting. Experimental measurements of solar cell capacitance in the past have shown disagreements of orders of magnitude. Correct measurement technique depends on maintaining the excitation voltage less than the thermal voltage. Two different experimental methods are shown to match theory well, and two effective capacitances are defined for quantifying the effect of the solar cell capacitance on the shunting system.

  8. Joint Experimentation on Scalable Parallel Processors (JESPP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    SCALABLE PARALLEL PROCESSORS (JESPP) 6. AUTHOR(S) Dan M. Davis, Robert F. Lucas, Ke-Thia Yao, Gene Wagenbreth 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C...List of Papers • Robert J. Graebener, Gregory Rafuse, Robert Miller & Ke-Thia Yao, “The Road to Successful Joint Experimentation Starts at the...2003. • Robert F. Lucas & Dan M. Davis, “Joint Experimentation on Scalable Parallel Processors“, Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and

  9. [Animal experimentation, computer simulation and surgical research].

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Alain

    2009-11-01

    We live in a digital world In medicine, computers are providing new tools for data collection, imaging, and treatment. During research and development of complex technologies and devices such as artificial hearts, computer simulation can provide more reliable information than experimentation on large animals. In these specific settings, animal experimentation should serve more to validate computer models of complex devices than to demonstrate their reliability.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of StRATUS (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2014-0142 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) Michael A. Falugi Structures Technology Branch Aerospace...Conference Paper Preprint 01 May 2012 – 28 February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Steel Reinforced Advanced Thin Unitized Structure ( StRATUS ) is a new hybrid laminate concept composed of carbon fiber composite sandwiched between thin

  11. Experimental models of anxiety. Problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griez, E

    1984-01-01

    In a brief review of the field of experimental psychopathology, the author observes that few adequate laboratory models of anxiety have been produced. Criteria to set up valid anxiety models are discussed. The carbon dioxide inhalation technique, an anxiomimetic intervention, is then proposed as a new human panic attack model and compared to the existing lactate infusion method. Both appear as promising agents in the experimental study of panic anxiety.

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Another Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2006-01-01

    The present article discusses how events outside a subject's skin and not accessible to another subject but to an experimenter may contribute to experimental analyses of private events. Of 16 undergraduates, 8, referred to as instructors, first learned conditional discriminations (i.e., B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, and B4C4) in a standard matching-to-sample…

  13. [An experimental model of suppurative osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Privalov, V A; Svetlakov, A L; Kushakovskiĭ, O S; Ebert, L Ia; Giniatullin, R U; Svetlakova, I A; Iarovoĭ, N N

    2000-01-01

    A new experimental rabbit model of acute purulent osteomyelitis is proposed. The model is reproduced by percutaneous introduction of 4 million St. aureus microorganisms into the medullary channel of the femoral bone after aseptic destruction of the bone marrow by ethyl alcohol and hot saline. The model satisfies the demands of good reproduction, reduces probability of contamination of periosteal tissues during intraosteal inoculation and provides reproduction of local inflammation without its generalization which results in reduced number of fatal outcomes among experimental animals.

  14. 49 CFR 178.58 - Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two...

  15. 49 CFR 178.58 - Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two...

  16. 49 CFR 178.58 - Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two...

  17. 49 CFR 178.58 - Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two...

  18. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Cha, Kwang Ho; Kang, Seung Yeob; Won, Donghan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Son, Moon Ho; Choi, Ho Jung; Lee, Young Won; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR) tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR) tablets of DA-9601. Method In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration) and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day) or GR (twice daily) tablets for 15 days. Results Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3) was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy. Conclusion Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence time and a remarkable mucosal restoration effect in animal models. Therefore, the GR system of DA-9601 could be a substitute dosage form for the treatment of gastritis, while reducing the dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance. PMID:27354765

  19. In vivo experimental models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carmen; Rubio-Osornio, Moises; Retana-Márquez, Socorro; Verónica Custodio, Marisol López; Paz, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the different in vivo experimental models that have been used for the study of epileptogenesis. In this review we will focus on how to replicate the different models that have led to the study of partial seizures, as well as generalized seizures and the status epilepticus. The main characteristics that participate in the processes that generate and modulate the manifestations of different models of epileptogenesis are described. The development of several models of experimental epilepsy in animals has clearly helped the study of specific brain areas capable of causing convulsions. The experimental models of epilepsy also have helped in the study the mechanisms and actions of epilepsy drugs. In order to develop experimental animal models of epilepsy, animals are generally chosen according to the kind of epilepsy that can be developed and studied. It is currently known that animal species can have epileptic seizures similar to those in humans. However, it is important to keep in mind that it has not been possible to entirely evaluate all manifestations of human epilepsy. Notwithstanding, these experimental models of epilepsy have allowed a partial understanding of most of the underlying mechanisms of this disease.

  20. Evaluation of an experimental dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; El-Waseffy, Noha A; Hasan, Ahmed M; El-Falal, Abeer A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture toughness, hardness, ceramic/metal bond strength and microstructure of experimental dental porcelain and compare it with commercial type. Specimens of specific dimensions were prepared. Fracture toughness was assessed by a three-point bending test. The Vickers hardness was measured using a microhardness tester. The ceramometal bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. The load was applied at the porcelain/metal interface via a chisel edged blade with a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min until fracture. The polished specimens of dental porcelain were chemically etched and the microstructure was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed comparable fracture toughness and bond strength for both materials, while the experimental porcelain exhibited higher hardness. The experimental porcelain showed uniform cohesive failure while the commercial type showed mixed mode of failure. The microstructure of the experimental porcelain was tetragonal leucite crystals dispersed randomly in a glass matrix. The leucite crystals exist in two forms, acicular and rod like structures. It was concluded that the experimental porcelain has adequate fracture toughness and ceramic/metal bond strength that can resist the rapid crack propagation and its consequent catastrophic failure, which indicates a material serviceability in the oral cavity.

  1. [Experimentation with women: science fiction or reality?].

    PubMed

    Villar Amigó, Vicente M

    2008-01-01

    Many people will not have heard about the experimentation that has been, and continues to be, carried out on women, because much of the media makes no mention of the matter. Just a few examples that could be mentioned are experimentation with the contraceptive pill, forced sterilization, egg donation, surrogate motherhood, kidney and other organ donation, and unnecessary therapy and surgery. In a few cases such experimentation could well be termed exploitation of women, with all kinds of excuses or humanitarian reasons, and sometimes communitarian purposes and even reasons concerning possible benefits for the whole of society, being mentioned. The present work aims to stimulate reflection about some types of research which can only be regarded as exploitation of women.

  2. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it possible to determine these values, and thereby identify an optimal experimental design. After describing the method, it is demonstrated in two content areas in cognitive psychology in which models are highly competitive: retention (i.e., forgetting) and categorization. The optimal design is compared with the quality of designs used in the literature. The findings demonstrate that design optimization has the potential to increase the informativeness of the experimental method. PMID:19618983

  3. Women in the experimental analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Swindell, Samantha

    1998-01-01

    We examined the status of women in the experimental analysis of behavior by comparing authorship by women in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) to authorship by women in three similar journals. For all journals, the percentage of articles with at least one female author, the percentage of authors who are female, and the percentage of articles with a female first author increased from 1978 to 1997. However, the participation by women in JEAB lagged behind participation in the other journals on each measure. Female membership on the editorial board of JEAB also failed to increase from 1978 to 1997. Suggestions are made that may increase the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:22478307

  4. Modern Experimental Techniques in Turbine Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Bencic, T. J.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes application of two modern experimental techniques, thin-film thermocouples and pressure sensitive paint, to measurement in turbine engine components. A growing trend of using computational codes in turbomachinery design and development requires experimental techniques to refocus from overall performance testing to acquisition of detailed data on flow and heat transfer physics to validate these codes for design applications. The discussed experimental techniques satisfy this shift in focus. Both techniques are nonintrusive in practical terms. The thin-film thermocouple technique improves accuracy of surface temperature and heat transfer measurements. The pressure sensitive paint technique supplies areal surface pressure data rather than discrete point values only. The paper summarizes our experience with these techniques and suggests improvements to ease the application of these techniques for future turbomachinery research and code verifications.

  5. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  6. An experimental look into subelectron charge flow.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Roie; Baldridge, Kim K; Scherz, Avigdor

    2003-10-22

    The prediction and measurement of charge distribution among interacting chemical entities in complex environments is a major challenge for modern chemistry. It encompasses information concerning fundamental quantities such as the electronic chemical potential and hardness of molecular fragments as well as their interactions with the surroundings. Although a wealth of theoretical work has been accumulated from the days of Pauling to the present, a specific molecular model system that allows quantitative and direct measurement of these properties has not yet been reported. Because atomic charges are not quantum mechanical observables, they cannot be derived from first principles, but rather they rely on the availability of high-precision experimental data and the interpretation of related experimental observables. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that a fragmental charge flow between a chelated metal center and reversibly bound molecules can be accurately monitored experimentally.

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Reactive Scattering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-11

    200 22 0.A 04) 05 .0 060( I ~- OM 24i ttedmninespattlnn rbblte Vd .- f ’a ucino h rato fteaalhek-0 mehnia 04M 05 cussaesos o bt h oi 2 0 4 Ill ~bs...ReferncesPbys. A353 (1981) 341 c.References1121 L.H. Beard and D.A. Micha, J. Chem. Phys. 73 (1980) 1193. 11l) M.R. Levs. P"top. React. Kinetics 10 (1979...0.419e-03 0155~e-04 0 11 le-04 0,81 le-04 0.209e-03 0 134c-03 0 t4tbe-0 4 0 262e-03 0.205e-04 0 44 1e-0 3 0 205e-04 0. 1 37e- 05 0 29 1e-04 0. 199e-03

  8. Effect of cholecystokinin on experimental neuronal aging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Jiang; Lu, Qin-Chi; Cai, Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on lipofusin value, neuronal dendrite and spine ultrastructure, and total cellular protein during the process of experimental neuronal aging. METHODS: Experimental neuronal aging study model was established by NBA2 cellular serum-free culture method. By using single intracellular lipofusin value from microspectrophotometry, morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines from the scanner electron microscopy, and total cellular protein as the indexes of experimental neuronal aging, we observed the effect of CCK8 on the process of experimental neuronal aging. RESULTS: Under the condition of serum-free culture, intracellular fluorescence value (%) increased with the extension of culture time (1 d 8.51±3.43; 5 d 10.12±3.03; 10 d 20.54±10.3; 15 d 36.88±10.49; bP<0.01). When CCK was added to serum-free culture medium, intracellular lipofusin value (%) decreased remarkably after consecutive CCK reaction for 10 and 15 d (control 36.88±10.49; 5 d 32.03±10.01; 10 d 14.37±5.55; 15 d 17.31±4.80; bP<0.01). As the time of serum-free culturing was prolonged, the number of neuronal dendrite and spine cells decreased. The later increased in number when CCK8 was added. CCK8 could improve the total cellular protein in the process of experimental neuronal aging. CONCLUSION: CCK8 may prolong the process of experimental neuronal aging by maintaining the structure and the number of neuronal dendrite and spine cells and changing the total cellular protein. PMID:15641144

  9. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    SciTech Connect

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B.

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  10. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  11. [Claude Bernard, founder of experimental physiology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y; Li, X; Xu, W

    2001-07-01

    Claude Bernard was a famous French physiologist and philosopher in the 19th century. His experimental researches almost involved all fields of physiology. It is generally recognized by physiologists that in the research of Bernard in the digestion of pancreas, glucogenesis in the liver, and the vasomotor mechanism and the mechanism of action of curari and carbon monoxide were all at the lead. His researches established the foundation for modern physiology, modern biochemistry and the works of Pavlov, and were the initiation of experimental physiology.

  12. Experimental study of uncentralized squeeze film dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration response of a rotor system supported by a squeeze film damper (SFD) was experimentally investigated in order to provide experimental data in support of the Rotor/Stator Interactive Finite Element theoretical development. Part of the investigation required the designing and building of a rotor/SFD system that could operate with or without end seals in order to accommodate different SFD lengths. SFD variables investigated included clearance, eccentricity mass, fluid pressure, and viscosity and temperature. The results show inlet pressure, viscosity and clearance have significant influence on the damper performance and accompanying rotor response.

  13. Experimental verification of low sonic boom configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.; Wang, H. H.; Sorensen, H.

    1972-01-01

    A configuration designed to produce near field signature has been tested at M = 2.71 and the results are analyzed, by taking in account three-dimensional and second order effects. The configuration has an equivalent total area distribution that corresponds to an airplane flying at 60,000 ft. having a weight of 460,000 lbs, and 300 ft. length. A maximum overpressure of 0.95 lb/square foot has been obtained experimentally. The experimental results agree well with the analysis. The investigation indicates that the three-dimensional effects are very important when the measurements in wind tunnels are taken at small distances from the airplane.

  14. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1999-01-01

    This termination report covers the latter part of a single research effort spanning several grant cycles. During this time there was a single title, "Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites", but there were several contract numbers as the mode and location of NASA contract administration changed. Initially, the project was funded as an increment to the PI's other grant, "Early Differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and Modeling Studies", but subsequently it became an independent grant. Table 1 contains a brief summary of the dates and contract numbers.

  15. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  16. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  17. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Byun, Y.; Ducasse, Q.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Gunsing, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Jurado, B.; Larsen, A. C.; Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J.

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Quantum State Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Ryo; Iefuji, Minako; Oyama, Satoshi; Yamagata, Koichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Akio; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2012-09-01

    The first experimental demonstration of an adaptive quantum state estimation (AQSE) is reported. The strong consistency and asymptotic efficiency of AQSE have been mathematically proven [A. Fujiwara, J. Phys. A 39, 12489 (2006)JPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/40/014]. In this Letter, the angle of linear polarization of single photons, the phase parameter between the right and the left circularly polarization, is estimated using AQSE, and the strong consistency and asymptotic efficiency are experimentally verified. AQSE will provide a general useful method in both quantum information processing and metrology.

  19. Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Pictured here is a DC-XA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) prototype concept with an RLV logo. The Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X) was originally developed by McDornell Douglas for the Department of Defense (DOD). The DC-XA is a single-stage-to-orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing, launch vehicle concept, whose development is geared to significantly reduce launch costs and will provide a test bed for NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology as the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA).

  20. Tandem mirror thermal barrier experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Coensgen, F.H.; Drake, R.P.; Simonen, T.C.

    1980-01-02

    This report describes an experimental plan for the development of the Tandem Mirror Thermal Barrier. Included is: (1) a description of thermal barrier related physics experiments; (2) thermal barrier related experiments in the existing TMX and Phaedrus experiments; (3) a thermal barrier TMX upgrade; and (4) initiation of investigations of axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Experimental studies of the first two items are presently underway. Results are expected from the TMX upgrade by the close of 1981 and from axisymmetric tandem mirror experiments at the end of 1983. Plans for Phaedrus upgrades are developing for the same period.

  1. Lepton Flavor Violation. — Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, M.

    2005-06-01

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the charged sector has been gaining great interests these days. Experimental researches looking for muon LFV such as MEG and MECO are in preparation, and aiming to discover the muon LFV signal within this decade. There is also another activity called PRISM/PRIME project underway, which aims to expand muon LFV research furthermore. The status of those experimental studies will be described. The idea of building Muon Factory and its relevance to the future of neutrino physics is also commented upon.

  2. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. PMID:26078494

  3. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  4. Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.

  5. An Experimental Study of Thrust Augmenting Ejectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    A , AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THRUST AUG’XENTING EJECTORS THESIS William D. Lewis Captain 11. S. Army AFIT/GAE/Ai/83D- 13 1 DTIC Li~i ELECTE JANI...83D-13 AN LEPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THRUST AUG-M..TING EJECTORS "l•HSIS William D. Levis Captain U. S. Army AF1T/GAAE/AA/$3D- 13 ’jK Approved for public...release; distribution unliaited I V .,, AFIT/GAE/AA/83D- 13 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THRUST AUGMENTING EJECTORS THESIS Presented to *he Faculty of the

  6. A novel 29-kDa chicken heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Einat, M F; Haberfeld, A; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Hurwitz, S; Yahav, S

    1996-12-01

    The family of small heat shock proteins is the more variable among the highly conserved superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSP). Using a metabolic labeling procedure with tissue explants, we have detected in chickens a new member of the small HSP family with an apparent molecular weight of 29-kDa. This protein was induced in broiler chickens' heart muscle and lungs following an in vivo heat stress. The 29-kDa band appears after 3 h of heat stress, much later than the induction of HSP 90, HSP 70, and HSP 27. The late onset of induction suggests that HSP 29 plays a more specific role of a "second stage defense protein".

  7. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  8. DaVinci's Mona Lisa entering the next dimension.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2013-01-01

    For several of Leonardo da Vinci's paintings, such as The Virgin and Child with St Anne or the Mona Lisa, there exist copies produced by his own studio. In case of the Mona Lisa, a quite exceptional, rediscovered studio copy was presented to the public in 2012 by the Prado Museum in Madrid. Not only does it mirror its famous counterpart superficially; it also features the very same corrections to the lower layers, which indicates that da Vinci and the 'copyist' must have elaborated their panels simultaneously. On the basis of subjective (thirty-two participants estimated painter-model constellations) as well as objective data (analysis of trajectories between landmarks of both paintings), we revealed that both versions differ slightly in perspective. We reconstructed the original studio setting and found evidence that the disparity between both paintings mimics human binocular disparity. This points to the possibility that the two Giocondas together might represent the first stereoscopic image in world history.

  9. Calibration of Synthetic Photometry Using DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Bergeron, P.

    2005-12-01

    We have calibrated four major ground-based photometric systems with respect to the Hubble Space Telescope absolute flux scale, which is defined by Vega and four fundamental DA white dwarfs. These photometric systems include the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Stromgren uvby filters, the 2MASS JHKs and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filters. Synthetic magnitudes are calculated from model white dwarf spectra folded through the published filter response functions, these magnitudes in turn are absolutely calibrated with respect to the HST flux scale. Effective zero magnitude fluxes and zero point offsets of each system are determined. In order to verify the external observational consistency as well as to demonstrate the applicability of these definitions, the synthetic magnitudes are compared with the respective observed magnitudes of larger sets of DA white dwarfs that have well determined effective temperatures and surface gravities and which span a wide range in both of these parameters.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of lycopene against MPTP induced experimental Parkinson's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Prema, Asokan; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the movement of the aged populations. Lycopene is a carotenoid with unique pharmacological properties and its efficacy on experimental Hunginton's disease and brain ischemia has shown intense neuroprotective effects. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced PD mice. Administration of lycopene (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day orally) protected MPTP induced depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in a dose dependent manner. It also attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and motor abnormalities seen in PD mice. Our western blot studies showed that treatment with lycopene reversed MPTP induced apoptosis may be due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. As to conclude, lycopene reverses neurochemical deficts, oxidative stress, apoptosis and physiological abnormalities in PD mice and offer promise strategy in the treatment of this neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés

    2011-02-01

    It has been reported that the spinal cord possesses Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and that GnRH has neurotrophic properties. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) causes neurodegeneration in spinal cord. Thus, the present study was designed to determine whether administration of GnRH reduces the severity of EAE. The clinical signs of locomotion, axonal morphometry and neurofilaments (NFs) expression were evaluated. Clinical signs remained significantly lower in EAE rats with GnRH administration compared to animals without treatment. Morphometric analysis, there were more axons of larger areas in the spinal cord of EAE+GnRH group compared to EAE animals. Western blot analysis demonstrated that GnRH administration significantly increased the expression of NFs of 68, 160 and 200kDa in the spinal cord of EAE animals. Our results indicate that GnRH administration reduces the severity of EAE in the rat.

  12. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2012-08-01

    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation.

  13. GEODSS Tracking Results on Asteroid 2012 DA14

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-12

    meteor until stony or metallic material remnants make it to the surface of the planet in which case they become meteorites . Theoretically, the...passing in close proximity to the planet are a daily manifestation. In fact within days of the 2012 DA14 transit of the planet a large meteorite entered...although meteorites approximately basketball size hit the Earth about once per day, and objects the size of an automobile reach us roughly on a weekly

  14. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  15. DA-9801 promotes neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2-CREB pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Kyong Hoon; Back, Moon Jung; Ha, Hae Chan; Jang, Ji Min; Kim, Ha Hyung; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 µg/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.

  16. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  17. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero, J.; De, K.; Maeno, T.; Stradling, A.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  18. Domain annotation of trimeric autotransporter adhesins—daTAA

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Pawel; Lupas, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), such as Yersinia YadA, Neisseria NadA, Moraxella UspAs, Haemophilus Hia and Bartonella BadA, are important pathogenicity factors of proteobacteria. Their high sequence diversity and distinct mosaic-like structure lead to difficulties in the annotation of their sequences. These stem from the large number of short repeats, the presence of compositionally unusual coiled-coils, fuzzy domain boundaries and regions of seemingly low sequence complexity. Results: We have developed a workflow, named daTAA, for the accurate domain annotation of TAAs. Its core consists of manually curated alignments and of knowledge-based rules that enhance assignments made by sequence similarity. Compared to general domain annotation servers such as PFAM, daTAA captures more domains and provides more sensitive domain detection, as well as integrated and detailed coiled-coil assignments. Availability: The daTAA server is freely accessible at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/dataa Contact: andrei.lupas@tuebingen.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18397894

  19. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  20. Children's Understanding of Experimental Contrast and Experimental Control: An Inventory for Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Experimentation skills are a central component of scientific thinking, and many studies have investigated whether and when primary-school children develop adequate experimentation strategies. However, the answers to these questions vary substantially depending on the type of task that is used: while discovery tasks, which require children to…

  1. Comparison of the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of theoretically and experimentally designed supercritical airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    A lifting airfoil theoretically designed for shockless supercritical flow utilizing a complex hodograph method has been evaluated in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at design and off-design conditions. The experimental results are presented and compared with those of an experimentally designed supercritical airfoil which were obtained in the same tunnel.

  2. Reconciling Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Chloe

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to interpret evidence on the impact of full-day kindergarten resulting from different study designs, and provides guidance on how this evidence taken in tandem may inform the design and implementation of full-day kindergarten policies. Incorporating both experimental and quasi-experimental estimates on…

  3. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  4. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  5. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  6. Experimentally Evoking Nonbelieved Memories for Childhood Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report on the 1st experimental elicitation of nonbelieved memories for childhood events in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these events during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…

  7. Symposium on Recent Developments in Experimental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine

    An overview of some of the recent developments in experimental research on early infantile autism considers related issues such as language impairments, cognitive and affective deficits, nonverbal communication, social behavior, and therapeutic interventions. Research indicates that difficulty with abstract use of language and with pragmatic…

  8. Meditation: Rationales, Experimental Effects, and Methodological Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    p.308). Movements as diverse as Buddhist and transcendental meditation. Theosophy. and Juncian and Transpersonal psychologies have emphasized... Transpersonal and Humanistic psychologists have been especially active in merging concepts from Eastern systems of meditation with current Western...experimental and therapeutic procedures. The establishment of professional associations devoted to Transpersonal and Humanistic psychology, and the

  9. Comparing fluid mechanics models with experimental data.

    PubMed

    Spedding, G R

    2003-09-29

    The art of modelling the physical world lies in the appropriate simplification and abstraction of the complete problem. In fluid mechanics, the Navier-Stokes equations provide a model that is valid under most circumstances germane to animal locomotion, but the complexity of solutions provides strong incentive for the development of further, more simplified practical models. When the flow organizes itself so that all shearing motions are collected into localized patches, then various mathematical vortex models have been very successful in predicting and furthering the physical understanding of many flows, particularly in aerodynamics. Experimental models have the significant added convenience that the fluid mechanics can be generated by a real fluid, not a model, provided the appropriate dimensionless groups have similar values. Then, analogous problems can be encountered in making intelligible but independent descriptions of the experimental results. Finally, model predictions and experimental results may be compared if, and only if, numerical estimates of the likely variations in the tested quantities are provided. Examples from recent experimental measurements of wakes behind a fixed wing and behind a bird in free flight are used to illustrate these principles.

  10. 1972 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 54 Cooperative piles at Coco Solo, Canal Zone, and the 267 Cooperative and NCEL experimental piles at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii were inspected during...the periods February 22 to 25 and March 17 to 24, 1972, respectively. After 9 years of exposure at Coco Solo, 11 of the 12 piles treated with 70/30

  11. 1970 Inspection of Experimental Marine Piling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 54 Cooperative piles at Coco Solo, Canal Zone and the 273 Cooperative and NCEL experimental piles at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii were inspected during...the weeks of 9 and 23 March 1970, respectively. After 7 years of exposure at Coco Solo, 9 of the 12 piles treated with creosote-coal tar showed borer

  12. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  13. Inspection procedures for experimental fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campsie, I. C.; Rattray, H. D.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the inspection procedures used in the development and manufacture of experimental fuel elements and their components. The examples quoted mainly apply to the PFR experimental fuel programme, although for well over a quarter of a century the procedures and techniques have been progressively developed and applied to the Magnox, SGHW, AGR, HTR, PFR and PWR fuel development programmes undertaken at the UKAEA's Springfields and Windscale Nuclear Power Development Laboratories. In contrast to production runs involving large numbers of standard components, experimental fuel is often assembled from components which, while they may look alike, may have design and material variations. Thus in addition to normal batching and bonding operations, great emphasis has to be placed on dimensional inspection, material testing and the individual identification of all items, thus maintaining traceability throughout all operations. The quality and performance of experimental items are often evaluated comparing pre- and post-test dimensional or NDT measurements. In the case of irradiation tests, several years can elapse between the measurements, therefore it is essential to ensure the reproducibility and compatibility of pre- and post-test measuring techniques and the traceability of all measured data and standards.

  14. Experimental validation of structural optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of validating structural optimization methods by use of experimental results is addressed. The need for validating the methods as a way of effecting a greater and an accelerated acceptance of formal optimization methods by practicing engineering designers is described. The range of validation strategies is defined which includes comparison of optimization results with more traditional design approaches, establishing the accuracy of analyses used, and finally experimental validation of the optimization results. Examples of the use of experimental results to validate optimization techniques are described. The examples include experimental validation of the following: optimum design of a trussed beam; combined control-structure design of a cable-supported beam simulating an actively controlled space structure; minimum weight design of a beam with frequency constraints; minimization of the vibration response of helicopter rotor blade; minimum weight design of a turbine blade disk; aeroelastic optimization of an aircraft vertical fin; airfoil shape optimization for drag minimization; optimization of the shape of a hole in a plate for stress minimization; optimization to minimize beam dynamic response; and structural optimization of a low vibration helicopter rotor.

  15. Experimental Study of the Current Filamentation Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Brian; Muggli, Patric; Silva, Luis O.; Martins, Joana; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Babzien, Marcus; Huang, Chengkun; Mori, Warren

    2012-10-01

    The Current Filamentation Instability (CFI) is of central importance for the propagation of relativistic electron beams in plasmas. CFI has potential relevance to astrophysics, afterglow of gamma ray bursts, inertial confinement fusion, energy transport in the fast-igniter concept, and places an upper limit on the plasma density and accelerating gradient in PWFA's. An experimental study at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory with the 60MeV e^- beam and cm length plasma. The experiment included the systematic study and characterization of the instability as a function of the beam charge and plasma density. The transverse beam profile is measured directly at the plasma exit using OTR. Experimental results show the transition from plasma focusing to CFI near kpσr=1 characterized by the appearance of multiple (1-5) beam filaments and scaling of the transverse filament size with the plasma skin depth. Suppression of the instability is seen by lowering the growth rate of the instability by reducing the beam charge. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theory and simulations and we present and discuss simulation and experimental results.

  16. Physical Science Laboratory Manual, Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative General Science Project, Atlanta, GA.

    Provided are physical science laboratory experiments which have been developed and used as a part of an experimental one year undergraduate course in general science for non-science majors. The experiments cover a limited number of topics representative of the scientific enterprise. Some of the topics are pressure and buoyancy, heat, motion,…

  17. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  18. Evaluation and experimentation with duck management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of hunting regulations on duck populations has been based largely on retrospective studies of historical data. We have reached the limits of what can be learned in this way. Future knowledge gains will likely come about only through experimentation and adaptive management.

  19. An experimental X band phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. P. R.; Limaye, K. U.; Ramalingam, R. P.; Gangadharan, T. S.; Bhandopadhyay, G.; Deshpande, P. A.

    1983-10-01

    The details of an X band experimental 11 x 11 element Phased Array Antenna of phased lens configuration with a monopulse space feed developed at LRDE are presented. The studies carried and the results obtained on collimation, beam steering, pattern variation with scan, array operation in two-dimensional search, dedicated track and track while scan (TWS) are also given.

  20. Comparing fluid mechanics models with experimental data.

    PubMed Central

    Spedding, G R

    2003-01-01

    The art of modelling the physical world lies in the appropriate simplification and abstraction of the complete problem. In fluid mechanics, the Navier-Stokes equations provide a model that is valid under most circumstances germane to animal locomotion, but the complexity of solutions provides strong incentive for the development of further, more simplified practical models. When the flow organizes itself so that all shearing motions are collected into localized patches, then various mathematical vortex models have been very successful in predicting and furthering the physical understanding of many flows, particularly in aerodynamics. Experimental models have the significant added convenience that the fluid mechanics can be generated by a real fluid, not a model, provided the appropriate dimensionless groups have similar values. Then, analogous problems can be encountered in making intelligible but independent descriptions of the experimental results. Finally, model predictions and experimental results may be compared if, and only if, numerical estimates of the likely variations in the tested quantities are provided. Examples from recent experimental measurements of wakes behind a fixed wing and behind a bird in free flight are used to illustrate these principles. PMID:14561348

  1. Experimental Stream Facility: Design and Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Experimental Stream Facility (ESF) is a valuable research tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) laboratories in Cincinnati, Ohio. This brochure describes the ESF, which is one of only a handful of research facilit...

  2. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  3. Experimental Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krist, Amy C.; Showsh, Sasha A.

    2007-01-01

    Evolution is typically measured as a change in allele or genotype frequencies over one or more generations. Consequently, evolution is difficult to show experimentally in a semester-long lab course because most organisms have longer generation times than 15 weeks. In this article, the authors present an experiment to demonstrate and study…

  4. Strategies of Communication in Recent Experimental Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jerrold A.

    Because it focuses on questions of communication, the experimental theatre of the 1970s, particularly that created by Robert Wilson and Richard Foreman, can be analyzed according to two distinct theories regarding the communication process. The first theory defines communication as a process in which the communicator selects and transmits messages…

  5. Essays on Experimental Economics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Scott Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I consider three separate explanations for how price affects the usage rate of a purchased product: Screening, signaling, and sunk-cost bias. I propose an experimental design that disentangles the three effects. Furthermore, in order to quantify and compare these effects I introduce a simple structural model and show that the…

  6. Experimental Results in DIS from Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    We are summarizing the experimental program of Jefferson Lab (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA) in deep inelastic electron scattering. We show recent results and discuss future plans for both the present 6 GeV era and the 12 GeV energy-upgraded facility.

  7. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E (Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog), F (NE... vessel seeking the benefit of such exemption. (c) Experimental fishing for surf clams or ocean quahogs... § 648.12, the introductory text was amended by removing the words “surf clam” and adding the...

  8. Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Encke, W.

    1947-01-01

    A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.

  9. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  10. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665.17 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... fishery management agency of the affected state, accompanied by the following information: (i) The...

  11. Collective Experimentation: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiko, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document smallholder experiences during a participatory experimental initiative and draw useful lessons for field practitioners. The main methods used to collect data were participant observation, in-depth interviews among 40 farmers, and analyses of notes taken during participatory monitoring and evaluation. These…

  12. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

  13. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT.... Participating in air races, including (for such participants) practicing for such air races and flying to...

  14. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT.... Participating in air races, including (for such participants) practicing for such air races and flying to...

  15. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT.... Participating in air races, including (for such participants) practicing for such air races and flying to...

  16. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT.... Participating in air races, including (for such participants) practicing for such air races and flying to...

  17. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT.... Participating in air races, including (for such participants) practicing for such air races and flying to...

  18. An Experimental Investigation of Cognitive Defusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilecki, Brian C.; McKay, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared cognitive defusion with other strategies in reducing the impact of experimentally induced negative emotional states. Sixty-seven undergraduates were assigned to one of three conditions (cognitive defusion, thought suppression, or control) and instructed in standardized approaches relevant to each condition before viewing…

  19. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-01-01

    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

  20. Experimental prototype instruments for nondestructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Smolyakova, L.E.

    1987-10-01

    Results are given of state acceptance tests on experimental prototype nondestructive testing instruments along with their technical specifications and advantages over the better Soviet and foreign counterparts. The instruments include the UF-10P ultrasonic hydrostatic testing instrument, the PRIZ-12 piezoelectric transducer, and the RTVK-2K and LEB-1K radioisotope thickness gages.

  1. Experimental velocity distributions in a granular submonolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadillo-Martínez, Alejandra T.; Sánchez, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Experimental speed distributions are obtained for driven granular submonolayers of binary mixtures of single spheres and dimers of spheres. The results are well-described by a distribution originally developed for a single-species one-dimensional system. This suggests that such a distribution may be extended to other mixtures such as systems exhibiting aggregation and dissociation.

  2. 14 CFR 21.475 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.475 Section 21.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures §...

  3. How experimental trial context affects perceptual categorization.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Thomas J; Mack, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.

  4. Experimental and computational study of thaumasite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtzová, Eva; Kucková, Lenka; Kožíšek, Jozef; Pálková, Helena; Tunega, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The structure of thaumasite has been studied experimentally by means of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and FTIR methods, and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) method. Very good agreement was achieved between calculated and experimental structural parameters. In addition, calculations offered the refinement of the positions of the hydrogen atoms. The detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds existing in the thaumasite structure has been performed. Several types of hydrogen bonds have been classified. The water molecules coordinating Ca{sup 2+} cation act as proton donors in moderate O-H···O hydrogen bonds formed with CO₃⁻²and SO₄⁻² anions. The multiple O-H···O hydrogen bonds exist among water molecules themselves. Finally, relatively weak hydrogen bonds form water molecules with the OH groups from the coordination sphere of the Si(OH)₆⁻² anion. Further, calculated vibrational spectrum allowed complete assignment of all vibrational modes which are not available from the experimental spectrum that has a complex structure with overlapped bands, especially below 1500 cm⁻¹. Highlights: • The thaumasite structure was studied experimentally and using DFT method. • We used DFT method for the refinement of the positions of hydrogen atoms. • A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds was done. • A complete assignment of all bands to particular types of vibrations was done.

  5. GUIDE-0: An Experimental Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Shinnichi

    A description is provided of GUIDE-0, an experimental information system. The system serves as a bibliographic aid for students who are taking introductory computer science courses whose material is at least partially implemented via PLATO-IV lessons. Following a brief introduction to the system in Chapter I, the second Chapter describes the…

  6. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  7. Growing Plants Without Soil for Experimental Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankendaal, M.; And Others

    Much of the current research in experimental plant biology requires highly uniform plants. To achieve this, many plants are grown under conditions in which the environment is carefully manipulated. This pamphlet has been prepared, therefore, to present and describe growth procedures which will produce vigorous, healthy, uniform plant material in…

  8. MATHEMATICS I, VOLUME 3, EXPERIMENTAL EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    THIS IS VOLUME 3 OF A THREE-VOLUME EXPERIMENTAL EDITION CONTAINING A SEQUENCE OF ENRICHED MATERIALS FOR SEVENTH-GRADE MATHEMATICS. THESE MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO BE USED FOR A PROGRAM OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION FOR THE ACCELERATED STUDENT OR FOR CLASSROOM PRESENTATION BY THE TEACHER. THE PRESENTATION OF THE MATERIAL IS SUCH AS TO REFLECT…

  9. PROJECT CONCERN, HARTFORD'S EXPERIMENTAL BUSING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, PEG

    THIS REPRINTED SERIES OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES ABOUT PROJECT CONCERN, HARTFORD'S EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM WHICH BUSES INNER CITY CHILDREN TO SUBURBAN SCHOOLS, IS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ANECDOTAL REPORTS FROM MOTHERS, CHILDREN, AND TEACHERS. THE INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES DEAL WITH THE CHILDREN'S REACTIONS TO THE BUSING AND TO THEIR NEW SCHOOLS, THEIR ADJUSTMENT,…

  10. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  11. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  12. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  13. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  14. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  15. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469].

  16. Characterization of a dopamine receptor (DA sub 2K ) in the kidney inner medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, T.; Ye, M.Q.; Healy, D.P. )

    1991-04-15

    Dopamine (DA) produces a natriuretic/diuretic response in the kidney by mechanisms that are still not well understood. There is some indication that DA{sub 2} receptors may be involved in mediating the effects of DA, but little is known regarding the nature of this receptor in the kidney. Autoradiographic localization of ({sup 3}H)spiperone, a DA{sub 2} antagonist, indicated that high-density binding was restricted to inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). ({sup 3}H)Spiperone binding was saturable, high affinity and high density. Functionally, DA stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2} production by IMCD cells, an effect that could be blocked by the DA{sub 2} antagonist domperidone. These results indicate that the kidney inner medulla expresses a functional DA receptor that may represent a newly identified DA receptor subtype (here designated DA{sub 2K}). Moreover, these results suggest that the kidney inner medulla may be a significant site at which DA, either directly or indirectly, influences water and electrolyte excretion.

  17. The 15kDa selenoprotein and thioredoxin reductase 1 promote colon cancer by different pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Naranjo-Suarez, Salvador; Xu, Xue-Ming; He, Yiwen; Asaki, Esther; Seifried, Harold E; Reinhold, William C; Davis, Cindy D; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins mediate much of the cancer-preventive properties of the essential nutrient selenium, but some of these proteins have been shown to also have cancer-promoting effects. We examined the contributions of the 15kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) to cancer development. Targeted down-regulation of either gene inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and formation of experimental metastases of mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells. Surprisingly, combined deficiency of Sep15 and TR1 reversed the anti-cancer effects observed with down-regulation of each single gene. We found that inflammation-related genes regulated by Stat-1, especially interferon-γ-regulated guanylate-binding proteins, were highly elevated in Sep15-deficient, but not in TR1-deficient cells. Interestingly, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were up-regulated in cells lacking both TR1 and Sep15. These results suggest that Sep15 and TR1 participate in interfering regulatory pathways in colon cancer cells. Considering the variable expression levels of Sep15 and TR1 found within the human population, our results provide insights into new roles of selenoproteins in cancer.

  18. Experimental investigation of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.L.; Babad, C.J.; Mulder, R.U.

    1985-11-01

    Short-term values of the iodine partition coefficient (IPC) were evaluated experimentally by an air/water system over the following ranges of conditions: temperature = 25 to 70/sup 0/C, pH = 5 to 9, and iodine concentration = 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -2/ kg iodine/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/O. The experimental IPC values are relatively independent of temperature over the indicated range, but show a significant dependence on pH and iodine concentration. In basic solutions the short-term values are several orders of magnitude less than the true equilibrium values; in acid solutions, the differences are much less. These results are useful for predicting the disposition of iodine shortly (i.e., 1 to 10 h) after iodine has been released into an air/water environment.

  19. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  20. Strategies of cell biology experimentation in space.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, Augusto

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform newcomers on the most important aspects of experimentation with living cells and tissues in space laboratories and platforms. There are strong arguments that justify the efforts and investments in such activity. Experimentation in space is subject to safety and technological constraints that require considerable attention to the development of the flight protocols and of the flight instrumentation. Nevertheless to fly an experiment in space is a unique opportunity to study living systems under conditions not reproducible on Earth and it is also a contribution to human exploration of space. Thereby important progress in basic and applied science can be expected. Parallel investigations on ground with devices averaging the exposure to the gravity vector but not reproducing microgravity shall always be part of a space flight project.

  1. Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C. H.; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations on cavitation erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes Patella, R.; Archer, A.; Flageul, C.

    2012-11-01

    A method is proposed to predict cavitation damage from cavitating flow simulations. For this purpose, a numerical process coupling cavitating flow simulations and erosion models was developed and applied to a two-dimensional (2D) hydrofoil tested at TUD (Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany) [1] and to a NACA 65012 tested at LMH-EPFL (Lausanne Polytechnic School) [2]. Cavitation erosion tests (pitting tests) were carried out and a 3D laser profilometry was used to analyze surfaces damaged by cavitation [3]. The method allows evaluating the pit characteristics, and mainly the volume damage rates. The paper describes the developed erosion model, the technique of cavitation damage measurement and presents some comparisons between experimental results and numerical damage predictions. The extent of cavitation erosion was correctly estimated in both hydrofoil geometries. The simulated qualitative influence of flow velocity, sigma value and gas content on cavitation damage agreed well with experimental observations.

  3. Experimental investigation of bifurcation induced bandgap reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Brian P.; Mazzoleni, Michael J.; Garraud, Nicolas; Arnold, David P.; Mann, Brian P.

    2014-08-01

    By applying an asymmetric on-site restoring force in a 1D chain of oscillators, we demonstrate experimentally that a morphing in the bandgap structure or passive bandgap reconfiguration can be triggered by an increase in environmental excitation amplitude. Recent studies on wave propagation have focused on new capabilities and behaviors resulting from intrinsic nonlinearities. This paper details a bistable experimental design that achieves amplitude dependent filtering through passive bandgap reconfiguration, which is triggered by a bifurcation. The system studied comprises a 1D chain of axially aligned pendulums in dimer unit cells with geometrically nonlinear nearest neighbor coupling where bistability is induced through repulsive magnets. When the bistability is asymmetric, each potential well has a different linear spectra. Though this paper uses mechanically coupled oscillators as an example, the phenomenon itself could be used in any wave propagation media where asymmetric bistability can be implemented.

  4. In vitro experimental investigation of voice production

    PubMed Central

    Horáčcek, Jaromír; Brücker, Christoph; Becker, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The process of human phonation involves a complex interaction between the physical domains of structural dynamics, fluid flow, and acoustic sound production and radiation. Given the high degree of nonlinearity of these processes, even small anatomical or physiological disturbances can significantly affect the voice signal. In the worst cases, patients can lose their voice and hence the normal mode of speech communication. To improve medical therapies and surgical techniques it is very important to understand better the physics of the human phonation process. Due to the limited experimental access to the human larynx, alternative strategies, including artificial vocal folds, have been developed. The following review gives an overview of experimental investigations of artificial vocal folds within the last 30 years. The models are sorted into three groups: static models, externally driven models, and self-oscillating models. The focus is on the different models of the human vocal folds and on the ways in which they have been applied. PMID:23181007

  5. Public perceptions of animal experimentation across Europe.

    PubMed

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this article is to map out public perceptions of animal experimentation in 28 European countries. Postulating cross-cultural differences, this study mixes country-level variables (from the Eurostat database) and individual-level variables (from Eurobarometer Science and Technology 2010). It is shown that experimentation on animals such as mice is generally accepted in European countries, but perceptions are divided on dogs and monkeys. Between 2005 and 2010, we observe globally a change of approval on dogs and monkeys, with a significant decrease in nine countries. Multilevel analysis results show differences at country level (related to a post-industrialism model) and at individual level (related to gender, age, education, proximity and perceptions of science and the environment). These results may have consequences for public perceptions of science and we call for more cross-cultural research on press coverage of animal research and on the level of public engagement of scientists doing animal research.

  6. Experimental Performance of a Novel Trochoidal Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, Bernard; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    In the quest for energy efficiency in marine transportation, a promising marine propulsor concept is the trochoidal propeller. We have designed and tested a novel trochoidal propeller using a sinusoidal blade pitch function. The main results presented are measurements of thrust and torque, as well as the calculated efficiency, for a range of advance coefficients. The experimental data show narrow 95% confidence bounds, demonstrating high accuracy and repeatability in the experimental methods. We compare our sinusoidal-pitch trochoidal propeller with prior cross-flow propellers, as well as a representative screw propeller. While the efficiency of our propeller exceeds that of the cycloidal-pitch trochoidal propeller, it is slightly lower than the efficiencies of the other propellers considered. We also present a theoretical model that can be used to further explore and optimize such trochoidal propellers, leading to new avenues for improvements in marine propulsion systems.

  7. Experimental nuclear reaction data collection EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Otuka, N.; Simakov, S. P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-07-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) constitutes a worldwide cooperation of 14 nuclear data centres. The main activity of the NRDC Network is collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction cross section data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases as well as dissemination of nuclear reaction data and associated documentation to users. The database contains information and numerical data from more than about 19000 experiments consisting of more than 140000 datasets. EXFOR is kept up to date by constantly adding newly published experimental information. Tools developed for data dissemination utilise modern database technologies with fast online capabilities over the Internet. Users are provided with sophisticated search options, a user-friendly retrieval interface for downloading data in different formats, and additional output options such as improved data plotting capabilities. The present status of the EXFOR database will be presented together with the latest development for data access and retrieval. (authors)

  8. Human shank experimental investigation and computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoschekov, Viktor V.; Maslov, Leonid B.

    2000-01-01

    A new combined approach to analyze a physiological state of the human shank is developed. Investigated vibration research complex records resonance curve of the shank tissues automatically for different kinds of vibration excitation and for various positions of the foot. A special computer model is implemented for the estimation of the experimental data, for a priori prognosis of the bio-object behavior and its dynamic characteristics in the case of various kinds and of different degrees of injury. The method is described by the viscous-elasticity non-homogeneous 1D continuum equation. It is solved by finite element method. The problem in shank cross-section is solved by boundary element method. The analysis of computer simulated resonance curves makes it possible to understand the experimental data correctly and to check the diagnostic criteria of the injury.

  9. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; ...

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least upmore » to the neutron threshold.« less

  10. Helicopter impulsive noise: Theoretical and experimental status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of helicopter impulsive noise is reviewed. The two major source mechanisms of helicopter impulsive noise are addressed: high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise. A thorough physical explanation of both generating mechanism is presented together with model and full-scale measurements of the phenomena. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental findings of isolated rotor tests. The noise generating mechanism of high speed impulsive noise are fairly well understood - theory and experiment compare nicely over Mach number ranges typical of today's helicopters. For the case of blade-vortex interaction noise, understanding of noise generating mechanisms and theoretical comparison with experiment are less satisfactory. Several methods for improving theory-experiment are suggested.

  11. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L

    2016-04-06

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease.

  12. Mesothelioma in man and experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Kannerstein, M; Churg, J

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos has been established as the cause of most cases of diffuse malignant mesothelioma occurring in the industrialized world. The morphology of mesothelioma may be complex, and the employment of chemical, histochemical and ultrastructural studies are often helpful in identification. Diagnostic difficulties may to some degree blur the extent of its prevalence and reliance on exposure history may not reveal its association with asbestos. Reference panels can be useful in assessing the former and analysis of lung tissue asbestos content may help to clarify the latter, especially in the low dose range. Electron microscopy may prove to be of assistance in this respect, possibly with particular attention to the peripheral areas of the lung. Animal experimentation has supported epidemiologic conclusions and revealed the phenomenon of fiber carcinogenesis. The morphology of mesothelioma in experimental animals is very similar to that in humans, including ultrastructural and biochemical features. PMID:6993202

  13. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  14. Shock unsteadiness creation and propagation: experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benay, R.; Alaphilippe, M.; Severac, N.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of creating unsteady distortions of the tip shock by waves emitted from an aircraft is assessed experimentally. The model chosen is a cylindrical fore body equipped with a spike. This configuration is known for generating an important level of unsteadiness around the spike in supersonic regime. The wind tunnel Mach number is equal to 2. The experiments show that waves emitted from this source propagate along the tip shock and interact with it. It is then assessed that this interaction produces a periodic distortion of the shock that propagates to the external flow. Unsteady pressure sensors, high speed schlieren films, hot wire probing and laser Doppler velocimetry are used as complementary experimental means. The final result is a coherent representation of the complex mechanism of wave propagation that has been evidenced. The principle of creating unsteady shock deformation by onboard equipments could be examined as a possibly promising method of sonic boom control.

  15. Association between postmenopausal osteoporosis and experimental periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Souzhi; Guo, Jianbin; Huang, Yongling; Yan, Fuhua; Xiao, Yin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and the pathogenesis of periodontitis, ovariectomized rats were generated and the experimental periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature. The inflammatory factors and bone metabolic markers were measured in the serum and periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats using an automatic chemistry analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. The bone mineral density of whole body, pelvis, and spine was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and image analysis. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical software. It was found that ovariectomy could upregulate the expression of interleukin- (IL-)6, the receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and downregulate IL-10 expression in periodontal tissues, which resulted in progressive alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. This study indicates that changes of cytokines and bone turnover markers in the periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats contribute to the damage of periodontal tissues.

  16. Experimental Manufacture of Paper for War Maps

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Charles G.; Shaw, Merle B.

    2000-01-01

    Early in World War II, a new map paper was developed that greatly improved the quality and performance of war maps. The National Bureau of Standards cooperated in the development and, subsequently, determined by experimental manufacture how to make the paper from commercially available raw materials. The best results were obtained in experimental manufacture by using fiber furnishes of 100-percent strong bleached sulfate pulps with the addition of melamine-formaldehyde resin to increase the wet strength and titanium dioxide to produce the desired capacity. It was essential that the beating be very carefully controlled to preserve the maximum fiber strength. The most critical requirements from a manufacturing standpoint were very high resistance to tear, high wet tensile strength, high opacity, and good smoothness. A moderate degree of wildness was not objectionable. The data obtained by experiments were applied to initiate the commercial production of the new paper to meet unprecedented tonnage requirements. PMID:27551643

  17. Experimental Robust Control of Structural Acoustic Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.; Clark, Robert L.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This work addresses the design and application of robust controllers for structural acoustic control. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. H(infinity) and mu-synthesis design methods were used to design feedback controllers which minimize power radiated from a panel while avoiding instability due to unmodeled dynamics. Specifically, high order structural modes which couple strongly to the actuator-sensor path were poorly modeled. This model error was analytically bounded with an uncertainty model, which allowed controllers to be designed without artificial limits on control effort. It is found that robust control methods provide the control designer with physically meaningful parameters with which to tune control designs and can be very useful in determining limits of performance. Experimental results also showed, however, poor robustness properties for control designs with ad-hoc uncertainty models. The importance of quantifying and bounding model errors is discussed.

  18. Experimental studies on waste paper pulp biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Sharma, D; Rao, K S; Jain, R C

    2002-07-01

    In continuation of their studies on Biodegradation of cellulosic waste materials, the authors have presented their experimental data on biodegradation on waste paper pulp. Greater efficiency in the cow dung and M3 culture experimental setups have been pointed out and discussed. Necessity of detailed data evaluation of temperature, pH, dry weight, cellulose, protein, carbohydrate, Nitrate, Phosphate & Potassium levels is suggested. Derivation of %, absolute and increase/decrease % of BOO, COD and VS have been pointed out for the first time in solid waste Biodegradation. Further data evaluation and derivation of critical reaction rate kinetics have been recommended for further studies in solid waste-degradation to achieve quicker Bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into compost.

  19. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    PubMed

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions.

  20. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  1. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

  2. Recent Experimental Progress on Surrogate Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausang, Cornelius

    2014-09-01

    Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s-process rp- and p-processes etc.), for nuclear energy generation and for national security applications. Many such reactions occur on short-lived unstable nuclei. Even with the present generation of radioactive beam facilities, many such reactions are difficult, if not impossible, to measure directly. For these reactions, often the surrogate reaction technique provides the only option to provide some experimental guidance for the calculations. The experimental and theoretical techniques required are described in some detail in the recent review article by Escher et al.. Originally introduced in the 1970's the last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the surrogate technique. Various ratio techniques, external, internal and hybrid, have been developed to minimize the effect of target contamination. In the actinide region, a large number of surrogate (n,f) cross sections have been measured. In general, these show agreement to within 5--10%, with directly measured (n,f) data where these data exist (benchmarking), for equivalent neutron energies ranging from ~100 keV up to tens of MeV. For (n, γ) reactions, measurements have been attempted for select nuclei in various mass regions (A ~ 90, 150 and 235) and for these the agreement with directly measured data is less good. The various experimental techniques employed will be described as well as the current state of the experimental data. Some future directions will be described. Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s

  3. Experimental implementation of maximally synchronizable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Buldú, J. M.; Boccaletti, S.; Papo, D.; Hwang, D.-U.; Huerta-Cuellar, G.; Gutiérrez, R.

    2016-04-01

    Maximally synchronizable networks (MSNs) are acyclic directed networks that maximize synchronizability. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of transforming networks of coupled oscillators into their corresponding MSNs. By tuning the weights of any given network so as to reach the lowest possible eigenratio λN /λ2, the synchronized state is guaranteed to be maintained across the longest possible range of coupling strengths. We check the robustness of the resulting MSNs with an experimental implementation of a network of nonlinear electronic oscillators and study the propagation of the synchronization errors through the network. Importantly, a method to study the effects of topological uncertainties on the synchronizability is proposed and explored both theoretically and experimentally.

  4. Description of Liquid Nitrogen Experimental Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Jacobs, Richard E.; Saiyed, Naseem H.

    1991-01-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Test Facility is a unique test facility for ground-based liquid nitrogen experimentation. The test rig consists of an insulated tank of approximately 12.5 cubic ft in volume, which is supplied with liquid nitrogen from a 300 gal dewar via a vacuum jacketed piping system. The test tank is fitted with pressure and temperature measuring instrumentation, and with two view ports which allow visual observation of test conditions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility, the initial test program is briefly described. The objective of the test program is to measure the condensation rate by injecting liquid nitrogen as a subcooled spray into the ullage of a tank 50 percent full of liquid nitrogen at saturated conditions. The condensation rate of the nitrogen vapor on the subcooled spray can be analytically modeled, and results validated and corrected by experimentally measuring the vapor condensation on liquid sprays.

  5. Mechanical diode: Comparing numerical and experimental characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Sagartz, M.J.; Segalman, D.; Simmermacher, T.

    1998-02-01

    In this introductory work, joint compliance is studied in both a numerical and experimental setting. A simple bolted interface is used as the test article and compliance is measured for the joint in both compression and in tension. This simple interface is shown to exhibit a strong non-linearity near the transition from compression to tension (or vice-versa). Modeling issues pertaining to numerically solving for the compliance are addressed. It is shown that the model predictions, in spite of convergence being very sensitive to numerical artifacts of the interface model, are in good agreement with experimentally measured strains and joint compliances. The joint behavior is a mechanical analogy to a diode, i.e., in compression, the joint is very stiff, acting almost as a rigid link, while in tension the joint is relatively soft, acting as a spring.

  6. (Hyperfine experimental investigation of zirconia ceramics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This research program has encompassed a broad investigation of microscopic structure and point defect properties in insulating materials and some recent exploratory work on semiconductors. The major experimental technique is perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. Our research provides information about the microscopic structure, nucleation, and equilibrium of structural phases in materials under investigation. We have studied phase equilibria in monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic zirconia in the past and have recently begun more detailed investigation of high-temperature anomalies in monoclinic zirconia and tetragonal stabilized zirconia. We also have found a number of instances where the indium PAC probe has detected subtle phase changes, small precipitate formation, and other phase behavior that are difficult to detect by conventional diffraction methods. The PAC experimental technique is described briefly in section 2, and recent research is reviewed in section 3.

  7. Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay: a quantitative method for oxidative stress assessment of nanoparticle-treated cells.

    PubMed

    Aranda, A; Sequedo, L; Tolosa, L; Quintas, G; Burello, E; Castell, J V; Gombau, L

    2013-03-01

    No consensus exists on how to address possible toxicity of nanomaterials as they interfere with most in vitro screening tests based on colorimetric and fluorimetric probes such as the dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay for detection of oxidative species. In the present research, nanomaterial interaction with DCFH-DA was studied in relation to its nature and/or assay conditions (cell-based and time exposure) by incubating Rhodamine (Rhd)-labeled 25nm and 50nm silica (SiO2), naked and oleic acid coated magnetite, (Fe3O4) and maghemite (Fe2O3) iron oxide, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(lactide/glycolide) acid (PLGA-PEO) nanoparticles (NPs) with metabolically active rat hepatocytes for 4 and 24-h periods. Data indicated that nanoparticle uptake correlated with quenching of dye fluorescence emission. In spite of their masking effect, the oxidative potential of NPs could be detected at a limited threshold concentration when exposed for periods of time longer than those frequently used for this test. However, changes in the experimental conditions did not systematically result in free radical formation for all nanomaterials tested. Overall data indicate that despite the quenching effect of nanoparticles on DCFH-DA assay, it can be considered as a useful tool for quantitative measurement of NPs-induced oxidative stress by minor modifications of standardized protocols.

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Thermoacoustic Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    61153N11 uri5005 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Theoretical and Experimental Study of Thermoacoustic Engines 12 . PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Richard...9/30 92/ 12 /31 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD...central portion. Copper rings of thickness 3.2 mm, inner radius 4.32 cm, and outer radius of 12 cm were supported between the ends of the ceramic piece

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A. C.; Olsen, S. L.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C. R.; Rajeev, S. G.; Okubo, S.

    This report discusses fixed target experimentation at Fermilab; the D-zero collider experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering; non-accelerator experiments and non-linear quantum electrodynamics (QED); the AMY experiment at TRISTAN and other activities at KEK; the collider detector at Fermilab; laser switched linac; preparations for experiments at the SSC; search for massive stable particles; and the Advanced Study Institute on techniques and concepts of high energy physics.

  10. Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobek, K.; Karpiński, M.; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R.; Banaszek, K.; Horodecki, P.

    2013-02-01

    We present an experimental scheme based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple-photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons we prepare mixed-entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy.

  11. Leveraging the Cloud for Integrated Network Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    6 2.2.1.2 OPNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.1.3 Simulation Summary...and scope of the review. The Introduction section is followed by a review of network experimentation techniques used by NS-3, OPNET , Emulab, Planetlab...open source simulator, and the most popular proprietary simulator, ns-3 and OPNET respectively. 2.2.1.1 NS-3. One of the most popular open source

  12. Sensor capabilities for the HERMIES experimental robot

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental robot, the HERMIES, to test artificial intelligence concepts. This paper describes the capabilities provided for navigation and control. The authors conclude that the sensor suite, which enables the robot to recognize, locate, and grasp objects, makes HERMIES IIB a powerful tool for robotics and artificial intelligence research. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Experimental measurements on a single sweeping jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Damian; Graff, Emilio; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    ``Sweeping jets'' proved their effectiveness as Active Flow Control (AFC) actuators in improving the performance of vertical tails of generic and full-scale models. To gain further knowledge about the fundamental flow physics, the jets were investigated experimentally. The influence of a single jet on its surroundings was studied, especially the entrainment region. The results were compared to previous experiments to study the difference between a single isolated jet and multiple jets mounted on a vertical tail. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  14. [Bioethics and drug experimentation in hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Sinaccio, G; Robert, E; Sinaccio, C; Robert, E

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss about clinical experimentation with drugs involving hospitalized subjects in consideration of four principles of Bioethics: Autonomy, Beneficence, Non Maleficence and Justice. This article explores also the problems linked to the application of good clinical practice according to the European and Italian recent rules. Human integrity, respect of patient's dignity, informed consent, correct methods, placebo, Ethics committees represent the essential basis for those researchers that intend conduct clinical trials really "with subject and not on the subject".

  15. Experimental Facilities and Modelling for Rarefied Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    aerodynamic forces and moments that act on an object moving in the gas . The aerodynamics of rarefied gases also investigates the flow of gases in...Originally, theoretical models for rarefied gas flows were developed in the frame of the molecular kinetic theory. Thus the first self-consistent descriptions...method [7-11]. 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES FOR RAREFIED FLOWS 3.1 Overview Rarefied - gas (vacuum) wind tunnel is a wind tunnel operating at low pressures

  16. Experimental system and component performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, K.

    1984-10-01

    A prototype dye laser flow loop was constructed to flow test large power amplifiers in Building 169. The flow loop is designed to operate at supply pressures up to 900 psig and flow rates up to 250 GPM. During the initial startup of the flow loop experimental measurements were made to evaluate component and system performance. Three candidate dye flow loop pumps and three different pulsation dampeners were tested.

  17. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Combustion Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental Combustion Advanced Combustor Concepts Combustor Demonstration and Transition Figure 1. A design philosophy for transitioning basic...PFP UNCLASSIFIED [4] W.-W. Kim, S. Menon, and H. Mongia , “Large-Eddy Simulation of a Gas Turbine Combustor Flow,” Combust . Sci. Technol. 143, 25-62...AFRL-PR-WP-TM-2006-2131 EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMBUSTION PHENOMENA Dr. James R. Gord Combustion Branch (AFRL

  18. Experimental Benchmarking of the Magnetized Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Galnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  20. Animal experimentation--a personal view.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, Stanley N

    2009-02-01

    Disagreement about the use of animals in biomedical research has resulted in absurd positions by both sides. Increasingly, some zealots against animal experimentation have resorted to violence or other illegal acts to support their points of view. The value of animal research in providing better health for man and animals is incontrovertible. This is illustrated by references to animal research in the field of nutrition.

  1. C-2U Experimental Transport Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trask, Erik; Beall, M.; Bolte, N.; Deng, B.; Douglass, J.; Gota, H.; Granstedt, E.; Gupta, D.; Osin, D.; Roche, T.; Zhai, K.; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    Upgrades of the experimental facility at Tri Alpha Energy have led to record Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) performance on the C-2U device. Modifications to magnetic field characteristics and increases in neutral beam power were critical drivers in achieving sustained plasma targets for greater than 5ms. 0D power balance calculations detailing loss channel characteristics and plasma timescales will be presented demonstrating substantial improvements in equilibrium and transport parameters. Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.

  2. Extracting model equations from experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Siegert, S.; Peinke, J.; Lück, St.; Siefert, M.; Lindemann, M.; Raethjen, J.; Deuschl, G.; Pfister, G.

    2000-06-01

    This letter wants to present a general data-driven method for formulating suitable model equations for nonlinear complex systems. The method is validated in a quantitative way by its application to experimentally found data of a chaotic electric circuit. Furthermore, the results of an analysis of tremor data from patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, from essential tremor, and from normal subjects with physiological tremor are presented, discussed and compared. They allow a distinction between the different forms of tremor.

  3. Experimental Searches for Dark Sector Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jim

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the state of experimental searches for Dark Sector dark matter, focussing on current and planned experiments that look for evidence of dark photon production. The accessible dark photon masses range from about 1 MeV to about 1 GeV, cover several orders of magnitude in the dimensionless coupling constant to normal matter. Experiments include fixed target and collider experiments, seeking inclusive or exclusive final state signatures, produced from either leptonic and hadronic initial states.

  4. Experimental history: swinging pendulums and melting shellac.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    Four hundred years ago Galileo Galilei aimed a telescope at the sky. He revolutionized astronomy. Equally revolutionary were his experiments in physics. Unlike his astronomical observations the experiments remain difficult to understand and replicate even today. Two centuries after Galileo, Augustin Coulomb demonstrated experimentally the law of electrostatic force. It has never been successfully replicated. Yet both Galileo and Coulomb were exquisite experimentalists. The fact is that revolutionary experiments in physics are never finished. They are open for investigation for generations to come.

  5. Experimental modeling of cavitation occurring at vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynutdinova, D. F.; Modorskii, V. Ya.; Shevelev, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The article investigates the problem of effects in two-stage centrifugal pumps due to hydro-gas-dynamic processes resulting from vibrations of design elements which are difficult to forecast. Numerical and experimental simulation of this problem was conducted. The experiment discovered cavitation effects brought about by the vibrations. The area of cavitations was plotted. Dependence of cavitation bubble concentration on amplitude and frequency of the vibrations was found.

  6. Experimental falsification of Leggett's nonlocal variable model.

    PubMed

    Branciard, Cyril; Ling, Alexander; Gisin, Nicolas; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Scarani, Valerio

    2007-11-23

    Bell's theorem guarantees that no model based on local variables can reproduce quantum correlations. Also, some models based on nonlocal variables, if subject to apparently "reasonable" constraints, may fail to reproduce quantum physics. In this Letter, we introduce a family of inequalities, which use a finite number of measurement settings, and which therefore allow testing Leggett's nonlocal model versus quantum physics. Our experimental data falsify Leggett's model and are in agreement with quantum predictions.

  7. Experimental Observation of a Photon Bouncing Ball

    SciTech Connect

    Della Valle, G.; Ornigotti, M.; Laporta, P.; Longhi, S.; Savoini, M.; Finazzi, M.; Duo, L.; Foglietti, V.

    2009-05-08

    An optical analogue of a quantum particle bouncing on a hard surface under the influence of gravity (a quantum bouncer) is experimentally demonstrated using a circularly curved optical waveguide. Spatially resolved tunneling optical microscopy measurements of multiple beam reflections at the waveguide edge clearly show the appearance of wave packet collapses and revivals (either integer and fractional), corresponding to the full quantum regime of the quantum bouncer.

  8. How Can We Test Seesaw Experimentally?

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-06-07

    The seesaw mechanism for the small neutrino mass has been a popular paradigm, yet it has been believed that there is no way to test it experimentally. We present a conceivable outcome from future experiments that would convince us of the seesaw mechanism. It would involve a variety of data from LHC, ILC, cosmology, underground, and low-energy flavor violation experiments to establish the case.

  9. Experimenters' reference based upon Skylab experiment management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined and amplified, as appropriate. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  10. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  11. Experimental study of the chaotic waterwheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, George; Erxleben, Amy; Rosa, Epaminondas, Jr.

    2007-03-01

    The chaotic waterwheel is often given as an example of a mechanical system that can exhibit chaotic behavior. Its early demonstration by Malkus and the realization that it can be modeled by the Lorenz equations has secured it a prominent place in almost every general presentation of chaos. It seems quite surprising, then, that no experimental investigations of this textbook system have ever been published. To fill this historic gap, and to initiate an experimental study of this incredibly rich dynamic system, our lab has constructed a research-grade waterwheel consisting of a vacuum-formed polycarbonate frame in which 36 cylindrical cells are mounted on an 18 inch diameter. The wheel and its axis can be tilted, and water is fed into the top of the wheel and drains out through thin tubes at the bottom of each cell. An aluminum skirt at the wheel's periphery passes through a variable gap magnet to provide magnetic braking. Angular time series data are collected with an absolute rotary encoder. The data are smoothed and angular velocity and acceleration are calculated via fast fourier transforms. The data show quasi-uniform rotation as well as periodic and chaotic motion and agree fairly well with computer simulations of the idealized wheel equations. We will discuss differences between the experimental data and the simulation predictions as well as plans for future studies.

  12. Differential Angiogenic Regulation of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chidlow, John H.; Langston, Will; Greer, James J.M.; Ostanin, Dmitry; Abdelbaqi, Maisoun; Houghton, Jeffery; Senthilkumar, Annamalai; Shukla, Deepti; Mazar, Andrew P.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract with unknown multifactorial etiology that, among other things, result in alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal microvasculature. Clinical observations of increased colon microvascular density during IBD have been made. However, there have been no reports investigating the physiological or pathological importance of angiogenic stimulation during the development of intestinal inflammation. Here we report that the dextran sodium sulfate and CD4+CD45RBhigh T-cell transfer models of colitis stimulate angiogenesis that results in increased blood vessel density concomitant with increased histopathology, suggesting that the neovasculature contributes to tissue damage during colitis. We also show that leukocyte infiltration is an obligatory requirement for the stimulation of angiogenesis. The angiogenic response during experimental colitis was differentially regulated in that the production of various angiogenic mediators was diverse between the two models with only a small group of molecules being similarly controlled. Importantly, treatment with the anti-angiogenic agent thalidomide or ATN-161 significantly reduced angiogenic activity and associated tissue histopathology during experimental colitis. Our findings identify a direct pathological link between angiogenesis and the development of experimental colitis, representing a novel therapeutic target for IBD. PMID:17148665

  13. Experimental verification of an indefinite causal order

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Giulia; Rozema, Lee A.; Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Zeuner, Jonas M.; Procopio, Lorenzo M.; Brukner, Časlav; Walther, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the role of causal order in quantum mechanics has recently revealed that the causal relations of events may not be a priori well defined in quantum theory. Although this has triggered a growing interest on the theoretical side, creating processes without a causal order is an experimental task. We report the first decisive demonstration of a process with an indefinite causal order. To do this, we quantify how incompatible our setup is with a definite causal order by measuring a “causal witness.” This mathematical object incorporates a series of measurements that are designed to yield a certain outcome only if the process under examination is not consistent with any well-defined causal order. In our experiment, we perform a measurement in a superposition of causal orders—without destroying the coherence—to acquire information both inside and outside of a “causally nonordered process.” Using this information, we experimentally determine a causal witness, demonstrating by almost 7 SDs that the experimentally implemented process does not have a definite causal order. PMID:28378018

  14. Experimental monitoring for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenqin; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay experiment has instrumented two modules of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to search for 0 νββ decay in 76Ge. The experiment has started accumulating quality data towards its goal of demonstrating the technical feasibility and low backgrounds for a next generation Ge-based 0 νββ experiment. It is critical to extensively monitor the performance of the experimental apparatus without disturbing the blindness data-taking scheme. The experimental monitoring is composed of several stages including, for example, the live monitoring embedded in the Data-Acquisition system, onsite near-live monitoring and data production monitoring. In all stages, automatic alerting mechanisms and scheduled manual checks are implemented in a coordinated way. In this talk, we will discuss the internal management of each experimental monitoring stage and their relationships to each other. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  15. Experimental results from the small isochronous ring

    SciTech Connect

    Eduard Pozdeyev

    2005-05-01

    The Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) is a compact, low-energy storage ring designed to investigate the beam dynamics of high-intensity isochronous cyclotrons and synchrotrons at the transition energy. The ring was developed at Michigan State University (MSU) and has been operational since December 2003. It stores 20 keV hydrogen beams with a peak current of 10-20 microamps for up to 200 turns. The transverse and longitudinal profiles of extracted bunches are measured with an accuracy of approximately 1 mm. The high accuracy of the measurements makes the experimental data attractive for validation of multi-particle space charge codes. The results obtained in the ring show a fast growth of the energy spread induced by the space charge forces. The energy spread growth is accompanied by a breakup of the beam bunches into separated clusters that are involved in the vortex motion specific to the isochronous regime. The experimental results presented in the paper show a remarkable agreement with simulations performed with the code CYCO. In this paper, we discuss specifics of space charge effects in the isochronous regime, present results of experiments in SIR, and conduct a detailed comparison of the experimental data with results of simulations.

  16. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  17. Correlates of diuretic renography in experimental hydronephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kekomaeki, M.R.; Rikalainen, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Bertenyi, C.

    1989-02-01

    We studied the correlations between diuretic renographs and kidney function in experimental hydronephrosis in rabbits. Features of furosemide-stimulated /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid renographs were compared to the growth rate, thirst test and endogenous creatinine clearance rate in a chronic solitary-kidney animal model. Intravenous pyelograms, done four weeks after laparotomy, left nephrectomy, bladder resection and constriction of the right pyeloureteric junction, showed signs of obstruction in all the 12 animals of the experimental group. An absent tracer washout after intravenous furosemide, found in five animals, was associated with retarded growth, isosthenuria and an abnormal creatinine clearance. In all of the other seven animals, a distinct tracer washout after intravenous furosemide was accompanied with a normal growth rate and creatinine clearance. However, no one of these seven animals had a normal ability to retain water and concentrate urine in the thirst test. We conclude that, in this experimental model, a furosemide-induced tracer washout from the kidney pelvis cannot be taken as a proof of the absence of any upper urinary tract obstruction.

  18. Experimental Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Guy, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Experimental supersonic combustion research related to hypersonic airbreathing propulsion has been actively underway at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the mid-1960's. This research involved experimental investigations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic flows and numerous tests of scramjet engine flowpaths in LaRC test facilities simulating flight from Mach 4 to 8. Out of this research effort has come scramjet combustor design methodologies, ground test techniques, and data analysis procedures. These technologies have progressed steadily in support of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program and the current Hyper-X flight demonstration program. During NASP nearly 2500 tests of 15 scramjet engine models were conducted in LaRC facilities. In addition, research supporting the engine flowpath design investigated ways to enhance mixing, improve and apply nonintrusive diagnostics, and address facility operation. Tests of scramjet combustor operation at conditions simulating hypersonic flight at Mach numbers up to 17 also have been performed in an expansion tube pulse facility. This paper presents a review of the LaRC experimental supersonic combustion research efforts since the late 1980's, during the NASP program, and into the Hyper-X Program.

  19. Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, U

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.

  20. Cholestasis: human disease and experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garay, Emilio Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Cholestasis may result from a failure in bile secretion in hepatocytes or ductular cells, or from a blockade to the free bile flow. Human cholestasis may be induced by many drugs, being antibiotics the more common. Other types of cholestasis seen in humans are a group of familial cholestatic disorders, obstructive cholestasis, primary biliary cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cholestasis of pregnancy, oral contraceptive-induced cholestasis, and sepsis-induced cholestasis. Experimental animal models allow the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms involved and their clinical correlates. The most common experimental models of intrahepatic cholestasis are estrogen-induced, endotoxin-induced and drug-induced cholestasis. A well known model of extrahepatic biliary obstruction is common bile duct ligation. Drug-induced cholestasis were described using different drugs. On this regard, alpha naphthylisothiocyanate treatment has been extensively used, permitting to describe not only cholestatic alterations but also compensatory mechanisms. Congenital defficiency of transport proteins also were studied in natural rat models of cholestasis. The experimental animal models allow to define down-regulated alterations of hepatocyte transport proteins, and up-regulated ones acting as compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, animal model and transport protein studies are necessary for the progressive understanding of congenital and acquired human cholestasis, and regulatory mechanisms that operate on liver cells.