Science.gov

Sample records for experimental head injury

  1. Neuropeptides in Experimental Head Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    within the left hippocampal gyrus, corpus collosum and the lateral ventricle. In all animals, subarachnoid hemorrhage was distributed over the left...stereoisomer (n = 6) or saline (n = 6) had no effect on cardiovascular or electrophysiological function . Preliminary work in our laboratory with a rat model of...improve neurological function and EEG following brainstem compression in the cat (19). This study and the results obtained from spinal cord injury

  2. Experimental high-velocity missile head injury.

    PubMed

    Allen, I V; Scott, R; Tanner, J A

    1982-09-01

    A standardized experimental high-velocity penetrating head-injury model has been produced in which pathological lesions were observed, not only in the wound track but at sites more remote from the track in the hypothalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. Diffuse subarachnoid haemorrhage was common and intraventricular haemorrhage was a constant feature. Other constant histological abnormalities were:L 1. Perivascular "ring' haemorrhages. 2. Perivascular haemorrhage with a surrounding zone of decreased staining intensity. 3. Perivascular increased staining intensity. 4. Areas of decreased staining intensity apparently dissociated from areas of haemorrhage. The pathogenesis of the perivascular lesions is discussed and preliminary studies suggest that these may be the site of early oedema. The implications of this experiment for military surgery and for ballistic protection of the head are discussed.

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  4. The state of head injury biomechanics: past, present, and future part 2: physical experimentation.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Werner; Monson, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    This presentation is the continuation of the article published in Critical Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 29(5-6), 2001. That issue contained topics dealing with components and geometry of the human head, classification of head injuries, some early experimental studies, and tolerance considerations. It then dealt with head motion and load characterization, investigations during the period from 1939 to 1966, injury causation and early modeling efforts, the 1966 Head Injury Conference and its sequels, mechanical properties of solid tissues, fluid characterization, and early investigation of the mechanical properties of cranial materials. It continued with a description of the systematic investigations of solid cranial components and structural properties since 1966, fetal cranial properties, analytical head modeling, and numerical solutions of head injury. The paper concluded with experimental dynamic loading of human living and cadaver heads, dynamic loading of surrogate heads, and head injury mechanics. This portion of the paper describes physical head injury experimentation involving animals, primarily primates, human cadavers, volunteers, and inanimate physical models. In order to address the entire domain of head injury biomechanics in the two-part survey, it was intended that this information be supplemented by discussions of head injury tolerance and criteria, automotive and sports safety considerations, and the design of protective equipment, but Professor Goldsmith passed away before these sections could be completed. It is nevertheless anticipated that this attenuated installment will provide, in conjunction with the first part of the survey, a valuable resource for students and practitioners of head injury biomechanics.

  5. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  6. Experimental Injury Biomechanics of the Pediatric Head and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulies, Susan; Coats, Brittany

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among children and young adults in the United States and results in over 2,500 childhood deaths, 37,000 hospitalizations, and 435,000 emergency department visits each year (Langlois et al. 2004). Computational models of the head have proven to be powerful tools to help us understand mechanisms of adult TBI and to determine load thresholds for injuries specific to adult TBI. Similar models need to be developed for children and young adults to identify age-specific mechanisms and injury tolerances appropriate for children and young adults. The reliability of these tools, however, depends heavily on the availability of pediatric tissue material property data. To date the majority of material and structural properties used in pediatric computer models have been scaled from adult human data. Studies have shown significant age-related differences in brain and skull properties (Prange and Margulies 2002; Coats and Margulies 2006a, b), indicating that the pediatric head cannot be modeled as a miniature adult head, and pediatric computer models incorporating age-specific data are necessary to accurately mimic the pediatric head response to impact or rotation. This chapter details the developmental changes of the pediatric head and summarizes human pediatric properties currently available in the literature. Because there is a paucity of human pediatric data, material properties derived from animal tissue are also presented to demonstrate possible age-related differences in the heterogeneity and rate dependence of tissue properties. The chapter is divided into three main sections: (1) brain, meninges, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF); (2) skull; and (3) scalp.

  7. Head injury assessment of non-lethal projectile impacts: A combined experimental/computational method.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Debasis; Robbe, Cyril; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Frank; Papy, Alexandre; Willinger, Remy

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess this risk based on experimental tests versus numerical predictive head injury simulations. A total of 16 non-lethal projectiles (NLP) impacts were conducted with rigid force plate at three different ranges of impact velocity (120, 72 and 55m/s) and the force/deformation-time data were used for the validation of finite element (FE) NLP. A good accordance between experimental and simulation data were obtained during validation of FE NLP with high correlation value (>0.98) and peak force discrepancy of less than 3%. A state-of-the art finite element head model with enhanced brain and skull material laws and specific head injury criteria was used for numerical computation of NLP impacts. Frontal and lateral FE NLP impacts to the head model at different velocities were performed under LS-DYNA. It is the very first time that the lethality of NLP is assessed by axonal strain computation to predict diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in NLP impacts to head. In case of temporo-parietal impact the min-max risk of DAI is 0-86%. With a velocity above 99.2m/s there is greater than 50% risk of DAI for temporo-parietal impacts. All the medium- and high-velocity impacts are susceptible to skull fracture, with a percentage risk higher than 90%. This study provides tool for a realistic injury (DAI and skull fracture) assessment during NLP impacts to the human head. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the ... function. This is called a traumatic brain injury. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms of ...

  9. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  10. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  11. Content change of neurofilament protein subunits in experimental brain diffuse axonal injury by lateral head rotation.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosheng; Yi, Shengyu; Zhang, Xiang; Fei, Zhou; Zhang, Jianning; Yang, Lisun

    2000-02-15

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the content change of neurofilament (NF) protein subunits in the experimental brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by lateral head rotation. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into three injury groups (2 h, 12 h, and 24 h post injury) and one control group. The models of DAI were made in the injury groups by lateral head rotation. Western blotting technique was used to measure the content of NF68 (a kind of NF protein subunit) in the brainstem tissues among all the injured and control rats. The NF68 immunohistochemical staining was used in another six SD rats in order to observe the morphological changes in DAI. RESULTS: The NF68 content in the brainstem tended to decrease at 2 h post injury, decreased significantly at 12 h and continued its decrease at 24 h. NF56 and NF52, as the breakdown products of NF68, had a tendency to increase at 2-12 h after the injury, and amounted to a significantly higher level at 24 h. Microscopically, there were a lot of swelling neuronal axons in the ventral part of the medullar oblongata at 2 h after the injury. Some axons were disconnected, and axonal retraction balls formed on their proximal end. CONCLUSIONS: There is an occurrence of phosphorolysis within the brainstem in DAI by lateral head rotation. These reactions cause the breakdown of NF68, which results in the decrease of NF68 in content. It suggests that the breakdown of neurofilament protein subunits is an important reason for structur al destroy of neurofilaments in DAI.

  12. Prognosis in head injury.

    PubMed

    Jane, J A; Rimel, R W

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of head injury when viewed from the perspective of the Glasgow Coma Scale confirms the utility of this measure. In particular, decrease in mortality is associated with an increase in GCS. In addition, the motor score portion of the GCS was of predictive value when taken alone. The outcome of patients in coma (GCS less than 8) was closely related to three preventable or treatable factors, namely, hypoxia, shock, and increased intracranial pressure. These three factors, when considered in combination, powerfully predicted mortality. Of considerable interest was the finding that moderate head injury (GCS 9-12) was associated with a small but perhaps preventable mortality. The morbidity was intermediate between that of severe and minor and was surprisingly high. Minor head injury, while not associated with significant mortality, also resulted in considerable morbidity. Neuropsychological evaluation of the patients and an experimental study suggests that an organic component may be involved even in this group. To deal with head injury, distinctions must be made between grades of severity. The Glasgow Coma Scale is suited for this task. Nonetheless, the recognition of this basic continuity should elicit the further recognition that different health providers may be involved in the case of, say, severe, as opposed to mild, injury, and that different outcome measures are suitable for one group but not another.

  13. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  14. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  15. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  16. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  17. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  18. Experimental biomechanical study of head injuries in lateral falls with skateboard helmet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Herbst, Brian; Strickland, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common in sports accidents. Helmets are generally known to provide protection to the head. However, the effectiveness of helmets in mitigating a TBI may be compromised due to the impact location and impact speed. Although it is known that the helmet decreases the linear head accelerations and the resulting head injury potential, to the best of our knowledge, limited research effort has been devoted to the study of the biomechanics of TBI in side impact conditions. The present work is designed to delineate the biomechanics of TBI in a fall impacting the parietal/temporal regions. A standing Hybrid III male dummy with pedestrian pelvis was used. The dummy was placed on a swinging platform for the fall simulation. The drop was achieved by stopping the platform with a block. The platform was swung from a predetermined height and stopped to allow the free fall of the dummy. The test was conducted with and without a skate board helmet. The impact on the dummy’s head was in the parietal and temporal regions. The head impact speed with the floor was approximately 24 kph (6.7 m/sec) The dummy was instrumented with tri-axial linear and tri-axial angular head accelerometers to measure the biomechanical injury responses. Results from three tests were compared. The linear head CG acceleration, Head Injury Criteria (HIC) and angular head accelerations were compared. Results suggest that the helmet reduced the linear head acceleration, HIC and angular head acceleration compared to the impact without a helmet. Although the linear head accelerations and HIC were reduced, the angular head accelerations even with the helmet were above nearly all proposed rotational head injury threshold in the literature. The higher angular head accelerations indicate a higher probability of concussion, acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injuries. The present study is an additional step to better understand the biomechanics of TBI and the role of protective

  19. Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration

  20. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  1. Mechanism of brain protection by nitroxide radicals in experimental model of closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Shohami, E; Beit-Yannai, E; Bass, R; Trembovler, V; Samuni, A

    1998-01-15

    Reactive oxygen-derived species were previously implicated in mediation of post-traumatic brain damage; however, the efficacy of traditional antioxidants in preventing/reversing the damage is sometimes limited. The present work focused on the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective activity of cell permeable, nontoxic, antioxidants, namely stable nitroxide radicals in an experimental model of rat closed-head injury. Brain damage was induced by the weight-drop method and the clinical status was evaluated according to a neurological severity score at 1 h and 24 h, where the difference between these scores reflects the extent of recovery. The metal chelator deferoxamine as well as three nitroxide derivatives, differing in hydrophilicity and charge, and one hydroxylamine (a reduced nitroxide) facilitated the clinical recovery and decreased the brain edema. The nitroxides, but neither the hydroxylamine nor deferoxamine, protected the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Superoxide dismutase also improved the clinical recovery but did not affect brain edema or the blood-brain barrier. The results suggest that by switching back and forth between themselves, the nitroxide and hydroxylamine act catalytically as self-replenishing antioxidants, and protect brain tissue by terminating radical-chain reactions, oxidizing deleterious metal ions, and by removal of intracellular superoxide.

  2. Head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Josip; Rotim, Kresimir; Marcikić, Marcel; Smiljanić, Danko

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, head injuries are becoming more frequent in children. The most common cause of head injuries in children is fall, and, in more severe injuries, traffic accident trauma. In traumatic brain injuries in infants and small children, the most common symptoms are paleness, somnolence and vomiting, the so called "pediatric contusion syndrome". After the first year of age, light head trauma occurs after minor falls, whereas the most severe injuries are caused by car accidents, including pedestrians, or fall from the height. As the child grows, severe head trauma is more likely to occur after bicycle or car accidents. Brain injuries involving or penetrating the brain by broken bone fragments include contusions and lacerations of the brain. Unconsciousness need not always occur during contusion, as it may also appear after swelling of the brain or high intracranial pressure complications. Despite comprehensive injuries in such types of accidents, the outcome of survivors is surprisingly good. Such severe neurocranium injuries usually include heavy bleeding with hematoma (epidural bleeding, subdural bleeding, intracerebral bleeding, and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Improved prehospital care, readiness and accessibility of multidisciplinary teams, establishment of regional centers, and efforts to prevent and decrease traffic accidents contribute to mortality rate reduction.

  3. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a ... sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ...

  4. Head Injuries in Children

    PubMed Central

    Craft, A. W.; Shaw, D. A.; Cartlidge, N. E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two-hundred children with head injury admitted consecutively to paediatric wards in the two main hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne have been studied. Eight children required neurosurgical operation. There were two deaths. Details of the cause and consequences of the accidents have been analysed and an attempt has been made to identify psychological or physical factors that may predispose to injury. There was a slightly higher proportion of children with what are regarded as adverse personality factors among the head injuries than in a control group and there were more left-handed children than would be expected in the general population. The results suggest that the modern “high-rise” bicycle may carry a special risk of head injury. PMID:5082547

  5. Pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  6. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  7. Mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Boll, T J; Barth, J

    1983-01-01

    The pathology of mild head injury, its common behavioral sequelae, the nature of the recovery process, and the psychosocial consequences are reviewed. Acceleration-deceleration head trauma, causing brief unconsciousness, and leaving no frank neurological deficit, is associated in primates with axonal and terminal degenerative changes in brain stem nuclei. Although the presence of clinical demonstrable neurological abnormality increases the likelihood of subsequent deficits, their absence does not guarantee full recovery. Among mildly injured children, the relationships between persistent behavioral deficits and their age of onset correspond closely with those observed in children with overt damage, making it unlikely that psychological-behavioral deficits are attributable to non-neurological aspects of the injury. Deficits observed include distractability, irritability, headaches, inability to maintain a prior level of cognitive competence, and impulsivity. Although longer periods of unconsciousness are associated with permanent memory deficits, minimal unconsciousness is also followed by consistent deficits in complex memory tasks. Detailed neuropsychological testing of mildly injured children has revealed persisting deficits even after 5 years. Furthermore, deficits arising from repeated injuries are cumulative. The importance of adequate neuropsychological assessment and accurate information to the patient are stressed as important in helping satisfactory adjustment.

  8. Pediatric minor closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Mary L; Woolridge, Dale P

    2006-02-01

    Many studies have found conflicting evidence over the use of clinical indicators to predict intracranial injury in pediatric mild head injury. Although altered mental status, loss of consciousness, and abnormal neurologic examination have all been found to be more prevalent among head-injured children, studies have observed inconsistent results over their specificity and predictive value. Children older than 2 years have been evaluated, managed, and studied differently than those less than 2 years old. Evidence strongly supports a lower threshold to perform a CT scan in younger children because they have a higher risk of significant brain injury after blunt head trauma.

  9. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  10. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  11. Memory and head injury severity.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Temkin, N; McLean, A; Wyler, A; Machamer, J

    1987-12-01

    One hundred and two consecutive head injured patients were studied at 1 and 12 months after injury. Their performances were compared with a group of uninjured friends. The results indicate that impairment in memory depends on the type of task used, time from injury to testing, and on the severity of head injury (that is, degree of impaired consciousness). Head injury severity indices are more closely related to behavioural outcome early as compared with later after injury. At 1 year, only those with deep or prolonged impaired consciousness (as represented by greater than 1 day of coma, Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 or less, and post traumatic amnesia of 2 weeks or greater) are performing significantly worse than comparison subjects.

  12. Preventing head and neck injury.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  13. DELUSIONAL DISORDERS AFTER HEAD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Sabhesan, S.; Natarajan, M.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Delusional disorders have been fundamental to the behaviour problems seen in patients during the early recovery phase of head injury. One hundred and twenty three patients admitted in the Trauma Ward were followed up and the nature and types of the delusions were studied. Their emergence in relation to cognitive recovery and the significance of other factors, such as pre-traumatic personality, alcohol abuse, severity of injury etc., in the genesis of such delusions are presented. PMID:21927281

  14. Pediatric head injuries from earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lage, Juan F; Almagro, María-José; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage Azorín, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    By means of some illustrations, the authors briefly report the effects of some accidental head injuries caused by diverse mechanisms occurring in children. Many of these accidents seem to be preventable, but others are completely unavoidable and escape prevention as the one that is depicted in the cover of this issue.

  15. Closed head experimental traumatic brain injury increases size and bone volume of callus in mice with concomitant tibial fracture

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Rhys D; Grills, Brian L; Church, Jarrod E; Walsh, Nicole C; McDonald, Aaron C; Agoston, Denes V; Sun, Mujun; O’Brien, Terence J; Shultz, Sandy R; McDonald, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are commonly observed in multitrauma and polytrauma. Despite clinical observations of enhanced bone healing in patients with TBI, the relationship between TBI and fracture healing remains poorly understood, with clinical data limited by the presence of several confounding variables. Here we developed a novel trauma model featuring closed-skull weight-drop TBI and concomitant tibial fracture in order to investigate the effect of TBI on fracture healing. Male mice were assigned into Fracture + Sham TBI (FX) or Fracture + TBI (MULTI) groups and sacrificed at 21 and 35 days post-injury for analysis of healing fractures by micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry. μCT analysis revealed calluses from MULTI mice had a greater bone and total tissue volume, and displayed higher mean polar moment of inertia when compared to calluses from FX mice at 21 days post-injury. Histomorphometric results demonstrated an increased amount of trabecular bone in MULTI calluses at 21 days post-injury. These findings indicate that closed head TBI results in calluses that are larger in size and have an increased bone volume, which is consistent with the notion that TBI induces the formation of a more robust callus. PMID:27682431

  16. Minor and repetitive head injury.

    PubMed

    Buki, Andras; Kovacs, Noemi; Czeiter, Endre; Schmid, Kara; Berger, Rachel P; Kobeissy, Firas; Italiano, Domenico; Hayes, Ronald L; Tortella, Frank C; Mezosi, Emese; Schwarcz, Attila; Toth, Arnold; Nemes, Orsolya; Mondello, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the young, active population and expected to be the third leading cause of death in the whole world until 2020. The disease is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic, and many authors highlight the "unmet medical need" associated with TBI.The term traumatically evoked brain injury covers a heterogeneous group ranging from mild/minor/minimal to severe/non-salvageable damages. Severe TBI has long been recognized to be a major socioeconomical health-care issue as saving young lives and sometimes entirely restituting health with a timely intervention can indeed be extremely cost efficient.Recently it has been recognized that mild or minor TBI should be considered similarly important because of the magnitude of the patient population affected. Other reasons behind this recognition are the association of mild head injury with transient cognitive disturbances as well as long-term sequelae primarily linked to repeat (sport-related) injuries.The incidence of TBI in developed countries can be as high as 2-300/100,000 inhabitants; however, if we consider the injury pyramid, it turns out that severe and moderate TBI represents only 25-30 % of all cases, while the overwhelming majority of TBI cases consists of mild head injury. On top of that, or at the base of the pyramid, are the cases that never show up at the ER - the unreported injuries.Special attention is turned to mild TBI as in recent military conflicts it is recognized as "signature injury."This chapter aims to summarize the most important features of mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury providing definitions, stratifications, and triage options while also focusing on contemporary knowledge gathered by imaging and biomarker research.Mild traumatic brain injury is an enigmatic lesion; the classification, significance, and its consequences are all far less defined and explored than in more severe forms of brain injury

  17. [Bipolar head injury with global amnesia].

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Sollid, Snorre; MacFarlane, Martin; Dahlberg, Tore

    2003-12-23

    We report the first case of bipolar head injury, that is, subsequent head injuries sustained near both poles of the Earth. The injury caused a true global amnesia with loss of memory for the journey around the globe. This case history illustrates how modern emergency services have reduced the hazards of polar exploration, and how a second impact after a primary head injury may cause life-threatening complications.

  18. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    PubMed

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  19. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    PubMed

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  20. Clinical Trials in Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    NARAYAN, RAJ K.; MICHEL, MARY ELLEN; Ansell, Beth; Baethmann, Alex; Biegon, Anat; Bracken, Michael B.; Bullock, M. Ross; Choi, Sung C.; Clifton, Guy L.; Contant, Charles F.; Coplin, William M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Ghajar, Jamshid; Grady, Sean M.; Grossman, Robert G.; Hall, Edward D.; Heetderks, William; Hovda, David A.; Jallo, Jack; Katz, Russell L.; Knoller, Nachshon; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Maas, Andrew I.; Majde, Jeannine; Marion, Donald W.; Marmarou, Anthony; Marshall, Lawrence F.; McIntosh, Tracy K.; Miller, Emmy; Mohberg, Noel; Muizelaar, J. Paul; Pitts, Lawrence H.; Quinn, Peter; Riesenfeld, Gad; Robertson, Claudia S.; Strauss, Kenneth I.; Teasdale, Graham; Temkin, Nancy; Tuma, Ronald; Wade, Charles; Walker, Michael D.; Weinrich, Michael; Whyte, John; Wilberger, Jack; Young, A. Byron; Yurkewicz, Lorraine

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This yields an approximate number of 500,000 new cases each year, a sizeable proportion of which demonstrate signficant long-term disabilities. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of proven therapies for this disease. For a variety of reasons, clinical trials for this condition have been difficult to design and perform. Despite promising pre-clinical data, most of the trials that have been performed in recent years have failed to demonstrate any significant improvement in outcomes. The reasons for these failures have not always been apparent and any insights gained were not always shared. It was therefore feared that we were running the risk of repeating our mistakes. Recognizing the importance of TBI, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) sponsored a workshop that brought together experts from clinical, research, and pharmaceutical backgrounds. This workshop proved to be very informative and yielded many insights into previous and future TBI trials. This paper is an attempt to summarize the key points made at the workshop. It is hoped that these lessons will enhance the planning and design of future efforts in this important field of research. PMID:12042091

  1. Minor head injury: pathophysiological or iatrogenic sequelae?

    PubMed

    Newcombe, F; Rabbitt, P; Briggs, M

    1994-06-01

    This study addresses the possibility that cognitive sequelae--albeit of a transient or minor character--can be associated with mild head injury. Twenty men (aged 16-30 years of age), whose post-traumatic amnesia did not exceed eight hours, were examined within 48 hours of their accident and again one month later. This unselected sample had no previous history of head injury. A control group of 20 men of similar socioeconomic background, was selected from medical wards (where they had been admitted for orthopaedic treatment or a minor operation). They were also retested one month after the first examination. Neuropsychological tests were selected to measure abilities often compromised after significant head injury, namely memory and attention. The experimental component consisted of the fractionation of a complex skill (paced addition) to probe for deficits at different stages of information processing: perception and input into storage; search for and retrieval of information from working memory; and paced and unpaced addition. In general, no significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups, with the possible exception of an initial decrement on two working memory tasks: probe digits and a keeping track task (where the subject has to keep in mind and update a number of variables at the same time). The keeping track paradigm, ostensibly of ecological relevance, may well be worth further exploration in memory research, and in studies of more severely head-injured patients. It is further suggested that the appropriate management and counselling of mildly head-injured patients may help to avert symptoms that are of psychological rather than pathophysiological origin.

  2. Mild head injury: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Tellier, A; Della Malva, L C; Cwinn, A; Grahovac, S; Morrish, W; Brennan-Barnes, M

    1999-07-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the concept of mild head injury (MHI), it is becoming evident that even a head trauma termed 'mild' may result in significant behavioural sequelae. The present study was an attempt at documenting structural cerebral damage, by way of computerized tomography, in a group of patients having suffered a MHI as defined by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. A 1-year retrospective chart review identified 80 MHI patients who presented to the Emergency department of a lead hospital for trauma. Sixty-six per cent of these MHI patients were scanned. Evidence of intracranial abnormalities was obtained in 31% of the overall sample. Patients with a lower GCS score had a higher percentage of abnormal scans than those with a GCS score of either 14 or 15. The present findings suggest that a MHI can be associated with significant morbidity, and that a MHI group does not constitute a homogeneous pool of patients.

  3. Recognition memory, and head injury.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D N

    1974-07-01

    Severely head injured adults were tested on a recognition memory procedure involving the identification of eight recurring shapes among a series of 160. Compared with a control group, the tested patients showed many fewer correct responses. Their type of error was commonly a failure to recognize rather than a false recognition. The severity of the memory deficit was related to the length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), but to neither the presence of neurological signs at the time of memory testing, nor to the time after injury at which the patients were tested. The older patients showed a more significant relationship between PTA and memory score than the younger patients.

  4. Essential radiology for head injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, D.W.H.; Kreel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The book covers the guidelines established by the Royal College of Radiologists for the radiographic evaluation of head injuries. It presents a chapter reviewing the normal radiologic anatomy of the skull in six different projections. The advantages and limitations of each projection are addressed. The third chapter, contains 43 radiographs dedicated to the calcified pineal gland and other intracranial calcifications. The book reports on specific types of fractures: linear fractures of the vault, depressed fractures of the vault, fractures in children, fractures of the base of the skull, and fractures of the facial bones.

  5. Emergency management of head injuries.

    PubMed

    Rimel, R W; Jane, J A; Tyson, G W

    1981-03-01

    Sophisticated care of the head injury patient in the emergency department does not demand sophisticated knowledge of neurosurgery. Instead it depends upon: (1) Meticulous attention to the fundamental principles of resuscitation; (B) Prevention of secondary cardiopulmonary abnormalities which can further injure the traumatized brain; (C) Performance of serial neurologic examinations. (In the case of acute head injury, a simple neurologic examination performed repeatedly usually provides the physician with more useful information than a more elaborate examination performed only once). (D) Consultation with the neurosurgeon. If there is any possibility that neurosurgical consultation might enhance the emergency department management of the patient, one should not hesitate to contact him. There is no question that protocols for any phase of emergency management of central nervous system (CNA) trauma are of no values unless there is a high degree of compliance. This can only be achieved through persons dedicated to training emergency medical technicians, nurses and physicians in the optimal care that can be afforded these patients. If advances are to be made in decreasing the morbidity and mortality of the CNS trauma patient, those actively involved in emergency medicine are going to have to take an active role in training programs, seminars and clinical practice for physicians, emergency department nurses, and emergency medical technicians.

  6. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  7. Neuropsychological sequelae of minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Barth, J T; Macciocchi, S N; Giordani, B; Rimel, R; Jane, J A; Boll, T J

    1983-11-01

    Seventy-one patients with minor head injury were given extensive neuropsychological evaluations 3 months after injury. A significant percentage of the patients demonstrated cognitive impairment, which seemed essentially unrelated to the length of unconsciousness or of posttraumatic amnesia. Impaired patients evidenced memory and visuospatial deficits. Cognitively impaired patients also had difficulty returning to work after injury. The psychological and cognitive impairment that follows minor head injury is discussed in relation to diagnostic and intervention issues.

  8. Medicolegal aspects of athletic head injury.

    PubMed

    Davis, P M; McKelvey, M K

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the legal aspects of head injuries resulting from a variety of athletic activities, focusing primarily on head and brain injuries resulting from the playing of football, boxing, horseback riding, winter sports (hockey and skiing), and soccer. Part 1 give a general overview of the occurrence of head injuries in athletics and the potential for litigation. Part 2 reviews the history of and increase in sports injury litigation, as well as resulting changes in the law. In Part 3, the current status of athletic head injury litigation, the parties involved, types of claims brought, and viable defenses are discussed. Finally, Part 4 reviews different ways to reduce athletic head injury litigation through better equipment design and adequate warning and instructions for users and coaches.

  9. Diffuse axonal injury in head injuries caused by a fall.

    PubMed

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1984-12-22

    82 cases of diffuse axonal injury were found at necropsy in 635 patients with fatal nonmissile head injuries. 13 of these injuries were attributable to falls, and in all the patients fell from a considerable height. Diffuse axonal injury was not found in those with head injuries caused by a simple fall--ie, a fall from not more than the person's own height--but there was a statistically significant association between the presence of diffuse axonal injury and falls from a considerable height. These results indicate that diffuse axonal injury rarely, if ever, occurs as a result of a fall unless the patient has fallen some distance.

  10. Chronic subdural haematoma after snowboard head injury.

    PubMed

    Uzura, M; Taguchi, Y; Matsuzawa, M; Watanabe, H; Chiba, S

    2003-02-01

    Two cases of chronic subdural haematoma following a snowboard head injury are reported. Although such cases are rare in sport, the risk in snowboarders is higher than expected. Evaluation of a snowboarder with a history of head injury, albeit mild, who complains of headaches should include computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to allow rapid identification of any intracranial pathology.

  11. [Prognostic factors in head injuries].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Céspedes, J M; Paúl Laprediza, N M; Pelegrín-Valero, C; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    Establishment of the prognosis after traumatic brain damage is an important question for doctors, patients and their families, as well as for health organizations and insurers. The precision of the prognosis varies markedly according to the final objective of the prediction (mortality, severity and type of residual defects, return to work), apart from consideration of the many factors which may affect the clinical course after this type of lesion. Our study considers the current state of this question. We consider the main methodological difficulties in carrying out such studies and review the main variables affecting the prognosis in head injuries, divided into three general groups (severity and type of lesion, characteristics of the individual and variables depending on the context). Finally, we make general comments on the effect of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in relation to the functional prognosis and level of social and employment integration attained by the injured persons.

  12. Return to work (RTW) after head injury.

    PubMed

    McMordie, W R; Barker, S L; Paolo, T M

    1990-01-01

    This study explored return to work (RTW) after head injury from survey data on 177 cases of head injury. Although 45% of the sample study did engage in some work-related activity only 19% were in competitive employment positions. Factors which were related to RTW after head injury were: age when injured, sex, length of loss of consciousness and Likert ratings of learning, motor and ambulation impairment. Many of those who did return to competitive employment did so in less demanding positions than held pre-injury. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are ventured.

  13. Experimental Glaucoma Causes Optic Nerve Head Neural Rim Tissue Compression: A Potentially Important Mechanism of Axon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Brad; Reynaud, Juan; Hardin, Christy; Wang, Lin; Sigal, Ian A.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that experimental glaucoma (EG) results in greater thinning of the optic nerve head (ONH) neural rim tissue than the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) tissue. Methods Longitudinal spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging of the ONH and peripapillary RNFL was performed every other week under manometric IOP control (10 mm Hg) in 51 nonhuman primates (NHP) during baseline and after induction of unilateral EG. The ONH parameter minimum rim area (MRA) was derived from 80 radial B-scans centered on the ONH; RNFL cross-sectional area (RNFLA) from a peripapillary circular B-scan with 12° diameter. Results In control eyes, MRA was 1.00 ± 0.19 mm2 at baseline and 1.00 ± 0.19 mm2 at the final session (P = 0.77), while RNFLA was 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.95 ± 0.10 mm2, respectively (P = 0.96). In EG eyes, MRA decreased from 1.00 ± 0.19 mm2 at baseline to 0.63 ± 0.21 mm2 at the final session (P < 0.0001), while RNFLA decreased from 0.95 ± 0.09 to 0.74 ± 0.19 mm2, respectively (P < 0.0001). Thus, MRA decreased by 36.4 ± 20.6% in EG eyes, significantly more than the decrease in RNFLA (21.7 ± 19.4%, P < 0.0001). Other significant changes in EG eyes included increased Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) nonplanarity (P < 0.05), decreased BMO aspect ratio (P < 0.0001), and decreased MRA angle (P < 0.001). Bruch's membrane opening area did not change from baseline in either control or EG eyes (P = 0.27, P = 0.15, respectively). Conclusions Optic nerve head neural rim tissue thinning exceeded peripapillary RNFL thinning in NHP EG. These results support the hypothesis that axon bundles are compressed transversely within the ONH rim along with glaucomatous deformation of connective tissues. PMID:27564522

  14. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma. PMID:3981170

  15. Head and neck injuries in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Proctor, M R; Cantu, R C

    2000-10-01

    Careful study of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of sports-related spine injuries brings to light many common features. The incidence increases as the sport becomes increasingly violent and aggressive. Poor conditioning and lack of knowledge of the proper techniques of the sport put the athlete at significant risk for head and spine injury. Improper helmet fit and the use of the head as an offensive weapon also are common features of injury. Although recognition of these features has resulted in a dramatic reduction in catastrophic neurological injury, the athlete remains at risk for less severe head and spine injury, and concussion remains at epidemic proportions at high school, university, and professional levels. It is hoped that careful recognition of the signs of concussion and knowledge of return-to-play criteria will prevent catastrophic complications from minor head injuries, although the long-term effects of multiple concussions on cognition may be problematic.

  16. Head injuries of Roman gladiators.

    PubMed

    Kanz, Fabian; Grossschmidt, Karl

    2006-07-13

    Gladiator remains from a recently unearthed cemetery in ancient Ephesus (Turkey) offer a unique opportunity for proving common theories involving the weaponry and techniques of gladiator fighting based on the evidence supplied by cranial bones. This mass grave is the first of its kind to undergo a thorough osteological and forensic examination. A minimum number of individuals (MNI) analyses revealed that at least 68 individuals. All individuals found turned out to have been males aged between 20 and 30 years, except for one female associated with a female slave gravestone, and one male aged 45-55 years, had been buried in this area of the cemetery. The male mean body height was 168 cm (S.D.=5 cm), which lies inside the normal range of height for Roman populations at those times. Eleven (16% of MNI) individuals exhibit a total of 16 well-healed antemortal cranial traumata. Five of the 11 individuals showed multiple trauma. Ten (15% of MNI) individuals exhibited a total of 10 perimortal cranial traumata. This is a surprisingly high frequency of deadly head injuries, taking into account that most of the gladiator types wore helmets. A possible explanation could be the frequently reported deathblow technique used by the hammer-carrying death god "Dis Pater". The gladiator weaponry is well known through historical sources. At least one injury per known type of offensive weapon could be identified, as well as evidence for the most popular, the gladiator trident, which was found to be represented by one perimortem and two antemortem injuries. Overall the reportedly very strict nature of combat rules for gladiator fights could be confirmed by the absence of multiple perimortal traumatized individuals, showing a lack of the excessive violence commonly observed on medieval battle ground victims. This graveyard gives the opportunity to confirm historical aspects and to check the reliability of forensic methods for identification of antemortem, perimortem, or postmortem bone

  17. [Mild head injuries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Thaler, Heinrich W; Jung-Schmidsfeld, Jochen; Pienaar, Simon

    2017-07-01

    In the elderly, particularly those over 80 years old, head injuries often occur as a result of falls. The majority suffer from mild head injury. After clarification of the initial symptoms in these patients, the main aim is to recognize or exclude intracranial injuries (bleeding). Demonstration of intracranial bleeding is possible with cranial computed tomography (CCT), which in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be quickly carried out in most cases; however, most patients with mild head injury show no intracranial bleeding. The performance of CCT and the often necessary hospital admission place a severe physical and psychological burden on the elderly. The plasma parameter S100B, combined with the clinical findings, is a valuable instrument for decision making in the management of elderly patients with mild head injury.

  18. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  19. [Haemostatic activation in head injury].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Polo, C M; Suarez-Pinilla, M A; Nebra-Puertas, A; Monton-Dito, J M; Millastre-Benito, A; Salvo-Callen, L

    2003-09-01

    A relationship between Central Nervous System and coagulation has been known since the work by Goodnight et al5. When an encephalic injury occurs tissue damage causes the release of thromboplastin-related products, mainly the Tissular Factor. This release produces an activation of the coagulation system specially through its extrinsic path. With this physiopathologic basis we attempt to improve the knowledge of this relation by performing a prospective study at the Intensive Care Unit of our Hospital. The study included 67 patients with cranioencephalic trauma alone, with an average Glasgow coma scale score of 10 and a control group consisting of 40 healthy subjects. Two peripheral vein blood extractions were performed, at admission and 24 hours later. Global coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen), hypercoagulability markers (prothrombin fragments F1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT)) and thrombolisis markers (D-dimer) were determined. Our results show that early after head trauma an increase in fragments F1+2, TAT and Ddimer occur. After the first 24 hours a significant decrease in hypercoagulability markers levels is detected. Modification of the global coagulation parameters was also detected. In conclusion, early after a cranioencephalic trauma a simultaneous state of hypercoagulability and thrombolysis occur which may have the purpose of improving the hemostatic balance.

  20. A systematic review of military head injuries.

    PubMed

    Carr, Debra J; Lewis, E; Horsfall, I

    2017-02-01

    This commissioned review discusses military head injuries caused by non-ballistic impacts, penetrating fragments and bullets (including parts of bullets) and behind helmet blunt trauma (BHBT). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method. The openly accessible literature was reviewed to investigate military head injuries and their severity. Fifty-four sources were identified that included pertinent openly accessible information relevant to this topic. Limited injury data exist for non-ballistic head injuries for UK forces, although some international data exist for parachutists. The majority of fatal head injuries are due to projectiles penetrating through the face rather than through the area of the head covered by the helmet. Penetrating head injuries are primarily caused by fragments, but helmets are more commonly perforated by high-energy rifle bullets than by fragments. No reports of a BHBT injury have been located in the literature. The description of body segment varies among articles and this makes comparisons among datasets difficult. There is a lack of detail regarding the precise position and severity of injuries, and long-term outcome for casualties. It is demonstrated that wearing military helmets reduces fatalities on and off the battlefield. The risk of BHBT injuries is widely referred to, but evidence of their occurrence is not provided by the authors that describe the risk of BHBT occurring. Further research into the causes and severity of head injuries would be useful for designers of military helmets and other associated personal protective equipment, particularly as advances in materials technology means lighter, thinner and more protective helmets are achievable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Delayed facial palsy after head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Puvanendran, K; Vitharana, M; Wong, P K

    1977-01-01

    Where facial palsy follows head injury after many days, the mechanism is not clear, and there has been no detailed study on this condition. In this prospective study, an attempt is made to estimate this complication of head injury, and to study its pathogenesis, natural history, prognosis, and sequelae which differ markedly from Bell's palsy. It has a much worse prognosis and so surgical decompression should be considered early in this condition. Images PMID:301556

  2. Cognitive outcomes of multiple mild head injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Bijur, P E; Haslum, M; Golding, J

    1996-06-01

    This study assessed cumulative effects of multiple mild head injuries on cognitive functioning in children. Subjects included 1586 children with one mild head injury, 278 with two, and 51 with three or more head injuries between birth and age 10 years and controls without head injuries matched on gender and total number of injuries. The number of head injuries and injuries not to the head was associated with decreasing performance on measures of intelligence (p < .01), reading (p < .01), and math (p = .02). There was no interaction between case-control status and number of injuries, indicating a similar relationship between cognitive outcomes and number of injuries in head-injured cases and controls. After adjustment for covariates, the relationship between number of injuries and cognitive outcomes became nonsignificant. This study suggests that cognitive deficits associated with multiple mild head injury are due to social and personal factors related to multiple injuries and not to specific damage to the head.

  3. Helmets, head injury and concussion in sport.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Shin, Samuel S; Kanter, Adam S

    2015-07-01

    Research on the mechanism of concussion in recent years has been focused on the mechanism of injury as well as strategies to minimize or reverse injury. Sports-related head injury research has led to the development of head protective gear that has evolved over the years. Headgears have been designed to protect athletes from skull fractures, subdural hemorrhages and concussions. Over the years, through experience of athletes and continued scientific research, improvements in helmet design have been made. Although these advances have decreased the number of catastrophic injuries throughout sports, the effects on concussions are promising, but largely unproven. In this review, we will discuss development of helmets and studies analyzing their level of protection for both concussion and head injury. This will help us understand what future developments are still needed to minimize the risk of concussion among athletes in various forms of sports.

  4. Cortical cholinergic dysfunction after human head injury.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, I; Perry, E K; Court, J A; Graham, D I; Dewar, D

    1998-05-01

    Loss of cholinergic neurotransmission is implicated in memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction after head injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate presynaptic markers, particularly in relation to cholinergic neurotransmission in human postmortem brain from patients who died following a head injury and age-matched controls. Choline acetyltransferase activity and high-affinity nicotinic receptor binding sites were assayed in the inferior temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and superior parietal cortex of 16 head-injured patients and 8 controls. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was determined in the left cingulate gyrus from the same patient groups. In the head-injured group, choline acetyltransferase activity was consistently reduced in each cortical region compared to control subjects. The presence of a subdural haematoma and a prolonged survival period after head injury tended to be associated with lower choline acetyltransferase activity. In contrast to the marked reduction in choline acetyltransferase activity, nicotine receptor binding was unchanged in head-injured compared to control patients. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the cingulate gyrus was reduced by approximately 30% (p < 0.05) in the head-injured group compared to controls. Correlation of choline acetyltransferase activity with synaptophysin immunoreactivity indicated there is a deficit of cholinergic presynaptic terminals in postmortem human brain following head injury.

  5. On Impact: Students with Head Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Angela I.; Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Students with head injuries may not be as "low incidence" as previously believed. Recent efforts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (2010), the National Football League, and other agencies are attempting to raise awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among students. Along with awareness, there has been an increased publicity effort via…

  6. [Head injuries in infants and children].

    PubMed

    Laparra, Violaine; Duigou, Anne-Laure; Seizeur, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Head injuries in children are frequent reasons for visits to emergency departments. Depending on age, the causes are different: falls for younger infants and accidents for older children. Those treating children, especially in cases of serious injury, must be aware of the specificities of paediatric anatomy and physiology. As with adults, the initial assessment and surveillance help to prevent the condition from worsening.

  7. On Impact: Students with Head Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Angela I.; Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Students with head injuries may not be as "low incidence" as previously believed. Recent efforts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (2010), the National Football League, and other agencies are attempting to raise awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among students. Along with awareness, there has been an increased publicity effort via…

  8. Pediatricians Offer Heads-Up for Preventing Soccer Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163060.html Pediatricians Offer Heads-Up for Preventing Soccer Injuries Sprains and strains ... benefit from wearing heel cups or arch supports. Head injuries: Concussions are a common soccer-related injury. ...

  9. Head-first impact with head protrusion causes noncontiguous injuries of the cadaveric cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2012-09-01

    To simulate horizontally aligned head-first impacts with initial head protrusion using a human cadaveric neck model and to determine biomechanical responses, injuries, and injury severity. Head-first impacts with initial head protrusion were simulated at 2.4 m/s using a human cadaver neck model (n = 10) mounted horizontally to a torso-equivalent mass on a sled and carrying a surrogate head. Macroscopic neck injuries were determined, and ligamentous injuries were quantified using fluoroscopy and visual inspection after the impacts. Representative time-history responses for injured specimens were determined during impact using load cell data and analyses of high-speed video. Biomechanics research laboratory. Cervical spines of 10 human cadavers. Injury severity at the middle and lower cervical spine was statistically compared using a 2-sample t test (P < 0.05). Neck buckling consisted of hyperflexion at C6/7 and C7/T1 and hyperextension at superior spinal levels. Noncontiguous neck injuries included forward dislocation at C7/T1, spinous process fracture and compression-extension injuries at the middle cervical spine, and atlas and odontoid fractures. Ligamentous injury severity at C7/T1 was significantly greater than at the middle cervical spine. Distinct injury mechanisms were observed throughout the neck, consisting of extension-compression and posterior shear at the upper and middle cervical spine and flexion-compression and anterior shear at C6/7 and C7/T1. Our experimental results highlight the importance of clinical awareness of potential noncontiguous cervical spine injuries due to head-first sports impacts.

  10. Car Accident Reconstruction and Head Injury Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, A.; Grover, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Hassan, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of brain damage remains an elusive issue and controlled tests leading to brain damage cannot be carried out on volunteers. This study reconstructs real-world car accidents to estimate the kinematics of the head impact. This data is to be used to estimate the head injury measures through computer simulations and then correlate reported skull as well as brain damage to impact measures; whence validating the head FE model (Willinger, IJCrash 8:605-617, 2003). In this study, two crash cases were reconstructed. Injury correlation was successful in one of these cases in that the injuries to the brain of one of the car drivers could be correlated in terms of type, location and severity when compared with the tolerance limits of relevant injury parameters (Willinger, IJCrash 8:605-617, 2003).

  11. Return to driving after head injury.

    PubMed

    Hawley, C A

    2001-06-01

    To determine whether patients who return to driving after head injury can be considered safe to do so and to compare the patient characteristics of those who return to driving with those who do not. In a multicentre qualitative study 10 rehabilitation units collectively registered 563 adults with traumatic brain injury during a 2.5 year period. Recruitment to the study varied from immediately after hospital admission to several years after injury. Patients and their families were interviewed around 3 to 6 months after recruitment. A total of 383 (67.5%) subjects were interviewed within 1 year of injury, of whom 270 (47.6%) were interviewed within 6 months of injury. Main outcome measures were the presence or absence of driving related problems reported by drivers and ex-drivers, and scores on driving related items of the functional independence/functional assessment measure (FIM+FAM). Of the 563 patients 381 were drivers before the injury and 139 had returned to driving at interview. Many current drivers reported problems with behaviour (anger, aggression, irritability; 67 (48.2%)), memory ( 89 (64%)), concentration and attention (39 (28.1%)), and vision (39 (28.1%)). Drivers reported most driving related problems as often as ex-drivers, main exceptions were epilepsy and community mobility. Current drivers scored significantly higher on the FIM+FAM (were more independent), than ex-drivers. The driving group had sustained less severe head injuries than ex-drivers; nevertheless, 78 (56.2%) current drivers had received a severe head injury. Few (61 (16%)) previous drivers reported receiving formal advice about driving after injury. The existence of problems which could significantly affect driving does not prevent patients returning to driving after traumatic brain injury. Patients should be assessed for both mental and physical status before returning to driving after a head injury, and systems put in place to enable clear and consistent advice to be given to

  12. Neck injury response to direct head impact.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have observed flexion of the upper or upper/middle cervical spine and extension at inferior spinal levels due to direct head impacts. These studies hypothesized that hyperflexion may contribute to injury of the upper or middle cervical spine during real-life head impact. Our objectives were to determine the cervical spine injury response to direct head impact, document injuries, and compare our results with previously reported in vivo data. Our model consisted of a human cadaver neck (n=6) mounted to the torso of a rear impact dummy and carrying a surrogate head. Rearward force was applied to the model's forehead using a cable and pulley system and free-falling mass of 3.6kg followed by 16.7kg. High-speed digital cameras tracked head, vertebral, and pelvic motions. Average peak spinal rotations observed during impact were statistically compared (P<0.05) to physiological ranges obtained from intact flexibility tests. Peak head impact force was 249 and 504N for the 3.6 and 16.7kg free-falling masses, respectively. Occipital condyle loads reached 205.3N posterior shear, 331.4N compression, and 7.4Nm extension moment. We observed significant increases in intervertebral extension peaks above physiologic at C6/7 (26.3° vs. 5.7°) and C7/T1 (29.7° vs. 4.6°) and macroscopic ligamentous and osseous injuries at C6 through T1 due to the 504N impacts. Our results indicate that a rearward head shear force causes complex neck loads of posterior shear, compression, and extension moment sufficient to injure the lower cervical spine. Real-life neck injuries due to motor vehicle crashes, sports impacts, or falls are likely due to combined loads transferred to the neck by direct head impact and torso inertial loads.

  13. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

    PubMed

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  14. Attentional Imbalances Following Head Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-30

    injury. Fine motor coordination was slow b4laterally, more so for the left hand than for the right . The most striking aspect of the neuropsychological...the right temporal lobe atrophy on CT scan, although this atrophy may haie preceded the injury. Left hand finger tapping was mildly impaired in...have predominant right hemisphere dysfun tion. In addition to othei neuropsychological indications of a primary right hemisphere deficit, both patients

  15. Atlas injury mechanisms during head-first impact.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2012-05-20

    An in vitro biomechanical study. To investigate atlas injury mechanisms due to horizontally aligned head-first impacts of a cadaveric neck model and to document atlas fracture patterns and associated injuries. Experimental atlas injuries have been created by applying compression or radial forces to isolated C1 vertebrae, dropping weight or applying sagittal moments to the upper cervical spine segments, or vertical drop testing of head-neck specimens or whole cadavers. Atlas injuries that commonly occur due to horizontally aligned head-first impacts have not been previously investigated. Horizontally aligned head-first impacts into a padded barrier were simulated at 4.1 m/s, using a human cadaver neck model mounted horizontally to a torso-equivalent mass on a sled and carrying a surrogate head. Atlantal radial force was computed using head and neck load cell data. Postimpact dissection documented atlas and associated injuries. Average atlantal radial force peaks and their occurrence times were statistically compared (P < 0.05) among the first local and global peaks using paired t tests. The first average local peak in radial atlantal force was significantly smaller (1240 vs. 2747 N) and occurred significantly earlier (24 ms vs. 46 ms) than the global force peak. Atlas injuries consisted of either 3- or 4-part burst fractures or incomplete lateral mass fracture unilaterally. Associated injuries included bony avulsion of the transverse ligament unilaterally and fractures of the occipital condyles, superior facets of the axis, or odontoid. The results indicated that the varied atlas fracture patterns were due primarily to radial forces causing outward lateral expansion of its lateral masses. Anterior and posterior arch fracture locations are dependent, in part, upon the cross-sectional arch dimensions. Transverse ligament rupture or bony avulsion is likely associated with real-life atlantal burst fractures.

  16. Analysis of finite element models for head injury investigation: reconstruction of four real-world impacts.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Fildes, Brian; Zhang, Liying; Yang, King; Sparke, Laurie

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both excessive linear and rotational accelerations are the cause of head injuries. Although the head injury criterion has been beneficial as an indicator of head injury risk, it only considers linear acceleration, so there is a need to consider both types of motion in future safety standards. Advanced models of the head/brain complex have recently been developed to gain a better understanding of head injury biomechanics. While these models have been verified against laboratory experimental data, there is a lack of suitable real-world data available for validation. Hence, using two computer models of the head/brain, the objective of the current study was to reconstruct four real-world crashes with known head injury outcomes in a full-vehicle crash laboratory, simulate head/brain responses using kinematics obtained during these reconstructions, and to compare the results predicted by the models against the actual injuries sustained by the occupant. Cases where the occupant sustained no head injuries (AIS 0) and head injuries of severity AIS 4, AIS 5, and multiple head injuries were selected. Data collected from a 9-accelerometer skull were input into the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM) and the NHTSA Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon). The results demonstrated that both models were able to predict varying injury severities consistent with the difference in AIS injury levels in the real-world cases. The WSUHIM predicted a slightly higher injury threshold than the SIMon, probably due to the finer mesh and different software used for the simulations, and could also determine regions of the brain which had been injured. With further validation, finite element models can be used to establish an injury criterion for each type of brain injury in the future.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads.

    PubMed

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques

    2017-01-13

    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  18. Head injuries: a study evaluating the impact of the NICE head injury guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Z; Smith, M; Littlewood, S; Bouamra, O; Hughes, D; Biggin, C; Amos, K; Mendelow, A; Lecky, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: The NICE head injury guidelines recommend a different approach in the management of head injury patients. It suggests that CT head scan should replace skull x ray (SXR) and observation/admission as the first investigation. We wished to determine the impact of NICE on SXR, CT scan, and admission on all patients with head injury presenting to the ED setting and estimate the cost effectiveness of these guidelines, which has not been quantified to date. Design: Study of head injury patients presenting to two EDs before and after implementation of NICE guidelines Methods: The rate of SXR, CT scan, and admission were determined six months before and one month after NICE implementation in both centres. The before study also looked at predicted rates had NICE been applied. This enabled predicted and actual cost effectiveness to be determined. Result: 1130 patients with head injury were studied in four 1 month periods (two in each centre). At the teaching hospital, the CT head scan rate more than doubled (3% to 7%), the SXR declined (37% to 4%), while the admission rate more than halved (9% to 4%). This represented a saving of £3381 per 100 head injury patients: greater than predicted with no adverse events. At the District General Hospital, the CT head scan rate more than quadrupled (1.4% to 9%), the SXR dropped (19 to 0.57%), while the admission rate declined (7% to 5%). This represented a saving of £290 per 100 head injury patients: less than predicted. Conclusion: The implementation of the NICE guidelines led to a two to fivefold increase in the CT head scan rate depending on the cases and baseline departmental practice. However, the reduction in SXR and admission appears to more than offset these costs without compromising patient outcomes. PMID:16299190

  19. Emergency care of children and adults with head injury.

    PubMed

    Bethel, James

    Head injury is common and accounts for a significant proportion of patient attendances at emergency departments and minor injury units. While most injuries will not be serious in nature, some will be severe. Therefore assessment, investigation and early management of head injury are essential to reduce the potential risk of disability or even death. This article focuses on emergency care of children and adults with head injuries. Advice about the signs and symptoms of severe head injury, the importance of computed tomography and after care following head injury are outlined.

  20. Head injury from a bungee run.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj; Convery, Fiona; Watt, Michael; Fulton, Ailsa; McKinstry, Steven; Flannery, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    An adaptation of bungee jumping, 'bungee running', involves participants attempting to run as far as they can whilst connected to an elastic rope which is anchored to a fixed point. Usually considered a safe recreational activity, we report a potentially life-threatening head injury following a bungee running accident.

  1. Neuropsychological Assessment of Head Injury in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fletcher, Jack M.

    1987-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment of cognitive and behavioral sequelae of pediatric closed head injury involves identification of manifest disabilities and relationships between these disabilities and core skills. Assessment of moderator variables is crucial for development of appropriate intervention strategies. Advocacy may be necessary to establish…

  2. Short-term sequelae of minor head injury (6 years experience of minor head injury clinic).

    PubMed

    Haboubi, N H; Long, J; Koshy, M; Ward, A B

    2001-09-20

    It is known that post-concussive symptoms may persist after mild head injury. However, the majority of those patients are denied follow-up or support. A minor head injury clinic was thus established in North Staffordshire Hospital in 1993 to address these problems. Patients 16-65 years old attending hospital with minor head injury were invited to attend the clinic two weeks after presentation. A specialized brain injury nurse and/or assistant clinical psychologist assessed them. Patients with persistent symptoms were invited to a second assessment four weeks later. One thousand two hundred and fifty-five patients were invited for first assessment, the most common cause of head injury was assault (454) followed by road traffic accident (334). Six hundred and sixteen patients did not attend the first assessment; most of non-attendees were those who had been assaulted (281). Six hundred and thirty-nine patients attended, (472) were male, their mean age was 33. Forty-three per cent of them had history of recent alcohol intake. One third had had a previous head injury. Although 391 attendees were in regular employment, 219 patients were unable to return to work 2 weeks after discharge (56%), and 49 people were still off sick 6 weeks after the injury. The most common complaints at both assessments were fatigue, headache, dizziness, irritability, sleep disturbances, poor concentration and poor memory in that order. This study shows a significant number of patients with minor head injury still complaining of post concussive symptoms, which may contribute to a delay in return to work. The high incidence of non-attendance among the assaulted victims may indicate that this group needs to be more effectively targeted. Further study to look at the longer-term consequences of minor head injury is required in view of these findings.

  3. Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L

    1996-07-01

    The first year of the mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Australia saw increased helmet wearing from 31% to 75% of cyclists in Victoria and from 31% of children and 26% of adults in New South Wales (NSW) to 76% and 85%. However, the two major surveys using matched before and after samples in Melbourne (Finch et al. 1993; Report No. 45, Monash Univ. Accident Research Centre) and throughout NSW (Smith and Milthorpe 1993; Roads and Traffic Authority) observed reductions in numbers of child cyclists 15 and 2.2 times greater than the increase in numbers of children wearing helmets. This suggests the greatest effect of the helmet law was not to encourage cyclists to wear helmets, but to discourage cycling. In contrast, despite increases to at least 75% helmet wearing, the proportion of head injuries in cyclists admitted or treated at hospital declined by an average of only 13%. The percentage of cyclists with head injuries after collisions with motor vehicles in Victoria declined by more, but the proportion of head injured pedestrians also declined; the two followed a very similar trend. These trends may have been caused by major road safety initiatives introduced at the same time as the helmet law and directed at both speeding and drink-driving. The initiatives seem to have been remarkably effective in reducing road trauma for all road users, perhaps affecting the proportions of victims suffering head injuries as well as total injuries. The benefits of cycling, even without a helmet, have been estimated to outweigh the hazards by a factor of 20 to 1 (Hillman 1993. Cycle helmets-the case for and against. Policy Studies Institute, London). Consequently, a helmet law, whose most notable effect was to reduce cycling, may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. Despite the risk of dying from head injury per hour being similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, cyclists alone have been required to wear head protection. Helmets for motor

  4. Hippocampal head atrophy after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Mar; Serra-Grabulosa, Josep M; Junqué, Carme; Ramírez, Blanca; Mataró, Maria; Poca, Antonia; Bargalló, Nuria; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes hippocampal damage. The hippocampus can be macroscopically divided into the head, body and tail, which differ in terms of their sensitivity to excitability and also in terms of their cortical connections. We investigated whether damage also varies according to the hippocampal area involved, and studied the relationship of hippocampal reductions with memory performance. Twenty TBI patients and matched controls were examined. MRI measurements were performed separately for the hippocampal head, body and tail. Memory outcome was measured by Rey's auditory verbal learning test, Rey's complex figure test and a modified version of Warrington's facial recognition memory test. Group comparison showed that patients had bilateral hippocampal atrophy, mainly involving the hippocampal head. Moreover, TBI subjects showed verbal memory deficits which presented slight correlations with left hippocampal head atrophy.

  5. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Sassine, Tannus Jorge; Lima, Guilherme de Freitas; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Padua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Nadai, Anderson de

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.

  6. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the incidence of catastrophic head injuries within high school and college sports. Data from a national surveillance system indicated that a football-related fatality occurred every year except one from 1945-99, mainly related to head injuries. From 1984-99, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Deaths and…

  7. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the incidence of catastrophic head injuries within high school and college sports. Data from a national surveillance system indicated that a football-related fatality occurred every year except one from 1945-99, mainly related to head injuries. From 1984-99, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Deaths and…

  8. Rehabilitation and outcome after severe head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Jupp, R; Marlow, N; Seddon, N; Rosenbloom, L

    1992-01-01

    After severe head injury, many children continue to experience major cognitive and behavioural problems and consequent educational difficulties, even after good physical recovery. Forty three children referred to the regional multidisciplinary head injury rehabilitation team are described. The clinical outcome at a median interval of 13 months after injury showed that 18 (42%) had persistent neurological impairment and 15 (35%) had an identified need for special educational support. Thirty seven children were further assessed for psychiatric morbidity, cognitive impairment, and classroom performance. Rutter behavioural questionnaires were sent to parents and teachers of head injured index cases and classmate controls matched for age and sex. Index parents scored their children significantly worse in both 'health' and 'habits' and more cases than controls had scores suggesting a psychiatric disorder. Teachers scored index cases significantly worse for five of the traits questioned, but discriminated cases from controls less decisively than parents. Index cases were significantly disadvantaged on teachers' assessments of classroom skills and performance. A need for improved support and training of staff who teach head injured children was identified. PMID:1543384

  9. Rehabilitation and outcome after severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Scott-Jupp, R; Marlow, N; Seddon, N; Rosenbloom, L

    1992-02-01

    After severe head injury, many children continue to experience major cognitive and behavioural problems and consequent educational difficulties, even after good physical recovery. Forty three children referred to the regional multidisciplinary head injury rehabilitation team are described. The clinical outcome at a median interval of 13 months after injury showed that 18 (42%) had persistent neurological impairment and 15 (35%) had an identified need for special educational support. Thirty seven children were further assessed for psychiatric morbidity, cognitive impairment, and classroom performance. Rutter behavioural questionnaires were sent to parents and teachers of head injured index cases and classmate controls matched for age and sex. Index parents scored their children significantly worse in both 'health' and 'habits' and more cases than controls had scores suggesting a psychiatric disorder. Teachers scored index cases significantly worse for five of the traits questioned, but discriminated cases from controls less decisively than parents. Index cases were significantly disadvantaged on teachers' assessments of classroom skills and performance. A need for improved support and training of staff who teach head injured children was identified.

  10. Regressive language in severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, I V; Skinhoj, E

    1976-09-01

    In a follow-up study of 50 patients with severe head injuries three patients had echolalia. One patient with initially global aphasia had echolalia for some weeks when he started talking. Another patient with severe diffuse brain damage, dementia, and emotional regression had echolalia. The dysfunction was considered a detour performance. In the third patient echolalia and palilalia were details in a total pattern of regression lasting for months. The patient, who had extensive frontal atrophy secondary to a very severe head trauma, presented an extreme state of regression returning to a foetal-body pattern and behaving like a baby.

  11. Neuropsychological and psychosocial consequences of minor head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Dikmen, S; McLean, A; Temkin, N

    1986-01-01

    Twenty subjects with minor head injury were compared to an uninjured group at 1 and 12 months after injury on a battery of neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. The results indicate that single minor head injury in persons with no prior compromising condition is associated with mild but probably clinically non-significant difficulties at 1 month after injury. Disruptions of everyday activities, however, are extensive with other system injuries significantly contributing to these problems. Recent reports in the literature may represent overestimation of head injury related losses due to lack of control for the effects of pre-injury characteristics and other system injuries. PMID:3794728

  12. Rehabilitation interventions after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2005-12-01

    This review examines current management and rehabilitation strategies for mild traumatic brain injury, with emphasis on the need to address multiple potential causative factors in order to enhance outcomes and to conduct more controlled efficacy studies. Whilst most individuals who sustain mild traumatic brain injury make a good recovery, a proportion experience significant ongoing disability. In some cases this is due to diffuse axonal injury and cognitive impairment, but in others symptoms are exacerbated by factors such as pain, stress, personality issues or litigation, or in children, previous head injury, behavioural or learning difficulties. Provision of information early after injury results in reduced symptom reporting in adults and children. There is also a need, however, to address these other factors in treatment. Psychological therapy using a cognitive behavioural approach may be helpful, but controlled evaluations of such interventions have been lacking. Recent uncontrolled studies have examined the impact of computer-mediated interventions to remediate visual and verbal processing and oculomotor problems and the impact of quantitative electroencephalography. More rigorous efficacy studies of these approaches are needed. Guidelines for management of sports-related concussion and timing of return to play also require a more solid scientific basis. The evidence base for management of mild traumatic brain injury is still very limited. There is a need to conduct more carefully controlled prospective studies and examine the influence of factors not directly related to the brain injury as a basis for formulating more uniform management guidelines.

  13. Delusional reduplication following closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M J; Franzen, M D

    1992-01-01

    Somatic delusions following brain injury are not uncommon, and have been well documented in the literature. This study documents a case of somatic delusion which was seen in a patient following a head injury secondary to a motorcycle accident. Although perhaps not typical it serves to illustrate an interesting example of a somatic delusion following head trauma. On recovery from coma this patient reported the existence of a 'third arm' adjacent to the limb that had received the greatest impact in the accident. The patient was unreceptive to any counter-persuasions and in fact remained largely unconcerned about this addition to his anatomy. A thorough neuropsychological evaluation was carried out in an attempt to seek an explanation for this phenomenon. The results suggest that the phenomenon has at least a partly psychiatric aetiology rather than a purely neurological foundation.

  14. Role of age and injury mechanism in cervical spine injury tolerance under head contact loading.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Voo, Liming; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2017-07-24

    To determine the influence of age on cervical spine tolerance to injury from head contact loading using survival analysis. This study analyzed data from previously conducted experiments using Post Mortem Human Subject specimens (PMHS). Group A tests used the upright intact head-cervical column experimental model. The inferior end of the specimen was fixed, head was balanced by a mechanical system, and natural lordosis was removed. Specimens were placed on a testing device via a load cell. The piston applied loading at the vertex region. Spinal injuries were identified using medical images. Group B tests used the inverted head-cervical column experimental model. In one study, head-T1 specimens were fixed distally, and C7-T1 joints were oriented anteriorly, preserving the lordosis. Torso mass of 16 kg was added to the specimen. In another inverted head-cervical column study, occiput-T2 columns were obtained, an artificial head was attached, T1-T2 was fixed, C4-C5 disc was maintained horizontal in the lordosis posture, and C7-T1 was unconstrained. The specimens were attached to the drop-test carriage carrying a torso mass of 15 kg. A load cell at the inferior end measured neck loads in both studies. Axial neck force and age were used as the primary response variable and covariate to derive injury probability curves using survival analysis. Group A tests showed that age is a significant (p<0.05) and negative covariate, i.e., increasing age resulted in decreasing force for the same risk. Injuries were mainly vertebral body fractures and concentrated at one level, mid-to-lower cervical spine, and they were attributed to compression-related mechanisms. However, age was not a significant covariate for the combined data from group B tests. Both group B tests produced many soft tissue injuries, at all levels, from C1 to T1. The injury mechanism was attributed to mainly extension. Multiple and noncontiguous injuries occurred. Injury probability curves, ± 95% confidence

  15. Does Promoting Bicycle-Helmet Wearing Reduce Childhood Head Injuries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Celine; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of a community-based bicycle-helmet program aimed at children aged 5-12 years (about 140,000). A quasi-experimental design, including a control group, was used. Sex- and age-group-based changes in the risk of bicycle-related head injury leading to hospitalisation were measured, using rate…

  16. Does Promoting Bicycle-Helmet Wearing Reduce Childhood Head Injuries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Celine; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of a community-based bicycle-helmet program aimed at children aged 5-12 years (about 140,000). A quasi-experimental design, including a control group, was used. Sex- and age-group-based changes in the risk of bicycle-related head injury leading to hospitalisation were measured, using rate…

  17. Ventricular enlargement after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; Meyers, C A; Grossman, R G; Sarwar, M

    1981-10-01

    To study the relationship between enlargement of the cerebral ventricles and neuropsychological deficit after closed head injury (CHI), we measured the area of the lateral ventricles on computed tomographic scans obtained at least 30 days after severe CHI in 32 young adults and a control group of similar age. Enlargement of the lateral ventricles was demonstrated in 72% of the head-injured subjects, as defined by the ventricle-brain percent ratio (VBR). Ventricular dilation was related to the duration of coma after high-speed motor vehicle accidents and to intellectual and memory defects. The VBR may be a useful index of the severity of brain damage in certain categories of head-injured patients.

  18. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Rao, S L

    1999-03-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient's psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post concussion syndrome underwent the retraining program for one month. The patients had deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention parallel processing, serial processing, visual scanning, verbal learning and memory and working memory. After the retraining programme the deficits of attention improved in the four patients. Serial processing improved in two patients. Parallel processing and neuropsychological deficits did not improve in any patient. The symptom intensity reduced markedly and behavioural functioning improved in three of the four patients. The results supported an association between improving attention and reduction of symptom intensity. Attention remediation shows promise as a cost effective, time efficient and simple technique to improve the psychological and psychosocial functioning of the head injured patient.

  19. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  20. Moderate head injury: completing the clinical spectrum of brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Rimel, R W; Giordani, B; Barth, J T; Jane, J A

    1982-09-01

    We have divided head injury into three categories based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (severe, 3-8; moderate, 9-12; and minor, 13-15). In a previous report, we described significant disability after minor head injury. The present report describes 199 patients with moderate head injury, 159 of whom underwent follow-up examinations at 3 months. In contrast to patients with minor head injury, half as many were students (17%) and twice as many were intoxicated (53%). Seventy-five patients were studied with computed tomographic (CT) scanning; 30% of the scans were negative and 31% showed a space-occupying mass. As reported by Gennarelli et al. in patients with severe head injuries, those with moderate head injury and subdural hematoma had a very poor outcome: 65% died or were severely disabled and none made a good recovery as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. At 3 months, 38% of the moderate head injury patients had made a good recovery compared with 75% of the minor head injury patients. Within the good recovery category, however, there was much disability (headache, 93%; memory difficulties, 90%; difficulties with activities of daily living, 87%), and only 7% of the patients were asymptomatic. The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery in an unselected subset (n = 32) showed significant deficits on all test measures. Sixty-six per cent of the patients previously employed had not returned to work, compared to 33% of the minor head injury patients. The major predictors of unemployment after minor head injury were premorbid characteristics (age, education, and socio-economic status). In contrast, all predictors in moderate head injury were measures of the severity of injury (length of coma, CT diagnosis, GCS on discharge). We conclude that: (a) moderate head injury, not described previously in the literature, results in mortality and substantial morbidity intermediate between those of severe and minor head injury; (b) unlike minor head injury, the principal

  1. Long term results after multiple injuries including severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, U; Pape, H C; Seekamp, A; Gobiet, W; Zech, S; Winny, M; Molitoris, U; Regel, G

    1999-12-01

    To describe the long term results in patients with multiple injuries including severe head injury. Retrospective and prospective clinical study. Level I trauma centre, Germany. Patients aged 16-60 years who had been injured more than 2 years before, whose Injury Severity Score was over 20 and whose cranial Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) was over 3. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), functional, neuropsychological, vocational and social outcomes. 58 patients, median age 24 (range 16-53, interquartile range (IQR) 21-32) years were investigated 5 (3-9; IQR 4-7) years after their injury. Median ISS was 34 (21-57; IQR 26-41) and GCS 6 (3-8; IQR 4-7). Duration of coma was 10 (2-51; IQR 7-22) days and neurological rehabilitation lasted 169 (10-830; IQR 80-300) days. Movements of the elbow and ankle was most impaired by injury. All psychometric tests showed deficits, particularly in speed of processing, concentration, recent memory, and learning performance. The social environment had been changed in half and vocational rehabilitation was dependent on age. 24 (42%) returned to their former profession, 18 (31%) were retrained to another profession, 16 (27%) were unemployed or retired on a pension. 31 (53%) made a good recovery with moderate disability, 19 (33%) had severe disability, and 8 (14%) remained in a persistent vegetative state assessed by the GOS. Early and concentrated rehabilitation facilitates functional, social, and neuropsychological reintegration.

  2. Selecting children for head CT following head injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Nickerson, E; Trefan, L; Houston, R; Hyde, P; Pearson, G; Edwards, R; Parslow, RC; Maconochie, I

    2016-01-01

    Objective Indicators for head CT scan defined by the 2007 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines were analysed to identify CT uptake, influential variables and yield. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hospital inpatient units: England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Channel Islands. Patients Children (<15 years) admitted to hospital for more than 4 h following a head injury (September 2009 to February 2010). Interventions CT scan. Main outcome measures Number of children who had CT, extent to which NICE guidelines were followed and diagnostic yield. Results Data on 5700 children were returned by 90% of eligible hospitals, 84% of whom were admitted to a general hospital. CT scans were performed on 30.4% of children (1734), with a higher diagnostic yield in infants (56.5% (144/255)) than children aged 1 to 14 years (26.5% (391/1476)). Overall, only 40.4% (984 of 2437 children) fulfilling at least one of the four NICE criteria for CT actually underwent one. These children were much less likely to receive CT if admitted to a general hospital than to a specialist centre (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.59)); there was considerable variation between healthcare regions. When indicated, children >3 years were much more likely to have CT than those <3 years (OR 2.35 (95% CI 2.08 to 2.65)). Conclusion Compliance with guidelines and diagnostic yield was variable across age groups, the type of hospital and region where children were admitted. With this pattern of clinical practice the risks of both missing intracranial injury and overuse of CT are considerable. PMID:27449674

  3. Head injury management guidelines for general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2011-07-01

    A complete examination of a head injured patient in the hospital requires a number of instruments. These include a stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope, cotton wool, safety pin, tuning fork, reflex hammer and a small key to test the plantar response. Few of these are required at the accident scene. This is because, in the hospital, the aim is optimal definitive treatment. At the accident scene, the aim is prevention of secondary injury, rapid recording of the most important findings and safe efficient transport to the hospital. This short paper reviews how the local doctor should undertake a neurosurgical assessment of traumatic brain injury patients. Moreover, the primary management at accident scenes is described and the rationale behind the approach is outlined.

  4. [Repeated head injury during judo practice].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries, if repeated, can cause permanent brain damage, or even death. I examined five published documents(three judicial decisions, one official injury report, and one book)to analyze incidents in which high school students who, while practicing judo, experienced acute subdural hematoma(ASDH)with grave outcomes, despite the fact that they had been examined by neurosurgeons. The five students, first-grade boy and girl of junior high school and two first-grade boys and one second-grade girl of senior high school, were hit on the head during extracurricular judo practice and were taken to the neurosurgery department of different hospitals. They were all novices or unskilled players. The initial diagnoses were ASDH in three cases, concussion in one, and headache in one. Although the surgeons, except in one case, prohibited the students from returning to play, the juveniles resumed judo practice soon. Some of them complained of continued headaches, but they kept practicing. Between 17 and 82 days after the first injury, they received the fateful hits to their heads, and they were brought to the emergency rooms. MRI and CT revealed ASDH in all;two of them died, and the other three remain in persistent vegetative state. Neurosurgeons should take the initiative to prevent severe brain injury of young athletes through collaborations with the athletes themselves, fellow athletes, family members, coaches, teachers, athletic directors, and other physicians. They should pay close attention to headaches and other signs and symptoms of concussion and prohibit the athletes from returning to play until they are confirmed to be symptom free for recommended periods, insisting that safety comes first.

  5. A historical analysis of severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Boto, Gregorio R; Gómez, Pedro A; De la Cruz, Javier; Lobato, Ramiro D

    2009-07-01

    Severe head injury (SHI) is a significant health, social and economic concern rendering a worldwide health problem. This retrospective study was designed to describe the features and outcomes of patients with SHI treated in a single neurosurgical unit (Hospital "12 de Octubre", Madrid, Spain) over a period approaching 13 years. The subjects enrolled were 895 patients (15 years or older) with non-missile SHI treated over the period January 1987 to August 1999, in whom a computerised tomography scan had been performed within the first 6 h of injury. We considered epidemiological, clinical, analytical, radiological and therapeutic data along with final patient outcomes. The overall mortality rate was 46.8% (419 patients). Of these 419 deaths, 177 (42.2%) occurred within the first 48 h of injury rendering an early death rate of 19.8% (177/895 patients). Despite overall mortality showing a clear decreasing trend by the end of the 1990s, proportions of early deaths (within the first 48 h of injury) dramatically rose in the last 3 years of the study. As a whole, an unfavourable outcome was recorded in 62.6% (560 patients). Despite continued efforts to improve the outcome of patients with SHI, the results of our study are pessimistic in that high mortality and unfavourable outcome rates were recorded in this large series of patients. Although overall mortality has diminished over the years, the number of early deaths has increased.

  6. Thalamic nuclei after human blunt head injury.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, William L; MacKinnon, Mary Anne; Smith, Douglas H; McIntosh, Tracy K; Graham, David I

    2006-05-01

    Paraffin-embedded blocks from the thalamus of 9 control patients, 9 moderately disabled, 12 severely disabled, and 10 vegetative head-injured patients assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and identified from the Department of Neuropathology archive. Neurons, astrocytes, macrophages, and activated microglia were differentiated by Luxol fast blue/cresyl violet, GFAP, CD68, and CR3/43 staining and stereological techniques used to estimate cell number in a 28-microm-thick coronal section. Counts were made in subnuclei of the mediodorsal, lateral posterior, and ventral posterior nuclei, the intralaminar nuclei, and the related internal lamina. Neuronal loss occurred from mediodorsal parvocellularis, rostral center medial, central lateral and paracentral nuclei in moderately disabled patients; and from mediodorsal magnocellularis, caudal center medial, rhomboid, and parafascicular nuclei in severely disabled patients; and all of the above and the centre median nucleus in vegetative patients. Neuronal loss occurred primarily from cognitive and executive function nuclei, a lesser loss from somatosensory nuclei and the least loss from limbic motor nuclei. There was an increase in the number of reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, and macrophages with increasing severity of injury. The study provides novel quantitative evidence for differential neuronal loss, with survival after human head injury, from thalamic nuclei associated with different aspects of cortical activation.

  7. Mapping rehabilitation resources for head injury

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, J D; Seeley, H M; Kirker, S; Maimaris, C; McGlashan, K; Roels, E; Greenwood, R; Steward, C; Hutchinson, P J; Carroll, G

    2004-01-01

    Several reports have pointed to the unevenness in the UK of services for rehabilitation after head injury. A study was conducted in the Eastern Region of England to define the key stages in recovery and rehabilitation, by an iterative process of questionnaire, interview and consensus conference. Findings were translated into a draft set of maps showing current availability of services which were revised after feedback. Working groups then developed a set of definitions and classification codes for each stage of rehabilitation which were likewise disseminated for feedback. The maps were then redrafted to correspond with the definitions together with a flowchart of potential head injury rehabilitation services. The definitions were piloted at a regional neurosurgery unit and a rehabilitation hospital. Core services for neurorehabilitation region-wide were found to be variable and uncoordinated with fragmented and inequitable allocation of resources. The definitions and mapping system that emerged from this study should facilitate the design of care pathways for patients and identify gaps in the services. PMID:15286191

  8. Head, Face, and Eye Injuries in Collegiate Women's Field Hockey.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    While there is concern regarding head, face, and eye injuries in field hockey, prompting some to recommend the use of protective equipment such as goggles and helmets, little has been written about their incidence and mechanism of injury in the modern game of field hockey. The elucidation of this information will better inform the development of maximally effective injury prevention schemes to protect the athlete while maintaining the integrity of the game. To determine the incidence and epidemiology of head, face, and eye injuries in United States collegiate women's field hockey players from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009. Descriptive epidemiological study. All head, face, and eye injuries reported to the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System for collegiate women's field hockey athletes from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons were analyzed. Data regarding the event type, injury mechanism, body part injured, type of injury, outcome, and time lost were reviewed. The weighted injury incidence per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) was calculated using the exposure data set for the same years; 95% CIs were calculated based on a normal approximation to the Poisson distribution. There were 150 reported traumatic injuries during this time period, with a weighted occurrence of 1587.3 injuries. The overall incidence of head, face, and eye injuries in collegiate women's field hockey was 0.94 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.86-1.19). Injuries to the head or face, other than the mouth, nose, and eye, accounted for 75.3% of these injuries. The incidence of eye injuries was 0.07 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.03-0.12); nose injuries occurred at a rate of 0.10 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.05-0.15). The rate of traumatic dental injuries was 0.06 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.04-0.14). Contact with an apparatus caused 72.9% of all injuries; specifically, contact with an elevated ball accounted for 47.9% of all injuries, and contact with an elevated stick caused 21.7% of all injuries

  9. Are head, neck and facial injuries markers of domestic violence?

    PubMed

    Ochs, H A; Neuenschwander, M C; Dodson, T B

    1996-06-01

    Few data exist regarding the relationship between the location of injuries and the presence of domestic violence. This study of 127 people at an inner-city hospital emergency department found that most patients had head, neck and facial injuries. Although only 23 percent of patients with such injuries were victims of domestic violence, 94.4 percent of victims of domestic violence had head, neck and facial injuries. The study results indicate that head, neck and facial injuries could be markers of domestic violence.

  10. Acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hadjizacharia, Pantelis; Beale, Elizabeth O; Inaba, Kenji; Chan, Linda S; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-10-01

    The incidence and risk factors for acute diabetes insipidus after severe head injury and the effect of this complication on outcomes have not been evaluated in any large prospective studies. We conducted a prospective study of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU of a Level I trauma center with severe head injury (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] >or= 3). The following potential risk factors with p < 0.2 on bivariate analysis were included in a stepwise logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus and its association with mortality: age, mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, head and other body area AIS, skull fracture, cerebral edema and shift, intracranial hemorrhage, and pneumocephaly. There were 436 patients (blunt injuries, 392; penetrating injuries, 44); 387 patients had isolated head injury. Diabetes insipidus occurred in 15.4% of all patients (blunt, 12.5%; penetrating, 40.9%; p < 0.0001) and in 14.7% of patients with isolated head injury (blunt, 11.8%; penetrating, 39.5%; p < 0.0001). The presence of major extracranial injuries did not influence the incidence of diabetes insipidus. Independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus in isolated head injury were Glasgow Coma Scalehead AIS>3. Diabetes insipidus was an independent risk factor for death (adjusted odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI [1.65, 9.72]; adjusted p value = 0.002). The incidence of acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury is high, especially in penetrating injuries. Independent risk factors for diabetes insipidus include a Glasgow Coma Scalehead AIS>3. Acute diabetes insipidus was associated with significantly increased mortality.

  11. The neuropsychological similarities of mild and more severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Reitan, R M; Wolfson, D

    2000-07-01

    Reports in the literature have suggested that the neuropsychological effects of mild head injury are selective, represented by impairment of attention, information processing, and memory, and that evaluations with comprehensive and standard test batteries are likely to miss such deficits. The present study compared groups of individuals with mild head injuries, more severe head injuries, and non-brain-damaged controls using 19 tests from the Halstead-Reitan Battery. The results indicated that the group with mild head injuries performed significantly poorer than the controls, and that the group with more severe head injuries scored significantly more poorly than either of the other groups. Comparisons of the pattern of test scores for the two head-injured groups were remarkably similar across the 19 tests, yielding a rank difference correlation of 0.87. The findings yielded no evidence of selective or delimited impairment in the group with mild head injuries, but instead, showed them to have test results that were very similar, though showing less neuropsychological impairment, to the group of subjects with more severe head injuries. These findings suggest that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is necessary to detect the broad range of deficits that may result from mild head injury.

  12. Why one fakes a head injury affects how one fakes a head injury.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Identifying suspect effort in neuropsychological assessments has been investigated in clinical samples and experimental simulation paradigms. While patients' incentives, such as compensation, are commonly thought to impact motivation, other motivational influences, such as attention-seeking, have been largely unexplored. To this end, undergraduates (n=202) were asked to fake a head injury on the Dot Counting Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and Benton Visual Retention Test. Participants were assigned to one of four Motivation conditions (no motivation, avoiding blame, compensation, attention-seeking). Analyses revealed that those with compensation- and attention-seeking motivations performed significantly worse than those with blame avoidance and no motivations, suggesting that type of motivation affects performance on neuropsychological assessment. The relative similarity between compensation-seekers and attention-seekers, however, suggests that the two groups would be difficult to differentiate. Preliminary findings suggest that compensation-seekers may favor errors of omission and attention-seekers may favor errors of commission in their performance; however this finding requires replication.

  13. Recovery of simple motor skills after head injury.

    PubMed

    Haaland, K Y; Temkin, N; Randahl, G; Dikmen, S

    1994-06-01

    The performance of 40 head-injured patients (HI) without peripheral upper body injuries and 88 normal controls were compared on finger tapping and grip strength 1 month and 1 year after injury. The HI group demonstrated deficits on both tasks 1 month after injury, but only finger tapping was impaired 1 year postinjury. While grip strength differentially improved in the HI group from 1 month to 1 year, finger tapping improved similarly in both groups. The pattern of results was similar when a subset of 25 HI patients without any evidence of focal lesions were examined. These results demonstrate (1) motor deficits are present 1 year after injury even in a sample of predominantly mild head-injury patients, (2) grip strength is more sensitive to recovery in the first year after head injury, and (3) finger tapping continues to be impaired 1 year after head injury possibly due to its speed requirements.

  14. Characterizing Discourse Deficits Following Penetrating Head Injury: A Preliminary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Hamilton, Mark; Tyler, Elizabeth; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse analyses have demonstrated utility for delineating subtle communication deficits following closed head injuries (CHIs). The present investigation examined the discourse performance of a large group of individuals with penetrating head injury (PHI). Performance was also compared across 6 subgroups of PHI based on lesion locale. A…

  15. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  16. Characterizing Discourse Deficits Following Penetrating Head Injury: A Preliminary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Hamilton, Mark; Tyler, Elizabeth; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse analyses have demonstrated utility for delineating subtle communication deficits following closed head injuries (CHIs). The present investigation examined the discourse performance of a large group of individuals with penetrating head injury (PHI). Performance was also compared across 6 subgroups of PHI based on lesion locale. A…

  17. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe the incidence of catastrophic head injuries in a variety of high school and college sports. Design and Setting: Data on catastrophic head injuries were compiled in a national surveillance system maintained by the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research. The data were compiled with the assistance of coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, executive officers of state and national athletic organizations, a national newspaper clipping service, professional associates of the researchers, and national sport organizations. Subjects: Data included all high school and college athletic programs in the United States. Measurements: Background information on the athlete (age, height, weight, experience, previous injury, etc), accident information, immediate and postaccident medical care, type of injury, and equipment involved. Autopsy reports were used when available. Results: A football-related fatality has occurred every year from 1945 through 1999, except for 1990. Head-related deaths accounted for 69% of football fatalities, cervical spinal injuries for 16.3%, and other injuries for 14.7%. High school football produced the greatest number of football head-related deaths. From 1984 through 1999, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Sixty-three of the injuries were associated with high school football and 6 with college football. Although football has received the most attention, other sports have also been associated with head-related deaths and permanent disability injuries. From 1982 through 1999, 20 deaths and 19 permanent disability injuries occurred in a variety of sports. Track and field, baseball, and cheerleading had the highest incidence of these catastrophic injuries. Three deaths and 3 injuries resulting in permanent disability have occurred in female participants. Conclusions/Recommendations: Reliable data collection systems and continual analysis of the data can help us to reduce the

  18. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of catastrophic head injuries in a variety of high school and college sports. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data on catastrophic head injuries were compiled in a national surveillance system maintained by the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research. The data were compiled with the assistance of coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, executive officers of state and national athletic organizations, a national newspaper clipping service, professional associates of the researchers, and national sport organizations. SUBJECTS: Data included all high school and college athletic programs in the United States. MEASUREMENTS: Background information on the athlete (age, height, weight, experience, previous injury, etc), accident information, immediate and postaccident medical care, type of injury, and equipment involved. Autopsy reports were used when available. RESULTS: A football-related fatality has occurred every year from 1945 through 1999, except for 1990. Head-related deaths accounted for 69% of football fatalities, cervical spinal injuries for 16.3%, and other injuries for 14.7%. High school football produced the greatest number of football head-related deaths. From 1984 through 1999, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Sixty-three of the injuries were associated with high school football and 6 with college football. Although football has received the most attention, other sports have also been associated with head-related deaths and permanent disability injuries. From 1982 through 1999, 20 deaths and 19 permanent disability injuries occurred in a variety of sports. Track and field, baseball, and cheerleading had the highest incidence of these catastrophic injuries. Three deaths and 3 injuries resulting in permanent disability have occurred in female participants. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Reliable data collection systems and continual analysis of the data can help us to reduce the

  19. Why do children vomit after minor head injury?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, F; Brown, J; Beattie, T

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To determine factors associated with vomiting after minor head injury in a paediatric population with the intention of defining the role of vomiting in management decisions. Methods—A prospective study of all patients presenting with minor head injury to the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, between 1 May and 30 June 1997. Information regarding basic demographics, features of the head injury and past and family history was noted on a proforma. This included mechanism of injury, site of impact, presence or absence of scalp haematoma, skull fracture or brain injury and intrinsic factors such as age, family history of migraine and a personal history of migraine, its childhood variants and associated conditions. The relation between vomiting and these features was analysed using χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Results—563 children aged from birth to 13 years presented with minor head injury. Complete data were obtained on 463 patients. Some 15.8% vomited after minor head injury. Comparing vomiters with non-vomiters the only associated factors that could be identified were a past history of recurrent vomiting or motion sickness (p= 0.0035, p=0.036 respectively). Conclusions—Vomiting after minor head injury seems to be related to individual intrinsic factors rather than specific features of the head injury and its role in management decisions needs to be explored further. PMID:10921815

  20. Head injury screening and intimate partner violence: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Kerry L; DePrince, Anne P

    2017-01-01

    Although the importance of traumatic brain injury has gained public attention in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to head injuries among women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study screened for lifetime exposure to mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) among a sample of women who had experienced recent IPV (median days since target incident = 26). Participants included ethnically diverse women whose IPV experiences were reported to law enforcement. Women (n = 225) were asked about injuries to the head sustained during the target IPV incident as well as over the lifetime, and related symptoms. The vast majority of women (80%) reported a lifetime head injury. More than half (56%) screened positive for mTBI, defined as at least one instance in which they experienced a change in consciousness or a period of being dazed and confused as a result of a head injury. A minority of women (13%) reported injuries to the head during the target IPV incident. Most women who had experienced a lifetime head injury reported frequent and current cognitive difficulties. These findings highlight the importance of assessing head injuries and related symptoms among women who have experienced IPV, pointing to important implications for policy and practice.

  1. Long-term outcome following head injury.

    PubMed

    Sabhesan, S; Natarajan, M

    1993-02-01

    In a perspective study of follow-up of 141 head-injured patients, neurological, behavioural, neuropsychological and psychosocial parameters of outcome were used to measure the patient's functional status for 18 months. Neurophysical sequelae including seizure disorders were seen in 29 patients. Cortical functional disturbances observed were nominal difficulties in 5 patients, perseveration in 5 patients, disturbed kinetic melodies in 9 patients, frontal acalculia in 4 patients, constructional apraxia in one patient and left side neglect in one patient. These deficits were reversed except in 13 cases. Only 32 patients (22.7%) did not suffer from any behavioural changes. The role of compensation as an aetiologic factor was found in 5 patients. Out of 94 patients in whom scores in memory test was done, 11 patients performed better than their age and education-related norms. Scores in Raven's matrices for level of intellectual performance were done in 71 patients. The score was below 25th percentile in majority (58 cases). Among 130 patients with some jobs, 56 patients (43%) were fully restored. Out of 105 married patients, 45 patients (43%) had disturbed relations after head injury. Seven patients had separation of marriage. Compared to neurological deficits, behavioural and neuropsychological impairments were more prevalent and disabling. Psychosocial outcome, particularly vocational restoration was adversely affected by behavioural changes and cognitive deficits. Need for a multidisciplinary intervention to minimise the avoidable morbidity is emphasised.

  2. Premorbid prevalence of poor academic performance in severe head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, J F; Cope, D N; Hall, K

    1987-01-01

    A study of 80 head injured patients revealed poor premorbid academic performance in up to 50% of the sample. Poor academic performance, as defined by diagnosis of learning disability, multiple failed academic subjects, or school dropout during secondary education, is not a previously cited risk factor for head injury. These findings have important implications in the identification of a high risk population and in the subsequent ability to reduce the incidence of head injury. PMID:3819755

  3. Traumatic intracranial injury in intoxicated patients with minor head trauma.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Haukoos, Jason S; Claud, Jonathan; Wilbur, Lee; Hagstrom, Michelle Tartalgia; Cantrill, Stephen; Mestek, Michael; Symonds, David; Bakes, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Studies focusing on minor head injury in intoxicated patients report disparate prevalences of intracranial injury. It is unclear if the typical factors associated with intracranial injury in published clinical decision rules for computerized tomography (CT) acquisition are helpful in differentiating patients with and without intracranial injuries, as intoxication may obscure particular features of intracranial injury such as headache and mimic other signs of head injury such as altered mental status. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of intracranial injury following minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≥14) in intoxicated patients and to assess the performance of established clinical decision rules in this population. This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive intoxicated adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) following minor head injury. Historical and physical examination features included those from the Canadian CT Head Rule, National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS), and New Orleans Criteria. All patients underwent head CT. A total of 283 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 40 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 28 to 48 years) and median alcohol concentration of 195 mmol/L (IQR = 154 to 256 mmol/L). A total of 238 of 283 (84%) were male, and 225 (80%) had GCS scores of 15. Clinically important injuries (injuries requiring admission to the hospital or neurosurgical follow-up) were identified in 23 patients (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5% to 12%); one required neurosurgical intervention (0.4%, 95% CI = 0% to 2%). Loss of consciousness and headache were associated with clinically important intracranial injury on CT. The Canadian CT Head Rule had a sensitivity of 70% (95% CI = 47% to 87%) and NEXUS criteria had a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI = 61% to 95%) for clinically important injury in intoxicated patients. In this study, the prevalence of clinically important injury in intoxicated

  4. Golf ball-related head injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jimmy; Kaplan, Allen M

    2008-08-01

    Golf has become one of the most popular sports in the world. Golf-related head injuries are well-documented and include golf club, golf cart, and more recently golf ball trauma. We report on 2 cases of golf ball-associated traumatic brain injuries. The unique biomechanics of golf ball head trauma are reviewed. Initially golf injuries may cause minor clinical signs, with absence of skull fractures. However, the association of significant underlying intracranial hemorrhage should prompt a thorough neurologic evaluation.

  5. Recurrent athletic head injury: risks and when to retire.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Robert C

    2003-07-01

    This article focuses on the issues related to recurrent athletic head injuries; specifically, when cumulative exponential injury or the second impact syndrome may be anticipated. Case histories and research studies are used to illustrate the salient points. A signs-and-symptoms checklist for use in concussion evaluation and management is included. Finally, the topic of when to retire after repeated athletic head injuries is discussed and illustrated with a case study.

  6. When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajjad A.; Chandrasala, Soumithran

    2014-01-01

    Background: The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT)-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6%) had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001). The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001) and orbital (P = 0.004) regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries. PMID:25097643

  7. When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sajjad A; Chandrasala, Soumithran

    2014-05-01

    The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT)-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6%) had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001). The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001) and orbital (P = 0.004) regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010). Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries.

  8. Aphasic disorder in patients with closed head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; Grossman, R G; Kelly, P J

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of 50 patients with closed head injury disclosed that anomic errors and word finding difficulty were prominent sequelae as nearly half of the series had defective scores on tests of naming and/or word association. Aphasic disturbance was associated with severity of brain injury as reflected by prolonged coma and injury of the brain stem. PMID:1011017

  9. Predicting head injury risk during International Space Station increments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Aaron S; Zakrajsek, Anne D; Lewandowski, Beth E; Brooker, John E; Myers, Jerry G

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program is using a probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify acute and chronic medical risks to manned spaceflight. The objective of this project was to estimate the likelihood of a neurological head injury to a crewmember severe enough to require medical assessment, treatment, or evacuation during a typical International Space Station (ISS) increment. A 2 degree-of-freedom analytical model of the human head was created to allow for analysis of the impact response. The output of the model is acceleration of the head, which was used to determine the probability that the simulated impact resulted in a head injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 3 or greater. These data were then integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment, which outputs a likelihood of injury with a representative measure of the uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to vary input parameters over their defined distributions. The mean probability of a moderate neurological injury (AIS 3 or greater) occurring due to a head impact by a crewmember translating through the ISS is 1.16 x 10(-4) per 6-mo mission increment (2.32 x 10(-4) per year). Our head injury prediction model has shown that there is a low, yet not insignificant, probability of neurological head injury of AIS score 3 or greater. The results from this simulation will be input into the parent Integrated Medical Model, which incorporates the risks of over 80 different medical events in order to inform mission planning scenarios.

  10. Neuropsychiatric changes following penetrating head injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Badhiwala, Jetan H.; Blackham, Janet R.; Bhardwaj, Ratan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Penetrating head injuries demand the prompt attention of a neurosurgeon. While most neurosurgical centers are experienced in the acute management of these injuries, less is known about the long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of penetrating head trauma. In adults, direct injury to the frontal lobe classically has been associated with mental status changes. However, there is less published data in children. Case Description: We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who suffered a penetrating head injury to the frontal lobes secondary to a self-inflicted gunshot wound, and experienced subsequent resolution of pre-existing bipolar disorder and new onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion: Children with penetrating head injury require close multidisciplinary follow-up in order to monitor, and accordingly implement management strategies, for associated sequelae, including behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes. PMID:25422782

  11. Patients' views on outcome following head injury: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul Graham; Prior, Lindsay; Deb, Shoumitro; Lewis, Glyn; Mayle, Wendy; Burrow, Caroline E; Bryant, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    Background Head injuries are a common occurrence, with continuing care in the years following injury being provided by primary care teams and a variety of speciality services. The literature on outcome currently reflects areas considered important by health-care professionals, though these may differ in some respects from the views of head injured individuals themselves. Our study aimed to identify aspects of outcome considered important by survivors of traumatic head injury. Methods Thirty-two individuals were interviewed, each of whom had suffered head injury between one and ten years previously from which they still had residual difficulties. Purposive sampling was used in order to ensure that views were represented from individuals of differing age, gender and level of disability. These interviews were fully transcribed and analysed qualitatively by a psychologist, a sociologist and a psychiatrist with regular meetings to discuss the coding. Results Aspects of outcome mentioned by head injury survivors which have received less attention previously included: specific difficulties with group conversations; changes in physical appearance due to scarring or weight change; a sense of loss for the life and sense of self that they had before the injury; and negative reactions of others, often due to lack of understanding of the consequences of injury amongst both family and general public. Conclusion Some aspects of outcome viewed as important by survivors of head injury may be overlooked by health professionals. Consideration of these areas of outcome and the development of suitable interventions should help to improve functional outcome for patients. PMID:16048645

  12. Alzheimer's disease after remote head injury: an incidence study.

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, P W; Tang, M; Marder, K; Bell, K; Dooneief, G; Chun, M; Sano, M; Stern, Y; Mayeux, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a history of remote head injury as a risk factor for subsequent dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: 271 participants of a community based longitudinal study of aging in north Manhattan without evidence of significant cognitive impairment were interrogated for a history of head injury on two occasions at entry into the study. The examining physician sought a history of head injury with loss of conciousness. Independently, a risk factor interviewer inquired about a history of head injury with loss of consiousness or amnesia, the duration of any loss of consiousness, and the date of the head injury. Patients were followed up with standardised annual evaluations for up to five years to determine the first occurrence of dementia. RESULTS: Over the course of the study incident dementia due to probable or possible Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed in 39 patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling showed that a history of head injury with loss of consiousness reported to the physician was associated with earlier onset of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (relative risk (RR) = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-12.7). head injury with loss of consiousness or amnesia reported to the risk factor interviewer was not significantly associated with earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease overall (RR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7-6.2), but those who reported loss of consiousness exceeding five minutes were at significantly increased risk (RR 11.2, 95% CI 2.3-59.8). Incident Alzheimer's disease was significantly associated with head injury which occurred within the preceding 30 years (RR 5.4, 95% CI 1.5-19.5). CONCLUSION: The results of this cohort study are consistent with the findings of several case-control studies suggesting that head injury may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:9048710

  13. Head Injury- A Maxillofacial Surgeon’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choonthar, Muralee Mohan; Raghothaman, Ananthan; Prasad, Rajendra; Pandya, Kalpa

    2016-01-01

    Injuries and violence are one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. A substantial portion of these injuries involve the maxillofacial region. Among the concomitant injuries, injuries to the head and cervical spine are amongst those that demand due consideration on account of their life threatening behaviour. Studies have shown that facial fractures have a strong association with traumatic brain injury. Knowledge of the types and mechanisms of traumatic brain injury is crucial for their treatment. Many a times, facial fractures tend to distract our attention from more severe and often life threatening injuries. Early diagnosis of these intracranial haemorrhage leads to prompt treatment which is essential to improve the outcome of these patients. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon should be able to suspect and diagnose head injury and also provide adequate initial management. PMID:26894193

  14. Anhedonia in combat veterans with penetrating head injury.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey D; Krueger, Frank; Raymont, Vanessa; Solomon, Jeffrey; Knutson, Kristine M; Barbey, Aron K; Poore, Joshua C; Wassermann, Eric M; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Anhedonia is a common symptom following traumatic brain injury. The neural basis of anhedonia is poorly understood, but believed to involve disturbed reward processing, rather than the loss of sense of pleasure. This analysis was undertaken to determine if injury to specific regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) result in anhedonia. A CT-based lesion analysis was undertaken in 192 participants of the Vietnam Head Injury Study, most with penetrating head injury. Participants were divided into left and right ventrolateral prefrontal, bilateral ventromedial prefrontal, and other injury locations. Anhedonia was measured by self-report in each group using the four-item anhedonia subscale score of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Individuals with right ventrolateral injury reported greater severity of anhedonia compared to those with injury in the left ventrolateral region. These findings support an association between injury in the right ventrolateral PFC and anhedonia.

  15. Injuries to the head and neck in Homer's Odyssey.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Ghaly, Ghaly Adly; Azari, Afroditi

    2016-07-01

    The Odyssey and the Iliad are the most prominent works of ancient Greek epic poetry, and we have retrieved injuries to the head and neck mentioned in the Odyssey. We studied the texts both in ancient Greek and the translations in modern Greek and English and searched for references to trauma to the head and neck. We recorded the injuries, the attacker and defender, the weapons used, the site, and the result. There were 11 injuries of the head and neck, nine of which were fatal.

  16. Head and spine injuries sustained by motorcyclists in head-leading collisions with fixed roadside objects.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mattos, G A

    2015-01-01

    Motorcyclist collisions with fixed objects account for a substantial proportion of fatalities in many countries. Biomechanically valid crash test protocols are required to assess the injury potential of different fixed objects to motorcyclists and/or to develop safety devices that ameliorate this injury risk. The aim of the present article is to provide field-observed injury data pertaining to motorcyclist head-leading collisions with fixed objects to assist in the development of crash test protocols. The Australian National Coronial Information System was used to identify fatal motorcyclist head-leading collisions with fixed objects. Head and spine injuries were identified from the autopsy reports for these individuals. The head impact locations and injuries were used to infer impact orientations and corresponding injury mechanisms. A sample of 44 motorcyclists estimated to have impacted fixed objects in the head-leading orientation was identified. The analysis of autopsy reports indicated a predominance of basilar skull fractures, intracranial injuries to the frontal cerebrum and inferior aspects of the brain (brainstem and cerebellum), and upper cervical spine injuries. Analysis of head impact locations identified a predominance of impacts to the frontal and/or lateral aspects and when considered in combination with the injury mechanisms, a typical impact orientation of sliding in the prone position with head extension was inferred. The study results were used to suggest possible crash test protocols for motorcyclists sliding into fixed objects and/or safety devices designed to reduce the injury risk of fixed objects. The predominant orientation of lying prone with head extension led the authors to suggest a crash test using the motorcycle anthropomorphic test device (MATD) sliding prone. However, the occurrence of the supine orientation, albeit less frequent, indicates the utility of a crash test with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) sliding supine. The 2

  17. Scales of gravity in head injury.

    PubMed

    Muller, G E

    1975-01-01

    From the head injury onward the victim loses control over his own existence and starts a long journey through the various fields of forces determining his destiny until he can reassume control. Scales of gravity applied at different points in time vary and sometimes contradict each other. The vital scale is an immediate emergency scale, determined by the need to save a life, observe and treat a coma, and detect early complications, and the criteria are those of intensive care, surgery, and neurosurgery. The neurological and neuropsychological scale established towards the end of the first hospitalisation, assesses brain damage by neurological investigations, ophthalmological and otological tests and a neuropsychological evaluation. First individual psychiatric reactions appear at this stage. The psychosocial scale should consider information provided by previous scales, but also evaluate pre- and post-traumatic personality, family setting, social, legal, administrative and economic realities, residual skills, previous profession, possibilities of reinstatement and above all, motivation. Probably the neurological and neuropsychological scale provide the best common point of reference for a global assessment. These scales of gravity are examined in their relationship to traditional clinical thinking in different countries. A prospective and descriptive system of a "European" cofification as proposed within the framework of the European Communities is described.

  18. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

    PubMed

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2012-09-01

    The current study explores sentence comprehension impairments among adults following moderate closed head injury. It was hypothesized that if the factor of syntactic complexity significantly affects sentence comprehension in these patients, it would testify to the existence of syntactic processing deficit along with working-memory problems. Thirty-six adults (18 closed head injury patients and 18 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and IQ) participated in the study. A picture-sentence matching task together with various tests for memory, language, and reading abilities were used to explore whether sentence comprehension impairments exist as a result of a deficit in syntactic processing or of working-memory dysfunction. Results indicate significant impairment in sentence comprehension among adults with closed head injury compared with their non-head-injured peers. Results also reveal that closed head injury patients demonstrate considerable decline in working memory, short-term memory, and semantic knowledge. Analysis of the results shows that memory impairment and syntactic complexity contribute significantly to sentence comprehension difficulties in closed head injury patients. At the same time, the presentation mode (spoken or written language) was found to have no effect on comprehension among adults with closed head injury, and their reading abilities appear to be relatively intact.

  19. Fatal pediatric head injury due to toppled television: does the injury pattern overlap with abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Pollanen, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Pediatric head injuries can occur from abusive head trauma (AHT) or accidents. Accidental pediatric head injuries caused by cathode-ray tube televisions (CRTT) toppling have become a 'silent epidemic'. Differentiation between a fatal case of AHT and CRTT toppling could be vexing when the historical and scene evidence are subtle. A 2-year-old girl was found unresponsive in her house and could not be resuscitated. A 27" CRTT was found fallen from its stand onto the floor at the scene. The siblings report that the deceased was climbing on the television stand when it toppled. Autopsy revealed a spectrum of head injuries including, contusions, fractures, bilateral acute subdural hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, brain contusion-lacerations and corpus callosal hemorrhages. Microscopy of the eyes revealed bilateral acute retinal hemorrhages. The cause of death was given as crushing injuries of head and brain. The skull fracture pattern is compatible with an accident causing crush injury due to the toppled CRTT rather than AHT. The injury pattern reconfirms that the head is the most vulnerable site in case of CRTT tipover. Although there may be an overlap between the injury pattern in AHT and in CRTT tipover cases, a careful evaluation of the history and scene and autopsy findings such as the crushing nature of the skull fractures and distribution of injury, can solve this problem.

  20. Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.

  1. Why Do Woodpeckers Resist Head Impact Injury: A Biomechanical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6–7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury. PMID:22046293

  2. [Prognostic factors about morbidity and lethality in head injury].

    PubMed

    Melo, José Roberto Tude; Oliveira Filho, Jamary; da Silva, Ricardo Araújo; Moreira Júnior, Edson Duarte

    2005-12-01

    To define the prognostic factors in head injury victims. Assessment and notification of 555 medical files from victims with head injury assisted at the General Hospital of Bahia during 2001. We verified morbidity rates of 19.6% and lethality rates of 22.9%, with most deaths occurring in men after the third decade of life; the injuries involved traffic accidents that were responsible for 64 (50.4%) deaths. Older age, traffic accidents and fever were predictors of death in the multivariable analysis. Fever was the only significant predictor of morbidity. Fever is an independent and modifiable predictor of death and morbidity in patients with traumatic brain injury.

  3. Head Injury With Subsequent, Intermittent, Nonschizophrenic, Psychotic Symptoms and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Kelly, Ruby P.

    1987-01-01

    A young, black, adult woman presented to an outpatient clinic for treatment with a history of intermittent, nonschizophrenic, psychotic symptoms. Blacks, because of their situational sociology, may be more predisposed to severe head injuries, and this acquired biologic factor may be, in part, responsible for the high rates of black-on-black murder. The use of beta blockers is discussed as an adjunct in the treatment of violence occurring in patients with a past history of severe head injury. PMID:3694693

  4. Use of head injury instruction cards in accident centres.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, A B; Boughey, A M; Aung, T S; Barrett, K

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on the value of head injury instruction cards as purveyors of information to patients. Patients over 10 years old attending the North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary Accident and Emergency Department with a mild head injury were invited to attend a special brain injury follow-up clinic, where they were asked to complete a questionnaire. Patients failing to attend this clinic were contacted and asked to complete the questionnaire. This revealed that they were no less severely affected by the injury as the attenders. They were asked why they had not attended and a significant number of patients had no recall of being given a head injury instruction card on which the information of the follow-up clinic was given. Memory loss was the most likely cause of this and is more common than is widely appreciated in patients attending accident and emergency departments. PMID:1333212

  5. Can we abolish skull x rays for head injury?

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M; Browning, J; Wilkinson, A; Beattie, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a change in skull x ray policy on the rate of admission, use of computed tomography (CT), radiation dose per head injury, and detection of intracranial injuries; and to compare the characteristics of patients with normal and abnormal head CT. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: UK paediatric teaching hospital emergency department. Patients: 1535 patients aged between 1 and 14 years with a head injury presenting to the emergency department between 1 August 1998 and 31 July 1999 (control period), and 1867 presenting between 1 August 2002 and 31 July 2003 (first year of new skull x ray policy). Intervention: Hospital notes and computer systems were analysed and data were collected on all patients presenting with a head injury. Results: The abolition of skull x rays in children aged over 1 year prevented about 400 normal skull x rays being undertaken in period 2. The percentage of children undergoing CT rose from 1.0% to 2.1% with no change in the positive CT pick up rate (25.6% v 25.0%). There was no significant change in admission rate (10.9% v 10.1%), and a slight decrease in the radiation dose per head injury (0.042 mSv compared to 0.045 mSv). Conclusions: Skull x rays can be abandoned in children aged 1 to 14 without a significant increase in admission rate, radiation dose per head injury, or missed intracranial injury. The mechanism and history of the injury and a reduced Glasgow coma scale are probably the most important indicators of significant head injury in children. PMID:15851418

  6. Head injury and Parkinson's disease risk in twins.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Samuel M; Tanner, Caroline M; Oakes, David; Bhudhikanok, Grace S; Gupta, Anjali; Langston, J William

    2006-07-01

    Head injury is an inconsistently reported risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Many related variables might confound this association, such as differences in childhood and adolescent lifestyles or genetically determined risk-taking behaviors. Twin studies circumvent some of these problems, because twins are genetically and environmentally much more similar than typical cases and control subjects. We conducted a case-control study in 93 twin pairs discordant for PD ascertained from the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council World War II Veteran Twins Cohort. A prior head injury with amnesia or loss of consciousness was associated with an increased risk for PD (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-11; p = 0.014). Truncating observations 10 years before PD onset enhanced the association. Though less precise, the association was somewhat stronger in monozygotic than in dizygotic pairs. Risk increased further with a subsequent head injury (p trend = 0.022) and with head injuries requiring hospitalization. Duration of unconsciousness was not associated. In a subanalysis of 18 pairs concordant for PD, the twin with younger onset PD was more likely to have sustained a head injury, although numbers were small. Our results suggest that mild-to-moderate closed head injury may increase PD risk decades later.

  7. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three dimensional head motions were measured during three different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared to published data using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure (HIC15) of 28.1 and head impact factor (HIP) of 3.41, over six times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  8. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides.

  9. Severe-to-fatal head injuries in motor vehicle impacts.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Maiman, Dennis J; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Guan, Yabo; Pintar, Frank A; Laud, Prakash; Ridella, Stephen A

    2010-07-01

    Severe-to-fatal head injuries in motor vehicle environments were analyzed using the United States Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network database for the years 1997-2006. Medical evaluations included details and photographs of injury, and on-scene, trauma bay, emergency room, intensive care unit, radiological, operating room, in-patient, and rehabilitation records. Data were synthesized on a case-by-case basis. X-rays, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance images were reviewed along with field evaluations of scene and photographs for the analyses of brain injuries and skull fractures. Injuries to the parenchyma, arteries, brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, and loss of consciousness were included. In addition to the analyses of severe-to-fatal (AIS4+) injuries, cervical spine, face, and scalp trauma were used to determine the potential for head contact. Fatalities and survivors were compared using nonparametric tests and confidence intervals for medians. Results were categorized based on the mode of impact with a focus on head contact. Out of the 3178 medical cases and 169 occupants sustaining head injuries, 132 adults were in frontal (54), side (75), and rear (3) crashes. Head contact locations are presented for each mode. A majority of cases clustered around the mid-size anthropometry and normal body mass index (BMI). Injuries occurred at change in velocities (DeltaV) representative of US regulations. Statistically significant differences in DeltaV between fatalities and survivors were found for side but not for frontal impacts. Independent of the impact mode and survivorship, contact locations were found to be superior to the center of gravity of the head, suggesting a greater role for angular than translational head kinematics. However, contact locations were biased to the impact mode: anterior aspects of the frontal bone and face were involved in frontal impacts while temporal-parietal regions were involved in side impacts. Because head

  10. A Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Loewen, Carin A; Wassarman, Douglas R; Petersen, Andrew J; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A

    2013-10-29

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial health issue worldwide, yet the mechanisms responsible for its complex spectrum of pathologies remains largely unknown. To investigate the mechanisms underlying TBI pathologies, we developed a model of TBI in Drosophila melanogaster. The model allows us to take advantage of the wealth of experimental tools available in flies. Closed head TBI was inflicted with a mechanical device that subjects flies to rapid acceleration and deceleration. Similar to humans with TBI, flies with TBI exhibited temporary incapacitation, ataxia, activation of the innate immune response, neurodegeneration, and death. Our data indicate that TBI results in death shortly after a primary injury only if the injury exceeds a certain threshold and that age and genetic background, but not sex, substantially affect this threshold. Furthermore, this threshold also appears to be dependent on the same cellular and molecular mechanisms that control normal longevity. This study demonstrates the potential of flies for providing key insights into human TBI that may ultimately provide unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Head and neck injuries in young taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Pieter, W; Zemper, E D

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the location, type, situation and mechanism of head and neck injuries in young taekwondo athletes. Prospective. National and international taekwondo tournaments. 3,341 boys and 917 girls, aged 6 to 16 years. Injury rates per 1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E) for total number of head and neck injuries, location, type, situation, and mechanism of injury. There was a significant difference between young male and female taekwondo athletes in total head and neck injury rate (p < 0.001) with the boys (21.42/1,000 A-E) recording a higher rate than the girls (16.91/1,000 A-E). The head was the most often injured body part (6.10/1,000 A-E and 4.55/1,000 A-E for boys and girls, respectively). The contusion was the most often occurring injury type for both boys (8.41/1,000 A-E) and girls (7.80/1,000 A-E). The cerebral concussion ranked second in both boys (5.11/1,000 A-E) and girls (4.55/1,000 A-E). The unblocked attack was the major injury situation for both boys (19.78/1,000 A-E) and girls (14.96/1,000 A-E). As a consequence, the major injury mechanism was receiving a blow (20.93/1,000 A-E and 16.25/1,000 A-E for boys and girls, respectively). Only the boys (0.66/1,000 A-E) incurred the most serious head and neck injuries that resulted in > or = 21 days away from participation. The national and international taekwondo governing bodies should review their current injury prevention measures. Given the potentially debilitating nature of these injuries, implications for any diagnostic capabilities on site should be carefully reviewed.

  12. On Impact: A Case of a Student with Head Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Valerie A.; Chesire, David J.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a case of a student with head injuries. While the symptom presentation for students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be vastly different, this case represents common symptoms seen in students who are recovering from a concussion. The authors suggest that school psychologists query the teacher and parents about their…

  13. On Impact: A Case of a Student with Head Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Valerie A.; Chesire, David J.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a case of a student with head injuries. While the symptom presentation for students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be vastly different, this case represents common symptoms seen in students who are recovering from a concussion. The authors suggest that school psychologists query the teacher and parents about their…

  14. Sleep and dreaming disturbances in closed head injury patients.

    PubMed

    Prigatano, G P; Stahl, M L; Orr, W C; Zeiner, H K

    1982-01-01

    Single night sleep recordings in closed head injury patients 6 to 59 months after injury revealed less stage 1 and a greater number of awakenings compared to age matched controls. Neither the time spent in REM sleep nor the Wechsler Memory Quotient were related to complaints of decreased or absent dreaming following injury. The proportion of REM and number of awakenings, however, showed a moderate relationship to certain behavioural problems.

  15. Bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion following head injury.

    PubMed

    Narang, Subina; Kochhar, Suman; Gupta, Sonika; Gupta, Hemlata; Bansal, Rakesh; Sood, Sunandan

    2007-12-01

    To report a case of bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) following head injury in a young 29-year-old man. A 29-year-old man presented with head injury following road traffic accident. Posterior segment evaluation revealed CRAO in both eyes. The patient was treated for CRAO in the form of immediate ocular massage, paracentesis, intravenous mannitol and transdermal isosorbide dinitrate patch. Despite treatment the vision continued to be no perception of light. Systemic investigations were unremarkable. Color Doppler of carotid arteries showed plaque in left carotid bulb and thrombus in right internal carotid artery. Bilateral simultaneous CRAO following head trauma has not been reported earlier. Thorough ocular examination is recommended in all cases of head injury.

  16. Subclinical status epilepticus in a child after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Beni, L; Constantini, S; Matoth, I; Pomeranz, S

    1996-03-01

    A 14-year-old girl with closed head injury and a normal computerized tomographic scan underwent an electroencephalographic tracing that surprisingly revealed typical status epilepticus electrical activity. No episodes of motor clinical convulsions were observed from the moment of trauma throughout the admission period. Treatment with phenytoin caused a dramatic clinical improvement. Repeated electroencephalogram (EEG) 4 days later was within normal limits. Posttraumatic seizures are reported after head injury, yet, the issue of "invisible" or "subclinical" seizures associated with trauma is not discussed. In these cases EEG, (an uncommon examination in the early period after head injury) may be the only tool for proper diagnosis and treatment with anticonvulsants. This case report raises the question of the role of EEG in the unconscious patients who does not present with obvious convulsions. Clinical indications for performing EEG after head trauma without seizures are discussed.

  17. Epidemiologic features of head injury in a predominantly rural population.

    PubMed

    Jagger, J; Levine, J I; Jane, J A; Rimel, R W

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of occurrence of head trauma were studied in north central Virginia. In 1978, 735 cases of head trauma were identified with documented head injuries occurring within the defined service area, and with a minimum overnight hospital stay. Overall occurrence was 208/100,000 population. The highest occurrence was found in the 15-19 age group (407/100,000). Nonwhites showed higher rates than whites. Motor vehicle crashes were the most frequent mechanism of injury (55% of patients) followed by falls (20%), and interpersonal violence (11%). Short-term time trends reveal unique daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns for motor vehicle crashes, falls, and interpersonal violence. Selected prevention strategies are discussed. The use of passive restraints in motor vehicles is recommended as one important means of reducing the occurrence and severity of head injuries.

  18. [Head injuries in Duckburg in 1959 and 2009].

    PubMed

    Juul, Agnete M; Rasmussen, Mads; Koch, Klaus Ulrik; Juul, Niels

    2016-12-12

    Comic books have been a part of popular culture through generations. Debates concerning their graphic depictions of violence have been ongoing for nearly as long. Our aim was to examine if the violence in "Donald Duck & Co." (a weekly published Danish comic book), illustrated through the number of head injuries, increased in the period from 1959 to 2009. The comic book vintages from the years 1959 and 2009 were read, and the number of head injuries noted. The head injuries were characterized by severity, in part by a modified Glasgow Coma Scale and in part by a newly developed Comic Book Coma Scale. The number of head injuries were equal in the examined years, however, the number of head injuries per page decreased from 1/10 pages to 1/20 pages. Donald Duck sustained a better part of the injuries increasing from 17% in 1959 to 33% in 2009. The study indicates that we, with peace of mind, can read a comic book while the rest of the family takes care of the dishes at Christmas.

  19. A different approach to missile induced head injuries.

    PubMed

    Pabuscu, Yüksel; Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ustünsöz, Bahri; Tayfun, Cem

    2003-01-01

    Missile induced head injuries can be influenced by the anatomical location of the injury, i.e. type of tissue and by the ballistic properties such as the design of the weapon and the mass, shape and construction of the projectile, as well as its velocity characteristics and trajectory angle. In the diagnostic work up of the patients with missile induced head injuries, every available modality can be used. It is important, however, to recognize that CT scan is the primary and most efficacious diagnostic tool in such patients. In this article we have identified risk factors for both morbidity and mortality in patients with missile induced head injury with excluding the patients who had also extracranial serious trauma and systemic disease.

  20. Indications for CT scanning in minor head injuries: a review.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    To determine indications for performing head CT following minor head injuries, which allow reducing number of imaging. Based on 15 articles dedicated to this topic, the clinical decision rules were systematically analysed. The Canadian Computed Tomography Head Rule was found to be the most reliable instrument meeting these criteria, characterised by excellent sensitivity of 100% and fairly good specificity of 48-77%. Remaining scales, although very sensitive, showed poor ability to reduce number of "unnecessary" CT scans. Features most predictive for intracranial injuries included: disorientation, abnormal alertness, somnolentia and neurological deficits. Patients with no loss of consciousness and in normal physical condition need only clinical assessment. Indications to head CT scanning are determined by decision rules presented in the article. Use of clinical decision rules may have effect on reducing number of head CT scanning performed "just in a case". Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical predictors of abnormal head computed tomography scan in patients who are conscious after head injury

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Prathyusha, Vasuki; Shukla, Dhaval P.; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indication of a head computed tomography (CT) scan in a patient who remains conscious after head injury is controversial. We aimed to determine the clinical features that are most likely to be associated with abnormal CT scan in patients with a history of head injury, and who are conscious at the time of presentation to casualty. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observation study of patients presented to casualty with history of head injury, and who were conscious, i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 15 at the time of evaluation. All patients underwent head CT scan. The CT scan was reported as abnormal if it showed any pathology ascribed to trauma. The following variables were used: age, gender, mode of injury (road traffic accident, fall, assault, and others), duration since injury, and history of transient loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting, ear/nose bleeding, and seizures. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical features that predicted an abnormal CT scan. Results: During the observation period, a total of 1629 patients with head injury were evaluated, out of which 453 were in GCS 15. Abnormal CT scan was present in 195 (43%) patients. Among all the variables, the following were found significantly associated with abnormal CT scan: duration since injury (>12 h) P < 0.001; vomiting odds, ratio (OR) 1.89 (1.23, 2.80), P < 0.001; and presence of any symptom, OR 2.36 (1.52, 3.71), P < 0.001. Conclusion: A patient with GCS 15 presenting after 12 hours of injury with vomiting or combination of symptoms has a significant risk of abnormal head CT scan. PMID:28149084

  2. Penetrating head injury from angle grinder: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, S; Balamurgan, N; Arthanari, K; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P

    2010-01-01

    Penetrating cranial injury is a potentially life-threatening condition. Injuries resulting from the use of angle grinders are numerous and cause high-velocity penetrating cranial injuries. We present a series of two penetrating head injuries associated with improper use of angle grinder, which resulted in shattering of disc into high velocity missiles with reference to management and prevention. One of those hit on the forehead of the operator and the other on the occipital region of the co-worker at a distance of five meters. The pathophysiological consequence of penetrating head injuries depends on the kinetic energy and trajectory of the object. In the nearby healthcare center the impacted broken disc was removed without realising the consequences and the wound was packed. As the conscious level declined in both, they were referred. CT brain revealed fracture in skull and changes in the brain in both. Expeditious removal of the penetrating foreign body and focal debridement of the scalp, skull, dura, and involved parenchyma and Watertight dural closure were carried out. The most important thing is not to remove the impacted foreign body at the site of accident. Craniectomy around the foreign body, debridement and removal of foreign body without zigzag motion are needed. Removal should be done following original direction of projectile injury. The neurological sequelae following the non missile penetrating head injuries are determined by the severity and location of initial injury as well as the rapidity of the exploration and fastidious debridement.

  3. Long-term outcome of head injuries: a 23 year follow up study of children with head injuries.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, H; Clark, C; Klonoff, P S

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of the 23 year follow up study was to determine the relationship between trauma variables including measures of head injury and very long-term sequelae. The study included 159 individuals with a mean age 31.40 years, of whom approximately 90% were admitted to hospital with a mild head injury during childhood (mean age 7.96). Extent of head injury was determined by unconsciousness, neurological status, skull fracture, EEG, post-traumatic seizures and a composite measure. The composite measure of neurological variables was the best predictor of long-term outcome. In addition, IQ recorded in the post-acute phase was a reliable predictor of long-term outcome. Of the sample, 32.7% reported physical complaints and 17.6% reported current psychological/psychiatric problems unrelated to the head injury. Subjective sequelae (physical, intellectual and emotional) specified as due to the head injury were reported by 31% of the sample, and the sequelae were found to be related to the extent of the head injury and initial IQ. There were no discernible relationships between attribute variables including premorbid status and age with subjective sequelae. There were, however, significant relationships between subjective sequelae and objective, psychosocial measures of adaptation including educational lag, unemployment, current psychological/psychiatric problems and relationships with family members. Finally, there appeared to be continuity of complaints elicited during the five year follow up of the original project and current sequelae. The severity of the head injury was identified as the primary contributory factor in the reconstitution process and in the prediction of long term outcomes.

  4. Dizziness following head injury: a neuro-otological study.

    PubMed

    Davies, R A; Luxon, L M

    1995-03-01

    Dizziness is a frequent and debilitating complications of head injury and accounts for increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. A detailed neuro-otological study was carried out from the records of 100 patients with post-traumatic dizziness to explore the neuro-otological basis of their symptoms: 50 patients presenting for medico-legal purposes (group I) and 50 presenting for management of their vestibular symptoms (group II). The two groups showed a similar sex distribution, a similar range of causes of head injury and similar severity of head injury (72 minor, 24 moderate and 4 severe). Of the 100, 88 showed at least one audio-vestibular abnormality on testing. Vertigo of the benign positional paroxysmal type was the commonest vestibular diagnosis in both groups (61/100), and only 8 patients showed central vestibular abnormalities. Fifty-three patients had audiometric abnormalities attributable to the head injury, the commonest of which was a high-tone sensorineural hearing loss. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any of the abnormalities in the medico-legal group (group I) when compared with the symptom management group (group II). The results provide strong evidence for an organic basis to recurring dizziness after head injury, whether or not a claim for compensation is pending, and emphasize the need for specialist neuro-otological investigation if abnormalities are to be identified and managed correctly.

  5. Minimizing Liability Risks of Head and Neck Injuries in Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Weis, Michael P.; Gartland, James M.; Weis, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    Although catastrophic head and neck injuries in football occur infrequently, their occurrence is almost always followed by litigation. The athletic trainer has to be sure he/she has adequate liability insurance to cover the costs of a defense and a possible judgment. General claims filed against athletic staffs usually deal with instruction, equipment, matching of participants, supervision, and/or postinjury care. The defenses to these claims include: statutory immunity, assumption of risk, releases or waivers, and the reckless disregard standard. The athletic trainer plays a key role in head and neck injury prevention and care, and must be aware of litigation possibilities, along with methods of risk management. We present recommendations aimed at minimizing the risk of head and neck injuries and the risk of liability. The areas covered are: preparing for head and neck lawsuits, preventing head and neck injuries, and postcatastrophic injury care. We base these recommendations on principles that the athletic trainer can easily apply to other areas, broadening the risk management concept presented. ImagesFig 1.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558275

  6. A survey of the management of paediatric minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, V; Astrand, R; Romner, B

    2014-03-01

    To investigate present established routines and standards in managing minor head-injured children in Danish hospitals, a survey of present management practice was conducted. A cross-sectional mail survey, detailing clinical and radiological examinations, in-hospital observation, discharge criteria and follow-up, was performed on all 46 hospitals treating children with minor head injury in Denmark. Of the 46 hospitals, 33% report having established written criteria for the referral and management of children with minor head injury. Ten (22%) of the 46 hospitals are so-called injury clinics, where only nurses are employed. All state that they use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and/or the paediatric GCS to assess the level of consciousness; 15% use the paediatric GCS exclusively. None perform routine radiological examinations. Criteria for early discharge are established in 98% of the hospitals. All hospitals provide written instructions for observations at home before discharge. The management of children with minor head injury varies between hospitals in Denmark. Local management guidelines are either lacking or mainly based on those of adults. Hence, there is a need for the development of minor head injury guidelines specifically designed for the management of children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Characteristics of head injuries-data from the Jiangsu Injury Surveillance System, 2006-2014].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Du, Wencong; Zhou, Jinyi; Zhang, Yongqing; Shi, Zhan; Qiu, Jing; Wu, Ming

    2016-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of head injuries through data gathered from the Jiangsu Injury Surveillance System. Data on head injury that occurred during 2006-2014 were collected from the Jiangsu injury surveillance system and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 software. From 2006 to 2014, data on 133 172 cases of head injuries were collected which accounting for 26.2% (133 172/509 175) of all the injury cases. Among them, males were 2.18 times higher than the females. The top five leading causes of head injuries were falls 24.6% (32 796/133 172), blunt force injuries 24.4% (32 446/133 172), motor car accident injuries 20.3% (26 993/133 172), knife or sharp force injuries 10.7% (14 183/133 172) and non-motor car accident injuries 6.7% (8 919/133 172). Main locations that head injuries occured would involve roads/streets 32.5% (43 262/133 172), working places 22.2% (29 526/133 172), at home 20.5% (27 925/133 172) and public residences 10.8% (14 367/133 172). Recreation activates 37.9% (50 479/133 172), driving 26.1% (34 749/133 172), paid jobs 24.8% (33 034/133 172) were the three major activities related to head injuries. Severity of injuries would depend on the situations on site. As for minor injuries, bruise accounted for 63.5% (67 929/106 912). Brain trauma 21.5% (5 119/23 803) and fracture 14.9% (3 554/23 803) appeared an increasing trend. Severe injuries would include brain trauma 74.6% (1 833/2 457). 78.8% (104 940/133 172) of the patients with head injuries would go home after receiving treatment the hospital, with fetality only as 0.1% (134/133 172). Data from the Jiangsu surveillance program showed that Head injury appeared the highest proportion among all the body injuries that called for special attention.

  8. Penetrating head injury: a prospective study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, R D; Wood, D L; Harrison-Felix, C L; Valena, N V; Black, K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the outcomes of persons with penetrating brain injury resulting from a gunshot wound to the head. It is a prospective study of 442 patients admitted with gunshot wounds to the head over a 7 year period to our University Trauma Center Emergency Department, an urban trauma center and an inpatient rehabilitation hospital with a specialized brain injury unit. Measures and factors described include initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, Revised Trauma Score, the Disability Rating Scale, Functional Independence Measure, levels of cognitive functioning, patient demographics, length of stay, hospital charges, and discharge disposition. Initially 36% of patients expired in or were dead upon arrival to the Emergency Department; 64% of patients survived to be admitted for inpatient care. Of those admitted, 41% expired within the first 48 h of admission. Fifty-two percent of those admitted had severe injuries, 7% moderate injuries, and 42% had mild head injuries. Sixty-two percent of the survivors were discharged from acute care to private residences. The remaining 38% were discharged to programs providing varying levels of care depending upon their level of functioning and care needs. Patients sustaining severe injuries following gunshot wound(s) to the head have high early mortality. Survivors able to participate in an inpatient rehabilitation program have good potential for functional improvement.

  9. Topical Therapy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following an Acute Experimental Head Injury Has Benefits in Motor-Behavioral Tests for Rodents.

    PubMed

    Lam, P K; Wang, Kevin K W; Ip, Anthony W I; Ching, Don W C; Tong, Cindy S W; Lau, Henry C H; Kong, Themis H C S; Lai, Paul B S; Wong, George K C; Poon, W S

    2016-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported in rodent and in preliminary clinical studies. MSCs are usually transplanted to patients by systemic infusion. However, only a few of the infused MSCs are delivered to the brain because of pulmonary trapping and the blood-brain barrier. In this study, MSCs were topically applied to the site of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the neuroprotective effects were assessed. TBI was induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with an electromagnetically controlled cortical impact device after craniotomy was performed between the bregma and lambda, 1 mm lateral to the midline. We applied 1.5 million MSCs, derived from the adipose tissue of transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SD rats, to the exposed cerebral cortex at the injured site. The MSCs were held in position by a thin layer of fibrin. Neurological function in the test (n = 10) and control (n = 10) animals was evaluated using the rotarod test, the water maze test, and gait analysis at different time points. Within 5 days following topical application, GFP-positive cells were found in the brain parenchyma. These cells co-expressed with markers of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, and NeuN. There was less neuronal death in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the test animals. Neurological functional recovery was significantly improved. Topically applied MSCs can migrate to the injured brain parenchyma and offer neuroprotective effects.

  10. Protective effects of taurine against closed head injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Zhao, Yumei; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, is reported to reduce ischemic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine protected the brain against closed head injury (CHI) in rats. Taurine was administered intravenously 30 min after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened body-weight loss and improved neurological functions at 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it lowered brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and the level of glutathione, and reduced levels of malondialdehyde and lactic acid in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. In addition, it attenuated neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields 7 days after CHI. All of these effects were dose dependent. These data demonstrated the dose-dependent protection of taurine against experimental CHI and suggest that taurine treatment might be beneficial in reducing trauma-induced oxidative damage to the brain, thus showing the potential for clinical implications.

  11. The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    The postconcussion syndrome refers to a large number of symptoms and signs that may occur alone or in combination following usually mild head injury. The most common complaints are headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of consciousness and memory, and noise sensitivity. Mild head injury is a major public health concern because the annual incidence is about 150 per 100,000 population, accounting for 75% or more of all head injuries. The postconcussion syndrome has been recognized for at least the last few hundred years and has been the subject of intense controversy for more than 100 years. The Hollywood head injury myth has been an important contributor to persisting skepticism and might be countered by educational efforts and counter-examples from boxing. The organicity of the postconcussion syndrome has now become well documented. Abnormalities following mild head injury have been reported in neuropathologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychologic studies. There are multiple sequelae of mild head injury, including headaches of multiple types, cranial nerve symptoms and signs, psychologic and somatic complaints, and cognitive impairment. Rare sequelae include hematomas, seizures, transient global amnesia, tremor, and dystonia. Neuroimaging and physiologic and psychologic testing should be used judiciously based on the problems of the particular patient rather than in a cookbook fashion. Prognostic studies clearly substantiate the existence of a postconcussion syndrome. Manifestations of the postconcussion syndrome are common, with resolution in most patients by 3 to 6 months after the injury. Persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits are present in a distinct minority of patients for additional months or years. Risk factors for persisting sequelae include age over 40 years; lower educational, intellectual, and socioeconomic level; female gender; alcohol abuse; prior head injury; and multiple trauma. Although a small

  12. Mild head injury: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Machamer, J; Temkin, N

    2001-12-01

    While most would agree that mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with early neuropsychological problems, disagreement exists regarding their persistence and whether they are the cause of the disabilities experienced by some people. The aim of this study was to examine how the criteria used to define mild TBI and how the pre-injury characteristics of people affect their neuropsychological outcome. A total of 157 unselected hospitalized cases with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 13-15 and 109 trauma controls were prospectively recruited and administered a number of cognitive measures at 1 month and 12 months after injury. The results indicated early impairments that decreased with time and the stringency of the definition of 'mild' TBI. The contribution of demographics was usually significant and often stronger than the mild TBI effect. Subtle variation of the demographics of the brain injured or the comparison subjects can be sufficient to mimic or mask mild brain injury effects.

  13. Severe Traumatic Head Injury Affects Systemic Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J; Rosenberger, Laura H; Walters, Dustin M; Hedrick, Traci L; Swenson, Brian R; Young, Jeffrey S; Dossett, Lesly A; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Background The neuroimmunologic effect of traumatic head injury remains ill-defined. This study aimed to characterize systemic cytokine profiles among traumatically injured patients to assess the effect of traumatic head injury on the systemic inflammatory response. Study Design Over five years, 1,022 patients were evaluated from a multi-institutional trauma immunomodulatory database (TIMD). Patients were stratified by presence of severe head injury (SHI, Head ISS ≥ 4, n=335) versus non-severe head injury (NHI, Head ISS ≤ 3, n=687). Systemic cytokine expression was quantified by ELISA within 72 hours of admission. Patient factors, outcomes, and cytokine profiles were compared by univariate analyses. Results SHI patients were more severely injured with higher mortality despite similar ICU infection and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) rates. Expression of early pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 (p<0.001) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p=0.02), were higher among NHI patients, while expression of immunomodulatory cytokines, interferon-γ (p=0.01) and IL-12 (p=0.003), was higher in SHI patients. High TNF-α levels in NHI patients were associated with mortality (p=0.01), increased mechanical ventilation (p=0.02), and development of VAP (p=0.01). Alternatively, among SHI patients, high IL-2 levels were associated with survival, decreased mechanical ventilation, and absence of VAP. Conclusions The presence of severe traumatic head injury significantly alters systemic cytokine expression and exerts an immunomodulatory effect. Early recognition of these profiles may allow for targeted intervention to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:22342787

  14. MRI Correlation of Radial Head Fractures and Forearm Injuries.

    PubMed

    Awan, Hisham; Goitz, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Background: Radial head fractures can be associated with soft tissue injuries of the forearm and wrist. The Essex-Lopresti injury can lead to significant morbidity, especially if the diagnosis is not made acutely. Better identification of such injuries is needed to allow optimal surgical treatment and prevent long-term sequelae. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to correlate the degree of soft tissue injuries with radial head fractures. Methods: Sixteen pairs of forearms with an associated radial head fracture in 15 patients prospectively underwent an MRI within 2 weeks of their injury. MRI findings were correlated with fracture type, associated soft tissue injury, and presence of symptomatic wrist pain. Results: According to the modified Mason classification, there were 8 type I, 5 type II, and 3 type III radial head fractures. Wrist pain was reported in 8 of 16 extremities, and 2 had associated wrist pathology, including an acute scaphoid fracture in 1 patient and a preexisting stage II scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrist in another patient. The MRI findings included an elbow effusion in all 16 patients, edema in the proximal third of the radius in 15 extremities, which extended to the middle third in 3 extremities, edema of the interosseous membrane (IOM) in 5 extremities, and edema of the soft tissues including the supinator and/or pronator quadratus in 13 extremities. Conclusions: Eighty percent of patients with edema of the IOM had associated wrist pain. Soft tissue injuries of the forearm did not correlate with the severity of the radial head fracture.

  15. Development of head injury assessment reference values based on NASA injury modeling.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Granderson, Bradley; Melvin, John W; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Patalak, John

    2011-11-01

    NASA is developing a new crewed vehicle and desires a lower risk of injury compared to automotive or commercial aviation. Through an agreement with the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. (NASCAR®), an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new injury assessment reference values (IARV) that may be more relevant to NASA's context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by analyzing all NASCAR recorded impact data for the 2002-2008 race seasons. From the 4015 impact files, 274 impacts were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Hybrid III 50th percentile male Finite Element Model (FEM) in LS-DYNA. Head injury occurred in 27 of the 274 selected impacts, and all of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 247 noninjury impacts selected were representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of impacts. The probability of head injury was estimated for each metric using an ordered probit regression analysis. Four metrics had good correlation with the head injury data: head resultant acceleration, head change in velocity, HIC 15, and HIC 36. For a 5% risk of AIS≥1/AIS≥2 head injuries, the following IARVs were found: 121.3/133.2 G (head resultant acceleration), 20.3/22.0 m/s (head change in velocity), 1,156/1,347 (HIC 15), and 1,152/1,342 (HIC 36) respectively. Based on the results of this study, further analysis of additional datasets is recommended before applying these results to future NASA vehicles.

  16. Impalement head injury with serrated meat knife.

    PubMed

    Binitie, Op; Shilong, Dj; Ugwu, Bt; Ekedigwe, Je; Oyeniran, Oo; Adighije, Pf; Mairiga, An; Ninmol, Pj; Alayande, B

    2012-01-01

    An unsuspecting motorcycle passenger was ambushed and impaled on the right side of the head with a 30cm serrated meat carving knife during a sectarian crisis in the city of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The patient escaped running with the knife in his head and was rescued to a military hospital from where he was promptly transferred within 90 minutes of the incident to the Emergency Department of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Prompt resuscitation and CT brain imaging facilitated a successful neurosurgical intervention and a good outcome in the management of this patient.

  17. Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Reid, D B; Kelly, M P

    1993-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ability of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) to differentiate a group of closed head injury patients from a group of controls and determine how injury severity and attentional deficits are associated with WMS-R performance. The relationship of WMS-R performance to everyday memory also was assessed. The head injured group performed more poorly than controls on all five WMS-R indices and exhibited greater impairments on tasks that measure retention. In the original sample only the Visual Memory Index correlated with injury severity; in a larger sample, all four memory indices correlated modestly with injury severity. Patients who performed more poorly on the WMS-R also received poorer ratings on an independent assessment of everyday memory.

  18. Evoked potentials and head injury. 2. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T

    1981-10-01

    The method of rating abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns and assessing the extent and severity of cortical and subcortical brain dysfunction in head injury patients described in Part I is applied in a clinical context. Evoked potential abnormality (EPA) scores are found to be significantly correlated both with admission and outcome disability approximately one year after head injury. Correlations increase with the increase in the number of sensory modalities tested. Correlations between EPA scores and clinical disability (measured by the Disability Rating Scale) decrease with time after injury. Significant correlations, however, persist for about 60 days after onset of injury. It was found that EP pattern abnormalities can reflect specific sensory (and at times motor) deficits in noncommunicative patients and thereby contribute significantly to early treatment and rehabilitation planning.

  19. The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury and Injury Severity and Outcome Measures in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E.; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renee; Edwards, Richard J.; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The…

  20. The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury and Injury Severity and Outcome Measures in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E.; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renee; Edwards, Richard J.; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The…

  1. [Resuscitation for myocardial infarction and head injury: first the heart or first the head?].

    PubMed

    van Noord, Peter T; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Haringman, Jasper J

    2014-01-01

    Loss of circulation in a patient results in collapse and therefore possible head injury. After percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) including anticoagulation, comatose patients are sedated for mild therapeutic hypothermia. Recognised or unrecognised head trauma may have dramatic clinical consequences. A 42-year-old male with unrecognised head trauma died due to a massive intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) during the hypothermia phase after being treated with PCI. A 76-year-old female, on anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, with recognised ICH which resulted in an adjusted PCI, died after five days due to a lethal re-bleed. In a 55-year-old male with neurological abnormalities after mild head trauma, the PCI was postponed for a (negative) head CT which might have increased cardiac muscle damage. Nowadays more patients reach hospital after being resuscitated for cardiac arrest and possible head trauma should be considered in all these patients. This could lead to adjustments being made in the treatment protocol.

  2. Pediatric head and neck injuries due to golf cart trauma.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brandon; Yelverton, Eden; Monico, Jesus; Replogle, William; Jordan, J Randall

    2016-09-01

    Golf carts are increasingly used off the golf course and are often viewed as innocuous modes of transportation. However, research has shown they can cause significant injuries, particularly to children. Analyze golf cart related head and neck injuries in children and adults from a national database. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried for golf cart injuries. The NEISS tracks consumer product related injuries from a sampling of approximately 100 emergency departments across the United States. Age, general diagnosis (concussion, fracture, laceration), body-part injured, disposition (hospitalized, discharged), location injury occurred, and mechanism of injury were analyzed. Over an 11-year period, a total of 3433 total patients were identified. There were 1471 children (16 years old or younger), which compromised 42.9% of the cohort. Children were injured at home or on the road 44.7% of the time compared to only 16.6% of adults (p < 0.003). Children injured their head or neck 42.6% of the time compared to 28.6% of adults (p < 0.0001). Adults who were hit by a car while riding a golf cart or were ejected from the golf cart 44.6% of the time compared to 61.7% of children (p < 0.0001). There were 3.9% of children with a face, head, or neck fracture compared to only 2.4% of adults (p = 0.01). Children are more vulnerable to golf cart related injuries, specifically to the head and neck. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Melvin, John W.; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Granderson, Bradley; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Patalak, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a new capsule-based, crewed vehicle that will land in the ocean, and the space agency desires to reduce the risk of injury from impact during these landings. Because landing impact occurs for each flight and the crew might need to perform egress tasks, current injury assessment reference values (IARV) were deemed insufficient. Because NASCAR occupant restraint systems are more effective than the systems used to determine the current IARVs and are similar to NASA s proposed restraint system, an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new IARVs that may be more relevant to NASA s context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by completing a detailed analysis of all of the 2002-2008 NASCAR impact data. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select 4071 impacts from the 4015 recorder files provided (each file could contain multiple impact events). Of the 4071 accepted impacts, 274 were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Humanetics Hybrid-III 50th percentile numerical dummy model in LS-DYNA. Injury had occurred in 32 of the 274 selected impacts, and 27 of those injuries involved the head. A majority of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 242 non-injury impacts were randomly selected and representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of 4071 impacts. Head dynamics data (head translational acceleration, translational change in velocity, rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, HIC-15, HIC-36, and the Head 3ms clip) were filtered according to SAE J211 specifications and then transformed to a log scale. The probability of head injury was estimated using a separate logistic regression analysis for each log-transformed predictor candidate. Using the log transformation constrains the estimated probability of injury to become negligible as IARVs approach

  4. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program: background and overview.

    PubMed

    Salazar, A M; Zitnay, G A; Warden, D L; Schwab, K A

    2000-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the principal cause of death and disability for young Americans, with an estimated societal cost of over $39 billion per year. The Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program (DVHIP) represents a close collaboration among the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Affairs (DVA), the Brain Injury Association (BIA), and the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA). Its principal mission is to ensure that military and veteran patients with head injury receive TBI-specific evaluation, treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up, while at the same time addressing the readiness mission of the military and helping to define optimal care for victims of TBI nationwide. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program activities can be grouped into three broad classes: (1) TBI education, community service, and primary prevention projects; (2) combined TBI clinical treatment, rehabilitation, and clinical research projects; and (3) clinically linked TBI laboratory research projects. It is thus based on a prudent integration of clinical care and follow-up with programmatic clinical and clinically related laboratory research, TBI prevention, and education. This previously nonexistent clinical infrastructure now offers a valuable base for ongoing TBI clinical research.

  5. Head injuries and the risk of concurrent cervical spine fractures.

    PubMed

    Thesleff, Tuomo; Kataja, Anneli; Öhman, Juha; Luoto, Teemu M

    2017-05-01

    Cervical spine injuries of variable severity are common among patients with an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesised that TBI patients with positive head computed tomography (CT) scans would have a significantly higher risk of having an associated cervical spine fracture compared to patients with negative head CT scans. This widely generalisable retrospective sample was derived from 3,023 consecutive patients, who, due to an acute head injury (HI), underwent head CT at the Emergency Department of Tampere University Hospital (August 2010-July 2012). Medical records were reviewed to identify the individuals whose cervical spine was CT-imaged within 1 week after primary head CT due to a clinical suspicion of a cervical spine injury (CSI) (n = 1,091). Of the whole cranio-cervically CT-imaged sample (n = 1,091), 24.7% (n = 269) had an acute CT-positive TBI. Car accidents 22.4% (n = 244) and falls 47.8% (n = 521) were the most frequent injury mechanisms. On cervical CT, any type of fracture was found in 6.6% (n = 72) and dislocation and/or subluxation in 2.8% (n = 31) of the patients. The patients with acute traumatic intracranial lesions had significantly (p = 0.04; OR = 1.689) more cervical spine fractures (9.3%, n = 25) compared to head CT-negative patients (5.7%, n = 47). On an individual cervical column level, head CT positivity was especially related to C6 fractures (p = 0.031, OR = 2.769). Patients with cervical spine fractures (n = 72) had altogether 101 fractured vertebrae, which were most often C2 (22.8, n = 23), C7 (19.8%, n = 20) and C6 (16.8%, n = 17). Head trauma patients with acute intracranial lesions on CT have a higher risk for cervical spine fractures in comparison to patients with a CT-negative head injury. Although statistically significant, the difference in fracture rate was small. However, based on these results, we suggest that cervical spine fractures should be

  6. Mortality risk after head injury increases at 30 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin; DiRusso, Stephen; Sullivan, Tom; Benzil, Deborah L

    2003-11-01

    Age has long been recognized as a critical factor in predicting outcomes after head injury, with individuals older than 60 years predicted to have a worse outcome than those younger than 60. The object of this study was to determine the effect of age by decade of life beginning at birth in patients with head injuries of all levels of severity. The New York State Trauma Registry was searched for head injuries from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1995; the 13,908 cases found were placed into age groups by decade. Data were sought for each patient on demographics, Glasgow Coma Score, ICD-9 injury code, New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and mechanism of injury. These data were analyzed with chi-square and one-way ANOVA tests, with significance set at p < 0.05. The risk of dying was significantly increased in patients beginning at 30 years of age compared with those in the younger age groups, with the greatest increases occurring after age 60 (p < 0.001). For the population with available Glasgow Coma Score data (n = 12,844), the mortality rate for patients ages 0 to 30 was 10.9%, and for patients ages 31 to 50 was 12.4%. The mean Glasgow Coma Score for nonsurvivors ages 0 to 20 (3.9) and for nonsurvivors ages 31 to 50 (5.1) were significantly different, with a risk ratio of 1.3 (p < 0.001). The risk of dying for patients suffering head injuries increases as early as 30 years of age, making it necessary for health-care providers to consider increased monitoring and treatment for patients in this younger age group.

  7. The potential and limitations of utilising head impact injury models to assess the likelihood of significant head injury in infants after a fall.

    PubMed

    Cory, C Z; Jones, M D; James, D S; Leadbeatter, S; Nokes, L D

    2001-12-01

    The use of engineering principles in assessing head injury scenarios is of increasing significance in investigations into suspected child abuse. A fall scenario is often given as the history for a head injury to an infant. This paper addresses the basic engineering principles and factors to be considered when calculating the severity of a head impact after free-fall. The application of head injury models (HIMs) to ascertain the forces involved in childhood head injuries from impact is also discussed. Previous studies including Duhaime et al. [J. Neurosurg. 66 (1987) 409] and Nokes et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 79 (1995) 85] have utilised HIMs for this purpose: this paper reviews those models most widely documented.The HIM currently considered the 'state-of-the-art' is the head injury criterion (HIC) and it is suggested that this model should be utilised for assessing head impact injury in child abuse cases where appropriate.

  8. Social Cognition after Head Injury: Sarcasm and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channon, S.; Pellijeff, A.; Rule, A.

    2005-01-01

    Closed head injury (CHI) is associated with communication difficulties in everyday social interactions. Previous work has reported impaired comprehension of sarcasm, using sarcastic remarks where the intended meaning is the opposite of the sincere or literal meaning. Participants with CHI in the present study were assessed using two types of…

  9. [Reflection around the return home of a head injury patient].

    PubMed

    Mouling, Virginie; Lambert, Marie; Charlier, Nathalie; Fonseca, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    The rehabilitation of people having suffered a head injury requires an inter-disciplinary perspective. Understanding the family dynamics as well as assessing the patient's resources and limits help professionals organise the necessary support to guide the patient and their family towards social reintegration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Deficits in decision-making in head injury survivors.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; Menon, D K; Chatfield, D A; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J

    2005-06-01

    Many survivors of head injury suffer chronic personality changes, such as increased impulsivity and a lack of insight and poor judgment. These changes are well recognized and likely to affect the ability to make decisions. However, systematic investigations into their nature have been limited. This study aims to explore the nature of decision making in head injury survivors using a computerized task. Forty-three head injury survivors and a group of 29 matched controls completed the computerized task. The task required participants to make a probability-based choice and to further qualify this choice with an associated "bet." This betting component allows an assessment of the participant's level of confidence in the decision, via the affective evaluation of its possible consequences in terms of points won or lost. The survivors were found to be slow at making the probability- based choice. Whilst at highly favorable odds, the survivors chose the most likely option in a similar manner to the controls, they chose the most likely option less often than the controls at less favorable odds. Examination of the survivors' betting behavior revealed that they responded impulsively compared to controls. This pattern of prolonged decision making and poor quality of decisions is similar to that found in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions, whilst impulsive betting has been associated with abnormalities of the dopamine system. These complex deficits in decision making may contribute to difficulties with poor judgment and inhibition in head injury survivors.

  11. Management of isolated minor head injury in the UK.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Steve W; Pandor, Abdullah; Pickering, Alastair

    2010-11-01

    Recent guidelines and service developments may have changed the management of isolated minor head injuries in the UK. The authors aimed to review current practice and national statistics, and determine whether methods of service delivery are associated with differences in admission rates. The authors surveyed management of minor head injuries in all acute hospitals in the UK and then correlated these responses with Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) emergency department data relating to head injury. Responses relating to children were received from 174/250 hospitals and adults from 181/250. Nearly all hospitals had unrestricted access to CT scanning (adults 96%, children 94.5%). Most hospitals (70.1%) admitted adults under the emergency department staff, usually (61.4%) to an observation ward or clinical decision unit. Children were usually formally admitted to a ward (86.7%) under an inpatient team (78.5%). The median proportion of attendances admitted was higher for adults (18%) than for children (9%). There was no evidence of any association between the proportion admitted and the admission team, location or requirement for senior or specialist approval (all p>0.1). Minor head injury admission, especially for adults, is increasingly the responsibility of the emergency department. Admission policies had no significant effect on the proportion admitted, although improved HES data are required to confirm this.

  12. Analysis and evolution of head injury in football.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael L; Ozgur, Burak M; Berry, Cherisse; Aryan, Henry E; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2004-09-01

    To review head injury in football through historical, anatomic, and physiological analysis. We obtained data from a thorough review of the literature. The reported incidence of concussion among high school football players dropped from 19% in 1983 to 4% in 1999. During the 1997 Canadian Football League season, players with a previous loss of consciousness in football were 6.15 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous loss of consciousness (P < 0.05). Players with a previous concussion in football were 5.10 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous concussion (P = 0.0001). With the implementation of National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment standards, fatalities decreased by 74% and serious head injuries decreased from 4.25 per 100,000 to 0.68 per 100,000. Significant declines in both the incidence and severity of head injury have been observed. The enhanced safety records in football can be attributed to the application of more stringent tackling regulations as well as the evolving football helmet. The role of a neurosurgeon is critical in further head injury prevention and guidelines in sport.

  13. The risks of minor head injury in the warfarinised patient.

    PubMed

    Volans, A P

    1998-05-01

    The risk factors affecting intracranial haemorrhage in warfarinised patients are described and an attempt made to calculate the risk of haemorrhage in warfarinised patients with minor head injuries. Using the data from studies of patients with spontaneous haemorrhage while taking warfarin, guidelines for treatment and given and the likely outcome predicted.

  14. The risks of minor head injury in the warfarinised patient.

    PubMed Central

    Volans, A P

    1998-01-01

    The risk factors affecting intracranial haemorrhage in warfarinised patients are described and an attempt made to calculate the risk of haemorrhage in warfarinised patients with minor head injuries. Using the data from studies of patients with spontaneous haemorrhage while taking warfarin, guidelines for treatment and given and the likely outcome predicted. PMID:9639176

  15. Social Cognition after Head Injury: Sarcasm and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channon, S.; Pellijeff, A.; Rule, A.

    2005-01-01

    Closed head injury (CHI) is associated with communication difficulties in everyday social interactions. Previous work has reported impaired comprehension of sarcasm, using sarcastic remarks where the intended meaning is the opposite of the sincere or literal meaning. Participants with CHI in the present study were assessed using two types of…

  16. [A temporal head injury involving intracranial penetration by glass].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Su, Ching-Chan; Yamashita, Yoji; Endo, Toshiki; Shirane, Reizo

    2002-05-01

    The authors report a rare case of intracranial glass injury due to a temporal head injury. This 72-year-old man slipped on a bathroom floor, impacting a glass door with his head and right shoulder. His right temporal scalp and right shoulder were cut by the broken glass. He visited our emergency unit four hours after sustaining the injury. Physical and neurological examinations showed no abnormalities except for two lacerated wounds on both the right temporal scalp (1.5 cm) and the right shoulder skin (10 cm). Foreign bodies were not palpable around the lacerated wounds. Skull X-ray and CT studies disclosed a single, 5-cm long, radiopaque foreign body penetrating the temporal skull bone into the right temporal lobe, but no evidence of intracranial bleeding was found. Under the diagnosis of intracranial glass injury, total removal of the foreign body with dural repair was carried out. On surgical exploration, glass penetrating the skull bone 5-mm distant anteriorly to the scalp laceration was observed. Postoperative angiography showed no vascular lesions, and one-week later he was discharged with no complications. According to the literature, most of the intracranial foreign bodies occur around the orbital, the frontal sinus, and the nasal areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intracranial glass penetrating injury to the temporal lobe. Since the clinical manifestations occasionally do not correspond to the appearance of the laceration after glass penetrating injuries, serious caution concerning patients with intracranial glass penetrating injuries is important.

  17. Evaluation of Head and Brain Injury Risk Functions Using Sub-Injurious Human Volunteer Data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Erin J; Gabler, Lee F; McGhee, James S; Olszko, Ardyn V; Chancey, V Carol; Crandall, Jeff R; Panzer, Matthew B

    2017-08-15

    Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of 14 existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers. Six degrees-of-freedom head kinematics data were obtained for 335 sled tests involving subjects in frontal, lateral, and oblique sled conditions up to 16 Gs peak sled acceleration. A review of the medical reports associated with each individual test indicated no clinical diagnosis of mild or moderate brain injury in any of the cases evaluated. Kinematic-based head and brain injury risk probabilities were calculated directly from the kinematic data, while strain-based risks were determined through finite element model simulation of the 335 tests. Several injury risk functions substantially over predict the likelihood of concussion and diffuse axonal injury; proposed maximum principal strain-based injury risk functions predicted nearly 80 concussions and 14 cases of severe diffuse axonal injury out of the 335 non-injurious cases. This work is an important first step in assessing the efficacy of existing brain risk functions and highlights the need for more predictive injury assessment models.

  18. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile.

  19. Post-traumatic head injury pituitary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zaben, Malik; El Ghoul, Wessam; Belli, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Partial or complete pituitary dysfunction affects 33-50% of all traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors and is a significant contributor to the overall disability burden. The hypophyseal vessels are anatomically vulnerable to shearing injuries, raised intracranial pressure and anterior base of skull fractures, and pituitary ischaemia or haemorrhage is a common finding at autopsy. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) can affect all grades of severity of injury and is often difficult to diagnose, as its features largely overlap with common post-concussive symptoms. PTHP has a wide range of manifestations, including fatigue, myopathy, cognitive difficulties, depression, behavioural changes or life-threatening complications such as sodium dysregulation and adrenal crisis. In some instances, mild PTHP can recover, at least partially, but cases of late onset are also known. At present, there is no consensus on whether all TBI patients should be screened (including mild TBI) and at what time points, given that neuroendocrine tests in the acute phase are simply likely to reflect a non-specific trauma response rather than true pituitary damage and that the time course of PTHP is unclear. A full investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis requires specialized neuroendocrine assessment, including stimulation tests, as random hormone levels can be misleading in this context. Given the high incidence of TBI, this may have significant resource implications for Endocrinology services but, on the other hand, patients with PTHP may receive suboptimal rehabilitation unless the underlying hormone deficiency is identified and treated.

  20. Biomechanics of head injury in olympic taekwondo and boxing.

    PubMed

    Fife, G P; O'Sullivan, D; Pieter, W

    2013-12-01

    The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared. For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity. Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed. Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC.

  1. BIOMECHANICS OF HEAD INJURY IN OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO AND BOXING

    PubMed Central

    Fife, G.P.; Pieter, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared. Methods For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity. Results Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed. Conclusions Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC. PMID:24744497

  2. Dysprosody after severe closed head injury: an acoustic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, C; Louis-Dreyfus, A; Couillet, J; Roubeau, B; Bakchine, S; Bussel, B; Azouvi, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Neurological speech disorders (dysarthria and dysprosody) are known to be frequent sequelae after severe closed head injury. These disorders may dramatically alter communicative intent and accentuate social isolation. The aim was to provide an instrumental evaluation for prosodic production in a group of patients with severe closed head injury and to determine the correlations between prosodic production and neurobehavioural status.
METHODS—Fifteen patients, at the subacute stage after severe closed head injury, were studied and compared with 11 controls, matched for age, sex, and duration of education. Each subject was required to read aloud a French sentence "Je m'en vais samedi matin" (I am leaving saturday morning) under six different prosodic intonations (neutral, affirmation, interrogation, happiness, sadness, anger). The recorded sentences were analysed using a sound signal analysis software (Signalyse) allowing the measurement of signal intensity and fundamental frequency. Statistical analyses were carried out using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).
RESULTS—Patients with closed head injury were significantly less able than controls to modulate speech output (pitch and intensity) according to prosodic context. This deficit was particularly pronounced for the intonation feature of anger, question, and statement. No consistent correlations could be found between prosodic production and cognitive or behavioural data.
CONCLUSIONS—Acoustic analysis of pitch and intensity may show impairments of prosodic production after severe closed head injury, which may be useful in rehabilitation planning. This impairment does not seem to reflect the eventual cognitive and behavioural deficits of the patients, but rather a specific disorder of modulation of speech output.

 PMID:9576539

  3. ALCOHOL ABUSE AND RECOVERY AFTER HEAD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Sabhesan, S.; Natarajan, M.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY The clinical observation of a turbulent recovery phase in the alcohol abusers among the head injured patients was studied. Various parameters of severity such as duration of hospital stay, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia, focal neurological deficits, presence of fracture and the behaviour problems during recovery were studied. Behaviour problems and the length of hospital stay were found to be more in the abuser group than in the control population. It is concluded that the behaviour problems contribute to the disturbed recovery process in these patients. PMID:21927229

  4. Neurobehavioural consequences of closed head injury in older adults.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, F C; Levin, H S; Presley, R M; Searcy, J; Colohan, A R; Eisenberg, H M; Jann, B; Bertolino-Kusnerik, L

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the neurobehavioural effects of closed head injury (CHI) in adults aged 50 years and older. Twenty two mild to moderate CHI patients who were within seven months of the injury were administered measures of language, memory, attention, and executive functioning. Compared with demographically similar normal controls, the patients exhibited significantly poorer functioning on the cognitive domains. Naming and word fluency under timed conditions, verbal and visual memory, and the ability to infer similarities were especially vulnerable. These initial findings indicate that CHI in older adults produces considerable cognitive deficits in the early stages of recovery. Future research should characterise long term outcome and the potential links between head injury and the development of progressive dementia.

  5. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear.

    PubMed

    Ting, D K; Brison, R J

    2015-04-01

    Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  6. Muscle injury: review of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jaqueline de; Gottfried, Carmem

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body. Its main characteristic is the capacity to regenerate after injury independent of the cause of injury through a process called inflammatory response. Mechanical injuries are the most common type of the skeletal muscle injuries and are classified into one of three areas strain, contusion, and laceration. First, this review aims to describe and compare the main experimental methods that replicate the mechanical muscle injuries. There are several ways to replicate each kind of mechanical injury; there are, however, specific characteristics that must be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate model for the experiment. Finally, this review discusses the context of mechanical injury considering types, variability of methods, and the ability to reproduce injury models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of children with head injury: a national overview

    PubMed Central

    Trefan, L; Houston, R; Pearson, G; Edwards, R; Hyde, P; Maconochie, I; Parslow, RC; Kemp, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The National Confidential Enquiry describes the epidemiology of children admitted to hospital with head injury. Method Children (<15 years old) who died or were admitted for >4 h with head injury were identified from 216 UK hospitals (1 September 2009 to 28 February 2010). Data were collected using standard proformas and entered on to a database. A descriptive analysis of the causal mechanisms, child demographics, neurological impairment, CT findings, and outcome at 72 h are provided. Results Details of 5700 children, median age 4 years (range 0–14.9 years), were analysed; 1093 (19.2%) were <1 year old, 3500 (61.4%) were boys. There was a significant association of head injury with social deprivation 39.7/100 000 (95% CI 37.0 to 42.6) in the least deprived first quintile vs. 55.1 (95% CI 52.1 to 58.2) in the most deprived fifth quintile (p<0.01). Twenty-four children died (0.4%). Most children were admitted for one night or less; 4522 (79%) had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 or were Alert (on AVPU (Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive)). The most common causes of head injury were falls (3537 (62.1%); children <5 years), sports-related incidents (783 (13.7%); median age 12.4 years), or motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) (401 (7.1%); primary-school-aged children). CT scans were performed in 1734 (30.4%) children; 536 (30.9%) were abnormal (skull fracture and/or intracranial injury or abnormality): 269 (7.6%) were falls, 82 (10.5%) sports related and 100 (25%). A total of 357 (6.2%) children were referred to social care because of child protection concerns (median age 9 months (range 0–14.9 years)). Conclusions The data described highlight priorities for targeted age-specific head injury prevention and have the potential to provide a baseline to evaluate the effects of regional trauma networks (2012) and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) head injury guidelines (2014), which were revised after the study was completed

  8. Impact of Head Injury on Families: An Introduction for Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Coping with the impact of a family member's head injury is one of the most difficult tasks that can confront a family. An overview of head injury etiology, sequelae, and impact on families is presented. Provides guidelines for counseling families of persons with head injuries and suggestions for research. (Author/JBJ)

  9. Long-term outcome after severe head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, W; Marshall, T F; Roberts, A H

    1979-01-01

    From a consecutive series of 7000 patients with head injuries admitted to the regional accident service, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford between 10 and 24 years earlier, every patient was taken who had been amnesic or unconscious for one week or longer. Of these 479 patients, all but ten were traced, and either the cause of death was established or the survivors examined. Ten years after injury 4% were totally disabled, and 14% severely disabled to a degree precluding normal occupational or social life. Of the remainder, 49% had recovered, and the rest were dead. Additionally, a selected series of 64 patients whose unconsciousness had been prolonged for a month or more were studied. Forty of these had survived between three and 25 years after injury and were re-examined. On the basis of age at injury, the worst state of neurological responsiveness, and the duration of posttraumatic amnesia, the outcome of head injury can be predicted reliably in most cases. Patients and relatives need more reassurance and simple psychotherapeutic support, especially in the first few months after injury. Extrapolation from our figures suggests that each year in England and Wales 210 patients survive totally disabled and another 1500 are severely disabled. PMID:119567

  10. Investigation of traumatic brain injuries using the next generation of simulated injury monitor (SIMon) finite element head model.

    PubMed

    Takhounts, Erik G; Ridella, Stephen A; Hasija, Vikas; Tannous, Rabih E; Campbell, J Quinn; Malone, Dan; Danelson, Kerry; Stitzel, Joel; Rowson, Steve; Duma, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) using a newly developed, geometrically detailed, finite element head model (FEHM) within the concept of a simulated injury monitor (SIMon). The new FEHM is comprised of several parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, falx, tentorium, combined pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) with cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), ventricles, brainstem, and parasagittal blood vessels. The model's topology was derived from human computer tomography (CT) scans and then uniformly scaled such that the mass of the brain represents the mass of a 50th percentile male's brain (1.5 kg) with the total head mass of 4.5 kg. The topology of the model was then compared to the preliminary data on the average topology derived from Procrustes shape analysis of 59 individuals. Material properties of the various parts were assigned based on the latest experimental data. After rigorous validation of the model using neutral density targets (NDT) and pressure data, the stability of FEHM was tested by loading it simultaneously with translational (up to 400 g) combined with rotational (up to 24,000 rad/s2) acceleration pulses in both sagittal and coronal planes. Injury criteria were established in the manner shown in Takhounts et al. (2003a). After thorough validation and injury criteria establishment (cumulative strain damage measure--CSDM for diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), relative motion damage measure--RMDM for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), and dilatational damage measure--DDM for contusions and focal lesions), the model was used in investigation of mild TBI cases in living humans based on a set of head impact data taken from American football players at the collegiate level. It was found that CSDM and especially RMDM correlated well with angular acceleration and angular velocity. DDM was close to zero for most impacts due to their mild severity implying that cavitational pressure anywhere in the brain was not reached. Maximum

  11. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts.

    PubMed

    Cripton, Peter A; Dressler, Daniel M; Stuart, Cameron A; Dennison, Christopher R; Richards, Darrin

    2014-09-01

    Cycling is a popular form of recreation and method of commuting with clear health benefits. However, cycling is not without risk. In Canada, cycling injuries are more common than in any other summer sport; and according to the US National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 52,000 cyclists were injured in the US in 2010. Head injuries account for approximately two-thirds of hospital admissions and three-quarters of fatal injuries among injured cyclists. In many jurisdictions and across all age levels, helmets have been adopted to mitigate risk of serious head injuries among cyclists and the majority of epidemiological literature suggests that helmets effectively reduce risk of injury. Critics have raised questions over the actual efficacy of helmets by pointing to weaknesses in existing helmet epidemiology including selection bias and lack of appropriate control for the type of impact sustained by the cyclist and the severity of the head impact. These criticisms demonstrate the difficulty in conducting epidemiology studies that will be regarded as definitive and the need for complementary biomechanical studies where confounding factors can be adequately controlled. In the bicycle helmet context, there is a paucity of biomechanical data comparing helmeted to unhelmeted head impacts and, to our knowledge, there is no data of this type available with contemporary helmets. In this research, our objective was to perform biomechanical testing of paired helmeted and unhelmeted head impacts using a validated anthropomorphic test headform and a range of drop heights between 0.5m and 3.0m, while measuring headform acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). In the 2m (6.3m/s) drops, the middle of our drop height range, the helmet reduced peak accelerations from 824g (unhelmeted) to 181g (helmeted) and HIC was reduced from 9667 (unhelmeted) to 1250 (helmeted). At realistic impact speeds of 5.4m/s (1.5m drop) and 6.3m/s (2.0m drop), bicycle helmets changed the

  12. Does padded headgear prevent head injury in rugby union football?

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew S; McCrory, Paul; Finch, Caroline F; Best, John P; Chalmers, David J; Wolfe, Rory

    2009-02-01

    Concussion is a serious problem in many contact sports, including rugby union football. The study's primary aim was to measure the efficacy of padded headgear in reducing the rates of head injury or concussion. A cluster randomized controlled trial with three arms was conducted with rugby union football teams as the unit of randomization. Teams consisted of males participating in under 13-, 15-, 18-, and 20-yr age group competitions. The interventions were "standard" and "modified" padded headgear. Headgear wearing and injury were measured for each study team at each game over two seasons. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. A total of 1493 participants (10,040 player hours) were in the control group, 1128 participants (8170 player hours) were assigned to the standard headgear group, and 1474 participants (10,650 player hours) were assigned to the modified headgear group. The compliance rates were low in all groups, but 46% of participants wore standard headgear. An intention-to-treat analysis showed no differences in the rates of head injury or concussion between controls and headgear arms. Incidence rate ratios for standard headgear wearers referenced to controls were 0.95 and 1.02 for game and missed game injuries. Analyses of injury rates based on observed wearing patterns also showed no significant differences. Incidence rate ratios for standard headgear wearers referenced to nonwearers were 1.11 and 1.10 for game and missed game injuries. Padded headgear does not reduce the rate of head injury or concussion. The low compliance rates are a limitation. Although individuals may choose to wear padded headgear, the routine or mandatory use of protective headgear cannot be recommended.

  13. Attentional deficits following closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, J; Kinsella, G

    1992-09-01

    Aimed to assess, in the light of current attentional theories, the nature of the attentional deficit in a group of severely traumatically head-injured subjects, relative to a group of orthopaedic rehabilitation patients, and to establish which neuropsychological measures best reflected the deficit. Three separate studies were conducted in order to meet these aims. The first study focused on selective attention; the second, on vigilance or sustained attention; the third, on the Supervisory Attentional System. Results provided no evidence for the presence of deficits of focused attention, sustained attention, or supervisory attentional control, but ample evidence for the presence of a deficit in speed of information processing. Those neuropsychological measures shown to be the best measures of this deficit included the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, simple and choice reaction-time tasks, colour naming and word reading scores on the Stroop, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test.

  14. [Ballistic approach in head injuries caused by missiles].

    PubMed

    Jourdan, P; Billant, J B; Desgeorges, M

    1989-01-01

    If the missile head injury treatment is relatively well codified, wound ballistic, on the other hand, is not well known of neurosurgeons. Different means of study and tissue simulants are being listed. In face of numerous contradictory results, we shall only retain the M.L. Fackler method with 10% gelatin. Experimental results will depend on: 1. Missile parameters. For instance, in soft homogeneous tissue, one can discern shells with an uncertain path, full jacketed bullets which tumble after a variable "neck", and non jacketed missiles which cause wound through "mushrooming" and/or fragmentation effect. Buckshot wounds obey the rule "all or none". 2. Body reactions, particularly the clash with a hard material like bone, which can overturn everything described in soft tissues. These wound ballistic notions have lead us to formulate two pathogenic hypothesizes, allowing us to understand sometime case reports which had first seemed paradoxical: the brain structure, enclosed in the skull will not able to survive any major temporary cavity, the more or less deep missile pathway through the skull will be very different according to the type and energy of the missile, and to the hardness of pierced bone.

  15. Head and neck injuries in soccer. Impact of minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Tysvaer, A T

    1992-09-01

    Head injuries have been shown to account for between 4 and 22% of soccer injuries. Clinical and neuropsychological investigations of patients with minor head trauma have revealed organic brain damage. 69 active football (soccer) players and 37 former players of the Norwegian national team were included in a neurological and electroencephalographic (EEG) study to investigate the incidence of head injuries mainly caused by heading the ball. 3% of the active and 30% of the former players complained of permanent problems such as headache, dizziness, irritability, impaired memory and neck pain. 35% of the active and 32% of former players had from slightly abnormal to abnormal EEG compared with 13 and 11% of matched controls, respectively. There were fewer definitely abnormal EEG changes among typical 'headers' (10%) than among 'nonheaders' (27%). The former players were also subjected to cerebral computed tomography (CT), a neuropsychological examination and a radiological examination of the cervical spine. One-third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy and 81% to have from mild to severe (mostly mild to moderate) neuropsychological impairment. The radiological examination of the cervical spine revealed a significantly higher incidence and degree of degenerative changes than in a matched control group.

  16. Bicycle helmet campaigns and head injuries among children. Does poverty matter?

    PubMed

    Farley, C; Laflamme, L; Vaez, M

    2003-09-01

    To assess the impact of a community based bicycle helmet programme aimed at children aged 5-12 years (about 140,000) from poor and well off municipalities. A quasi-experimental design, including a control group, was used. Changes in the risk of bicycle related head injuries leading to hospitalisation were measured, using rates ratios. Reductions in bicycle related head injuries were registered in both categories of municipalities. Compared with the pre-programme period, the protective effect of the programme during the post-programme period was as significant among children from poor municipalities (RR= 0.45 95%CI 0.26 to 0.78) as among those from richer municipalities (RR=0.55 95%CI 0.41 to 0.75). Population based educational programmes may have a favourable impact on injury risks in poor areas despite lower adoption of protective behaviours.

  17. Television tipovers as a significant source of pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Jea, Andrew; Ragheb, John; Morrison, Glenn

    2003-04-01

    To highlight the rising number and nature of pediatric head injuries secondary to falling television sets and correlate this with the increasing number of home TVs sold per year. National statistics for the past 10 years for the number of head traumas from falling television sets in children less than the age of 18 were obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Statistics for the number of TV sales were obtained from the Consumer Electronic US Sales Report for the same time period. A retrospective chart review overlapping the same period of time was performed at our local institution. National statistics show a steady rise in the number of pediatric head injuries, from 31 in 1992 to 117 in 2001. The number of TVs sold by year increased from 20,384,000 to 23,776,000 in a 10-year period from 1990 to 2000. Six of the 7 patients in our series (average age 22 months, range 18-36 months) suffered a skull fracture; 2 of those 6 were basilar skull fractures. The average length of hospital stay was 5 days (range 1-13 days). The number of pediatric head injuries from falling televisions has been steadily increasing. A similar, yet more modest rise in the number of televisions manufactured and sold per year has also been noted. From our series, the most common type of pediatric head injury sustained from falling television sets was skull fracture, seen mostly in children less than 2 years of age. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Current topics in sports-related head injuries: a review.

    PubMed

    Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.

  19. Current Topics in Sports-related Head Injuries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    NAGAHIRO, Shinji; MIZOBUCHI, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries. PMID:25367588

  20. Mild head injury--a positive approach to management.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, D W; Berry, E; Yates, D W

    1994-03-01

    It is estimated that 1.4 million patients each year attend Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments in the UK with a head injury. The vast majority are, in retrospect, diagnosed as a 'mild' injury. There is evidence to suggest that many develop short term morbidity and some long term problems. The incidence is unknown. Early recognition and treatment many hasten recovery. A national postal survey of A&E departments revealed a general unawareness for this morbidity. Written advice given to patients on discharge from the departments was exclusively concerned with the symptoms expected if serious complications developed. A description of the common symptoms of fatigue, poor memory and concentration were not given to the patients in a written format. Arrangements for follow up are, in the majority of hospitals, unstructured. We recommend a positive approach to the management and follow up of mild head injury. This should recognize the common problems experienced by these patients and cater for their needs. More interest and research is required into this aspect of head injury.

  1. Motor and cognitive deficits in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Lomnitski, L; Michaelson, D M; Shohami, E

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that traumatic brain injury is associated with increased risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, the extent of the risk seems to be most pronounced in Alzheimer's disease patients who carry the epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E, suggesting a connection between susceptibility to head trauma and the apolipoprotein E genotype. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice provide a useful model for investigating the role of this lipoprotein in neuronal maintenance and repair. In the present study apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and a closed head injury experimental paradigm were used to examine the role of apolipoprotein E in brain susceptibility to head trauma and in neuronal repair. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were assessed up to 40 days after closed head injury for neurological and cognitive functions, as well as for histopathological changes in the hippocampus. A neurological severity score used for clinical assessment revealed more severe motor and behavioural deficits in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice than in the controls, the impairment persisting for at least 40 days after injury. Performance in the Morris water maze, which tests spatial memory, showed a marked learning deficit of the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice when compared with injured controls, which was apparent for at least 40 days. At this time, histopathological examination revealed overt neuronal cell death bilaterally in the hippocampus of the injured apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The finding that apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exhibit an impaired ability to recover from closed head injury suggests that apolipoprotein E plays an important role in neuronal repair following injury and highlights the applicability of this mouse model to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved.

  2. Head injuries in youth soccer players presenting to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pickett, W; Streight, S; Simpson, K; Brison, R J

    2005-04-01

    There has been recent concern about neuropsychological injuries experienced by soccer players, particularly related to the purposeful heading of the ball. There are few population based analyses examining whether this is a legitimate concern. To explore, using an existing injury surveillance system, one of many parts of this issue: acute injuries requiring emergency medical care experienced by youth soccer players. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of emergency department injury surveillance data (1996-2001) for youths aged 10-24 years from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program. A total of 1714 cases of soccer injury were identified (mean 286 a year); 235 (13.7%) involved diagnoses of injuries to the head. Leading mechanical factors resulting in head injury were contact with other players or persons (153/235; 65.1%) and balls (62/235; 26.4%). Heading was reported in 4/62 (6%) of the ball contact injuries, and attempted heading was reported in 15/153 (9.8%) of the cases involving person to person contact. Unspecified head to head contact between players was reported in 39 cases. Minor head injuries that result in emergency medical treatment do not happen often in youth soccer, and very few can be attributed to the purposeful heading of the ball. Player contact injuries appear to be a more important injury control concern. This study informs one of many aspects of the soccer heading injury debate.

  3. Head injuries in youth soccer players presenting to the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Streight, S; Simpson, K; Brison, R; Cusimano, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: There has been recent concern about neuropsychological injuries experienced by soccer players, particularly related to the purposeful heading of the ball. There are few population based analyses examining whether this is a legitimate concern. Objectives: To explore, using an existing injury surveillance system, one of many parts of this issue: acute injuries requiring emergency medical care experienced by youth soccer players. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological analysis of emergency department injury surveillance data (1996–2001) for youths aged 10–24 years from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program. Results: A total of 1714 cases of soccer injury were identified (mean 286 a year); 235 (13.7%) involved diagnoses of injuries to the head. Leading mechanical factors resulting in head injury were contact with other players or persons (153/235; 65.1%) and balls (62/235; 26.4%). Heading was reported in 4/62 (6%) of the ball contact injuries, and attempted heading was reported in 15/153 (9.8%) of the cases involving person to person contact. Unspecified head to head contact between players was reported in 39 cases. Conclusions: Minor head injuries that result in emergency medical treatment do not happen often in youth soccer, and very few can be attributed to the purposeful heading of the ball. Player contact injuries appear to be a more important injury control concern. This study informs one of many aspects of the soccer heading injury debate. PMID:15793093

  4. Subtle neuropsychological deficits in patients with good recovery after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Stuss, D T; Ely, P; Hugenholtz, H; Richard, M T; LaRochelle, S; Poirier, C A; Bell, I

    1985-07-01

    This study demonstrates residual mental deficits in patients who have apparently recovered after closed head injury. Twenty closed head injury patients were compared to 20 normal control subjects matched for age, sex, handedness, education, language, and IQ. All received a series of neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis significantly differentiated the two groups. Correct classification of individuals as having suffered a head injury or not was 85%. The head injury patients did have primary impairment on tests of divided attention. Litigation was not a factor. We propose that this impairment of information processing reflects residual brain damage secondary to the closed head injury.

  5. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Caused by Minor Head Injury.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Toshiki; Tsurumi, Yuko; Tsurumi, Arihito

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1). No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was diagnosed. This case represents the first illustration of severe hyponatremia related to cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by a minor head injury.

  6. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Caused by Minor Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumi, Yuko; Tsurumi, Arihito

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1). No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was diagnosed. This case represents the first illustration of severe hyponatremia related to cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by a minor head injury. PMID:28194285

  7. Written discourse of adolescents with closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brenda M; Proctor, Adele

    2002-11-01

    Written discourse of adolescents with closed head injury (CHI) was compared to that of normal controls. It was expected that the writing of adolescents with CHI would be disordered on one or more of the eight measurements used (productivity, efficiency, lexical, incomplete, or elliptic cohesion, global or local coherence, and maze use). Eight adolescents with closed head injury and matched controls provided written descriptions of a pictured activity. Analysis using t-tests indicated that adolescents with CHI used fewer words to express each idea in writing (p = 0.05), and that the relationship between successive ideas was rated as less than that of controls (p = 0.002). Implications are that written as well as oral discourse should be assessed after CHI. Writing is a more controlled process than speaking; and, therefore, may be used clinically to structure the development of ideas after CHI.

  8. Learning people's names following severe closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Milders, M

    1998-04-01

    Although problems remembering people's names rank highly among the subjective complaints of patients with closed-head injuries, very few studies have examined their memory for people's names by objective measurements. An experiment is reported in which patients with severe closed-head injuries and normal controls learned the same set of words, either as names or as possessions, for unfamiliar faces. Name learning proved to be impaired in the patients. Patient recall of meaningless names and possessions which were described by nonwords was equally poor. The patients, but not the controls, recalled significantly fewer names than possessions if these items were described by concrete nouns. This last finding suggests that the patients' problems with learning people's names can not be fully explained by a general verbal learning impairment.

  9. Skull roentgenography in the evaluation of head injury

    SciTech Connect

    North, S.; Pollak, E.W.

    1983-04-01

    The role of skull roentgenograms in determining choice of therapy, hospital admission, and length of hospitalization was evaluated in 106 consecutive patients with head injury. Thirty patients were discharged from the emergency room after initial evaluation and had uneventful recovery. Seventy-six were admitted and discharged without operative treatment one to ten days later. Only five had pathologic skull findings roentgenographicaly. Of these, one was discharged from the emergency department; the remaining four were admitted because of abnormal neurologic findings. All five recovered uneventfully. Another patient who had a normal roentgenographic evaluation required subsequent admission for craniotomy. Skull roentgenograms were an unimportant factor in the management of head injury patients and did not eliminate the need for complete and serial neurologic evaluation.

  10. Mental imagery, human memory, and the effects of closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J T

    1979-09-01

    Several recent experiments suggest that mental imagery is relevant to an explanation of memory impairment resulting from neurological damage. This study compared a group of patients with recent closed head injuries with a control group of orthopaedic patients in their recall of concrete and abstract words. The head-injured subjects demonstrated a specific deficit in the recall of concrete material, which was interpreted as an impairment in the use of mental imagery as a form of elaborative encoding in long-term memory. It is suggested that the understanding of clinical conditions would be assisted by the application of the procedures and theoretical interests of experimental psychology.

  11. Risk factors for head injury events in professional rugby union: a video analysis of 464 head injury events to inform proposed injury prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Kemp, Simon; Brown, James; Fuller, Gordon; Hester, Ben; Cross, Matthew; Quarrie, Ken

    2017-08-01

    The tackle is responsible for the majority of head injuries during rugby union. In order to address head injury risk, risk factors during the tackle must first be identified. This study analysed tackle characteristics in the professional game in order to inform potential interventions. 464 tackles resulting in a head injury assessment (HIA) were analysed in detail, with tackle type, direction, speed, acceleration, nature of head contact and player body position the characteristics of interest. Propensity to cause an HIA was significantly greater for active shoulder tackles, front-on tackles, high speeder tackles and an accelerating tackler. Head contact between a tackler's head and ball carrier's head or shoulder was significantly more likely to cause an HIA than contact below the level of the shoulder (incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95%-CI 3.38 to 5.35). The tackler experiences the majority (78%) of HIAs when head-to-head contact occurs. An upright tackler was 1.5 times more likely to experience an HIA than a bent at the waist tackler (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.76). This study confirms that energy transfer in the tackle is a risk factor for head injury, since direction, type and speed all influence HIA propensity. The study provides evidence that body position and the height of tackles should be a focus for interventions, since lowering height and adopting a bent at the waist body position is associated with reduced risk for both tacklers and ball carriers. To this end, World Rugby has implemented law change based on the present data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. NICE head injury guidelines: review of the legal mandate.

    PubMed

    Baines, P

    2005-10-01

    This paper, while reviewing the legal authority held by clinical guidelines, examines the NICE head injury guidelines with respect to the likely consequences of non-compliance. Conversely, the effect on medical practice of rigid adherence to guidelines is also explored. Debate about the appropriateness of NICE head injury guidelines has highlighted the extent to which existing practices will need to change if compliance is to be achieved. Although a degree of resistance remains, there is perhaps a sense of resignation that the management of patients with head injuries will follow nationally prescribed guidance, whether in its current form or following its review next June. There will undoubtedly be those who remain unconvinced of the validity of these guidelines. Despite this, a possible reason for compliance may arise from concerns about the consequences of non-conformity. With the aid of a fictional scenario, this article seeks to remind the reader of the legal authority held by guidelines, the likely consequences of non-compliance and the liability held by their authors should compliance result in an untoward outcome. Finally, consideration is given to the possible long term effects that the adoption of guidelines may have on the medical profession.

  13. A Review of Sport-Related Head Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nagahiro, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns. PMID:27182494

  14. A Review of Sport-Related Head Injuries.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns.

  15. [Indications for computed tomography in patients with mild head injuries].

    PubMed

    Boran, Burak O; Barut, Nehir; Akgün, Cem; Celikoğlu, Erhan; Bozbuğa, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    To identify clinical parameters that may be associated with intracranial lesions in patients with mild head injuries, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 15 but without any focal neurological deficit. All head trauma patients admitted to the emergency room within 3 months with GCS scores of 15 (n = 371) were evaluated. Patients with focal neurological deficits, penetrating or multiple traumas, gun shot wounds were not evaluated. Mean age of 222 male and 149 female patients was 22.4 years. Frequency of intracranial lesions detected in CT was higher in patients older than 60 years of age. A significant difference was not found between both genders. Detection rate of abnormalities was higher after motorway accidents. Loss of consciousness and post-traumatic fits were associated with higher rates of pathological sequelae. A significant difference was not found between patients with or without headache, nausea, and vomiting. Sensitivity and specificity of cranial x-ray were estimated to be 38.2% and 93.2% when compared with cranial CT respectively. The incidence of intracranial lesions in patients with mild head injuries, GCS scores of 15, younger than 60 years of age, and without any focal neurological deficits, loss of consciousness, post-traumatic fits, gun shot wound, and penetrating injury is 0.6%.

  16. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in head injury: a missed insult.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R K; Soryal, I N; Pentland, B

    2000-01-01

    A survey of the use of thiamine in patients at risk from Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) in Scottish specialist neurosurgical units, and a 2-year retrospective study of 218 at-risk patients admitted to a regional neurosurgical unit with a head injury were undertaken. Although responses to the survey indicated otherwise, the study revealed that there was no consistent practice regarding thiamine administration. Overall, 20.6% of patients received thiamine, with an alcohol history being the only factor correlating with thiamine administration. Of known alcoholics and heavy drinkers, 56.1% and 26.2% respectively received thiamine as in-patients; 44.5% of patients received additional carbohydrate loads in the form of i.v. dextrose or parenteral nutrition, but only 28.9% of these received thiamine as well. Although the actual thiamine status of these patients was not known, given the difficulties of diagnosing WKS in the presence of a head injury, the conclusion is that written protocols are needed in units to ensure that head injury patients at risk of WKS receive appropriate thiamine treatment or prophylaxis.

  17. Incidence of intracranial tumors following hospitalization for head injuries (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Inskip, P D; Mellemkjaer, L; Gridley, G; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of brain and other intracranial tumors following head trauma was evaluated in a cohort of 228,055 Danish residents hospitalized because of concussion, fractured skull, or other head injury between 1977 and 1992 and followed for an average of eight years (maximum, 17 years). Traffic accidents, falls, and sports-related incidents were the usual causes of the injury. Malignant and benign neoplasms were identified by linking the study roster with records of the Danish Cancer Registry for the years 1977 to 1993. This approach precludes differential reporting of injuries by study participants as an explanation for any associations seen. Intracranial tumors of the nervous system occurred more often than expected based on incidence rates for the Danish population; however, most of the excess occurred during the first year after the injury and likely was due to the detection of tumors that were present before the injury occurred. Excluding the first year of follow-up, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.15 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-1.32). The same general temporal pattern was seen for the major subtypes of brain tumor as for all types combined. SIRs after the first year were 1.0 for glioma (CI = 0.8-1.2), 1.2 for meningioma (CI = 0.8-1.7), and 0.8 for neurilemmoma (CI = 0.4-1.7). However, hemangioblastoma and hemangioma were more frequent than expected, based on 15 cases (SIR = 2.6, CI = 1.4-4.2). Results indicate that head trauma causes, at most, a small increase in the overall risk of brain tumors during the ensuing 15 years; however, a possible association with intracranial vascular tumors warrants further evaluation.

  18. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  19. The Wechsler Memory Scale and closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Kear-Colwell, J J; Heller, M

    1980-07-01

    Compared a sample of Ss from the general population (N = 116) with a sample of head-injured patients (N = 70) whose injuries varied from the mild to the very severe. In a criterion factor analysis it was found that the WMS subtests of Logical Memory and Associate Learning were related closely to the criterion of head injury. Both samples were divided at age 35, and analyses of variance were carried out on the four subsamples. The findings were that the younger head-injured patients had very severe memory deficits, whereas these deficits were much less marked with the older head-injured Ss. The most marked deficits were found on WMS Factor I (verbal learning and immediate recall). WMS Factors II and III displayed significant but less clearly marked cognitive deficits. In this study, analysis in terms of the three WMS Factors enabled group and age differences in memory functioning to be highlighted in an unambiguous manner, which suggested that the present factor system is very useful for describing and identifying some types of memory deficit.

  20. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    PubMed

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics.

  1. Characterizing discourse deficits following penetrating head injury: a preliminary model.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carl; Lê, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Hamilton, Mark; Tyler, Elizabeth; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-05-01

    Discourse analyses have demonstrated utility for delineating subtle communication deficits following closed head injuries (CHIs). The present investigation examined the discourse performance of a large group of individuals with penetrating head injury (PHI). Performance was also compared across 6 subgroups of PHI based on lesion locale. A preliminary model of discourse production following PHI was proposed and tested. Story narratives were elicited from 2 groups of participants, 167 with PHI and 46 non brain-injured (NBI). Micro- and macrostructural components of each story were analyzed. Measures of memory, executive functions, and intelligence were also administered. All measures were compared across groups and PHI subgroups. The proposed model of discourse production was tested with a structural equation modeling procedure. No differences for the discourse measures were noted across the six PHI subgroups. Three measures distinguished the PHI and NBI groups: narrative length, story grammar, and completeness. The proposed model of discourse production had an adequate-to-good fit with the cognitive and discourse data. In spite of differing mechanisms of injury, the PHI group's discourse performance was consistent with what has been reported for individuals with CHI. The model tested represents a preliminary step toward understanding discourse production following traumatic brain injury.

  2. Biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries.

    PubMed

    Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L

    2008-02-01

    With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.

  3. Verbal learning and memory following pediatric closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Yeates, K O; Blumenstein, E; Patterson, C M; Delis, D C

    1995-01-01

    In this study, verbal learning and memory following pediatric closed-head injuries (CHI) using the children's version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Participants included 47 children, ages 5-16 yr, with a history of CHI, and 47 matched, noninjured controls. Children with CHI performed more poorly than controls on the CVLT, although their deficits varied qualitatively as a function of injury severity. Those with mild/moderate injuries performed as well as controls on learning trials, but they recalled proportionally fewer words after a delay (although their recognition was intact). Severely injured children demonstrated deficits in learning, delayed recall, and recognition, compared to controls. The groups did not differ in learning characteristics, but children with severe CHI exhibited more intrusions than controls. Pediatric CHI are associated with specific disturbances in verbal learning and memory similar to those of adults with CHI but different from those of children with other developmental and neurological disorders.

  4. [Study on child head-injuries through data derived from the National Injury Surveillance System of China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Ji, Cuirong; Duan, Leilei; Er, Yuliang; Ye, Pengpeng; Wang, Yuan; Deng, Xiao; Gao, Xin; Jin, Ye; Wang, Linhong

    2016-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of head injuries in children. Data was derived from the Chinese National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) in 2014. Method on descriptive analysis was applied to depict general information, injuries events and clinical characteristics of head injuries among children under 18 years of age. A total number of 47 690 cases with child head injuries in 2014 were collected, including 32 542 males and 15 148 females. 43.47% of them were under 1-4 years of age. In October, 06:00 PM appeared the peak time for the injuries to happen. The three leading causes responsible for child head injuries were falls (69.57%), hit by blunt force (14.23%) or road traffic (11.01%). Main locations responsible for the head injuries to happen were:at home (44.98%), at public places (19.65%) or on roads/streets (15.81%). Recreation activates (77.88%), driving (7.32%), sports (5.72%) were the three major activities causing the injuries to take place. Majority of the cases happened unintentionally (95.35%), with bruise (71.69%) or mild injuries (85.27%) and went back home after treatment (90.25%). In 2014, child head injuries were seen more in males than in females and mostly occured at home. The leading causes for head injuries would include falls, hit by blunt stuff or road traffic .

  5. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions.

  6. Outcomes following childhood head injury: a population study

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, C; Ward, A; Magnay, A; Long, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify outcomes following head injury (HI) among a population of children admitted to one hospital centre and to compare outcomes between different severity groups. Methods: A postal follow up of children admitted with HI to one National Health Service Trust, between 1992 and 1998, was carried out. Children were aged 5–15 years at injury (mean 9.8), followed up at a mean of 2.2 years post-injury. Parents of 526 injured children (419 mild, 58 moderate, 49 severe) and 45 controls completed questionnaires. Outcomes were assessed using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). Results: Frequent behavioural, emotional, memory, and attention problems were reported by one third of the severe group, one quarter of the moderate, and 10–18% of the mild. Personality change since HI was reported for 148 children (28%; 21% mild HI, 46% moderate, 69% severe). There was a significant relationship between injury severity and KOSCHI outcomes. Following the HI, 252 (48%) had moderate disability (43% mild HI, 64% moderate, 69% severe), while 270 (51%) made a good recovery (57% mild HI, 36% moderate, 22% severe). There was a significant association between social deprivation and poor outcome (p = 0.002). Only 30% (158) of children received hospital follow up after the HI. All children with severe disability received appropriate follow up, but 64% of children with moderate disability received none. No evidence was found to suggest a threshold of injury severity below which the risk of late sequelae could be safely discounted. Conclusions: Children admitted with mild HI may be at risk of poor outcomes, but often do not receive routine hospital follow up. A postal questionnaire combined with the KOSCHI to assess outcomes after HI may be used to identify children who would benefit from clinical assessment. Further research is needed to identify factors that place children with mild HI at risk of late morbidity. PMID:15090570

  7. Outcomes following childhood head injury: a population study.

    PubMed

    Hawley, C A; Ward, A B; Magnay, A R; Long, J

    2004-05-01

    To identify outcomes following head injury (HI) among a population of children admitted to one hospital centre and to compare outcomes between different severity groups. A postal follow up of children admitted with HI to one National Health Service Trust, between 1992 and 1998, was carried out. Children were aged 5-15 years at injury (mean 9.8), followed up at a mean of 2.2 years post-injury. Parents of 526 injured children (419 mild, 58 moderate, 49 severe) and 45 controls completed questionnaires. Outcomes were assessed using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). Frequent behavioural, emotional, memory, and attention problems were reported by one third of the severe group, one quarter of the moderate, and 10-18% of the mild. Personality change since HI was reported for 148 children (28%; 21% mild HI, 46% moderate, 69% severe). There was a significant relationship between injury severity and KOSCHI outcomes. Following the HI, 252 (48%) had moderate disability (43% mild HI, 64% moderate, 69% severe), while 270 (51%) made a good recovery (57% mild HI, 36% moderate, 22% severe). There was a significant association between social deprivation and poor outcome (p = 0.002). Only 30% (158) of children received hospital follow up after the HI. All children with severe disability received appropriate follow up, but 64% of children with moderate disability received none. No evidence was found to suggest a threshold of injury severity below which the risk of late sequelae could be safely discounted. Children admitted with mild HI may be at risk of poor outcomes, but often do not receive routine hospital follow up. A postal questionnaire combined with the KOSCHI to assess outcomes after HI may be used to identify children who would benefit from clinical assessment. Further research is needed to identify factors that place children with mild HI at risk of late morbidity.

  8. Effects of injury severity and cognitive exaggeration on olfactory deficits in head injury compensation claims.

    PubMed

    Green, P; Iverson, G L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exaggeration and scores on a test of olfactory discrimination in patients being assessed in connection with a claim for financial benefits. Participants were 448 patients referred to a private practice in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada for psychological or neuropsychological assessment, related to evaluation of impairment and disability resulting from a work-related or non-work related accident. All patients were involved in some form of compensation claim at the time of their evaluation. All patients completed two tests designed to detect exaggerated cognitive deficits, the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) as part of their evaluation. The diagnostic groups included 322 head injury cases, varying from very minor to very severe. Normative data for the smell test were derived from 126 patients with orthopedic injuries who passed both the CARB and the WMT. Patients with more severe traumatic brain injuries were 10-12 times more likely to have olfactory deficits than persons with trivial to mild head injuries. In a subgroup of patients who failed either the CARB or the WMT, there was no relationship between injury severity and total scores on the smell test. Therefore, the dose-response relationship between brain injury severity and olfactory deficits is severely attenuated when patients who are probably exaggerating their cognitive deficits are included in the analyses. Those patients with trivial to mild head injuries who demonstrated adequate effort on both the CARB and the WMT were no more likely to show olfactory deficits than the non-head-injured orthopedic control subjects. Therefore, anosmia following mild traumatic brain injury should not be concluded from self-reports or from tests of smell unless tests of effort have been passed. Effort should also be controlled in group studies of olfaction.

  9. Behavioral deficits and axonal injury persistence after rotational head injury are direction dependent.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J; Rapp, Paul E; Margulies, Susan S

    2013-04-01

    Pigs continue to grow in importance as a tool in neuroscience. However, behavioral tests that have been validated in the rodent model do not translate well to pigs because of their very different responses to behavioral stimuli. We refined metrics for assessing porcine open field behavior to detect a wide spectrum of clinically relevant behaviors in the piglet post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). Female neonatal piglets underwent a rapid non-impact head rotation in the sagittal plane (n=8 evaluable) or were instrumented shams (n=7 evaluable). Open field testing was conducted 1 day prior to injury (day -1) in order to establish an individual baseline for analysis, and at days +1 and +4 after injury. Animals were then killed on day +6 after injury for neuropathological assessment of axonal injury. Injured piglets were less interested in interacting with environmental stimuli and had a lower activity level than did shams. These data were compared with previously published data for axial rotational injuries in neonatal piglets. Acute behavioral outcomes post-TBI showed a dependence on the rotational plane of the brain injury, with animals with sagittal injuries demonstrating a greater level of inactivity and less random usage of the open field space than those with axial injuries. The persistence of axonal injury is also dependent on the rotational plane, with sagittal rotations causing more prolonged injuries than axial rotations. These results are consistent with animal studies, finite element models, and studies of concussions in football, which have all demonstrated differences in injury severity depending upon the direction of head impact rotation.

  10. Is heading a soccer ball injurious to brain function?

    PubMed

    Baroff, G S

    1998-04-01

    With the growing popularity of soccer both in the United States and worldwide, reports of adverse effects of 'heading' on brain function are a source of concern. This article reviews the related research literature on neurologic and neuropsychological findings. Neurologic and neuropsychological abnormalities have been reported in a significant minority of older former professional players in Norway. Purportedly unrelated to age, the most prominent findings were cerebral atrophy and impairment on intelligence test abilities that are particularly vulnerable to brain damage. Also noteworthy in these retired players were persistent physical, cognitive, and emotional complaints consistent with a postconcussive syndrome. Younger amateur players appear to be free of major abnormalities, although some report persistent difficulties with memory and concentration. The severity of these complaints may be related to a history of soccer-related head injuries and not necessarily specific to heading. Research findings specific to heading are not more than suggestive at best, and clarification of the risks of heading a soccer ball awaits more definitive studies.

  11. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in children with severe head injury. Part 1: Relation to age, Glasgow coma score, outcome, intracranial pressure, and time after injury.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, P M; Stuart, A G; Matthews, D S; Aynsley-Green, A; Eyre, J A

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of paediatric head trauma is essential for rational acute management. It has been proposed that the response to severe head injury in children differs from that in adults, with increased cerebral blood flow (cerebral hyperaemia) representing the most common cause of raised intracranial pressure, but this has recently been disputed. The relation between the pathophysiological response and time after injury has not been defined in children. This paper describes 151 serial measurements of cerebral blood flow, arteriojugular venous oxygen difference (AJVDO2), and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) that were performed in 21 children with severe head injury, mean age 8 (range 2-16) years, Glasgow coma score < or = 8. Absolute cerebral hyperaemia was uncommon, only 10 (7%) of the 151 cerebral blood flow values being at or above the upper limit of the range published in normal children. There was an inverse correlation between cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. (r = -0.24, p = 0.009). Contrary to the widespread assumption that cerebral metabolic rate in patients with head injury is always low, CMRO2 was initially within the normal range in 17/21 (81%) children. Both CMRO2 and AJVDO2 fell significantly between the first and third days after injury. There was a non-significant rise in cerebral blood flow over time. These data represent the first evidence that the temporal change in cerebral metabolic rate reported in experimental models of traumatic brain injury also occurs in patients with head injury. The changes in the pathophysiological response over time suggest that the management may need to be modified accordingly. If cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral oxygen extraction are maximal shortly after injury in children with severe head injury then the children are most likely to sustain secondary damage during this period. Images PMID:7876842

  12. Evaluation of functionality after head injury in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goold, Daniel; Vane, Dennis W

    2009-07-01

    The Occupational Therapy Head Injury Mini Screen (OT HIMS) is a screening tool for patients admitted with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the acute care setting. It is a combination of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) and the Cognistat (formally the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination). Its purpose is to identify cognitive deficits in patients and to provide education for patients on the impact of these deficits on daily living. Our hypothesis for this study was that cognitive functionality outcome varies with severity of head injury (manifested by Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS]) at admission and tests that identify cognitive deficits can be reserved for patients admitted with severe head injury. Data were prospectively collected for all patients with TBI (DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification codes 800.0-801.99 + 850-859.9), aged 13-21 years, over 10 years. The inclusion criteria are patients had to be awake and have adequate physical function to complete the test. Patients with cognitive deficits were identified using GOAT and Cognistat. Preexistent deficits were also identified. Scores on OT HIMS were compared with GCS at admission. Outcomes also included discharge to home or rehabilitation centers. Hospital deaths were not included in the study. Six hundred nine patients were reviewed, and 248 were administered the OT HIMS. Eighty-three suffered some impairment. The mean GCS for the 248 patients was 13.96 (+/-2.16). A coefficient of correlation between GCS and GOAT score of only 0.224 and an R2 value of 0.050 indicated no correlation between these results. Comparing GCS and the presence of impairment identified by Cognistat yielded an R2 value of 0.093, indicating no correlation between these parameters. Among the patients whose results showed cognitive deficits on OT HIMS, 38% had impairments before injury. Interestingly, only 58% of patients with deficits before injury also demonstrated impairments on

  13. Novel Model of Frontal Impact Closed Head Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Michael; Kuehn, Reed; Tosun, Cigdem; Caridi, John; Keledjian, Kaspar; Bochicchio, Grant; Scalea, Thomas; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Frontal impact, closed head trauma is a frequent cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in motor vehicle and sports accidents. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is common in humans and experimental animals, and results from shearing forces that develop within the anisotropic brain. Because the specific anisotropic properties of the brain are axis-dependent, the anatomical site where force is applied as well as the resultant acceleration, be it linear, rotational, or some combination, are important determinants of the resulting pattern of brain injury. Available rodent models of closed head injury do not reproduce the frontal impact commonly encountered in humans. Here we describe a new rat model of closed head injury that is a modification of the impact-acceleration model of Marmarou. In our model (the Maryland model), the impact force is applied to the anterior part of the cranium and produces TBI by causing anterior-posterior plus sagittal rotational acceleration of the brain inside the intact cranium. Skull fractures, prolonged apnea, and mortality were absent. The animals exhibited petechial hemorrhages, DAI marked by a bead-like pattern of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) in damaged axons, and widespread upregulation of β-APP in neurons, with regions affected including the orbitofrontal cortex (coup), corpus callosum, caudate, putamen, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. Activated caspase-3 was prominent in hippocampal neurons and Purkinje cells at the grey-white matter junction of the cerebellum. Neurobehavioral dysfunction, manifesting as reduced spontaneous exploration, lasted more than 1 week. We conclude that the Maryland model produces diffuse injuries that may be relevant to human brain injury. PMID:19929375

  14. Novel model of frontal impact closed head injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Michael; Kuehn, Reed; Tosun, Cigdem; Caridi, John; Keledjian, Kaspar; Bochicchio, Grant; Scalea, Thomas; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2009-12-01

    Frontal impact, closed head trauma is a frequent cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in motor vehicle and sports accidents. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is common in humans and experimental animals, and results from shearing forces that develop within the anisotropic brain. Because the specific anisotropic properties of the brain are axis-dependent, the anatomical site where force is applied as well as the resultant acceleration, be it linear, rotational, or some combination, are important determinants of the resulting pattern of brain injury. Available rodent models of closed head injury do not reproduce the frontal impact commonly encountered in humans. Here we describe a new rat model of closed head injury that is a modification of the impact-acceleration model of Marmarou. In our model (the Maryland model), the impact force is applied to the anterior part of the cranium and produces TBI by causing anterior-posterior plus sagittal rotational acceleration of the brain inside the intact cranium. Skull fractures, prolonged apnea, and mortality were absent. The animals exhibited petechial hemorrhages, DAI marked by a bead-like pattern of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in damaged axons, and widespread upregulation of beta-APP in neurons, with regions affected including the orbitofrontal cortex (coup), corpus callosum, caudate, putamen, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. Activated caspase-3 was prominent in hippocampal neurons and Purkinje cells at the grey-white matter junction of the cerebellum. Neurobehavioral dysfunction, manifesting as reduced spontaneous exploration, lasted more than 1 week. We conclude that the Maryland model produces diffuse injuries that may be relevant to human brain injury.

  15. Neuropathological changes in a lamb model of non-accidental head injury (the shaken baby syndrome).

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Turner, R J; Helps, S; Vink, R; Byard, R W; Chidlow, G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J; Anderson, R W G

    2012-08-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI), also termed the "shaken baby syndrome", is a major cause of death and severe neurological dysfunction in children under three years of age, but it is debated whether shaking alone is sufficient to produce brain injury and mortality or whether an additional head impact is required. In an attempt to resolve this question, we used a lamb model of NAHI since these animals have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling those of a human infant. Three anaesthetised lambs of lower body weight than others in the experimental group died unexpectedly after being shaken, proving that shaking alone can be lethal. In these lambs, axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction, and of much greater magnitude than in higher body weight lambs which did not die. Moreover, in the eyes of these shaken lambs, there was damage to retinal inner nuclear layer neurons, mild, patchy ganglion cell axonal injury, widespread Muller glial reaction, and uveal albumin extravasation. This study proved that shaking of a subset of lambs can result in death, without an additional head impact being required.

  16. Head injuries to restrained occupants in single-vehicle pure rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Mattos, G A; Grzebieta, R H; Bambach, M R; McIntosh, A S

    2013-01-01

    Studies performed previously of seat-belted occupants in real-world passenger vehicle rollover-only crashes have identified the head as one of the body regions most often seriously injured. However, there have been few studies investigating how these head injuries occur in any detail. This study aims to investigate the characteristics and patterns of head injury to seat-belted occupants in real-world rollover-only crashes and to identify possible biomechanical mechanisms responsible for head injury to aid in the development of a dynamic rollover test protocol. National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data were used to generate summary statistics and perform logistic regression analysis of restrained and contained occupants in U.S. pure trip-over rollover crashes. Specific information from selected CDS cases focused on identifying potential mechanisms and patterns of serious head injury and the rollover conditions under which the injury occurred are also presented. Twenty-one percent of seriously injured occupants in pure trip-over rollovers had a serious head injury. On average, occupants seated on the far side of the rollover sustained serious head injuries more frequently and were more likely to receive injuries to the inboard side of the head than near-side occupants. Serious head injuries appear to be decoupled from serious injuries to other body regions except for a relationship found between basal skull fractures and cervical spine fractures. Serious head injuries were sustained by some occupants who had less than 15 cm of roof crush above their seated position. Serious brain injuries appear to occur frequently as a result of loading to the periphery of the head from contact with the roof assembly. Two mechanisms of injury for basal skull fractures in rollover crashes were identified. The injury patterns and locations of contact to the head are sensitive to the seated position of the occupant.

  17. Clinical indicators of intracranial injury in head-injured infants.

    PubMed

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1999-10-01

    1) To determine whether clinical signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in head-injured infants. 2) To determine whether radiographic imaging of otherwise asymptomatic infants with scalp hematoma is a useful means of detecting cases of ICI. 3) To determine whether head-injured infants without signs of brain injury or scalp hematoma may be safely managed without radiographic imaging. We performed a 1-year prospective study of all infants younger than 2 years of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department with head trauma. Data were collected on historical features, physical findings, radiographic findings, and hospital course. Follow-up telephone calls were made 2 weeks after discharge to assess for any late deterioration. Of 608 study subjects, 30 (5%) had ICI; 12/92 (13%) infants 0 to 2 months of age had ICI, compared with 13/224 (6%) infants 3 to 11 months of age, and 5/292 (2%) infants 12 months of age or older. Only 16/30 (52%) subjects with ICI had at least one of the following clinical symptoms or signs of brain injury: loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, emesis, depressed mental status, irritability, bulging fontanel, focal neurologic findings, or vital signs indicating increased intracranial pressure. Of the 14 asymptomatic subjects with ICI, 13 (93%) had significant scalp hematoma. Among subjects who had head computed tomography, significant scalp hematoma had an odds ratio of 2.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.15,6.70) for association with ICI. A total of 265 subjects (43%) were asymptomatic and had no significant scalp hematoma. None (95% confidence interval: 0,1.2%) required specific therapy or had any subsequent clinical deterioration. Clinical signs of brain injury are insensitive indicators of ICI in infants. A substantial fraction of infants with ICI will be detected through radiographic imaging of otherwise asymptomatic infants with significant scalp hematomas. Asymptomatic infants

  18. Overreporting of Closed-Head Injury Symptoms on the MMPI-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David T. R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) validity scales were compared for 20 nonclinical participants, 18 subjects asked to fake injury, 18 head injury patients not seeking compensation, and 30 compensation-seeking head injury patients. Results suggest that MMPI-2 overreporting scales are sensitive to complaint fabrication and…

  19. Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Weber, John T

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in a significant portion of trauma patients, especially in specific populations, such as child abuse victims or athletes involved in contact sports (e.g. boxing, football, hockey, and soccer). A continually emerging hypothesis is that repeated mild injuries may cause cumulative damage to the brain, resulting in long-term cognitive dysfunction. The growing attention to this hypothesis is reflected in several recent experimental studies of repeated mild TBI in vivo. These reports generally demonstrate cellular and cognitive dysfunction after repetitive injury using rodent TBI models. In some cases, data suggests that the effects of a second mild TBI may be synergistic, rather than additive. In addition, some studies have found increases in cellular markers associated with Alzheimer's disease after repeated mild injuries, which demonstrates a direct experimental link between repetitive TBI and neurodegenerative disease. To complement the findings from humans and in vivo experimentation, my laboratory group has investigated the effects of repeated trauma in cultured brain cells using a model of stretch-induced mechanical injury in vitro. In these studies, hippocampal cells exhibited cumulative damage when mild stretch injuries were repeated at either 1-h or 24-h intervals. Interestingly, the extent of damage to the cells was dependent on the time between repeated injuries. Also, a very low level of stretch, which produced no cell damage on its own, induced cell damage when it was repeated several times at a short interval (every 2 min). Although direct comparisons to the clinical situation are difficult, these types of repetitive, low-level, mechanical stresses may be similar to the insults received by certain athletes, such as boxers, or hockey and soccer players. This type of in vitro model could provide a reliable system in which to study the mechanisms underlying cellular dysfunction following repeated injuries. As

  20. Bicycle accident-related head injuries in India

    PubMed Central

    Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Gregor, Thomas Issac; Bhat, Dhananjay I.; Kumarsamy, Akhil Deepika; Shukla, Dhaval P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of head injuries sustained due to bicycle accidents in India. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected over a period of six months (15 May 2011 to 15 November 2011). Demography of patients, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), clinical and imaging findings, and mortality and outcome using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire (RPCSQ) and Rivermead head injury follow-up questionnaire (RHFUQ), were analyzed. Outcome was assessed by telephonic interview. Results: There were 108 patients (100 males) with mean age of 27.7 years. Seventy-four (68.5%) were from rural areas. Accidents due to vehicular collision accounted for 60 (55.6%) cases. None wore a helmet. The admission GCS was 14-15 in 68.5% cases, 13-3 in 31.5%. The risk of moderate to severe injuries was increased among working laborers (OR = 5), and patients with loss of consciousness (OR = 4). Sixty-three (49%) patients had abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings; most common finding was skull fracture 25 (23.1%). Four patients needed surgery. The GOS assessment at three to six months revealed favorable outcome in 66 patients (61.1%) and death in 8 (7.4%). The common post-concussion symptoms were headache, fatigue, and poor concentration. Conclusion: The majority of hospitalized cyclists were from a rural background and of the lower income group. After three months the majority of patients had good recovery with few persistent concussion symptoms. PMID:24250156

  1. Pediatric head injury: a pain for the emergency physician?

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Shu-Ling; Lee, Khai Pin; Lee, Jan Hau; Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    The prompt diagnosis and initial management of pediatric traumatic brain injury poses many challenges to the emergency department (ED) physician. In this review, we aim to appraise the literature on specific management issues faced in the ED, specifically: indications for neuroimaging, choice of sedatives, applicability of hyperventilation, utility of hyperosmolar agents, prophylactic anti-epileptics, and effect of hypothermia in traumatic brain injury. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed in each specific area of focus corresponding to the relevant questions. The majority of the head injured patients presenting to the ED are mild and can be observed. Clinical prediction rules assist the ED physician in deciding if neuroimaging is warranted. In cases of major head injury, prompt airway control and careful use of sedation are necessary to minimize the chance of hypoxia, while avoiding hyperventilation. Hyperosmolar agents should be started in these cases and normothermia maintained. The majority of the evidence is derived from adult studies, and most treatment modalities are still controversial. Recent multicenter trials have highlighted the need to establish common platforms for further collaboration. PMID:27752566

  2. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

    2004-01-01

    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  3. Epidemiology of paediatric minor head injury: Comparison of injury characteristics with Indices of Multiple Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Carol; Wilson, James; Hickson, Craig; Mills, Sara; Ekeocha, Samila; Sakr, Magdy

    2013-12-01

    Head injury (HI) is a common presentation to Child Emergency Departments (CEDs), but the actual number of children attending with minor HI is unclear. Most research has focussed on admitted patients, often relying on hospital-coded admission data. We studied the incidence of minor HI presenting to the CED of a major teaching hospital in Coventry and Warwickshire. HI attendances were compared with population data to identify injury patterns relating to deprivation. All CED admissions were screened by the research team, and data on minor head injuries (GCS 13-15) collected prospectively from 1st January until 31st August 2011. Information was collected on demographics, ethnicity, cause and severity of injury, injury location (in or outside the home), other injuries and mode of arrival. Deprivation data were obtained by cross-referencing postcodes with English Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2010). For comparison, the hospital audit department provided figures for coded head injuries during the same period. During the 8 month period, hand-searching identified 1747 children with minor HI, aged between 0 and 16 years. Of these 99% had minimal HI (GCS 15 or 'alert'). In the same period, hospital-coded minor HIs numbered only 1081. HIs formed 9% of all CED attendances. Thirteen children returned to the CED with worrying symptoms after discharge home. Approximately 3.4% of the local paediatric population attend the CED with HI per year (3419/100,000 population). Falls accounted for 62% of HIs overall, rising to 77% in children aged 0-5. Most in-home head injuries (81%) were the result of falls (p<0.0001). Significantly more injuries took place inside the home for 0-5 year olds (58%) than for older children (20%) (p<0.0001). Children living in the most deprived areas were more likely to attend the CED with HI (RR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.35, p=0.004), and arrive using emergency services (OR: 1.77; CI: 1.30-2.40, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the

  4. Arterial injuries after penetrating brain injury in civilians: risk factors on admission head computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bodanapally, Uttam K; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Aarabi, Bizhan; Roy, Ashis K

    2015-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the specific CT findings of the injury profile in penetrating brain injury (PBI) that are risk factors related to intracranial arterial injuries. The authors retrospectively evaluated admission head CTs and accompanying digital subtraction angiography (DSA) studies from patients with penetrating trauma to the head in the period between January 2005 and December 2012. Two authors reviewed the CT images to determine the presence or absence of 30 injury profile variables and quantified selected variables. The CT characteristics in patients with and without arterial injuries were compared using univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the respective risk factors, independent predictors, and optimal threshold values for the continuous variables. Fifty-five patients were eligible for study inclusion. The risk factors for an intracranial arterial injury on univariate analysis were an entry wound over the frontobasal-temporal regions, a bihemispheric wound trajectory, a wound trajectory in proximity to the circle of Willis (COW), a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a higher SAH score, an intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and a higher IVH score. A trajectory in proximity to the COW was the best predictor of injury (OR 6.8 and p = 0.005 for all penetrating brain injuries [PBIs]; OR 13.3 and p = 0.001 for gunshot wounds [GSWs]). Significant quantitative variables were higher SAH and IVH scores. An SAH score of 3 (area under the ROC curve [AUC] for all PBIs 0.72; AUC for GSWs 0.71) and an IVH score of 3 (AUC for all PBIs 0.65; AUC for GSWs 0.65) could be used as threshold values to suggest an arterial injury. The risk factors identified may help radiologists suggest the possibility of arterial injury and prioritize neurointerventional consultation and potential DSA studies.

  5. Missile injuries in head - neck and maxillo-facial region - an experience in eastern nepal.

    PubMed

    Wakode, P T; Ghimire, Anand; Acharya, Roshan

    2008-06-01

    Ballistic injuries to head-neck and maxillofacial region is quite common problem nowadays. Most of the time the injuries seem to be dreadful but the mechanism of the injuries caused by ballistics and the anatomical conditions of maxillofacial and head-neck region mitigate the severity of the injuries. Proper primary management followed by reconstruction and management of associated injuries decreases the mortality and morbidity of missile injuries in head-neck and maxillofacial region. Eleven cases of missile injuries in head-neck and maxillofacial region are included in the present study. The mechanism of the injury and the ideal management strategy for the ballistics injuries in the region has been discussed in the article.

  6. Hypnosis and attention deficits after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, T M

    1993-04-01

    In a controlled study of patients attending a concussion clinic because of ongoing postconcussion symptoms, attention deficits were recorded in the head-injured group for the aspects of alertness, assessed by the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and processing capacity, assessed by a version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Selective attention was intact. Hypnotizability was assessed by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), with normal means and standard deviations found in both the concussed and control groups. There was a significant correlation, however, between HGSHS:A scores and PASAT scores in the concussed group only. The results of this preliminary study suggest that slower processing capacity after a closed head injury may predict higher hypnotizability and that hypnosis could be an appropriate rehabilitation technique for these patients who present with postconcussion symptoms.

  7. [Cognitive rehabilitation in closed head injuries in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Yelín, B

    1996-11-01

    The objective of cognitive neuro-rehabilitation is to give the patient with sequelae of moderate or severe head injury the hope of functional improvement, by means of strategies which mainly involve the basic mechanisms of learning, the higher cerebral functions and affective-emotional aspects. The various cognitive defects and the three basic ways of treating them are described: Training the different components of cognitive function. Compensatory training (adjacent development areas). Functional and integrative training. A brief reference is also made to the pharmacological treatment given to some patients.

  8. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  9. Social cognition after head injury: sarcasm and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Channon, Shelley; Pellijeff, Asa; Rule, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    Closed head injury (CHI) is associated with communication difficulties in everyday social interactions. Previous work has reported impaired comprehension of sarcasm, using sarcastic remarks where the intended meaning is the opposite of the sincere or literal meaning. Participants with CHI in the present study were assessed using two types of sarcastic items, those with a directly opposite meaning and those with an indirect, non-literal but not directly opposite meaning. The CHI group was differentially poorer at comprehending sarcastic versus sincere remarks, although type of sarcastic materials did not influence performance. Errors involved not only literal interpretations, but also incorrect non-literal interpretations. Theory of mind (mentalising) was also assessed by comparing comprehension of human actions with control physical events. The CHI group was selectively impaired on the mentalising component of this task, and mentalising scores correlated with sarcasm comprehension. The implications of the findings for our understanding of impaired sarcastic comprehension after acquired brain injury are discussed.

  10. Folic acid enhances early functional recovery in a piglet model of pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Naim, Maryam Y; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 μg/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 μg/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by β-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment

  11. Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 μg/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 μg/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by β-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment

  12. Apnoea and brain swelling in non-accidental head injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A; Stoodley, N; Cobley, C; Coles, L; Kemp, K; Geddes, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI. Methods: Retrospective case series (1992–98) with case control analysis of 65 children under 2 years old, with an SDH secondary to NAHI. Outcome measures were presenting symptoms, associated injuries and apnoea at presentation, brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemic changes on neuroimaging, and clinical outcome (KOSCHI). Results: Twenty two children had a history of apnoea at presentation to hospital. Apnoea was significantly associated with hypoxic ischaemic brain damage. Severe symptoms at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling/hypoxic ischaemic damage were significantly associated with a poor prognosis. Eighty five per cent of cases had associated injuries consistent with a diagnosis of non-accidental injury. Conclusions: Coma at presentation, apnoea, and diffuse brain swelling or hypoxic ischaemia all predict a poor outcome in an infant who has suffered from SDH after NAHI. There is evidence of associated violence in the majority of infants with NAHI. At this point in time we do not know the minimum forces necessary to cause NAHI. It is clear however that it is never acceptable to shake a baby. PMID:12765909

  13. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospective analysis of the recovery of attention following pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Catroppa, C; Anderson, V; Stargatt, R

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about specific attentional sequelae following a closed head injury, their pattern of recovery or their interaction with ongoing development. The present study examined attentional abilities in a group of children who had sustained a mild, moderate, or severe head injury. Results showed that the severe head injury group exhibited greater deficits on a number of attentional measures at acute and 6 months postinjury phases, in comparison to children in the mild and moderate head injury groups. Specifically, deficits were most evident on timed tasks where speed of processing was an integral component. Difficulties persisted to at least 6 months postinjury and so may lead to cumulative deficits over time.

  15. Behavior Disorders after Severe Head Injury: Their Nature and Causes and Strategies for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eames, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses the multifactorial causation of behavior disorders after head injury, arguing that management strategies must be based on an understanding of their general nature and on specific knowledge of the individual's history and injury. (DB)

  16. Current Practices in Injury Prevention and Safety Helmet Use Among Head Injury Patients in an Army Outpatient Care Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    for which safety helmets or other protective head gear would also be appropriate. Biking 58% Wrestling 7% Karate 7% Rockclimbing 7% Kickboxing 7...activities: biking, rollerblading, baseball, kickboxing , rockclimbing, wrestling and karate. These Head Injury Prevention 36 activities all increase... Kickboxing , wrestling and karate were grouped into a contact collision group. This group was at the highest risk of head injury with any type of

  17. The "swing-ding": a golf-related head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Arthur; Cohen, Alan R; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased incidence of golf-associated head injuries in children and adolescents. At the authors' institution, they have identified a unique pattern of head injury associated with a swinging golf club. In this study, the authors highlight the mechanism of this injury and report their experience treating it. The authors reviewed the database of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Trauma Center and performed a retrospective analysis of golf injuries recorded over a 10-year period (January 2000-April 2010). They identified 13 children (9 boys and 4 girls) who sustained head injuries in golfing accidents. All patients were 10 years of age or younger. The medical charts were reviewed and follow-up interviews were conducted to better delineate the details of the injuries. Injuries included 13 depressed skull fractures, 7 epidural hematomas, and 1 cerebral contusion. All 13 patients sustained their injuries after being struck in the head by a golf club. Seven sustained injuries on the follow-through of the initial swing and 3 sustained injuries on the backswing. All but one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Five patients developed neurological sequelae. None of the children had prior experience with golf equipment. All but one injury occurred in the child's own backyard. There was no direct supervision by an adult in any of the cases. Golfing can lead to serious head injuries in children. The authors noticed a unique pattern of golf-related head injuries, previously not described, that they have termed the "swing-ding." This golf club-inflicted injury occurs when a child stands too close to a swinging golfer and is struck in the head, subsequently sustaining a comminuted depressed skull fracture in the frontal or temporal region, with or without further intracranial injury. The study suggests that a lack of adult supervision, minimal previous golf experience, and proximity of the child to the swinging golfer are all

  18. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  19. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  20. Helmet Use and Head Injury in Homer's Iliad.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Homer's detailed descriptions of head injuries inflicted during the Trojan War are of particular interest to individuals in the medical community. Although studies have examined the prevalence of such injuries, none have examined the preventive measures taken to avoid them. An in-depth review of helmet use in Homer's Iliad was conducted to address this previously unexplored facet of the epic. An English translation of Homer's text was reviewed for all references to helmet use. The number of helmet references in each book was recorded, along with other pertinent details for each reference. There were 87 references to helmets (40 combat, 47 noncombat). The helmet belonged to a Greek warrior in 41 cases (47.1%), a Trojan warrior in 38 cases (43.6%), a divinity in 5 cases (5.7%), and a general group of warriors in 3 cases (3.4%). Helmet use provided protective benefit to Greek warriors at a rate of 30.0% (3 of 10) and Trojan warriors at a rate of 11.1% (2 of 18). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). The overall combined protective benefit of helmet use in the text was 17.9% (5 of 28). Helmets belonging to 15 specific Greek warriors and 18 specific Trojan warriors were referenced in the text. Helmets belonging to Hector (n = 12) and Achilles (n = 8) were most frequently mentioned. Helmet use and head injury both play a prominent role in Homer's Iliad. Helmets are frequently used in combat settings but with relatively little success. Helmets are also used in various noncombat settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Permanent post-concussion symptoms after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    King, Nigel S; Kirwilliam, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A small minority of individuals experience long-term or permanent post-concussion symptoms (PCS) after a mild head injury (MHI). There has been no systematic, quantitative research examining a wide range of variables in a representative sample of such patients (i.e. with PCS for more than 18 months). This study explores a broad spectrum of demographic, cognitive, emotional and psychosocial factors (known to be important in the development of early PCS) in a representative sample of patients with permanent PCS. One hundred consecutively referred patients to a Community Head Injury Service in Buckinghamshire, UK for the treatment of persistent PCS, at least 18 months post-MHI, were identified and invited to participate. An exploratory design evaluated a range of demographic, cognitive, emotional and psychosocial variables and their relationship to PCS severity and quality-of-life (QoL). Twenty-four participants, with a mean time post-injury of 6.9 years, responded. They were characterized by: (i) older age compared to those typically presenting with MHI, (ii) very high levels of PCS, (iii) high post-injury unemployment, (iv) pre- or post-morbid factors which might exacerbate post-concussional difficulties, (v) elevated levels of anxiety and depression and (vi) mildly reduced scores on tests of short-term memory and speed of information processing. Post-hoc analysis of the total sample (n = 100) confirmed older age and a high proportion having pre- or post-morbid factors. QoL negatively correlated with PCS severity, and anxiety scores accounted for 45.9% of the variance in PCS severity. Very high levels of PCS, high post-injury unemployment and measurable cognitive deficits can be permanent features of MHI. Quality-of-life is directly related to symptom severity. Age, pre-/post-morbid concomitant factors, neuropsychological deficits and emotional status are key variables in understanding the phenomenon of permanent PCS. Important vulnerability factors in the

  2. Urban–rural differences in pediatric traumatic head injuries: A prospective nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, Jonas G; Flekkoy, Kjell M; Gudmundsson, Kristinn R; Arnkelsson, Gudmundur B; Arnarson, Eirikur Orn

    2007-01-01

    Aims To estimate differences in the incidence of recorded traumatic head injuries by gender, age, severity, and geographical area. Methods The study was prospective and nationwide. Data were collected from all hospitals, emergency units and healthcare centers in Iceland regarding all Icelandic children and adolescents 0–19 years old consecutively diagnosed with traumatic head injuries (N = 550) during a one-year period. Results Annual incidence of minimal, mild, moderate/severe, and fatal head injuries (ICD-9 850–854) was 6.41 per 1000, with 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9, 7.0. Annual incidence of minimal head injuries (ICD-9 850) treated at emergency units was 4.65 (CI 4.2, 5.1) per 1000, mild head injuries admitted to hospital (ICD-9 850) was 1.50 (CI 1.3, 1.8) per 1000, and moderate/severe nonfatal injuries (ICD-9 851–854) was 0.21 (CI 0.1, 0.3) per 1000. Death rate was 0.05 (CI 0.0, 0.1) per 1000. Young children were at greater risk of sustaining minimal head injuries than older ones. Boys were at greater risk than girls were. In rural areas, incidence of recorded minimal head injuries was low. Conclusions Use of nationwide estimate of the incidence of pediatric head injury shows important differences between urban and rural areas as well as between different age groups. PMID:19300630

  3. Head and face injuries during the men's field hockey Junior World Cup 2009.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Swarup

    2012-03-01

    Head and face injuries in field hockey are a concern. However, published data on injuries in field hockey are minimal, with apparently no reports on head and face injuries in elite youth hockey players during major international tournaments. To provide a descriptive account of head and face injuries in elite youth male field hockey players during the Men's Junior World Cup 2009. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 324 players were observed during 58 matches in the tournament. The injury reporting system was based on that used in team sports during international tournaments. All the head and face injury documentation was done by direct on-location observation by a trained sports medicine physician followed by confirmation from the team doctors or physical therapists. A total of 24 head and face injuries were documented. The overall injury frequency rate was 16 per 1000 match hours and 19 per 1000 player matches. There were 92% of injuries that were of contact type, with the head being the most common site and contusion being the most common type of injury. The incidence of injuries was higher during the second half and during the medal/ranking phase of the tournament. The risk of head and face injuries is high in elite youth players with a potential of both short- and long-term player time loss in international tournaments. Rigorous enforcement of rules prohibiting body contact can significantly reduce the chances of head and face injuries in elite youth field hockey players. In addition, player education on the injury risks and safe practices at the developmental stages is desirable to prevent injuries and prolong sporting careers.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury by a Closed Head Injury Device Induces Cerebral Blood Flow Changes and Microhemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Bandaru, Sharath; Zakaria, Nisrine; Shen, Yimin; Kou, Zhifeng; Zhang, Liying; Haacke, Ewart Mark; Cavanaugh, John M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Traumatic brain injury is a poly-pathology characterized by changes in the cerebral blood flow, inflammation, diffuse axonal, cellular, and vascular injuries. However, studies related to understanding the temporal changes in the cerebral blood flow following traumatic brain injury extending to sub-acute periods are limited. In addition, knowledge related to microhemorrhages, such as their detection, localization, and temporal progression, is important in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods: Cerebral blood flow changes and microhemorrhages in male Sprague Dawley rats at 4 h, 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days were assessed following a closed head injury induced by the Marmarou impact acceleration device (2 m height, 450 g brass weight). Cerebral blood flow was measured by arterial spin labeling. Microhemorrhages were assessed by susceptibility-weighted imaging and Prussian blue histology. Results: Traumatic brain injury rats showed reduced regional and global cerebral blood flow at 4 h and 7 days post-injury. Injured rats showed hemorrhagic lesions in the cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and brainstem in susceptibility-weighted imaging. Injured rats also showed Prussian blue reaction products in both the white and gray matter regions up to 7 days after the injury. These lesions were observed in various areas of the cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain. Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow and hemorrhagic lesions can persist for sub-acute periods after the initial traumatic insult in an animal model. In addition, microhemorrhages otherwise not seen by susceptibility-weighted imaging are present in diverse regions of the brain. The combination of altered cerebral blood flow and microhemorrhages can potentially be a source of secondary injury changes following traumatic brain injury and may need to be taken into consideration in the long-term care of these cases. PMID:26605126

  5. Pediatric closed head injuries treated in an observation unit.

    PubMed

    Holsti, Maija; Kadish, Howard A; Sill, Benjamin L; Firth, Sean D; Nelson, Douglas S

    2005-10-01

    Closed head injury (CHI) is common in childhood and frequently results in hospital admission for observation and treatment. Observation units (OUs) have shown significant benefits for patients and physicians. At our institution, a level 1 pediatric trauma center, patients with CHI are often admitted to an OU for up to 24 hours of observation and treatment. To describe characteristics of patients with a CHI admitted to a pediatric OU and to identify demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic factors associated with the need for unplanned inpatient admission (UIA) after OU management. Retrospective cohort review of all OU admissions for CHI at Primary Children's Medical Center (PCMC) from August 1999 through July 2001. Data collected included age, gender, mechanism of injury, presenting symptoms, physical examination findings, head computed tomography (CT) results, diagnosis, length of stay, outcome of the injury, and need for UIA. During the study period, 827 patients were seen in the ED for CHI. Two hundred eighty-five patients (34%) were admitted to the OU, 273 (33%) were admitted to an inpatient service, and 269 (33%) were discharged home. OU patients had a median age of 5.2 years, ranging from 2 weeks to 17 years. Sixty-one percent were male. The median admission length of stay was 13 hours. Common mechanisms of injury included: falls (60%), motor vehicle accidents (12%), bicycle accidents (10%), impacts from objects (9%), auto-pedestrian accidents (4.6%), and snow-related accidents (4.6%). Presenting symptoms in the ED included vomiting (39%), loss of consciousness (26%), amnesia to event (19%), persistent amnesia (5%), and seizures (4%). Physical examination findings noted in the ED included altered mental status (45%), facial abnormalities (43%), scalp abnormalities (38%), and neurologic deficits (9%). Two hundred eighty patients (98%) admitted to the OU had a head CT performed. Skull fractures were present in 109 patients (39%) and intracranial

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury: Imaging Spectrum from Mild to Severe Closed Head Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    recent advances in TBI treatment. Decompressive Craniotomy has been a mainstay of severe penetrating head injury in current conflicts. It allows...immediate room for swelling while improving intracerebral bloodflow. An interesting surgical craniotomy technique was developed at the onset of the...for recovery and replacement later. This keeps the patient’s own bone viable. Stereolithography is now used to digitally reconstruct the patient’s

  7. Characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimmy Tse-Jen; Li, Joe-Sharg; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shin-Da; Yu, Wen-Yu; Liao, Chien-Chang; Choy, Cheuk-Sing

    2009-12-01

    Bicycle-related head injury is an important public health issue. A paucity of statistical data on bicycle accidents exists in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to report the characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei, Taiwan. Between 2001 and 2002, basic patient information of those with bicycle-related head injuries was collected from the Trauma Data Registry in 5 hospitals of the Taipei area. Telephone interviews were conducted to collect specific information surrounding bicycle accidents. Of 324 patients with bicycle-related head injuries, 90 (27.8%) had severe head injuries. Boys compared with girls had a higher proportion of severe head injuries (34.1% vs 23.4%; P = .048). Children aged 5 to 9 years had a higher proportion of severe head injuries compared with ages 10 to 14 years (65.2% vs 6.4%; P = .043). Bicycles without reflectors had a higher proportion of severe head injuries compared to bicycles with reflectors (69.0% vs 5.7%; P = .004). Bicyclists carrying goods (such as backpacks or weighted toward the road) and speeding were associated with severe head injury (P < .05). Collisions with vehicles of a larger size resulted in a higher rate of severe head injury compared with collisions with pedestrians (76.9% vs 3.6%; P = .043). For children whose main mode of transport is bicycles, the enforcement of helmet legislation, educational programs in bicycling safety and equipment, and improving the infrastructure for bicycling in urban areas are needed in Taiwan to reduce potentially debilitating or life-threatening injuries.

  8. Development of a finite element human head model partially validated with thirty five experimental cases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haojie; Zhang, Liying; Jiang, Binhui; Genthikatti, Vinay V; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Feng; Makwana, Rahul; Gill, Amandeep; Jandir, Gurdeep; Singh, Amrinder; Yang, King H

    2013-11-01

    This study is aimed to develop a high quality, extensively validated finite element (FE) human head model for enhanced head injury prediction and prevention. The geometry of the model was based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans of an adult male who has the average height and weight of an American. A feature-based multiblock technique was adopted to develop hexahedral brain meshes including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, corpus callosum, ventricles, and thalamus. Conventional meshing methods were used to create the bridging veins, cerebrospinal fluid, skull, facial bones, flesh, skin, and membranes-including falx, tentorium, pia, arachnoid, and dura. The head model has 270,552 elements in total. Thirty five loading cases were selected from a range of experimental head impacts to check the robustness of the model predictions based on responses including the brain pressure, relative skull-brain motion, skull response, and facial response. The brain pressure was validated against intracranial pressure data reported by Nahum et al. (1977, "Intracranial Pressure Dynamics During Head Impact," Proc. 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 770922) and Trosseille et al. (1992, "Development of a F.E.M. of the Human Head According to a Specific Test Protocol," Proc. 36th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 922527). The brain motion was validated against brain displacements under sagittal, coronal, and horizontal blunt impacts performed by Hardy et al. (2001, "Investigation of Head Injury Mechanisms Using Neutral Density Technology and High-Speed Biplanar X-Ray," Stapp Car Crash Journal, 45, pp. 337-368; and 2007, "A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact," Stapp Car Crash Journal, 51, pp. 17-80). The facial bone responses were validated under nasal impact (Nyquist et al. 1986, "Facial Impact Tolerance and Response," Proc. 30th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 861896

  9. Dimensions of Family Coping with Head Injury: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the dimensions that underlie family coping with head injury by replicating and extending an earlier study. Identified two dimensions: (1) using social support versus cognitive coping; and (2) head injury--focused coping versus family tension management. Results provide additional evidence regarding the structure of family coping across…

  10. Head injuries in hospital-admitted adolescents and adults with skateboard-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Gail T; Schaffer, Kathryn B; Dandan, Imad S; Coufal, Frank J; Kraus, Jess F

    2015-01-01

    To provide new information on properties of skateboarders who were hospital admitted with head injuries with details of the injuries including region of head impact. Hospital records of patients aged 15 and older with a skateboard injury admitted to one Level II Trauma Centre during a 10-year period were reviewed. Data on demographic, exposure, severity, diagnostic and clinical factors for patients with head injury (HI) and without HI (N-HI) were compared analytically. While there were no differences for patients with HI and N-HI by age, gender, mechanism of injury or alcohol use, patients with HI were more severely injured. Although significantly more head impacts occurred to the occipital region of the head, haematomas and/or contusions were much more likely to occur in the frontal region of the brain. Acute neurosurgical intervention was needed in 14% of HI skateboarders. Skateboarding is not an innocuous recreational activity, with head injury present in 75% of patients who were hospital-admitted. Pre-hospital treatment protocols should be aware of this growing injured population. Falls while on a skateboard lead to impacts to the back of head with a contra-coup brain injury resulting in severe and sometimes fatal outcomes. The very low prevalence of helmet use among skateboarders with head injuries indicates that greater efforts should be directed toward incentives for their use.

  11. An unusual presentation of a minor head injury sustained during a game of rugby.

    PubMed

    Rimal, Debesh; Thapa, Sonu R; Munasinghe, Namal; Errington, Mark

    2007-07-01

    In the UK, about 2% of the population attend the accident and emergency (A&E) department every year after a head injury. A majority of the patients have minor head injury and are discharged. Studies reveal that patients who reattend the A&E after a minor head injury represent a high-risk group. Concussion injuries are common and not all require treatment at the time of presentation. However, some may worsen after initial presentation and develop signs of serious head injury. A case of minor head injury as a result of head butt during a game of rugby, not associated with alteration in conscious state or focal neurological signs, and subsequent development of frontal lobe abscess a month later is reported. It is important that patients fit to be discharged at the time of consultation are discharged in the care of a responsible adult with clear head injury instruction sheets and are advised to return should their symptoms change. A high index of suspicion should be maintained and an early imaging technique, such as CT scan should be considered in patients reattending the A&E with persistent symptoms even after minor head injury.

  12. Head injury predictors in sports trauma--a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fábio A O; de Sousa, Ricardo J Alves

    2015-08-01

    Head injuries occur in a great variety of sports. Many of these have been associated with neurological injuries, affecting the central nervous system. Some examples are motorsports, cycling, skiing, horse riding, mountaineering and most contact sports such as football, ice and field hockey, soccer, lacrosse, etc. The outcome of head impacts in these sports can be very severe. The worst-case scenarios of permanent disability or even death are possibilities. Over recent decades, many In recent decades, a great number of head injury criteria and respective thresholds have been proposed. However, the available information is much dispersed and a consensus has still not been achieved regarding the best injury criteria or even their thresholds. This review paper gives a thorough overview of the work carried out by the scientific community in the field of impact biomechanics about head injuries sustained during sports activity. The main goal is to review the head injury criteria, as well as their thresholds. Several are reviewed, from the predictors based on kinematics to the ones based on human tissue thresholds. In this work, we start to briefly introduce the head injuries and their mechanisms commonly seen as a result of head trauma in sports. Then, we present and summarize the head injury criteria and their respective thresholds.

  13. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  14. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  15. The Relationship of Intimate Partner Aggression to Head Injury, Executive Functioning, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Sherry M.; Meehan, Jeffrey C.; Marshall, Amy D.; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Taft, Casey T.

    2012-01-01

    Measures of head injury, executive functioning, and intelligence were given to a community sample composed of 102 male perpetrators of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and 62 nonaggressive men. A history of head injury and lower mean score on a measure of verbal intelligence were associated with the frequency of male-perpetrated physical IPA as…

  16. A video analysis of head injuries satisfying the criteria for a head injury assessment in professional Rugby Union: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Hester, Ben; Kemp, Simon; Cross, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Concussion is the most common match injury in professional Rugby Union, accounting for 25% of match injuries. The primary prevention of head injuries requires that the injury mechanism be known so that interventions can be targeted to specifically overall incidence by focusing on characteristics with the greatest propensity to cause a head injury. 611 head injury assessment (HIA) events in professional Rugby Union over a 3-year period were analysed, with specific reference to match events, position, time and nature of head contact. 464 (76%) of HIA events occur during tackles, with the tackler experiencing a significantly greater propensity for an HIA than the ball carrier (1.40 HIAs/1000 tackles for the tackler vs 0.54 HIAs/1000 tackles for the ball carrier, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.59). Propensity was significantly greater for backline players than forwards (IRR 1.54, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84), but did not increase over the course of the match. Head to head contact accounted for the most tackler HIAs, with the greatest propensity. By virtue of its high propensity and frequency, the tackle should be the focus for interventions that may include law change and technique education. A specific investigation of the characteristics of the tackle is warranted to refine the approach to preventative strategies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Epileptogenesis following experimentally induced traumatic brain injury - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Shammy; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Medhi, Bikash

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex neurotrauma in civilian life and the battlefield with a broad spectrum of symptoms, long-term neuropsychological disability, as well as mortality worldwide. Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a common outcome of TBI with unknown mechanisms, followed by posttraumatic epileptogenesis. There are numerous rodent models of TBI available with varying pathomechanisms of head injury similar to human TBI, but there is no evidence for an adequate TBI model that can properly mimic all aspects of clinical TBI and the first successive spontaneous focal seizures follow a single episode of neurotrauma with respect to epileptogenesis. This review aims to provide current information regarding the various experimental animal models of TBI relevant to clinical TBI. Mossy fiber sprouting, loss of dentate hilar neurons along with recurrent seizures, and epileptic discharge similar to human PTE have been studied in fluid percussion injury, weight-drop injury, and cortical impact models, but further refinement of animal models and functional test is warranted to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of posttraumatic epileptogenesis. A multifaceted research approach in TBI model may lead to exploration of the potential treatment measures, which are a major challenge to the research community and drug developers. With respect to clinical setting, proper patient data collection, improved clinical trials with advancement in drug delivery strategies, blood-brain barrier permeability, and proper monitoring of level and effects of target drug are also important.

  18. Exacerbation of pre-existing epilepsy by mild head injury: a five patient series.

    PubMed

    Tai, P C; Gross, D W

    2004-08-01

    While the risk of developing seizures following a mild head injury has been reported and is thought to be low, the effect of mild head injury on patients with a pre-existing seizure disorder has not been reported. We present a series of cases where a strong temporal relationship between mild head injury and worsening of seizure frequency was observed. Five cases were identified and reviewed in detail. Information was derived from clinic and hospital charts with attention to the degree of injury, pre- and postinjury seizure patterns and frequency. One patient has primary generalized epilepsy and four have localization related epilepsy. Prior to the head injury, three of the patients were seizure free (range: two to 24 years). The patients suffered from mild head injuries with no or transient loss of consciousness and no focal neurological deficits. In all cases, the patients experienced a worsening of seizure control within days of the injury. In one case, the patient's seizure pattern returned to baseline one year after the accident, while in the remaining four cases, the patients continue to have medically refractory seizures. A close temporal relationship between mild head injury and a worsening of seizure control was observed in five patients with epilepsy. Although further study is required, this observation suggests that a head injury that would be considered benign in the general population can have serious consequences such as recurrence of seizures and medical intractability in patients with epilepsy.

  19. Development and evaluation of modifications to the Sickness Impact Profile for head injury.

    PubMed

    Temkin, N; McLean, A; Dikmen, S; Gale, J; Bergner, M; Almes, M J

    1988-01-01

    Three modifications were made to the Sickness Impact Profile, a behavior-based measure of health status, to improve its sensitivity to the effects of head injury. (1) Additional items were included to capture head injury sequelae and behaviors typical of young adults, the age group to which head injury most frequently occurs. (2) Subjects individually excluded behaviors irrelevant to them, thus allowing the score to better reflect injury-related changes. (3) The different areas of functioning on the Sickness Impact Profile were reweighted to reflect global judgments of the construct's contribution to overall functioning rather than the sum of the item contributions. Only the first modification is head-injury specific. The others, are relevant to any disease or injury. The performance of the modifications was evaluated in a longitudinal study of 102 head injured and 102 comparison subjects tested at 1 and 12 months after injury. The evaluation of the modifications was based on their ability to distinguish head injury from comparison subjects and on the strength of their relationship with measures of brain dysfunction. Despite a few statistically significant improvements in discrimination, differences of a practical degree were not obtained. The standard Sickness Impact Profile performed well and is recommended for evaluation of day-to-day functioning in head injury studies.

  20. Reaction time indicators of attention deficits in closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Zahn, T P; Mirsky, A F

    1999-06-01

    The nature of deficits in attention in closed head injury (CHI) was studied by three reaction time (RT) paradigms given to 20 patients who had a CHI 2 or more years previously and to 25 controls. We studied the effects of temporal uncertainty by varying the length and regularity of the preparatory interval, the effects of stimulus modality uncertainty on simple RT to tones and lights, and the effects of response selection in choice RT. The CHI group showed slower and more variable RT than controls under all conditions. In addition, a long preparatory interval on the preceding trial retarded RT more in the CHI group, and they showed greater effects of stimulus modality uncertainty. Both of these findings suggest a difficulty in shifting attention to unexpected stimuli. These greater effects on RT of variations of attention or preparation in CHI may account for their greater within-subject variability possibly due to frontal lobe damage.

  1. Conversation analysis of communication breakdown after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Friedland, D; Miller, N

    1998-01-01

    This single case study investigated the use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in assessing pragmatic language difficulties after closed head injury (CHI). The aim was to see if CA captures the types of communication breakdown observed after CHI and whether results from CA can be directly related to scores on formal tests more typically applied after CHI. The results suggested that CA was a sensitive tool for identifying and investigating pragmatic deficits in this case. It facilitated an exploration of whether language impairments identified on formal tests manifest themselves in functional communication; it revealed how different interlocutors adapt to these language difficulties in conversation and also explained why some conversational partners were more successful than others. Considered together, formal test results and CA insights facilitated an in-depth analysis into the precise nature of the communicative impairments of the speaker in this exploratory study, suggesting that CA is a promising approach to the assessment of pragmatic impairments in the CHI population.

  2. Awareness of memory loss after severe closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Boake, C; Freeland, J C; Ringholz, G M; Nance, M L; Edwards, K E

    1995-04-01

    This study investigated unawareness of memory loss in 48 severe closed-head injury patients. Awareness was measured as the correlation of patients' memory test scores with their self-ratings on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Patients who endorsed atypical memory failures on the EMQ were classified as invalid responders. Invalid responders had poorer memory test performances and a higher rate of focal left hemispheric lesions, but did not report greater emotional symptoms. Correlations between memory test scores and memory self-ratings were weaker among invalid responders or those classified as depressed, and stronger among valid responders, especially those classified as non-depressed. The results indicate that the validity of memory self-reports is influenced by both neurogenic and psychogenic factors, and suggest that invalid responding is an important problem with self-reports by brain-injured patients.

  3. Physical abilities after head injury. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Talmage, E W; Collins, G A

    1983-12-01

    A two-year retrospective study of head-injured patients was done to determine physical abilities of these patients at the time of discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation service. The relationship of nine specific activities of daily living to cognitive level, discharge placement status, medical or trauma complications, and other injuries was studied. The modal patient is described. At time of discharge, most patients were able to move in bed, achieve and maintain sitting balance, transfer, achieve and maintain standing, and walk on level surfaces. Additionally, fewer than half of the patients studied were independent in stair climbing. Wheelchair management was considered a new activity for a majority of patients; only 56 percent of the patients achieved independence in this activity.

  4. Rehabilitation outcome of brain damaged patients after severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Najenson, T; Groswasser, Z; Mendelson, L; Hackett, P

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary team approach to the prolonged treatment of head injured patients in widely discussed. The rehabilitation process of the 147 subjects of this paper started while they were comatose and continued throughout the various stages of their progress towards full integration into society; the assessment of this process was carried out by testing their reintegration into work according to their capacities. Brain damage is classified in four categories: Physical-locomotor, communicative, cognitive and behavioural. The gap between the team's expectations and the patients' factual functioning within the community was found to be proportional to the extent of damage caused by the original injury. Treatment procedures and the influence of various factors on the factual functional state are discussed at length.

  5. Mortality from Head Injury over Four Decades in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hamill, Victoria; Barry, Sarah J E; McConnachie, Alex; McMillan, Thomas M; Teasdale, Graham M

    2015-05-15

    Although the causes of head injury, the population at risk, and approaches to prevention and treatment are continually evolving, there is little information about how these are reflected in patterns of mortality over time. We used population-based comprehensive data uniquely available in Scotland to investigate changes in the total numbers of deaths from 1974 to 2012, as well as the rates of head injury death, from different causes, overall and in relation to age and gender. Total mortality fell from an annual average of 503 to 339 with a corresponding annual decrease in rate from 9.6 to 6.4 per 100,000 population, the decline substantially occurring between 1974 and 1990. Deaths in children fell strikingly, but rose in older people. Deaths in males fell to a greater extent than females, but remained at a higher rate overall. Initially, a transport accident accounted for most deaths, but these fell by 80%, from 325 per year to 65 per year over the 39-year period. Deaths from falling and all other causes did not decline, coming to outnumber transport accident deaths by 1998, which accounts for the overall absence of change in total mortality in recent years. In order to reduce mortality in the future, more-effective measures to prevent falls are needed and these strategies will vary in younger adults (where alcohol is often a factor), as well as in older adults where infirmity can be a cause. In addition, measures to sustain reductions in transport accidents need to be maintained and further developed.

  6. Quality of life in children after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Rotarescu, Virginia; Ciurea, A V

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Mild Head Injury (MHI) in children not only in terms of impairment, but also in terms of disability, handicap and quality of life (QOL). Emergency Clinical Hospital "Bagdasar-Arseni", Bucharest, Romania, between 2000 and 2004 We take into account the patients with mild head injury MHI (CCS of 14 and 15 and amnesia). From a cohort of 1,319 children, consecutive patients with MHI, presented at the emergency room in a period of four years (2000-2003), 528 children (40.0%) were selected for admission, based on the presence of the risk factors. All admitted patients were investigated based on a protocol of neurosurgical evaluation and were followed for a period of 12 months. The Falls were the most common cause of MHI (30.6% - 162 cases). The proportion of children with detectable CT scan abnormalities was smaller (19.8% - 105 cases) and surgery was necessary in only 5.5% (29 cases). Special attention was paid to child-abuse and traffic accident cases. Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) was observed in 26.9% cases. Neuropsychological tests were performed in 96 children (21.2%), to evaluate neuropsychological, emotional, psychosocial and behavioral impairments. The study has shown that cognitive dysfunctions mainly were observed after MHI (especially deficits in information processing speed, memory and attention). The neurosurgeon should perform a complete evaluation of the children-patient with MHI, including a current physical examination, a neuro-radiological evaluation and a formal neuropsychological assessment, in order to detect the abnormalities and to treat them. Psychotherapy can be of benefit in cases with MHI. Any common case of MHI may hide a possible lesion with delayed consequences.

  7. Assessment of head injury of children due to golf ball impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Wang, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Head trauma injury due to impact by a flying golf ball is one of the most severe possible injury accidents on the golf course. Numerical simulations based on the finite element method are presented to investigate head injury in children due to impact by a flying golf ball. The stress and energy flow patterns in a head model during the golf ball impact are computed for various combinations of striking speed, falling angle of the golf ball before impact, and impact location. It is found that a child is more prone to head injury due to golf ball impact on the frontal and side/temporal areas. The simulated results are found to conform to the clinical reports on children's head injuries from flying golf balls.

  8. Memory and intellectual ability after head injury in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; Eisenberg, H M; Wigg, N R; Kobayashi, K

    1982-11-01

    In comparison with age-matched groups who sustained mild to moderate head injury, children and adolescents with severe head injury initially exhibited memory deficit. Cognitive impairment persisted primarily in the severely injured children, whereas the follow-up performance of severely injured adolescents more closely approximated that of age-matched patients with mild or moderate head injury. The results suggest that young children are no less and may be even more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diffuse injury on memory and cognition.

  9. Paediatric head injuries treated in a children's emergency department from Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    PubMed

    Rus, Diana; Chereches, Razvan Mircea; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Marton-Vasarhely, Emanuela Oana; Oprescu, Florin; Brinzaniuc, Alexandra; Mocean, Floarea

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe paediatric head injuries and identify factors that led to advanced care. Incident cases of head injuries that sought care from December 2008 to October 2010 at Children's Emergency Hospital Cluj-Napoca were evaluated. The main outcome was transfer or admission to advanced care. From a total of 3053 children treated for an injury, 1541 (50.4%) presented with head injury. A total of 960 (62.3%) of the children with a head injury required advanced care treatment. Young children were more likely to suffer a head injury than older children, but a higher proportion of older children required advanced care (70.3%). Children who suffered a head injury as a consequence of road traffic were almost five times more likely to require advanced care (OR: 4.97; 3.09-8.06) than being released. Our results suggest that data on injuries provide evidence-based information on the nature of injuries children are prone to, and what activity, type, and mechanism of injury impact Romanian children.

  10. Analysis of pituitary lesions in fatal closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed forensic autopsy findings of 66 consecutive patients with fatal closed head injury who survived up to 48 days after trauma to ascertain the causal factors and the time course of development of posttraumatic pituitary lesions. Pituitary lesions were identified in 27 patients. In patients with pituitary lesions, posterior lobe hemorrhage was observed in 21 patients, followed by anterior lobe hemorrhage in 10 patients and anterior lobe infarct in 7 patients. Comparisons between patients with and without pituitary lesions showed that falls and subdural hematoma were significantly frequent in patients with pituitary lesions. Immunohistochemistry of neurophysin showed increased immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of patients with pituitary lesions and brain edema, providing morphologic evidence of pituitary dysfunction. Hemorrhage in the anterior or posterior lobe was identifiable in patients with short survival periods, whereas infarct in the anterior lobe appeared in patients surviving at least 14 hours. These data further our understanding of the mechanisms of pituitary dysfunctions and help in the estimation of the survival period after head trauma.

  11. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment after severe blunt head injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, R L; Fenelon, B; Manning, M L; Hunter, M

    1991-03-01

    A consecutive series of 100 subjects with severe blunt head injuries was followed up 6 years after trauma. Neuropsychological test performances of 82 subjects and of a noninjured control group were analyzed by two principal components analyses (PCAs). Each PCA extracted 15 factors relating to a range of cognitive impairments, as well as neuropsychological features consistent with posttraumatic personality changes. Measures identified by the PCAs were applied to 85 head-injured subjects in the series to examine the incidence of impairment in four neuropsychological areas: disorders of learning and memory, neuropsychological features consistent with posttraumatic personality change, slowness in rate of information processing, and a range of basic neuropsychological skills. Overall, impairments occurred in 70% of the series. Disorders of learning and memory were the most common type of deficit (56.5%), with disturbances in basic neuropsychological skills the least frequent (16.5%). Variability among subjects with respect to the types and combinations of neuropsychological impairments was a characteristic feature of this clinical group, but the largest proportion (one-third) demonstrated isolated impairments. The implications of the incidence and selectivity of neuropsychological impairments are discussed.

  12. Headache in traumatic brain injuries from blunt head trauma.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Hoyle, John; Atabaki, Shireen; Tunik, Michael G; Lichenstein, Richard; Miskin, Michelle; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    To determine the risk of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children with headaches after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the headaches occur without other findings suggestive of TBIs (ie, isolated headaches). This was a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of children 2 to 18 years with minor blunt head trauma (ie, Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 14-15). Clinicians assessed the history and characteristics of headaches at the time of initial evaluation, and documented findings onto case report forms. Our outcome measures were (1) clinically important TBI (ciTBI) and (2) TBI visible on computed tomography (CT). Of 27 495 eligible patients, 12 675 (46.1%) had headaches. Of the 12 567 patients who had complete data, 2462 (19.6%) had isolated headaches. ciTBIs occurred in 0 of 2462 patients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.1%) in the isolated headache group versus 162 of 10 105 patients (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.4%-1.9%) in the nonisolated headache group (risk difference, 1.6%; 95% CI: 1.3%-1.9%). TBIs on CT occurred in 3 of 456 patients (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.1%-1.9%) in the isolated headache group versus 271 of 6089 patients (4.5%; 95% CI: 3.9%-5.0%) in the nonisolated headache group (risk difference, 3.8%; 95% CI: 2.3%-4.5%). We found no significant independent associations between the risk of ciTBI or TBI on CT with either headache severity or location. ciTBIs are rare and TBIs on CT are very uncommon in children with minor blunt head trauma when headaches are their only sign or symptom. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Motocross-associated head and spine injuries in adult patients evaluated in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucas Oliveira J E; Fernanda Bellolio, M; Smith, Elisa M; Daniels, David J; Lohse, Christine M; Campbell, Ronna L

    2017-10-01

    Motor vehicle-related injuries (including off-road) are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute traumatic spinal cord injury in the United States. To describe motocross-related head and spine injuries of adult patients presenting to an academic emergency department (ED). We performed an observational cohort study of adult ED patients evaluated for motocross-related injuries from 2010 through 2015. Electronic health records were reviewed and data extracted using a standardized review process. A total of 145 motocross-related ED visits (143 unique patients) were included. Overall, 95.2% of patients were men with a median age of 25years. Sixty-seven visits (46.2%) were associated with head or spine injuries. Forty-three visits (29.7%) were associated with head injuries, and 46 (31.7%) were associated with spine injuries. Among the 43 head injuries, 36 (83.7%) were concussions. Seven visits (16.3%) were associated with at least 1 head abnormality identified by computed tomography, including skull fracture (n=2), subdural hematoma (n=1), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=4), intraparenchymal hemorrhage (n=3), and diffuse axonal injury (n=3). Among the 46 spine injuries, 32 (69.6%) were acute spinal fractures. Seven patients (4.9%) had clinically significant and persistent neurologic injuries. One patient (0.7%) died, and 3 patients had severe TBIs. Adult patients evaluated in the ED after motocross trauma had high rates of head and spine injuries with considerable morbidity and mortality. Almost half had head or spine injuries (or both), with permanent impairment for nearly 5% and death for 0.7%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  15. Development of a Human Head FE Model and Impact Simulation on the Focal Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Dai; Yuge, Kohei; Nishimoto, Tetsuya; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Takao, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, a three-dimensional digital human-head model was developed and several dynamic analyses on the head trauma were conducted. This model was built up by the VOXEL approach using 433 slice CT images (512×512 pixels) and made of 1.22 million parallelepiped finite elements with 10 anatomical tissue properties such as scalp, CSF, skull, brain, dura mater and so on. The numerical analyses were conducted using a finite element code the authors have developed. The main features of the code are 1) it is based on the explicit time integration method and 2) it uses the one point integration method to evaluate the equivalent nodal forces with the hourglass control proposed by Flanagan and Belytschko(1) and 3) it utilizes the parallel computation system based on MPI. In order to verify the developed model, the head impact experiment for a cadaver by Nahum et al.(2) was simulated. The calculated results showed good agreement with the experimental ones. A front and rear impact analyses were also performed to discuss on the characteristic measure of the brain injury, in which the von-Mises stress was high in the frontal lobe in both of the analyses because of the large deformations of a frontal cranial base. This result suggests that the von-Mises stress can be a good measure of the brain injury since it is empirically well known that the frontal lobe tends to get injured regardless of the impact positions.

  16. Objective vestibular tests as outcome measures in head injury patients.

    PubMed

    Gottshall, Kim; Drake, Angela; Gray, Nicola; McDonald, Eric; Hoffer, Michael E

    2003-10-01

    Dynamic visual acuity testing (DVAT) and the Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI) can be used as reliable outcome measures in patients after head injury. Balance disorders are a significant disability after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Assessing when individuals can perform activities of daily living, return to work, and begin to play sports can be difficult to determine. Objective outcome measures that correlate with successful life skills can be useful in managing these patients. Fifty-three active duty individuals who suffered mild TBI underwent weekly DVAT testing and were administered a weekly DHI. Results in this group were compared with 46 control subjects who had not experienced TBI. In addition, weekly scores were compared with the patient's functional level, time to return to work, and time to perform all job related activities. Individuals with TBI showed an overall increase of 42% in DVAT function over the first 4 weeks of testing, whereas controls showed an 8% increase. Concurrently, individuals with TBI averaged a 18-point improvement in DHI function, whereas control subjects showed no significant change in this score. Improvement in DVAT and DHI function correlated closely at the 1-week time point. Improvement in the patient's cognitive function, ability to return to activities of daily living, and ability to return to work gradually improved continuously. DVAT and the DHI can be used as reliable outcome measures in evaluating the progress of patients with balance disorders associated with TBI. These measures allow providers to make more reliable recommendations regarding such activities as returning to work.

  17. Sustained attention following mild closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R; Mutter, S A; Molloy, R

    1991-09-01

    The sustained-attention performance of patients with mild closed-head injury (CHI) was examined within one month of injury using a high-event rate, digit-discrimination vigilance task with two levels of stimulus degradation (undegraded, highly degraded). Under undegraded stimulus conditions, vigilance performance for mild CHI subjects, uninjured case-matched control subjects, and college students was highly accurate and remained so across the entire task period. When stimuli were presented in degraded fashion, however, all three groups showed a similar decline over time (i.e., vigilance decrement) in hit rates and d' scores. Although mild CHI did not lead to a greater rate of deterioration in vigilance performance in the degraded stimulus condition, it did produce lower overall levels of sensitivity (d') in target detection. These results suggest that, during the first month after mild CHI, vigilance performance is unimpaired under normal task conditions, but may fall short under task conditions that require sustained effortful processing. These findings join a growing body of evidence showing that mild CHI can lead to measurable deficits in cognitive functioning.

  18. [Pedestrian head injury biomechanics and damage mechanism. Pedestrian protection automotive regulation assessment].

    PubMed

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Rebollo-Soria, M Carmen; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Teijeira Alvarez

    Pedestrian-vehicle collisions are a leading cause of death among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, pedestrian injury research has been increased, mostly due to the implementation of European and Japanese regulations. This research presents an analysis of the main head injury vehicle sources and injury mechanisms observed in the field, posteriorly the data are compared with the current pedestrian regulations. The analysis has been performed through an epidemiologic transversal and descriptive study, using the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) involving 552 pedestrians, sustaining a total of 4.500 documented injuries. According to this research, the hood surface is responsible for only 15,1% of all the head injuries. On the other hand, the windshield glazing is responsible for 41,8%. In case of sedan vehicles the head impact location exceeds what is expected in the current regulation, and therefore no countermeasures are applied. From all the head injuries sustained by the pedestrians just 20% have the linear acceleration as isolated injury mechanism, 40% of the injuries are due to rotational acceleration. In this research, the importance of the rotational acceleration as injury mechanism, in case of pedestrian-vehicle collision is highlighted. In the current pedestrian regulation just the linear acceleration is addressed in the main injury criteria used for head injury prediction. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Batting head injury in professional cricket: a systematic video analysis of helmet safety characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Craig; Peirce, Nicholas; Young, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Batters in cricket are continuing to sustain head and facial injuries despite wearing protective helmets. To gain an understanding of the types and mechanisms of head injuries sustained by batters wearing a helmet. Injury type, location and mechanism were categorised via analysis of 35 videos of National or International cricketers sustaining a head injury while batting. 53% of the injuries occurred following ball impact to either the helmet faceguard and peak, or the faceguard alone. Ten injuries (29%) resulted from the ball penetrating the gap between the helmet peak and faceguard. 29% of the injuries involved the ball contacting the face following penetration of the gap between the helmet peak and faceguard. Fractures, lacerations and contusions were the most common injuries associated with face or faceguard impacts while concussion was more commonly associated with impacts to the side or rear of the helmet shell. Many of the injuries described resulted in prolonged or permanent absence from cricket. Significant head and facial injuries occur in cricket batters despite wearing of helmets. Cricket helmet design and associated National and International Safety Standards should be improved to provide increased protection against head injury related to ball impact to the faceguard and shell of the helmet.

  20. Postconcussive symptoms in children with mild closed head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yeates, K O; Luria, J; Bartkowski, H; Rusin, J; Martin, L; Bigler, E D

    1999-08-01

    To examine the incidence and neuropsychological, behavioral, and neuroimaging correlates of postconcussive symptoms (PCS) in children with mild closed head injuries (CHI). 26 Children with mild CHI and 8 of their uninjured siblings, from 8 to 15 years old, were recruited prospectively and assessed at baseline (ie, within 7 days of injury) and at 3 months postinjury. Parents rated PCS, motivation and affective lability, and behavioral adjustment. Baseline ratings assessed premorbid functioning retrospectively, and follow-up ratings assessed postinjury status. On both occasions, children completed neuropsychological testing, and those with mild CHI also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Children with mild CHI did not differ from siblings in baseline ratings of premorbid PCS but displayed higher ratings on several PCS at 3 months postinjury. Thirty-five percent of children with mild CHI showed increases in PCS, compared with baseline premorbid ratings, but none of the siblings did so. Children with mild CHI whose PCS increased from premorbid levels showed poorer neuropsychological functioning at baseline than did children whose PCS did not increase, although the differences had partially resolved by 3 months. They also displayed decreased motivation over time. Their behavioral adjustment was poorer and they had smaller white matter volumes on MRI, but the latter differences were present at baseline and did not change over time, suggesting that they existed prior to the injury. Postinjury increases in PCS occur in a sizable minority of children with mild CHI and more often than among uninjured siblings. Increases in PCS following mild CHI are associated with premorbid neurological and psychosocial vulnerability, but also with postinjury decrements in neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning.

  1. Head injuries in winter sports: downhill skiing, snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating and ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Brian; McDonald, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Winter sports are often associated with high speed, which carries with it the potential for collision. As such, head injuries are among the more commonly encountered injuries in winter-related sporting activities. This article focuses on popular winter sports such as downhill skiing and snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating, and hockey. In virtually all of these activities, the incidence and severity of head injuries can be reduced by the use of appropriate protective headgear.

  2. Head injuries in winter sports: downhill skiing, snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating and ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Brian; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Winter sports are often associated with high speed, which carries with it the potential for collision. As such, head injuries are among the more commonly encountered injuries in winter-related sporting activities. This article focuses on popular winter sports such as downhill skiing and snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating, and hockey. In virtually all of these activities, the incidence and severity of head injuries can be reduced by the use of appropriate protective headgear.

  3. Head injury at early ages is associated with risk of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Sudarsky, Lewis; Simon, David K.; Hersh, Bonnie; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The literature on the effect of head injuries on the risk of PD is inconclusive. Some researchers have hypothesized that studies that have seen an effect are simply capturing injury related to pre-clinical PD. However in animal models brain inflammation, which can be initiated by head trauma, has been shown to produce PD-like effects. Furthermore, animal studies have found that early life inflammation in particular is of relevance for PD pathology. Methods We conducted an unmatched case-control study of 379 neurologist confirmed PD patients and 230 controls from the greater Boston, Massachusetts area with questionnaire data on history of head injury and other covariates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for PD. Results When we excluded injuries that occurred less than 10 years prior to the diagnosis of PD (in order to avoid reverse causation), we found an increased risk of PD associated with a head injury that resulted in a loss of consciousness, but it did not reach statistical significance (OR= 1.57; 95% CI= 0.89-2.80). We found a significant (p=0.04) effect of age at first head injury. For every 5 year earlier age at first head injury with loss of consciousness the OR for PD was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.01-1.86). Conclusion Our results suggest that head injury in early life increases the risk of PD. PMID:26725141

  4. Head injury at early ages is associated with risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Sudarsky, Lewis; Simon, David K; Hersh, Bonnie; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-02-01

    The literature on the effect of head injuries on the risk of PD is inconclusive. Some researchers have hypothesized that studies that have seen an effect are simply capturing injury related to pre-clinical PD. However in animal models brain inflammation, which can be initiated by head trauma, has been shown to produce PD-like effects. Furthermore, animal studies have found that early life inflammation in particular is of relevance for PD pathology. We conducted an unmatched case-control study of 379 neurologist confirmed PD patients and 230 controls from the greater Boston, Massachusetts area with questionnaire data on history of head injury and other covariates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for PD. When we excluded injuries that occurred less than 10 years prior to the diagnosis of PD (in order to avoid reverse causation), we found an increased risk of PD associated with a head injury that resulted in a loss of consciousness, but it did not reach statistical significance (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 0.89-2.80). We found a significant (p = 0.04) effect of age at first head injury. For every 5 year earlier age at first head injury with loss of consciousness the OR for PD was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.01-1.86). Our results suggest that head injury in early life increases the risk of PD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Epidemiology of acute head injuries in Canadian children and youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Maria; Al-Sahab, Ban; McFaull, Steve; Tamim, Hala

    2010-09-01

    Limited studies have been done to assess head injury characteristics for children and youth soccer players in Canada. To describe acute head injury characteristics in children and youth soccer players and identify the characteristics of patients who required hospital admission. Analysis was based on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). Soccer-related head injuries amongst 5-19 year old children presenting at 16 hospital emergency departments during 1994-2004 were selected in the study. All head injury-related variables (nature of injury, mechanism of injury, location of play, soccer type and season of play) were stratified by age and sex. A logistic regression model, consisting of the injury-related variables, sex and age as the independent variables, was performed to examine the characteristics of those head-injured patients who required hospital admission. Overall, there were 4720 head injury cases identified (15% of all soccer-related emergency department visits). The highest proportion of head injuries was amongst males (70%) and children aged 10-14 years (50%). Of head injury cases, 35% were superficial and/or open wounds, 28% minor head injuries, 11% concussions, 9% eye injuries and 5% fractures. The total number of cases that required hospital admission was 164 (3.5%). Based on logistic regression analysis, head-injured youth aged 15-19 years were almost two times more likely to be admitted to hospital than their younger counterparts (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). Compared to ball contact injuries, contact with structures/surfaces, other players/persons and other unspecified objects increased the odds of hospital admission at least by two-folds. Moreover, those who played unorganised soccer were significantly more likely to be admitted to the hospital as compared to those who played organised soccer (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Finally, playing in the non-winter seasons had increased likelihood of hospital admissions. Head

  6. Experimental model for civilian ballistic brain injury biomechanics quantification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Guan, Yabo; Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical quantification of projectile penetration using experimental head models can enhance the understanding of civilian ballistic brain injury and advance treatment. Two of the most commonly used handgun projectiles (25-cal, 275 m/s and 9 mm, 395 m/s) were discharged to spherical head models with gelatin and Sylgard simulants. Four ballistic pressure transducers recorded temporal pressure distributions at 308kHz, and temporal cavity dynamics were captured at 20,000 frames/second (fps) using high-speed digital video images. Pressures ranged from 644.6 to -92.8 kPa. Entry pressures in gelatin models were higher than exit pressures, whereas in Sylgard models entry pressures were lower or equivalent to exit pressures. Gelatin responded with brittle-type failure, while Sylgard demonstrated a ductile pattern through formation of micro-bubbles along projectile path. Temporary cavities in Sylgard models were 1.5-2x larger than gelatin models. Pressures in Sylgard models were more sensitive to projectile velocity and diameter increase, indicating Sylgard was more rate sensitive than gelatin. Based on failure patterns and brain tissue rate-sensitive characteristics, Sylgard was found to be an appropriate simulant. Compared with spherical projectile data, full-metal jacket (FMJ) projectiles produced different temporary cavity and pressures, demonstrating shape effects. Models using Sylgard gel and FMJ projectiles are appropriate to enhance understanding and mechanisms of ballistic brain injury.

  7. Position paper on fatal abusive head injuries in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Case, M E; Graham, M A; Handy, T C; Jentzen, J M; Monteleone, J A

    2001-06-01

    This article represents the work of the National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on shaken baby syndrome. Abusive head injuries include injuries caused by shaking as well as impact to the head, either by directly striking the head or by causing the head to strike another object or surface. Because of anatomic and developmental differences in the brain and skull of the young child, the mechanisms and types of injuries that affect the head differ from those that affect the older child or adult. The mechanism of injury produced by inflicted head injuries in these children is most often rotational movement of the brain within the cranial cavity. Rotational movement of the brain damages the nervous system by creating shearing forces, which cause diffuse axonal injury with disruption of axons and tearing of bridging veins, which causes subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages, and is very commonly associated with retinal schisis and hemorrhages. Recognition of this mechanism of injury may be helpful in severe acute rotational brain injuries because it facilitates understanding of such clinical features as the decrease in the level of consciousness and respiratory distress seen in these injured children. The pathologic findings of subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and retinal hemorrhages are offered as "markers" to assist in the recognition of the presence of shearing brain injury in young children.

  8. Caffeine impairs short-term neurological outcome after concussive head injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Moutaery, Khalaf; Al Deeb, Saleh; Ahmad Khan, Haseeb; Tariq, Mohammad

    2003-09-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous neuroprotective agent that is released during ischemia, hypoxia, epilepsy, and ischemic brain injury. Caffeine is a receptor antagonist for adenosine that might interfere with the neuroprotective effect of adenosine in ischemic-hypoxic conditions. An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of caffeine on neurological function, edema formation, and blood-brain barrier permeability after experimental head injury in rats. Adult female Wistar rats classified into different groups received caffeine intraperitoneally at doses of 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight. Thirty minutes after the caffeine treatment, the animals were subjected to concussive head injury (CHI) administered by a controlled cortical impact device. Neurological severity score was recorded in each rat at 2 hours after CHI. Specific gravity, water content (as an indicator of edema), and blood-brain barrier impairment were analyzed in the cortical tissue surrounding the injury site. The levels of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde in the cortical region were measured as indicators of neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation, respectively. A significant increase in righting latency and neurological deficiency after CHI was observed in caffeine-treated rats as compared with untreated animals. Although no deaths occurred in the rats exposed to CHI after pretreatment with saline, pretreatment with caffeine caused significant mortality of animals after trauma in a dose-dependent manner. Caffeine also exacerbated neutrophil infiltration, edema, and disruption of blood-brain barrier in the traumatic cortex. Light microscopy of brain revealed more severe hemorrhage and neuronal degeneration in the injured hemisphere of caffeine-treated rats as compared with rats in the injury-alone group. A significant increase in malondialdehyde in the brain of injured rats treated with caffeine before CHI clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress. Caffeine adversely affects

  9. Head, face, and eye injuries in scholastic and collegiate lacrosse: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Andrew E; Hinton, Richard Y; Almquist, Jon L; Lager, Sean L; Dick, Randall W

    2007-02-01

    Risks and mechanisms of head, face, and eye injuries in high school and college lacrosse are not well documented. To identify (1) primary mechanisms of head, face, and eye injuries in lacrosse and (2) differences in injury risk between the men's and women's game and between high school and collegiate levels. Descriptive epidemiological study. The authors gathered data on 507,000 girls' and boys' high school and 649,573 women's and men's college lacrosse athletic exposures using sport-specific injury surveillance systems over 4 seasons. They identified the most common scenarios for head, face, and eye injuries. The high school girls' head, face, and eye injury rate (0.54 per 1000 athletic exposures) was significantly higher (incident rate ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.86) than that for boys (0.38 per 1000 athletic exposures); college women (0.77 per 1000 athletic exposures) sustained a higher rate of injuries (incident rate ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-2.19) than did men (0.44 per 1000 athletic exposures). Concussions constituted a higher percentage of injuries among boys (73%) and men (85%) than among girls (40%) and women (41%). Men sustained few facial injuries, whereas a substantial proportion of women's injuries involved the face and orbital area. Although permitting only incidental contact, women's lacrosse had higher rates of head, face, and eye injuries at both the high school and collegiate levels. Concussion was the most common injury. For men, the primary injury mechanism was player-to-player contact; women's injuries primarily resulted from stick or ball contact. High school injury rates were lower than were college rates, but the nature of injuries, body parts affected, and mechanisms were similar.

  10. Head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Xu, Likang; Faul, Mark

    2017-08-18

    This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (traumatic brain injury, TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated 3 health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to TBI in motor vehicle occupants. Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor vehicle crashes: (1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, (2) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-estimated ED visits for TBI, (3) National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) estimated hospitalizations for TBI, and (4) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) estimated TBI deaths. The 4 databases provide annual national totals for TBI related injury and death in motor vehicle crashes based on differing definitions with TBI coded by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in NASS-CDS and by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the health data. Adults: NASS-CDS had 16,980 ± 2,411 (risk = 0.43 ± 0.06%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 3,930,543 exposed adults in towaway crashes annually. There were 49,881 ± 9,729 (risk = 1.27 ± 0.25%) hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury, without death. There were 6,753 ± 882 (risk = 0.17 ± 0.02%) fatalities with a head injury cause. The public health data had 89,331 ± 6,870 ED visits, 33,598 ± 1,052 hospitalizations, and 6,682 ± 22 deaths with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 48% more hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury without death than NHDS occupants hospitalized with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 29% more deaths with AIS 3+ head injury than NVSS occupant TBI deaths but only 1% more deaths with a head injury cause. Children: NASS-CDS had 1,453 ± 318 (risk = 0.32 ± 0.07%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 454,973 exposed

  11. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Context Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. Objectives To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. Design A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Main Outcome Measures: Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Results Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Conclusion Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders. PMID:28406787

  12. Epidemiology of head injury in Malaysian children: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Rohana, J; Ong, L C; Abu Hassan, A

    1998-09-01

    A prospective observational study was carried out at the Emergency Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur to determine the proportion of accidental head injury among children and the circumstances of injury. The study was carried out from November 1993 to January 1994 on all children below 14 years who presented to the Emergency Department with accidental head injury. Accidental head injury made up (4.75%) of all cases seen at the Casualty Department. The ratio of boys to girls was 2:1. The mean age of head injured children was 5.2 (S.D. 3.63) years. The leading cause of head injury was fall (63%) followed by road traffic accidents (RTA) in (30.7%) while the rest were due to 'impact' (injury caused by flying object or missiles) injuries. More than half (54.4%) of those injured in RTA were pedestrians. Pedestrian injury was particularly important in the 5-< 14 years age group, where adult supervision was lacking in two thirds of the children. None of the patients who were involved in vehicle-related injuries had used a suitable protective or restraining device. All three patients who died were from this group. This study emphasises the need for stricter enforcement of laws related to the use of protective devices and measures to decrease child pedestrian injury. The issues of lack of adult supervision, both in and outside the home need to be addressed.

  13. Neurological outcome after experimental lung injury.

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Johannes; Biener, Ingeborg; Czaplik, Michael; Nolte, Kay; Dembinski, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf; Fries, Michael

    2011-12-15

    We examined the influences of acute lung injury and hypoxia on neurological outcome. Functional performance was assessed using a neurocognitive test and a neurologic deficit score (NDS) five days before. On experimental day, mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized to hypoxia only (HO group, n=5) or to acute lung injury (ALI group, n=5). Hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, systemic cytokines and further physiologic variables were obtained at baseline, at the time of ALI, 2, 4 and 8h thereafter. Subsequently, injured lungs were recruited and animals weaned from the ventilator. Neurocognitive testing was re-examined for five days. Then, brains were harvested for neurohistopathology. After the experiment, neurocognitive performance was significantly worsened and the NDS increased in the ALI group. Histopathology revealed no significant differences. Oxygenation was comparable between groups although significantly higher inspiratory pressures occured after ALI. Cytokines showed a trend towards higher levels after ALI. Neurocognitive compromise after ALI seems due to a more pronounced inflammatory response and complex mechanical ventilation.

  14. [Specificities of prosthetic and orthotic rehabilitation in amputees with head injury].

    PubMed

    Teofilovski, Mirko; Parapid, Biljana; Rakić, Miodrag; Popović, Nikola; Teofilovski-Parapid, Gordana

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. The prosthetic-orthotic rehabilitation (POR) of amputees with head injury within the polytrauma presents a specific entity. The number of traumas caused by the traffic and the low-intensity war conflicts, increases constantly. The aim of our study was to examine the influence of complications on the POR duration and outcome in polytrauma amputees with head injury (PTAHI) recording complications at the beginning and during the POR. The study was carried out on the patients divided into two groups of 35 polytrauma male patients each of corresponding age with unilateral transfemoral amputation caused by the war injury. The experimental group consisted of the amputees with head injury. Standard clinical techniques and procedures, as well as special functional evaluation techniques were used. The PATHI started POR with a greater number of complications (average rate 7.29 vs 5.11 per patient; W = 928.000: Z = 3.730: p = 0.000). There was a highly significant positive correlation between this number and the Barthel Score value change (Fx, H, p < 0.01), and negative significant correlation considering prosthetic use and functional capacity test values (Fx, H p < 0.05). On admision, the amount of complications defined for the value 4 of POR outcome was significantly higher than values 2 and 3, respectively (H = 8.948; df = 2; p = 0.011). The PTAHI developed significantly more frequently complications during rehabilitation (X2 = 1.061; df = 1; p < 0.01). The proportion of the examinees with the value 4 who developed complications during rehabilitations was significantly higher than those with value 2 (Fp = 3.406; df1 = 2; df2 = 67; p = 0.038). The rehabilitation of the PTAHI lasted significantly longer (average 259.09 vs 183.63 days; W = 923.500; Z = -3.748; p = 0.000). The PTAHI including head injuries started prosthetic-orthotic rehabilitation with more prosthetic complications and their psychological status was worse, resulting in the longer duration of

  15. Metabolic acidosis aggravates experimental acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Patrícia Andréa da Fonseca; de Brito, Teresinha Silva; Freire, Rosemayre Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Vale, Mariana Lima; de Menezes, Dalgimar Beserra; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Libório, Alexandre Braga

    2016-02-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and metabolic acidosis (MA) are two critical conditions that may simultaneously occur in clinical practice. The result of this combination can be harmful to the kidneys, but this issue has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study evaluated the influence of low systemic pH on various parameters of kidney function in rats that were subjected to an experimental model of renal I/R injury. Metabolic acidosis was induced in male Wistar rats by ingesting ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in tap water, beginning 2 days before ischemic insult and maintained during the entire study. Ischemia/reperfusion was induced by clamping both renal arteries for 45 min, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. Four groups were studied: control (subjected to sham surgery, n=8), I/R (n=8), metabolic acidosis (MA; 0.28 M NH4Cl solution and sham surgery, n=6), and MA+I/R (0.28 M NH4Cl solution plus I/R, n=9). Compared with I/R rats, MA+I/R rats exhibited higher mortality (50 vs. 11%, p=0.03), significant reductions of blood pH, plasma bicarbonate (pBic), and standard base excess (SBE), with a severe decline in the glomerular filtration rate and tubular function. Microscopic tubular injury signals were detected. Immunofluorescence revealed that the combination of MA and I/R markedly increased nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), but it did not interfere with the decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression that was caused by I/R injury. Acute ischemic kidney injury is exacerbated by acidic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aetiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of head injury patients at Bugando Medical Centre in north-western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chalya, Phillipo L; Kanumba, Emmanuel S; Mabula, Joseph B; Giiti, Godfrey; Gilyoma, Japhet M

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is considered as a major health problem that is a frequent cause of death and disability and makes considerable demands on health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of head injury patients at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) in North-western Tanzania. Data were collected using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS programme. A total of 260 head injury patients (mean age=26.84 years) were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 1.5:1. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of injury accounting for 49.2% of patients. Scalp injuries, cerebral concussion and skull fractures were the most common type of head injuries. Fifty-six (21.5%) patients had associated injuries of which musculoskeletal region (36.1%) was commonly affected. Most of patients (66.1%) sustained mild head injury. The majority of patients (75.8%) were treated conservatively and only 24.2% of patients needed surgical interventions. Most of patients (85.4%) had good recovery. The mean hospital stay (LOS) was 24.56 days and the mortality rate was 11.2%. Patients who had RTAs, penetrating head injuries, associated long bone fractures and those who were treated surgically were found to have significantly longer LOS (P< 0.001). Mortality was found to be significantly associated with extreme of age, presence of pre-morbid illness and associated injuries, admission Glasgow Coma Score < 9, systolic blood pressure < 90mmHg, injury severity core > or =16, longer duration of loss of consciousness, the need for intensive care unit admission and finding of space occupying lesion on computed tomography scan (P < 0.001). Head injuries resulting from RTAs remain a major public health problem in this part of Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of RTAs is necessary to reduce the incidence of head injuries in this region.

  17. Development of a Finite Element Head Model for the Study of Impact Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Tse, Kwong-Ming; Chen, Ning; Tan, Long-Bin; Zheng, Qing-Qian; Yang, Hui-Min; Hu, Min; Pan, Gang; Lee, Heow-Pueh

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a high quality, validated finite element (FE) human head model for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) prediction and prevention during vehicle collisions. The geometry of the FE model was based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile male. The material and structural properties were selected based on a synthesis of current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was simulated explicitly as a hydrostatic fluid by using a surface-based fluid modeling method. The model was validated in the loading condition observed in frontal impact vehicle collision. These validations include the intracranial pressure (ICP), brain motion, impact force and intracranial acceleration response, maximum von Mises stress in the brain, and maximum principal stress in the skull. Overall results obtained in the validation indicated improved biofidelity relative to previous FE models, and the change in the maximum von Mises in the brain is mainly caused by the improvement of the CSF simulation. The model may be used for improving the current injury criteria of the brain and anthropometric test devices. PMID:25405201

  18. A conceptual model of emergency physician decision making for head computed tomography in mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Probst, Marc A; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Schriger, David L

    2014-06-01

    The use of computed tomographic scanning in blunt head trauma has increased dramatically in recent years without an accompanying rise in the prevalence of injury or hospital admission for serious conditions. Because computed tomography is neither harmless nor inexpensive, researchers have attempted to optimize utilization, largely through research that describes which clinical variables predict intracranial injury, and use this information to develop clinical decision instruments. Although such techniques may be useful when the benefits and harms of each strategy (neuroimaging vs observation) are quantifiable and amenable to comparison, the exact magnitude of these benefits and harms remains unknown in this clinical scenario. We believe that most clinical decision instrument development efforts are misguided insofar as they ignore critical, nonclinical factors influencing the decision to image. In this article, we propose a conceptual model to illustrate how clinical and nonclinical factors influence emergency physicians making this decision. We posit that elements unrelated to standard clinical factors, such as personality of the physician, fear of litigation and of missed diagnoses, patient expectations, and compensation method, may have equal or greater impact on actual decision making than traditional clinical factors. We believe that 3 particular factors deserve special consideration for further research: fear of error/malpractice, financial incentives, and patient engagement. Acknowledgement and study of these factors will be essential if we are to understand how emergency physicians truly make these decisions and how test-ordering behavior can be modified.

  19. Head injury: long-term consequences for patients and families and implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    Kneafsey, Rosie; Gawthorpe, Dawn

    2004-07-01

    Head injury as a result of trauma is an important cause of long-term disability. Recently published guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence on Acute Head Injuries and a forthcoming National Service Framework for Long-Term Neurological Conditions provides renewed focus on this practice specialty. This article presents a narrative review of a range of quantitative and qualitative studies that have explored the impact of head injury and postinjury disabilities on patients' and families lives. Patients may experience a range of physical, emotional, cognitive, social and behavioural problems after head injury that will have a significant impact on both their own and their families' everyday lives. It is important that the behavioural, physical and psychological aspects of head injury are addressed. Carers may be vulnerable to stress and anxiety as a result of their caring role. It is often in the longer term that the true complexity and impact of head injury may become apparent. Ongoing support, from a range of services, will be required to assist both patient and family to cope with their circumstances. Ensuring that practice is evidence based, it is necessary to conduct further research, both to explore the effectiveness of current service provision and investigate those aspects deemed important by patients and carers. As nurses play an important role in both the acute and long-term care and support of those who have suffered a head injury, it is vital that they are aware of the wide ranging needs with which patients and families may present.

  20. Neurobehavioral outcome following minor head injury: a three-center study.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; Mattis, S; Ruff, R M; Eisenberg, H M; Marshall, L F; Tabaddor, K; High, W M; Frankowski, R F

    1987-02-01

    The majority of hospital admissions for head trauma are due to minor injuries; that is, no or only transient loss of consciousness without major complications and not requiring intracranial surgery. Despite the low mortality rate following minor head injury, there is controversy surrounding the extent of morbidity and the long-term sequelae. The authors postulated that consecutively admitted patients who fulfilled research diagnostic criteria for minor head injury and who were carefully screened for antecedent neuropsychiatric disorder and prior head injury would exhibit subacute cognitive and memory deficits that would resolve over a period of 1 to 3 months postinjury. To evaluate this hypothesis, the neurobehavioral functioning of 57 patients was compared within 1 week after minor head injury (baseline) and at 1 month postinjury with that of 56 selected control subjects at three medical centers. Quantified tests of memory, attention, and information-processing speed revealed that neurobehavioral impairment demonstrated at baseline by all means of measurement generally resolved during the first 3 months after minor head injury. Although nearly all patients initially reported cognitive problems, somatic complaints, and emotional malaise, these postconcussion symptoms had substantially resolved by the 3-month follow-up examination. The data suggest that a single uncomplicated minor head injury produces no permanent disabling neurobehavioral impairment in the great majority of patients who are free of preexisting neuropsychiatric disorder and substance abuse.

  1. Effects of head restraint and seat redesign on neck injury risk in rear-end crashes.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Charles M; Wells, Joann K; Lund, Adrian K

    2003-06-01

    Automobile insurance claims were examined to determine the rates of neck injuries in rear-end crashes for vehicles with and without redesigned head restraints, redesigned seats, or both. Results indicate that the improved geometric fit of head restraints observed in many newer vehicle models are reducing the risk of whiplash injury substantially among female drivers (about 37% in the Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable), but have very little effect among male drivers. New seat designs, such as active head restraints that move upward and closer to drivers' heads during a rear impact, give added benefit, producing about a 43% reduction in whiplash injury claims (55% reduction among female drivers). Estimated effects of Volvo's Whiplash Injury Prevention System and Toyota's Whiplash Injury Lessening design were based on smaller samples and were not statistically significant.

  2. Age related pattern and outcome of head injury in indigenous Africa.

    PubMed

    Odebode, T O

    2008-09-01

    Most studies of patients with head injury managed outside of indigenous Africa have shown poorer outcome with increasing age, but data on this subject is scanty in this part of the world. To determine age related pattern and outcome of head injury in an indigenous African setting. A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics, mechanism of head injury, associated injury, trauma scores and outcome in patients admitted for head injury at the University Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, between 1989 and 1999. The 648 patients comprised of 39 older subjects (= 60 yrs), 357 adults (17-59 yrs) and 252 children (= 16 yrs). They were aged 1 to 105 years (mean = 37years). Road traffic injury was the commonest cause of trauma to the head. Children were most often injured as pedestrians while adults and older patients were more often victims of passenger vehicular accidents. Older patients had the poorest outcome with a mortality rate of 48.7%. They were more prone to severe head injury (41.0%) and multi-system trauma (51.3%), with higher mean injury severity scores and lower probability of survival than younger patients. Outcome was predictable by age and GCS (p = 0.0206 & 0.0000) in all age groups put together and in children while GCS was a predictor in adults (p = 0.0000), and none of the variables could predict outcome in the older patients. The study reaffirms that outcome of head injury worsens with advancing age and indicates that severity of head injury and higher frequency of multi-system trauma may contribute to worse outcome in older patients.

  3. Face shield design against blast-induced head injuries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Long Bin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Yuan Hong; Sapingi, Mohamad Ali Bin; Tan, Vincent Beng Chye; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2017-03-22

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has been on the rise in recent years because of the increasing use of improvised explosive devices in conflict zones. Our study investigates the response of a helmeted human head subjected to a blast of 1 atm peak overpressure, for cases with and without a standard polycarbonate (PC) face shield and for face shields comprising of composite PC and aerogel materials and with lateral edge extension. The novel introduction of aerogel into the laminate face shield is explored and its wave-structure interaction mechanics and performance in blast mitigation is analysed. Our numerical results show that the face shield prevented direct exposure of the blast wave to the face and help delays the transmission of the blast to reduce the intracranial pressures (ICPs) at the parietal lobe. However, the blast wave can diffract and enter the midface region at the bottom and side edges of the face shield, resulting in traumatic brain injury. This suggests that the bottom and sides of the face shield are important regions to focus on to reduce wave ingress. The laminated PC/aerogel/PC face shield yielded higher peak positive and negative ICPs at the frontal lobe, than the original PC one. For the occipital and temporal brain regions, the laminated face shield performed better than the original. The composite face shield with extended edges reduced ICP at the temporal lobe but increases ICP significantly at the parietal lobe, which suggests that a greater coverage may not lead to better mitigating effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inaccurate early assessment of neurological severity in head injury.

    PubMed

    Stocchetti, Nino; Pagan, Francesca; Calappi, Emiliana; Canavesi, Katia; Beretta, Luigi; Citerio, Giuseppe; Cormio, Manuela; Colombo, Angelo

    2004-09-01

    Intubation, which requires sedation and myorelaxants, may lead to inaccurate neurological evaluation of severely head-injured patients. Aims of this study were to describe the early clinical evolution of traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), to identify cases of over-estimated neurological severity, and to quantify the risk factors for this over-estimation. A total of 753 TBI patients consecutively admitted to ICU of three academic neurosurgical hospitals (NSH) were assessed. Cases whose severity was potentially over-estimated were identified by four criteria and indicated as "mistakenly severe" (MS): (1) no surgical intracranial masses; (2) could not follow commands at neurological assessment; (3) were dismissed from the ICU in < or =3 days to a regular ward; and (4) had regained the ability to obey commands. A total of 675 patients were intubated and/or sedated-paralyzed at the post-stabilization evaluation. In all, 304 patients had surgically treated intracranial masses. Among the 449 non-surgical cases, 58 patients fulfilling the criteria for MS were identified. The main features distinguishing MS from truly severe cases were younger age, higher Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at all time points, Marshall classification of Computerized Tomographic (CT) scan mostly Diffuse Injury I and II, fewer pupillary abnormalities, and a lower frequency of hypoxia, hypotension, and extra-cranial injuries. In a certain proportion of non-surgical TBI patients, mostly intubated and sedated, neurological examination is difficult and severity can be over-estimated. Risk factors for this inaccurate evaluation can be identified, and clinical decisions should be based on further examination.

  5. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency.

    PubMed

    Khalin, Igor; Jamari, Nor Laili Azua; Razak, Nadiawati Bt Abdul; Hasain, Zubaidah Bt; Nor, Mohd Asri Bin Mohd; Zainudin, Mohd Hakimi Bin Ahmad; Omar, Ainsah Bt; Alyautdin, Renad

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  6. Neuropsychological deficits in symptomatic minor head injury patients after concussion and mild concussion.

    PubMed Central

    Leininger, B E; Gramling, S E; Farrell, A D; Kreutzer, J S; Peck, E A

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that most individuals who sustain minor head injury are free of persistent neuropsychological dysfunction. Nevertheless, a subgroup of patients experience continuing post-concussive difficulties and neuropsychological deficits. This study examined 53 symptomatic minor head injury patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation between one and 22 months after injury. These individuals performed significantly poorer than uninjured controls on four of eight neuropsychological tests. Patients who lost consciousness during injury obtained test scores similar to persons who experienced disorientation or confusion but no loss of consciousness. The results indicate that minor head injury patients who report post-concussive symptoms possess measurable neuropsychological deficits and the severity of these deficits is independent of neurological status immediately following injury. PMID:2341842

  7. Comparison of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria in patients with minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Stiell, Ian G; Clement, Catherine M; Rowe, Brian H; Schull, Michael J; Brison, Robert; Cass, Daniel; Eisenhauer, Mary A; McKnight, R Douglas; Bandiera, Glen; Holroyd, Brian; Lee, Jacques S; Dreyer, Jonathan; Worthington, James R; Reardon, Mark; Greenberg, Gary; Lesiuk, Howard; MacPhail, Iain; Wells, George A

    2005-09-28

    Current use of cranial computed tomography (CT) for minor head injury is increasing rapidly, highly variable, and inefficient. The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are previously developed clinical decision rules to guide CT use for patients with minor head injury and with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 13 to 15 for the CCHR and a score of 15 for the NOC. However, uncertainty about the clinical performance of these rules exists. To compare the clinical performance of these 2 decision rules for detecting the need for neurosurgical intervention and clinically important brain injury. In a prospective cohort study (June 2000-December 2002) that included 9 emergency departments in large Canadian community and university hospitals, the CCHR was evaluated in a convenience sample of 2707 adults who presented to the emergency department with blunt head trauma resulting in witnessed loss of consciousness, disorientation, or definite amnesia and a GCS score of 13 to 15. The CCHR and NOC were compared in a subgroup of 1822 adults with minor head injury and GCS score of 15. Neurosurgical intervention and clinically important brain injury evaluated by CT and a structured follow-up telephone interview. Among 1822 patients with GCS score of 15, 8 (0.4%) required neurosurgical intervention and 97 (5.3%) had clinically important brain injury. The NOC and the CCHR both had 100% sensitivity but the CCHR was more specific (76.3% vs 12.1%, P<.001) for predicting need for neurosurgical intervention. For clinically important brain injury, the CCHR and the NOC had similar sensitivity (100% vs 100%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 96%-100%) but the CCHR was more specific (50.6% vs 12.7%, P<.001), and would result in lower CT rates (52.1% vs 88.0%, P<.001). The kappa values for physician interpretation of the rules, CCHR vs NOC, were 0.85 vs 0.47. Physicians misinterpreted the rules as not requiring imaging for 4.0% of patients according to CCHR and 5

  8. Concussions and Head Injuries in English Community Rugby Union Match Play.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Michael; Goodison, William; Stokes, Keith A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has described general injury patterns in community-level rugby union, but specific information on time-loss head injuries has not been reported. To establish the incidence and nature of significant time-loss head injuries in English community rugby match play, and to identify the injury risk for specific contact events. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over 6 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), 76 (2011-2012), 50 (2012-2013), 67 (2013-2014), and 58 (2014-2015) English community rugby clubs (Rugby Football Union levels 3-9) over a total of 175,940 hours of player match exposure. Club injury management staff reported information for all head injuries sustained during match play whereby the player was absent for 8 days or greater. Clubs were subdivided into semiprofessional (mean player age, 24.6 ± 4.7 years), amateur (24.9 ± 5.1 years), and recreational (25.6 ± 6.1 years) playing levels. Contact events from a sample of 30 matches filmed over seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012 provided mean values for the frequency of contact events. The overall incidence for time-loss head injuries was 2.43 injuries per 1000 player match hours, with a higher incidence for the amateur (2.78; 95% CI, 2.37-3.20) compared with recreational (2.20; 95% CI, 1.86-2.53) ( P = .032) playing level but not different to the semiprofessional (2.31; 95% CI, 1.83-2.79) playing level. Concussion was the most common time-loss head injury, with 1.46 per 1000 player match hours. The tackle event was associated with 64% of all head injuries and 74% of all concussions. There was also a higher risk of injuries per tackle (0.33 per 1000 events; 95% CI, 0.30-0.37) compared with all other contact events. Concussion was the most common head injury diagnosis, although it is likely that this injury was underreported. Continuing education programs for medical staff and players are essential for the improved identification and management of

  9. Discourse formulation in children with closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Hay, Emma; Moran, Catherine

    2005-11-01

    In this study, narrative and expository discourse-retelling abilities were compared in 9 children with closed head injury (CHI) age 9;5-15;3 (years;months) and 9 typically developing age-matched peers. Narrative and expository retellings were analyzed according to language variables (i.e., number of words, number of T-units, and sentential complexity) and information variables (i.e., number of propositions, number of episodic structure elements, and number of global structure elements). A measure of participants' ability to generate a story moral or aim was also taken. The children with CHI differed significantly from their age-matched peers across language and information domains and in their ability to formulate a moral or aim in both the expository and narrative retellings. In addition, differences across genre were found with performance on narrative tasks superior to performance on expository tasks. The exception was that it was easier for participants to generate an aim for the expository passage than a story moral for the narrative passage. The results are discussed relative to a working memory theory of impairment following CHI. Future directions for research are proposed.

  10. Microwave Hematoma Detector for the Rapid Assessment of Head Injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Hadded, W.; Chang, J.; Rosenbury, T.; Dallum, G.; Welsch, P.; Scott, D.; Duarte, D.; Acevedo-Bolton, V.

    2000-02-11

    A non-invasive microwave device for the detection of epi/subdural hemorrhaging (hematoma) is under current development. The final device will be highly portable and allow real time assessment of head injuries, thereby satisfying early detection needs of the field technician as well as providing a tool for repetitious monitoring of high-risk individuals. The device will adopt the advanced technology of micropower impulse radar (MIR) which is a state of the art low cost ultra wide band (UWB) microwave radar developed here at LLNL. It will consist of a MIR transmitting and receiving module, a computer based signal processing module, and a device-to-patient signal coupling module--the UWB antenna. The prototype design is being guided by the needs of the patient and the practitioner along with the prerequisites of the technology including issues such as the specificity of the device, efficacy of diagnosis, accuracy, robustness, and patient comfort. The prototype development follows a concurrent approach which .includes experiments designed to evaluate requirements of the radar and antenna design, phantom development to facilitate laboratory investigations, and investigation into the limits of adapting pre-existing non-medical MIR devices to medical applications. This report will present the accomplishments and project highlights to date in the fiscal year 1999. Future project projections will also be discussed.

  11. Visual selective attention after severe closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, M; Kibby, M K

    1998-03-01

    This study investigated the nature of selective attention deficits after severe closed head injury (CHI). Twenty participants with severe CHI (greater than 1 year postinjury) and 20 matched controls completed search and nonsearch visual selective attention tasks under conditions of low (Experiment 1) and high (Experiment 2) target-distractor similarity. In the search situations, participants searched visual displays that contained 1, 4, or 8 items for the targets. In the nonsearch situations, the location of the targets was visually cued with a peripheral arrow. The results revealed that in both the low and high target-distractor similarity search conditions. CHI participants required a longer time than controls to locate and identify the target. In contrast, in the nonsearch condition, CHI participants were able to successfully ignore irrelevant task information when target-distractor similarity was low. However, when target-distractor similarity was high, CHI participants had more difficulty than controls ignoring the irrelevant information. These results suggest that, in comparison to controls, CHI participants may be at a disadvantage in selective attention situations when visual search is required and when the discriminability between targets and distractors is difficult.

  12. Attention in closed head injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Cossa, F M; Fabiani, M

    1999-06-01

    Closed head injury (CHI) is one of the commonest causes of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people. In patients with CHI both in the acute and sub-acute phases it is possible to demonstrate a disturbance of cognitive functions that affects their performance in a wide variety of neuropsychological tasks. The most frequent deficits pertain to attention and memory. In reviewing the literature on attention in CHI patients it appears that a debate is still alive about how to interpret the cognitive attentional defect, i. e. whether it is due to a slowing of information processing, to a deficit of 'executive' frontal functions, to a reduction of arousal level, to deficits of selective or divided attention, or to a combination of factors. After a brief general explanation of the neuropsychological cognitive models of attention, an overview of the various studies on attention in CHI will be provided. For the purposes of the review, the studies are grouped according to the different theoretical interpretations in the literature concerning the nature of attentional deficits in CHI patients. Finally, a tentative general interpretation of attentional deficits in CHI, in light of the anatomo-pathological aspects of the brain of CHI patients and of some methodological considerations, is offered.

  13. Brief compassion focused imagery for treatment of severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Iain N; Gallagher, Melanie; McLeod, Hamish J; O'Neill, Brian; McMillan, Tom M

    2017-06-30

    To determine whether participants with severe head injury (SHI) allocated to a brief compassion focused imagery (CFI) intervention show greater change in compassion than those exposed to relaxation imagery (RI). Participants were exposed to a preparatory video to promote engagement and then randomly allocated to intervention. Pre- and post-preparatory measures were Motivation for Intervention and Fears of Compassion Scales, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and PANAS. Pre- and post-intervention self-report measures were the Empathy Quotient, Self-Compassion Scale, STAI and Relaxation Scale. Heart rate variability (HRV) was monitored throughout. Motivation for therapy increased after the preparatory video (z = 3.44, p = 0.001). Across the intervention, group differences were not found on self-report measures or HRV changes. When CFI and RI groups were pooled, improvement in relaxation (r = .41, p < 0.01) and state anxiety (r = .29, p < 0.05) were found across the intervention; these outcomes were not associated with changes in self-compassion or HRV. Brief CFI, a central aspect of compassion focused therapy, did not produce a reliable change in people with SHI. Enhanced motivation for psychological therapy after a brief preparatory video is relevant and underlines the need to understand mechanisms of action rather than the pursuing whole protocol approaches to therapy.

  14. Report investigating the importance of head restraint positioning in reducing neck injury in rear impact.

    PubMed

    Maher, J

    2000-03-01

    Neck injury resulting from rear impact (often known as whiplash) is a serious cause of road trauma. It is often underestimated or overlooked because such injuries are minor on traditional injury scales but can result in long term pain and disability. The paper begins with a brief review of research into head restraints and whiplash done so far. A review of international head restraint regulations revealed the absence of any horizontal offset requirements. A review of seat strength requirements and testing procedures showed that a regulation that required a collapsible seat would involve significant compliance testing. This paper concludes a preliminary project conducted by the Federal Office of Road Safety (FORS) where the head restraints for twenty Australian market vehicles were assessed using known performance criteria. A key finding of the report was that most of the vehicles allowed for vertical adjustment of the head restraint. Also important was that none of the vehicles measured allowed horizontal adjustment and on some of the head restraints the horizontal displacement increased as the vertical height increased. As the understanding of neck injury mechanisms in rear impact develops, there may be some scope for FORS to facilitate the improvement of these standards. Further research into neck injury mechanisms may reveal yielding seat backs or new 'active' head restraint technology as a more effective countermeasure. In the meantime, educating occupants to correctly adjust their head restraints seems to be an effective way to reduce injuries in existing vehicles.

  15. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team

    PubMed Central

    John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15 years old from 1991 to 2010. Results Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2 years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2 years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2 years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2 years (19/180, 11%). Conclusions The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2 years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. PMID:26130384

  16. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick; John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-12-01

    To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15 years old from 1991 to 2010. Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2 years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2 years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2 years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2 years (19/180, 11%). The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2 years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Long term psychosocial outcomes after mild head injury in early childhood.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, A; Dalrymple-Alford, J C; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    2002-09-01

    The question of whether any adverse cognitive or psychosocial outcomes occur after mild head injury in early childhood has evoked considerable controversy. This study examined mild head injury before age 10 and potential differences in late childhood/early adolescence as a function of severity of mild injury and age at injury. A fully prospective longitudinal design tracked a large birth cohort of children. Confirmed cases of mild head injury before age 10 were divided on the basis of outpatient medical attention (n=64-84) or inpatient observation (hospital overnight; n=26-28 ) and compared with the non-injured remainder of the cohort (reference group; n=613-807). A range of pre-injury and post-injury child and family characteristics were used to control for any potential confounds. Outcome after injury before and after age 5 was also assessed. After accounting for several demographic, family, and pre-injury characteristics, the inpatient but not the outpatient group displayed increased hyperactivity/inattention and conduct disorder between ages 10 to 13, as rated by both mothers and teachers. Psychosocial deficits were more prevalent in the inpatient subgroup injured before age 5. No clear effects were evident for various cognitive/academic measures, irrespective of severity of mild injury or age at injury. Most cases of mild head injury in young children do not produce any adverse effects, but long term problems in psychosocial function are possible in more severe cases, perhaps especially when this event occurs during the preschool years. The view that all mild head injuries in children are benign events requires revision and more objective measures are required to identify cases at risk.

  18. "Heading" and neck injuries in soccer: a review of biomechanics and potential long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Michael J; Agesen, Thomas; Malanga, Gerard A

    2005-10-01

    Although soccer has a lower injury rate than does American football, injuries to the head and neck do occur. Indeed, soccer is classified as a contact sport. The potential for cervical injuries from the maneuver known as "heading" are of particular concern. This review provides a synopsis of soccer-related head and neck injuries, an overview of the biomechanics of trauma, and a rational approach to evaluating patients. This review was conducted to assess and evaluate existing literature on the biomechanics of the act of heading in soccer and the potential for acute and long-term injury to the head and neck. The resulting work is based on literature searches of the PubMed and Medline databases, textbook reviews, and bibliographies of articles and textbooks obtained during the search. Findings from several studies were summarized and critiqued. Biomechanics, anatomy, pathophysiology, and their relation to the act of heading in soccer were also synthesized into the discussion. Relevant studies of athletes in other sports where activity can affect the neck and head in a manner similar to heading were also considered. The act of heading in soccer involves the athlete's entire body, and studies have used electromyography to define the activity of neck musculature during heading. The majority of head and neck injuries in soccer occur secondary to impacts other than those that occur during heading, however, rare case reports of serious injury exist. Degenerative bony changes in the cervical spine of soccer players have been noted in a few studies, but the connection with heading is not well established. Data from research in other sports, particularly American football and rugby, suggest a predisposition to degenerative disease of the neck secondary to axial loading mechanisms; the exact relevance of these studies to heading and soccer is unclear. The complex biomechanics of heading in soccer are not completely defined, especially with regard to long-term effects on the

  19. Paediatric head injury admissions over a 10-year period in a regional neurosurgical unit.

    PubMed

    Phang, I; Mathieson, C; Sexton, I; Forsyth, S; Brown, J; St George, E J

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in childhood. A retrospective study of all paediatric head injuries admitted to the neurosurgical unit for the West of Scotland over a 10-year period was performed to assess the impact of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence head injury guidelines on the admission rate and to determine the associated risk factors, causes, severity and outcomes of these injuries. There were 564 admissions between 1998 and 2007. The median age at presentation was nine years and two months. There was no change in the admission rate, injury mechanism or severity of head injury admitted over the period studied. A relationship was observed between the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Score and the incidence of head injury (P = 0.05). Alcohol was reported as a causative factor in only a small number of cases, and moderate to severe head injuries were more commonly identified as a result of road traffic accidents.

  20. Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Alastair; Harnan, Susan; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Pandor, Abdullah; Goodacre, Steve

    2011-05-01

    Clinical decision rules aid clinicians with the management of head injured patients. This study aimed to identify clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury and compare their diagnostic accuracy for detection of intracranial injury (ICI) and injury requiring neurosurgical intervention (NSI). Relevant studies were identified by an electronic search of key databases. Papers in English were included with a cohort of at least 20 children suffering minor head injury (GCS 13-15). Studies of a decision rule derived to identify patients at risk of ICI or NSI had to include a proportion of the cohort undergoing imaging. Study quality was assessed using the QUADAS checklist. 16 publications, representing 14 cohorts, with 79 740 patients were included. Only four rules were tested in more than one cohort. Of the validated rules the paediatric emergency care applied research network (PECARN) rule was most consistent (sensitivity 98%; specificity 58%). For neurosurgical injury all had high sensitivity (98-100%) but the children's head injury algorithm for the prediction of important clinical events (CHALICE) rule had the highest specificity (86%) in its derivation cohort. Of the current decision rules for minor head injury the PECARN rule appears the best for children and infants, with the largest cohort, highest sensitivity and acceptable specificity for clinically significant ICI. Application of this rule in the UK would probably result in an unacceptably high rate of CT scans per injury, and continued use of the CHALICE-based NICE guidelines represents an appropriate alternative.

  1. Selective impairment of auditory attention following closed head injuries or right cerebrovascular accidents.

    PubMed

    Keller, I; Schlenker, A; Pigache, R M

    1995-12-01

    According to clinical experience a frequent consequence of head injury is an impairment of auditory attention. We investigated the possibility that patients with either closed head injuries (CHI), or cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) of the right hemisphere, would be impaired by comparison to healthy subjects on an objective test of auditory attention. We used an experimental paradigm that consisted of four subtests which comprised strings of auditory digits heard either diotically or dichotically, at either fast or slow presentation rates, respectively. Omission and commission errors were scored for each subtest and combined by an index of errors. The results showed that CHI patients were significantly impaired initially by the fast stimulus presentation conditions, whereas CVA patients made significantly more errors on the dichotic subtests independent of the speed of presentation. It is proposed that the observed selective attention deficits of these patients were due to differential disruptions of an interactive cortical network incorporating prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and temporoparietal structures of the right hemisphere. Statistically significant correlations between the error index scores and subjectively perceived attention deficits suggested that the auditory attention task measured clinically relevant aspects of attention.

  2. Bicyclists, Helmets and Head Injuries: A Rider-Based Study of Helmet Use and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Of 516 bicyclists interviewed, 19 percent owned helmets but only eight percent were wearing them. Riders wearing helmets were more highly educated and reported higher car seat belt use. Helmets afford protection from bicycling head injuries. (Author/BJV)

  3. Bicyclists, Helmets and Head Injuries: A Rider-Based Study of Helmet Use and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Of 516 bicyclists interviewed, 19 percent owned helmets but only eight percent were wearing them. Riders wearing helmets were more highly educated and reported higher car seat belt use. Helmets afford protection from bicycling head injuries. (Author/BJV)

  4. A case of organic brain syndrome following head injury successfully treated with carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Bouvy, P F; van de Wetering, B J; Meerwaldt, J D; Bruijn, J B

    1988-03-01

    A case of organic brain syndrome occurring in relation to psychological stress 2 years after a severe head injury is described. Treatment with haloperidol resulted only in slight improvement. A dramatic improvement was achieved with carbamazepine.

  5. Acute onset of trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresis and dysphagia after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Gkekas, Nikolaos; Primikiris, Panagiotis; Georgakoulias, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the rare and first documented case of concomitant microvascular decompression of trigeminal, facial and glossopharyngeal nerves for the management of intractable to medical therapy acute onset of trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresis and dysphagia after mild head injury.

  6. Significant head accelerations can influence immediate neurological impairments in a murine model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gullotti, David M; Beamer, Matthew; Panzer, Matthew B; Chen, Yung Chia; Patel, Tapan P; Yu, Allen; Jaumard, Nicolas; Winkelstein, Beth; Bass, Cameron R; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F

    2014-09-01

    Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is well recognized for its significance in the military population, the unique mechanisms of primary bTBI remain undefined. Animate models of primary bTBI are critical for determining these potentially unique mechanisms, but the biomechanical characteristics of many bTBI models are poorly understood. In this study, we examine some common shock tube configurations used to study blast-induced brain injury in the laboratory and define the optimal configuration to minimize the effect of torso overpressure and blast-induced head accelerations. Pressure transducers indicated that a customized animal holder successfully reduced peak torso overpressures to safe levels across all tested configurations. However, high speed video imaging acquired during the blast showed significant head accelerations occurred when animals were oriented perpendicular to the shock tube axis. These findings of complex head motions during blast are similar to previous reports [Goldstein et al., 2012, "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model," Sci. Transl. Med., 4(134), 134ra160; Sundaramurthy et al., 2012, "Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate Computational Blast Injury Model," J. Neurotrauma, 29(13), pp. 2352-2364; Svetlov et al., 2010, "Morphologic and Biochemical Characterization of Brain Injury in a Model of Controlled Blast Overpressure Exposure," J. Trauma, 69(4), pp. 795-804]. Under the same blast input conditions, minimizing head acceleration led to a corresponding elimination of righting time deficits. However, we could still achieve righting time deficits under minimal acceleration conditions by significantly increasing the peak blast overpressure. Together, these data show the importance of characterizing the effect of blast overpressure on head kinematics, with the goal of producing models focused on understanding the

  7. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  8. Head injuries following television-related accidents in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Befeler, Adam Ross; Daniels, David J; Helms, Susan A; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick

    2014-10-01

    Current data indicate the rate of head injuries in children caused by falling televisions is increasing. The authors describe these injuries and the cost incurred by them. In a single-institution retrospective review, all children treated for a television-related injury at LeBonheur Children's Hospital, a Level I pediatric trauma center, between 2009 and 2013 were identified through the institution's trauma registry. The type, mechanism, and severity of cranial injuries, surgical interventions, outcome, and costs were examined. Twenty-six patients were treated for a television-related injury during the study period. Most injuries (22 cases, 85%) occurred in children aged 2-4 years (mean age 3.3 years), and 19 (73%) of the 26 patients were male. Head injuries occurred in 20 patients (77%); these injuries ranged from concussion to skull fractures and subdural, subarachnoid, and intraparenchymal hemorrhages. The average Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission was 12 (range 7-15), and 3 patients (12%) had neurological deficits. Surgical intervention was required in 5 cases (19%). The majority of patients made a full recovery. There were no deaths. The total cost for television-related injuries was $1.4 million, with an average cost of $53,893 per accident. A high occurrence of head injuries was seen following television-related accidents in young children. This injury is ideal for a public education campaign targeting parents, health care workers, and television manufacturers.

  9. Reports of head injury and symptom knowledge among college athletes: implications for assessment and educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Kaut, Kevin P; DePompei, Roberta; Kerr, Julie; Congeni, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    To identify the prevalence of head injuries and related symptoms among college athletes and examine knowledge of head injury consequences and behavioral tendencies of athletes in the presence of symptoms. Retrospective survey. A total of 461 male and female athletes beginning competitive play at the University of Akron (Akron, OH) during the years 1995 to 2001. Responses to survey questions were analyzed to determine the frequency of concussions and injury-related symptoms (eg, dizziness, headache, nausea or vomiting) in addition to behavioral responses in the presence of certain symptoms (eg, playing with headache, failure to report symptoms while playing). Written responses to queries regarding symptom knowledge were analyzed for thematic content and were used to identify deficiencies in signs and symptoms of concussion. Nearly 32% of all athletes had experienced a blow to the head causing dizziness, with over 1/4 confirming various somatic symptoms following a blow to the head (eg, seeing stars, nausea or vomiting, head pain). Continuing to play despite symptom presence was noted (eg, dizziness, 28.2%; headache, 30.4%), with 19.5% reporting a concussion diagnosis. Knowledge of head injury consequences was found to be deficient, with 56% indicating no knowledge of the possible consequences following a head injury. Of those providing responses, the majority reflected awareness of cognitive (eg, memory problems) and physical (eg, brain damage) consequences. A sizable number of athletes may enter collegiate play with a previous concussion diagnosis, and many more are likely to have experienced symptoms suggestive of a mild head injury. Of considerable concern is the tendency to play while symptomatic (eg, headache, dizziness) and the failure to report symptoms while playing--especially among football players (25.2%). The apparent deficiency in athlete knowledge of head injury consequences raises concern regarding athlete recognition of potentially problematic

  10. The Effect of Reported Head Injury on Team Performance and Partner Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the simulation in the DDD task. 9 One possible explanation for not finding significant negative effects of prior head injury on team...differences in evaluation. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study failed to find negative effects of working with a partner with a...USAARL Report No. 2015-06 The Effect of Reported Head Injury on Team Performance and Partner Evaluation By Thomas W. Britt1 Stephanie

  11. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nagendra; Pathak, Santosh; Gupta, Murli Manohar; Agrawal, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  12. Central Pain Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutic Strategies in a Model of Closed Head Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0594 TITLE: Central Pain Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutic Strategies in a Model of Closed Head Injury PRINCIPAL...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Central Pain Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutic Strategies in a Model of Closed Head Injury 5b. GRANT...1 week and chronic 4 week endpoints. Quantitative EEG headache behavioral testing, as well as immunohistochemical and molecular studies uncover

  13. Neurologic impairment following closed head injury predicts post-traumatic neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villasana, L.E.; Westbrook, G.L.; Schnell, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian hippocampus, neurogenesis persists into adulthood, and increased generation of newborn neurons could be of clinical benefit following concussive head injuries. Post-traumatic neurogenesis has been well documented using “open” traumatic brain injury (TBI) models in rodents; however, human TBI most commonly involves closed head injury. Here we used a closed head injury (CHI) model to examine post-traumatic hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. All mice were subjected to the same CHI protocol, and a gross-motor based injury severity score was used to characterize neurologic impairment one hour after the injury. When analyzed 2 weeks later, post-traumatic neurogenesis was significantly increased only in mice with a high degree of transient neurologic impairment immediately after injury. This increase was associated with an early increase in c-fos activity, and subsequent reactive astrocytosis and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus. Our results demonstrate that the initial degree of neurologic impairment after closed head injury predicts the induction of secondary physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and that animals with severe neurologic impairment early after injury manifest an increase in post-traumatic neurogenesis in the absence of gross anatomic pathology. PMID:24861442

  14. Nail gun injuries to the head with minimal neurological consequences: a case series.

    PubMed

    Makoshi, Ziyad; AlKherayf, Fahad; Da Silva, Vasco; Lesiuk, Howard

    2016-03-16

    An estimated 3700 individuals are seen annually in US emergency departments for nail gun-related injuries. Approximately 45 cases have been reported in the literature concerning nail gun injuries penetrating the cranium. These cases pose a challenge for the neurosurgeon because of the uniqueness of each case, the dynamics of high pressure nail gun injuries, and the surgical planning to remove the foreign body without further vascular injury or uncontrolled intracranial hemorrhage. Here we present four cases of penetrating nail gun injuries with variable presentations. Case 1 is of a 33-year-old white man who sustained 10 nail gunshot injuries to his head. Case 2 is of a 51-year-old white man who sustained bi-temporal nail gun injuries to his head. Cases 3 and 4 are of two white men aged 22 years and 49 years with a single nail gun injury to the head. In the context of these individual cases and a review of similar cases in the literature we present surgical approaches and considerations in the management of nail gun injuries to the cranium. Case 1 presented with cranial nerve deficits, Case 2 required intubation for low Glasgow Coma Scale, while Cases 3 and 4 were neurologically intact on presentation. Three patients underwent angiography for assessment of vascular injury and all patients underwent surgical removal of foreign objects using a vice-grip. No neurological deficits were found in these patients on follow-up. Nail gun injuries can present with variable clinical status; mortality and morbidity is low for surgically managed isolated nail gun-related injuries to the head. The current case series describes the surgical use of a vice-grip for a good grip of the nail head and controlled extraction, and these patients appear to have a good postoperative prognosis with minimal neurological deficits postoperatively and on follow-up.

  15. Reaction time after head injury: fatigue, divided and focused attention, and consistency of performance.

    PubMed

    Stuss, D T; Stethem, L L; Hugenholtz, H; Picton, T; Pivik, J; Richard, M T

    1989-06-01

    Three groups of patients who had suffered head injury were compared with matched control subjects on reaction time (RT) tasks. Group I consisted of outpatients previously hospitalised for head injury of wide ranging degrees of severity, assessed at varying intervals after injury. Group II was composed of non-hospitalised mildly concussed patients. Group III was made up of head injured patients of varying degrees of severity assessed 7-10 months after initial hospitalisation for their injury. The reaction time tests were graded in difficulty, from a simple RT response to a complex choice RT test. In addition, subjects were compared in their ability to ignore redundant information during one of the choice RT tests. The findings indicate that traumatic brain injury causes slower information processing, deficits in divided attention, an impairment of focused attention, and inconsistency of performance.

  16. Do recurrent seizure-related head injuries affect seizures in people with epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David E.; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S.

    2015-01-01

    Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Most injuries (91%) were classified as mild. Though seizure frequency varied following head injury, overall seizure frequency was not significantly impacted by presence or absence of SRHI over the 2-year study period. Changes in seizure semiology were not observed in those with SRHIs. Although mild SRHI is common among PWE, it does not appear to have an effect on seizure characteristics over a relatively short period. PMID:22227592

  17. The effect of brain tomography findings on mortality in sniper shot head injuries.

    PubMed

    Can, Çağdaş; Bolatkale, M; Sarıhan, A; Savran, Y; Acara, A Ç; Bulut, M

    2017-06-01

    Penetrating gunshot head injuries have a poor prognosis and require prompt care. Brain CT is a routine component of the standard evaluation of head wounds and suspected brain injury. We aimed to investigate the effect of brain CT findings on mortality in gunshot head injury patients who were admitted to our emergency department (ED) from the Syrian Civil War. The study group comprised patients who were admitted to the ED with gunshot brain injury. Patients' GCS scores, prehospital intubations and brain CT findings were examined. 104 patients were included (92% male, mean age 25 years). Pneumocephalus, midline shift, penetrating head injury, patients with GCS scores ≤6 and patients who had to be intubated in the prehospital period were associated with higher mortality (p<0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that pneumocephalus, midline shift, a penetrating head injury, GCS scores ≤6 and prehospital intubation are associated with high mortality, whereas patients with temporal bone fracture, perforating or single cerebral lobe head injury had a higher survival rates. The temporal bone has a relatively thin and smooth shape compared with the other skull bones so a bullet is less fragmented when it has penetrated the temporal bone, which could be a reason for the reduced cavitation effect. In perforating head injury, the bullet makes a second hole and so will have deposited less energy than a retained bullet with a consequent reduction in intracranial injury and mortality. Further studies are required to reach definitive conclusions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Military Occupations Most Affected by Head/Sensory Injuries and the Potential Job Impact of Those Injuries.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Ben D; Kass, Steven J; Dhillon, Kieran K; Milam, Lana S; Cho, Timothy H; Rupert, Angus H

    2016-08-01

    Identifying Department of Defense (DoD) occupations affected by injuries to the head and sensory systems. We explored the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database to identify occupations with the highest incidence of injured personnel, then ranked how frequently they occurred in a top 10 list for each of four injury categories (head/brain, visual, auditory, vestibular) encompassing 25 injury codes. Across all four categories, the most affected occupations were identified, among which we chose three Army combat-related military occupational specialties (MOSs) for detailed study. We identified skills needed to perform these MOSs and explored whether MOS-critical deficits could be expected following the injuries. Some DoD occupations are more likely to suffer from these injuries, including Infantry, Combat Operations Control, Artillery/Gunnery, Motor Vehicle Operator, Combat Engineering, and Armor/Amphibious. Within these DoD occupations, we explored three Army combatant MOSs: Infantry (11B), Cavalry Scout (19D), and Artillery (13B), confirming that these jobs are likely to be disrupted by injuries within the four categories. Head and sensory injuries disproportionately affect certain military occupations. Relatively few injuries disrupt combat-related abilities that are job critical (e.g., firearms operation) and job specific (e.g., Artillery gunnery problems); these should be the focus of efforts to improve rehabilitation and RTD outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Sports-related head injuries in students: parents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions.

    PubMed

    LaBond, Virginia; Barber, Kimberly R; Golden, Ina J

    2014-07-01

    The short- and long-term neurologic impairment of children sustaining sports-related head injuries has recently entered the forefront of medical literature, resulting in new guidelines on concussion management being provided to clinicians, coaches, and trainers. Yet, most parents have not been formally educated on head injuries. The purpose of this article is to share the findings of a study conducted with 235 parents that identified their knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of sports-related head injuries in school-age students. The study found that 51% of respondents were unaware that head trauma was more serious in children, 80% were uninformed as to whether the school district had a policy on sports-related head injuries, 44% did not know if there were medical guidelines for return to play, and 35% did not know that repeated head trauma could cause dementia. Results of this research implore school nurses to improve patient and parental education when they care for and monitor students with head injuries.

  20. Rotational head kinematics in football impacts: an injury risk function for concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M; Crisco, Joseph J; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a possible link between sports-related concussions and neurodegenerative processes, highlighting the importance of developing methods to accurately quantify head impact tolerance. The use of kinematic parameters of the head to predict brain injury has been suggested because they are indicative of the inertial response of the brain. The objective of this study is to characterize the rotational kinematics of the head associated with concussive impacts using a large head acceleration dataset collected from human subjects. The helmets of 335 football players were instrumented with accelerometer arrays that measured head acceleration following head impacts sustained during play, resulting in data for 300,977 sub-concussive and 57 concussive head impacts. The average sub-concussive impact had a rotational acceleration of 1230 rad/s(2) and a rotational velocity of 5.5 rad/s, while the average concussive impact had a rotational acceleration of 5022 rad/s(2) and a rotational velocity of 22.3 rad/s. An injury risk curve was developed and a nominal injury value of 6383 rad/s(2) associated with 28.3 rad/s represents 50% risk of concussion. These data provide an increased understanding of the biomechanics associated with concussion and they provide critical insight into injury mechanisms, human tolerance to mechanical stimuli, and injury prevention techniques.

  1. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with persistent symptoms six months after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Bohnen, N; Jolles, J; Twijnstra, A

    1992-05-01

    There is much debate on the nature and duration of cognitive deficits and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) after mild head injury. Most studies performed so far have compared head-injured patients with subjects who had not suffered a concussion, instead of directly comparing patients with and without persistent PCS. The present study examined whether patients with PCS (n = 9) about 6 months after an uncomplicated mild head injury performed less well on selected neuropsychological tests than patients with mild head injuries who did not have PCS (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9). Patients with PCS were individually matched with controls for the time elapsed after the injury, age, sex, and education. We found that patients with PCS performed less well on tests of divided and selective attention than both patients without PCS and healthy controls. It is concluded that cognitive deficits may be present up to 6 months after mild head injury when symptoms persist. The findings indicate that patients with mild head injury and subjective symptoms may manifest demonstrable cognitive deficits.

  2. The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury and injury severity and outcome measures in children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renée; Edwards, Richard J; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The male:female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean age was 11 years 10 months (SD 3.6, range 5-16y). Discharge KOSCHI categories were good (n=34), moderate (n=39), severe (n=6), and unclassifiable (n=2). KOSCHI category correlated strongly with admission Glasgow Coma Score, length of hospital stay, and post-traumatic amnesia. It also correlated significantly with Verbal IQ and Performance IQ (Wechsler); measures of attention; health status (Health Utilities Index [HUI]); health-related quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory [PedsQL]); depressive symptoms (Birleson Depression Scale) assessed within 3 months postTBI; and with Verbal IQ, selective attention (map mission), and HUI and PedsQL domains assessed at least 6 months post-TBI discharge. KOSCHI did not correlate with behaviour or executive function. We conclude that the KOSCHI scored at hospital discharge correlates with severity of injury and some cognitive, health status, and HRQL outcomes early after TBI. It is not helpful at predicting later difficulties, or behavioural and emotional problems.

  3. Epidemiological Survey of Head and Neck Injuries and Trauma in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Rosh K. V.; Kozin, Elliott D.; Lee, Daniel J.; Shrime, Mark G.; Gray, Stacey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma to the head and neck results in a range of injuries, spanning minor lacerations to life threatening airway compromise. Few studies provide a global analysis of trauma-injuries to the head and neck region. We aim to 1) describe head and neck injury prevalence, 2) quantify procedures, and 3) investigate outcomes, including predictors of admission and mortality. Study Design The 2011 U.S. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was queried for encounters with a primary diagnosis of head and neck injury, as categorized by the Barell Injury Matrix. Weighted estimates for demographic data, injury category, and mechanism were extracted. Predictors of mortality and admission were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results We identified 131 million ED encounters. A weighted total of 5,418,539 visits were related to primary injuries of the head and neck. Average patient age was 30 years (SE=0.4) and 56.8% were male. Sixty-four percent of injuries were attributed to fall or blunt trauma. Open wounds comprised 41.8% of injuries. The most common procedure was laceration repair (70%). The majority of patients (97%) were discharged home. Mortality rate was less than 1%. Predictors of admission and mortality (p<0.05) included multiple trauma, trauma to blood vessels, and burns. Other risk factors included foreign body, older age, and male gender. Conclusions We provide a landscape analysis of U.S. head and neck trauma, including investigation of types of injuries, and risk factors for admission and mortality. These data have broad implications for surgical training and resource management. PMID:25139950

  4. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  5. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  6. Non-accidental head injury: a consequence of deprivation?

    PubMed

    Mok, J Y Q; Jones, P A; Myerscough, E; Shah, A R F; Minns, R A

    2010-12-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a significant personal and public health problem, with considerable mortality and morbidity. The evidence base for risk factors specific for NAHI is limited due to difficulties with case definition and study design. The risk factors associated with NAHI in infants was evaluated in this study, and the extent to which indices of deprivation influence this health problem was addressed. A 10-year prospective study was conducted in Scotland involving all paediatric hospitals and other general hospital departments admitting children. Subjects were children ≤2 years of age, with a diagnosis of "suspected NAHI". Socioeconomic characteristics of the index cases were compared to the general population, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2006. There were highly significant differences (p<0.001) between the SIMD rank scores of the NAHI cases and scores for the whole Scottish population. For the cohort, SIMD ranks ranged from 34 to 6253 (median 1210; mean 1577) compared to the population range of 1-6505 (median and mean=3253). Similar differences were found for each of the component domains of income, employment, health, education, crime and housing (p<0.001). In contrast, the scores for "geographic access" (to essential service) were higher than for the whole population (p<0.001), indicating that the deprivation was not due to lack of local services. In Scotland, children who present with suspected NAHI originate predominantly from the most deprived areas of the community. Public health and intervention strategies should be focused in these areas.

  7. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric crushing head injury: biomechanics and clinical features of an uncommon type of craniocerebral trauma.

    PubMed

    López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage, Juan F; González-Tortosa, José; Almagro, María-José; García-Martínez, Silvia; Reyes, Susana B

    2012-12-01

    Head injuries constitute one of the leading causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Most injuries result from accidents involving an acceleration/deceleration mechanism. However, a special type of head injury occurs when the children sustain a traumatism whose main component is a static load in relation to a crushing mechanism with the head relatively immobile. We report a series of children who sustained a craniocerebral injury of variable severity produced by head crushing. We also analyze epidemiological and clinical data, and biomechanics in these injuries. Mean age of the group (13 boys/6 girls) was 4.1 years. All patients showed external lesions (scalp wounds or hemorrhage from the nose, ears, or throat). Eleven children were initially unconscious. Six children presented cranial nerve deficits in addition to impaired hearing. Skull base fractures were seen in most cases with extension to the vault in 11 instances. Fourteen patients had an associated intracranial lesion, including two with diffuse axonal injury. Surgery was performed in three instances. Only seven patients were left with sequelae. The observed skull, brain, and cranial nerve lesions corresponded to a mechanism of bilateral compression of the children's heads mainly occasioned by a static load, although an associated component of dynamic forces was also involved. The skull and its covering and the cranial nerves were the most severely affected structures while the brain seemed to be relatively well preserved. Most crush injuries appear to be preventable by the appropriate supervision of the children.

  9. Changes over time in cognitive and structural profiles of head injury survivors.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; Menon, D K; Chatfield, D A; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J

    2006-01-01

    Survivors of traumatic head injury often suffer chronic cognitive deficits. Considerable evidence implicates the cholinergic system in these deficits. Recently, we reported cognitive and structural abnormalities in a cohort of head injured survivors consistent with this hypothesis [see Salmond, C. H., Chatfield, D. A., Menon, D. K., Pickard, J. D., & Sahakian, B. J. (2005). Cognitive Sequelae of Head Injury: Involvement of Basal Forebrain and associated structures. Brain, 128(1), 189-200]. The stability of the cognitive and structural MRI profiles was investigated in a longitudinal study. Twenty-one survivors of moderate-severe head injury completed two comprehensive neuropsychological assessments and two structural MRI scans at least six months apart. A cohort of controls also completed these investigations. The results revealed that the cognitive and structural profiles are relatively stable from six months post-injury forward up to 3 years post-injury. Deficits in memory, attention and reaction time were found, with relative preservation of working memory, consistent with abnormalities in the cholinergic system. These findings suggest that cholinergic enhancers may be an effective treatment for cognitive deficits post-head injury in survivors up to three years post-injury.

  10. Impact of mandatory helmet legislation on bicycle-related head injuries in children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Alison K; To, Teresa M; Macarthur, Colin; Chipman, Mary L; Wright, James G; Parkin, Patricia C

    2002-11-01

    Childhood bicycle-related head injuries can be prevented through the use of helmets. Although helmet legislation has proved to be a successful strategy for the adoption of helmets, its effect on the rates of head injury is uncertain. In Canada, 4 provinces have such legislation. The objective of this study was to measure the impact of helmet legislation on bicycle-related head injuries in Canadian children. Routinely collected data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information identified all Canadian children (5-19 years) who were hospitalized for bicycling-related injuries from 1994-1998. Children were categorized as head or other injury on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Rates of head injuries and other injuries were compared over time in provinces that adopted legislation and those that did not. Of the 9650 children who were hospitalized because of a bicycle-related injury, 3426 sustained injuries to the head and face and the remaining 6224 had other injuries. The bicycle-related head injury rate declined significantly (45% reduction) in provinces where legislation had been adopted compared with provinces and territories that did not adopt legislation (27% reduction). This country-wide study compared rates of head injury in regions with and without mandatory helmet legislation. Comparing head injuries with other non-head-injured children controlled for potential differences in children's cycling habits. The strong protective association between helmet legislation and head injuries supports the adoption of helmet legislation as an effective tool in the prevention of childhood bicycle-related head injuries.

  11. Influence of age and fall type on head injuries in infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nicole G.; Wood, Joanne; Margulies, Susan S.; Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    Age-based differences in fall type and neuroanatomy in infants and toddlers may affect clinical presentations and injury patterns. Objective Our goal is to understand the influence of fall type and age on injuries to help guide clinical evaluation. Design/Setting/Participants Retrospectively, 285 children 0–48 months with accidental head injury from a fall and brain imaging between 2000–2006 were categorized by age (infant=<1 year and toddler=1–4 years) and fall type: low (≤3 ft), intermediate (>3 and <10 ft), high height falls (≥10 ft) and stair falls. Outcome Measures Clinical manifestations were noted and head injuries separated into primary (bleeding) and secondary (hypoxia, edema). The influence of age and fall type on head injuries sustained was evaluated. Results Injury patterns in children <4 yrs varied with age. Despite similar injury severity scores, infants sustained more skull fractures than toddlers (71% v. 39%). Of children with skull fractures, 11% had no evidence of scalp/facial soft tissue swelling. Of the patients with primary intracranial injury, 30% had no skull fracture and 8% had neither skull fracture nor cranial soft tissue injury. Low height falls resulted in primary intracranial injury without soft tissue or skull injury in infants (6%) and toddlers (16%). Conclusions Within a given fall type, age-related differences in injuries exist between infants and toddlers. When interpreting a fall history, clinicians must consider the fall type and influence of age on resulting injury. For young children, intracranial injury is not always accompanied by external manifestations of their injury. PMID:22079853

  12. No neurochemical evidence for brain injury caused by heading in soccer

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Jonsson, Michael; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Popa, Cornel; Styrud, Ewa; Hietala, Max Albert; Rosengren, Lars; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj

    2007-01-01

    Background The possible injurious effect to the brain of heading in soccer is a matter of discussion. Objective To determine whether standardised headings in soccer are associated with increased levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Methods 23 male amateur soccer players took part in a heading training session involving heading a ball kicked from a distance of 30 m at least 10 m forward. Ten players performed 10 and 13 players performed 20 approved headings. The players underwent lumbar puncture and serum sampling 7–10 days after the headings. The study also included 10 healthy male non‐athletic control subjects. CSF was analysed for neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, S‐100B and albumin concentrations. Serum was analysed for S‐100B and albumin. Results None of the biomarker levels were abnormal and there were no significant differences between any of the three groups, except for a slightly increased CSF S‐100B concentration in controls compared with headers. Biomarker levels did not correlate with the number of headings performed. Conclusion Repeated low‐severity head impacts due to heading in soccer are not associated with any neurochemical signs of injury to the brain. PMID:17496068

  13. No neurochemical evidence for brain injury caused by heading in soccer.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Jonsson, Michael; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Popa, Cornel; Styrud, Ewa; Hietala, Max Albert; Rosengren, Lars; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj

    2007-09-01

    The possible injurious effect to the brain of heading in soccer is a matter of discussion. To determine whether standardised headings in soccer are associated with increased levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. 23 male amateur soccer players took part in a heading training session involving heading a ball kicked from a distance of 30 m at least 10 m forward. Ten players performed 10 and 13 players performed 20 approved headings. The players underwent lumbar puncture and serum sampling 7-10 days after the headings. The study also included 10 healthy male non-athletic control subjects. CSF was analysed for neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100B and albumin concentrations. Serum was analysed for S-100B and albumin. None of the biomarker levels were abnormal and there were no significant differences between any of the three groups, except for a slightly increased CSF S-100B concentration in controls compared with headers. Biomarker levels did not correlate with the number of headings performed. Repeated low-severity head impacts due to heading in soccer are not associated with any neurochemical signs of injury to the brain.

  14. [Fatal head injury caused by a crossbow arrow with unusually preserved posttraumatic volitional activity - case report].

    PubMed

    Řehulka, Hynek; Čechová, Eva; Mottlová, Jitka; Valenta, Martin; Mareška, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The authors deal with a case of suicidal attempt resulting in a fatal head injury. A young man shot himself with a serially produced mechanical sports crossbow. The young man with a critical intracranial injury, a penetration, was nevertheless capable of basic locomotive activity, as well as of coherent communication with another people present at the scene. The critically injured patient was transported from the scene directly to medical centre where he subsequently underwent a neurologic surgery. On the eight day after the incident he died in the hospital as a result of sustained wounds. During the autopsy, a penetrating arrow-shot wound head injury was certified, occurring in the right and left temple area. Signs of a complex decompressive craniectomy were established too. The shooting channel was generally horizontally oriented, extending from the right to the left side, from behind in a 10 up to 15 degrees angle to the frontal plane, penetrating the brain from the right temple lobe and the frontal lobe, thereby pervading also frontal horns of lateral ventricles, and from the left afflicting the frontal lobe on the left side of the brain. In the course of the shooting channel, brain contusion occurred, accompanied by intraventricular haemorrhage. In addition, a heavy cerebral oedema, multiple secondary malacias, Durett haemorrhages and extensive thrombosis of cerebral sinuses were stated. In the course of police investigation, based mainly on the information given by the wounded man right after he had been found at the scene, it was revealed that another person might have been involved. The forensic autopsy, the investigation of the Police and the subsequent criminalist-ballistics expert investigation, supported by a series of experimental substitutive target shots, didnt, however, decidedly prove that any other culprit had been involved.

  15. Head and neck injuries in young athletes: thorough return-to-play examinations are necessary.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Dan

    2003-11-01

    Catastrophic head and neck injuries in athletes will always be a great concern in our society. The unpredictability of sports, which gives them the competitiveness that we love, will always make it extremely difficult to eliminate these injuries completely. Medical personal and sports officials need to attack this problem through improved safety equipment and rule changes.

  16. Chronic Post-Traumatic Headache after Head Injury in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Charlotte; Nagiub, George; Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq

    2008-01-01

    This was a prospective, observational study of children aged 3 to 15 years admitted to hospital with head injury (HI). Demographic data and information on the nature of the HI, and history of premorbid headache were collected. A structured telephone questionnaire was used to interview parents and children 2 months after injury and at 4-monthly…

  17. Chronic Post-Traumatic Headache after Head Injury in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Charlotte; Nagiub, George; Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq

    2008-01-01

    This was a prospective, observational study of children aged 3 to 15 years admitted to hospital with head injury (HI). Demographic data and information on the nature of the HI, and history of premorbid headache were collected. A structured telephone questionnaire was used to interview parents and children 2 months after injury and at 4-monthly…

  18. The National Head Injury Foundation: Eight Years of Challenge and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gerald W.

    1988-01-01

    The National Head Injury Foundation was established to address financial and personal issues involved with brain injury. The Foundation's action agenda emphasizes prevention, public awareness, public policy, public attitudes, social-political action, professional growth, information/referral, guidance on research needs, and a forum for diverse…

  19. A mathematical model for predicting the outcome in moderate head injury.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, U S

    2006-03-01

    Virtually all the literature on head injury has focused on the outcome prediction of severe and mild head injuries and very few studies have been dedicated to patients sustaining moderate head injuries. To identify the patient following moderate head injury who may die, develop severe disability or significant cognitive and behavioral problems on the first day of injury itself. Tertiary teaching hospital. Prospective study divided into two groups. The study included 85 patients whose Glasgow coma scale score were 9-12 and who had isolated moderate head injury. Among the above patients a preliminary prospective study was conducted in first group of 64 patients using 7 clinical factors, 18 neuro-behavioral sequel and CT brain data in prediction of outcome with moderate head injury. From the results obtained in the above study three statistically significant factors were identified and a mathematical model was developed and used prospectively in the next 21 patients and its accuracy was evaluated. STATISTICAL METHODS USED: Multiple regression analysis and Kendall's tau non- parametric test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 11-5-version) were used to find out the predictive factors. Results of these patients showed combination of CT scan brain data, verbal response and neurological signs could provide a reliable prediction in moderate head injury. Based upon the above results a mathematical model was developed giving a value for the above-mentioned factors. The mathematical model was "CT brain data x (Verbal response + Neurological Signs)". Its overall accuracy when used on the day of admission was around 80%.

  20. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in hospitalized discharge rates for head injury in Maryland, 1979-86.

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, E J; Edelstein, S L; Flynn, J P

    1990-01-01

    Hospital discharge data from all acute care hospitals in Maryland were used to examine trends in hospitalized head injury incidence and outcome by severity. From 1979 to 1986, discharge rates increased by 3.4/100,000 per year; the largest percent increase was for more severe injuries. Discharge rates increased the most for adults ages 15-24 and ages 75+ but declined for children ages 0-4. Coinciding with the increase in head injury discharges was a decrease in the hospital case-fatality rate across all severity groups. PMID:2297074

  2. Association between patient report of symptoms after mild head injury and neurobehavioural performance.

    PubMed

    Arcia, E; Gualtieri, C T

    1993-01-01

    Patients with closed-head injuries may have physical, affective, behavioural and memory problems that persist for weeks, months or years. Even patients with minor head trauma have been found to exhibit deficits in neurobehavioural performance. However, very little research has been done to examine the association between patient symptoms after minor head injury and neurobehavioural performance. The associations between five sets of symptoms (memory problems, neurological problems, confusion, neurasthenia and co-ordination) and five neurobehavioural areas (simple motor speed, response speed and attention, complex perceptual motor performance, visual memory, and learning) were examined in a group of 32 adults who had suffered mild to moderate head injury. Patients reported their symptoms with a four-point rating scale. Neurobehavioural functioning was assessed using computerized tests. Memory difficulties were the problems most frequently experienced by the patients and most closely associated with performance deficits.

  3. University of Virginia prospective study of football-induced minor head injury: status report.

    PubMed

    Alves, W M; Rimel, R W; Nelson, W E

    1987-01-01

    We have recently completed the field work phase of a 4-year prospective study of football-induced minor head injuries. Players from 10 University football teams were monitored up to 4 years, and a brief neuropsychological and psychosocial assessment battery was administered to them up to five times before and after injury. Objectives of this project focus on the frequency of head injuries in college football, the impairments that might result from such injury, the duration of impairments, the time course of their recovery, and the possibility of cumulative effects of multiple injuries during the player's college career. Approximately 2500 players were monitored during the study, and nearly 200 players were restudied following minor head injuries. A series of nearly 60 players with orthopedic injuries were tested using the same protocol, and a college student control series of 50 patients were similarly studied. Data analyses are currently underway, and the first report of the findings of this study will be available soon. This article has described the objectives and design of this study, outlined the neuropsychological and psychosocial assessment protocol, and discussed some of the issues related to project implementation. Current data analyses focus on the size of the effects of minor head injury on cognitive and psychosocial performance observed following minor head injury. Upon completion of the initial data analyses, our analysis plan includes having at least two neuropsychologists make independent assessments of the clinical significance of the findings. Similar assessments will be made of the neurophysical symptoms and complaints and psychosocial performance of players after injury.

  4. Experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Revak, S D; Rice, C L; Schraufstätter, I U; Halsey, W A; Bohl, B P; Clancy, R M; Cochrane, C G

    1985-01-01

    by the return to full activity of four out of five BAL samples after their incubation with the reducing agent dithiothreitol in the presence of methionine sulfoxide peptide reductase. The specific activity of catalase in the BAL fluids of animals given 3-amino, 1,2,4 triazole (AT) 1 h before lavaging showed drops from 0.97 in untreated monkeys to 0.04 in FNLP-treated and 0.49 in PMA-treated monkeys. MPO levels also fell in the AT-treated injured animals from 16.59 to 0.85 delta OD/min X ml in FNLP animals in the absence and presence of AT, and 30.47 to 0.60 delta OD/min X ml in PMA-treated animals. Inhibition of MPO by AT was shown in vitro to be H2O2 dependent. Total glutathione levels in the BAL fluids did not change appreciably after FNLP or PMA treatment. These studies present substantial evidence of the generation of both proteases and oxidants during the establishment of acute pulmonary inflammatory injury in an experimental primate model. Images PMID:2995448

  5. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, W T; Kuo, C Y; Hung, C C; Chen, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of the motorcycle helmet law implemented in Taiwan on June 1, 1997. METHODS: Collecting data on 8795 cases of motorcycle-related head injuries from 56 major Taiwanese hospitals, we compared the situation 1 year before and after implementation of the helmet law. RESULTS: After implementation of the law, the number of motorcycle-related head injuries decreased by 33%, from 5260 to 3535. Decreases in length of hospital stay and in severity of injury and better outcome were also seen. The likelihood ratio chi 2 test showed that severity decreased after the law's implementation (P < .001). Full helmets were found to be safer than half-shell helmets. CONCLUSION: The helmet law effectively decreased the mortality and morbidity from motorcycle-related head injuries. PMID:10800433

  6. Children's head injuries in the Vietnamese refugee population in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Goh, K Y; Poon, W S

    1995-10-01

    All Vietnamese patients with head injuries from two of the largest refugee camps in Hong Kong are routinely referred to the Neurosurgical Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital for management. In order to determine the epidemiology of head injuries in this population group, we have retrospectively reviewed all hospitalized cases over a 4 year period from January 1990 to December 1993. We have found a unique social situation in this population group, with an unusually high proportion of paediatric cases (2253 per 100,000 children aged 5 years or less), compared with other epidemiological studies. The most common mechanism of injury in between 57 and 75 per cent of cases was a fall from bed. Based on this information, appropriate preventive measures have been recommended and have successfully decreased the incidence of head injuries. This study demonstrates the value and effectiveness of epidemiological studies in identifying a previously unrecognized health risk in a specified population group.

  7. Epidemiologic Impact of Rapid Industrialization on Head Injury Based on Traffic Accident Statistics in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, You Nam; Park, Young Seok; Min, Kyung Soo; Lee, Mou Seop; Kim, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence trend of head injury and the mortality based on traffic accident statistics and to investigate the impacts of rapid industrialization and economic growth on epidemiology of head injury in Korea over the period 1970–2012 including both pre-industrialized and post-industrialized stages. Methods We collected data of head injury estimated from traffic accident statistics and seven hospital based reports to see incidence trends between 1970 and 2012. We also investigated the population structure and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of Korea over the same period. The age specific data were investigated from 1992 to 2012. Results The incidence of head injury gradually rose in the 1970s and the 1980s but stabilized until the 1990s with transient rise and then started to decline slowly in the 2000s. The mortality grew until 1991 but gradually declined ever since. However, the old age groups showed rather slight increase in both rates. The degree of decrease in the mortality has been more rapid than the incidence on head injury. Conclusion In Korea during the low income stage, rapid industrialization cause considerable increase in the mortality and the incidence of head injury. During the high income stage, the incidence of head injury gradually declined and the mortality dropped more rapidly than the incidence due to preventive measures and satisfactory medical care. Nevertheless, the old age groups revealed rather slight increase in both rates owing to the large population structure and the declining birth rate. PMID:26962421

  8. Tau hyperphosphorylation in apolipoprotein E-deficient and control mice after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Genis, L; Chen, Y; Shohami, E; Michaelson, D M

    2000-05-15

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice have learning and memory impairments that are associated with specific neurochemical changes and hyperphosphorylation of distinct epitopes of the cytoskeletal protein tau. Furthermore, such mice are highly susceptible to the sequelae of brain trauma and their ability to recover from head injury is impaired. In the present study we investigated the extent that the neuronal maintenance and repair impairments of apoE-deficient mice are related to aberrations at the tau phosphorylation level. This was pursued by subjecting control and apoE-deficient mice to closed head injury (CHI) and examination, utilizing immunoblot assays, of the resulting effects on tau phosphorylation. The results thus obtained revealed that tau of apoE-deficient mice is hyperphosphorylated before CHI and that this insult results in transient tau hyperphosphorylation, whose extent and time course in the two mouse groups varied markedly. Tau hyperphosphorylation in the injured controls was maximal by about 4 hr after injury and reverted to basal levels by 24 hr. In contrast, almost no head injury-induced tau hyperphosphorylation was observed in the apoE-deficient mice at 4 hr after injury. Some tau hyper-phosphorylation was detected in the head-injured apoE-deficient mice after longer time intervals, but its extent was markedly lower than the maximal values obtained in the head injured controls. These findings show that the chronic neuronal impairments brought about by apoE deficiency and the acute response to head injury are both associated with hyperphosphorylation of the same tau domain and that the ability of apoE-deficient mice to mount the acute tau hyperphosphorylation response to head injury is impaired.

  9. Head injury and risk of Alzheimer's disease by apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, E S; Kukull, W A; Sheppard, L; Bowen, J D; McCormick, W C; Teri, L; Pfanschmidt, M; Thompson, J D; Schellenberg, G D; Larson, E B

    1997-09-01

    Head injury and apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon 4 (e4) genotype have each been associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. If APOE-e4 affects neuronal viability and branching, and if response to head injury differs in e4 patients, then the association between head injury and Alzheimer's disease may vary with the presence of the e4 allele. The authors examined this association in a case-control study conducted between 1987 and 1995 among enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, a health maintenance organization in Seattle, Washington. Proxy informants reported prior head injury with loss of consciousness for 32 of 349 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and for 16 of 342 control subjects of similar age and sex who had been randomly selected from the same population (odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.8). Elevated risk was observed among men (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5) but not among women (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.6). No significant variation in the head injury-Alzheimer's disease risk relation by APOE-e4 genotype was found among 230 cases and 309 controls (OR = 3.1 (95% CI 0.7-14.6) for persons with at least one e4 allele and OR = 2.0 (95% CI 0.8-5.2) for those without e4). Neither age, education, race, type of proxy informant, nor duration of relationship with the proxy confounded the association. Head injury with loss of consciousness, although uncommon in this sample, was associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. APOE-e4 was an independent risk factor which neither modified nor confounded the association. Susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease as conferred by APOE-e4 does not appear to increase the risk associated with head injury.

  10. Study the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs on brain physiological properties during focal head injury using optical spectroscopy data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Shochat, Ariel

    2016-03-01

    We present a comparative evaluation of five different neuroprotective drugs in the early phase following focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mouse intact head. The effectiveness of these drugs in terms of changes in brain tissue morphology and hemodynamic properties was experimentally evaluated through analysis of the optical absorption coefficient and spectral reduced scattering parameters in the range of 650-1000 nm. Anesthetized male mice (n=50 and n=10 control) were subjected to weight drop model mimics real life focal head trauma. Monitoring the effect of injury and neuroprotective drugs was obtained by using a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system utilizing independent source-detector separation and location. Result indicates that administration of minocycline improve hemodynamic and reduced the level of tissue injury at an early phase post-injury while hypertonic saline treatment decrease brain water content. These findings highlight the heterogeneity between neuroprotective drugs and the ongoing controversy among researchers regarding which drug therapy is preferred for treatment of TBI. On the other hand, our results show the capability of optical spectroscopy technique to noninvasively study brain function following injury and drug therapy.

  11. International Multicenter Study of Head Injury in Children. ISHIP Group.

    PubMed

    Murgio, A; Andrade, F A; Sanchez Muñoz, M A; Boetto, S; Leung, K M

    1999-07-01

    With the object of evaluating different epidemiological factors in the acute phase of head injury (HI) in the pediatric age group in five countries (Argentina, Brazil, France, Hong-Kong and Spain), we carried out a prospective and descriptive study, in which we analyzed the clinical and radiological risk factors versus management and outcome 7-30 days after trauma. We included all children seen in the emergency department and hospitalized who were aged between 0 and 15 years and had sustained HI. Data were compiled from the clinical records and analyzed for neurological evaluation with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Glasgow Paediatric Coma Score (GPCS), and also by means of dynamics, symptoms, skull X-rays, CT scans. The total of 2478 patients enrolled in the study was made up of 60.9% boys and 39.1 % girls. Age distribution was as follows: 55.2% aged 0-4 years; 28.3% aged 5-9 years, and 16.4% aged 10-15 years. Most (75.3%, or 1768) of these patients completed follow-up. The total sample included 1058 children (42.7%) who required hospitalization. Skull fractures were identified in 11.8% (298) of the cases, and 6.4% (158) of CT scans were pathologic. Minor HI accounted for 56.4% of these children, moderate HI for 38.9%, and severe HI for the remaining 4.7%. The lethality rate was 1.6%. Our preliminary data reveal that it is very important for new guidelines on the treatment of minor HI to be prepared, because patients with minor HI had undergone the most skull X-rays and also most frequently been admitted to hospital for unnecessarily long periods of time, though the incidence of brain damage (1.6%) was lowest in this group of the study population. We intend to carry out a full analysis of the various risk factors at the end of the study.

  12. Microstructural brain injury in post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Houston, Gavin C; Dippel, Diederik W J; Wielopolski, Piotr A; Vernooij, Meike W; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hunink, M G Myriam; van der Lugt, Aad

    2011-08-01

    After minor head injury (MHI), post-concussive symptoms commonly occur. The purpose of this study was to correlate the severity of post-concussive symptoms in MHI patients with MRI measures of microstructural brain injury, namely mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as the presence of microhaemorrhages. Twenty MHI patients and 12 healthy controls were scanned at 3 T using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-resolution gradient recalled echo (HRGRE) T2*-weighted sequences. One patient was excluded from the analysis because of bilateral subdural haematomas. DTI data were preprocessed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics. The resulting MD and FA images were correlated with the severity of post-concussive symptoms evaluated with the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire. The number and location of microhaemorrhages were assessed on the HRGRE T2*-weighted images. Comparing patients with controls, there were no differences in MD. FA was decreased in the right temporal subcortical white matter. MD was increased in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. FA was reduced in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the uncinate fasciculus, the IFO, the internal capsule and the corpus callosum, as well as in the parietal and frontal subcortical white matter. Microhaemorrhages were observed in one patient only. The severity of post-concussive symptoms after MHI was significantly correlated with a reduction of white matter integrity, providing evidence of microstructural brain injury as a neuropathological substrate of the post-concussion syndrome.

  13. Head or brain injuries and Alzheimer's disease: A nested case-control register study.

    PubMed

    Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Taipale, Heidi; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2017-06-07

    Many previous studies have been limited by self- or proxy-reported injury or short follow-up. We investigated whether head or brain injuries are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), possible modifying factors and dose-response relationship. Nested register-based case-control study of all community dwellers who received clinically verified AD diagnosis in Finland in 2005 to 2011 (n = 70,719) and one to four matched controls for each case (n of controls = 282,862). The magnitude of association between hospital-treated head and/or brain injuries was strongly dependent on the lag time between exposure and outcome. With a 5-year lag time, head injury (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval 1.19; 1.15-1.23) or brain injury (1.23; 1.18-1.29) was associated with higher risk of AD. Dose-response relationship with number and severity of injuries was observed. Associations were stronger in those with earlier onset of AD. Stronger associations with shorter lag times indicate that head and/or brain injuries may also reflect the ongoing AD disease process. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Illness perceptions and outcome in mild head injury: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Robert; Kemp, Steven; House, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Background A range of neuropathological and psychosocial factors have been implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of post‐concussional syndrome (PCS), with a growing consensus in the literature that this is a complex, multifactorial condition. The role of patients' perceptions in PCS has not been examined to date. Objective This longitudinal study examines the role of illness perceptions in predicting outcome following mild head injury, controlling for severity of injury, post‐traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, using a logistic regression analysis. Method 73 patients were admitted to an accident and emergency department with mild head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13–15; loss of consciousness <20 min; post‐traumatic amnesia <24 h). Data on PCS symptomatology, illness perceptions, post‐traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression were collected after the injury and at the 3 month follow‐up. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of outcome. Results Following a mild head injury, symptomatic patients who believe that their symptoms have serious negative consequences on their lives and will continue to do so, are at heightened risk of experiencing significant enduring post‐concussional symptoms (p<0.001). Adding measures of severity of injury, post‐traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression to the regression model did not improve prediction of outcome. Conclusion Whatever other physical or psychological factors may be involved, patients' perceptions of their illness early after head injury play a part in the persistence of PCS. PMID:17507448

  15. Cyclist head and facial injury risk in relation to helmet fit: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Romanow, N R; Hagel, B E; Williamson, J; Rowe, B H

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effect of bicycle helmet fit and position on head and facial injuries. Cases were helmeted cyclists with a head (n=297) or facial (n=289) injury. Controls were helmeted cyclists with other injuries, excluding the neck. Participants were interviewed in seven Alberta emergency departments or by telephone; injury data were collected from charts. Missing values were imputed using chained equations and custom prediction imputation models. Compared with excellent helmet fit, those with poor fit had increased odds of head injury (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-10.74). Compared with a helmet that stayed centred, those whose helmet tilted back (OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.54-5.47), shifted (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.63) or came off (OR = 6.72, 95% CI: 2.86-15.82) had higher odds of head injury. A helmet that tilted back (OR = 4.81, 95% CI: 2.74-8.46), shifted (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04-3.19) or came off (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.24-8.85) also increased the odds of facial injury. Our findings have implications for consumer and retail education programs.

  16. Prevalence of clinically important traumatic brain injuries in children with minor blunt head trauma and isolated severe injury mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Lee, Lois K; Hoyle, John; Stanley, Rachel M; Gorelick, Marc H; Miskin, Michelle; Atabaki, Shireen M; Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2012-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of clinically important traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) with severe injury mechanisms in children with minor blunt head trauma but with no other risk factors from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) TBI prediction rules (defined as isolated severe injury mechanisms). Secondary analysis of a large prospective observational cohort study. Twenty-five emergency departments participating in the PECARN. Children with minor blunt head trauma and Glasgow Coma Scale scores of at least 14. Treating clinicians completed a structured data form that included injury mechanism (severity categories defined a priori). Clinically important TBIs were defined as intracranial injuries resulting in death, neurosurgical intervention, intubation for more than 24 hours, or hospital admission for at least 2 nights. We investigated the rate of clinically important TBIs in children with either severe injury mechanisms or isolated severe injury mechanisms. Of the 42,412 patients enrolled in the overall study, 42,099 (99%) had injury mechanisms recorded, and their data were included for analysis. Of all study patients, 5869 (14%) had severe injury mechanisms, and 3302 (8%) had isolated severe injury mechanisms. Overall, 367 children had clinically important TBIs (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.8%-1.0%). Of the 1327 children younger than 2 years with isolated severe injury mechanisms, 4 (0.3%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.8%) had clinically important TBIs, as did 12 of the 1975 children 2 years or older (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.1%). Children with isolated severe injury mechanisms are at low risk of clinically important TBI, and many do not require emergent neuroimaging.

  17. Scalp Hematoma Characteristics Associated With Intracranial Injury in Pediatric Minor Head Injury.

    PubMed

    Burns, Emma C M; Grool, Anne M; Klassen, Terry P; Correll, Rhonda; Jarvis, Anna; Joubert, Gary; Bailey, Benoit; Chauvin-Kimoff, Laurel; Pusic, Martin; McConnell, Don; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Silver, Norm; Taylor, Brett; Osmond, Martin H

    2016-05-01

    Minor head trauma accounts for a significant proportion of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. In children younger than 24 months, scalp hematomas are thought to be associated with the presence of intracranial injury (ICI). We investigated which scalp hematoma characteristics were associated with increased odds of ICI in children less than 17 years who presented to the ED following minor head injury and whether an underlying linear skull fracture may explain this relationship. This was a secondary analysis of 3,866 patients enrolled in the Canadian Assessment of Tomography of Childhood Head Injury (CATCH) study. Information about scalp hematoma presence (yes/no), location (frontal, temporal/parietal, occipital), and size (small and localized, large and boggy) was collected by emergency physicians using a structured data collection form. ICI was defined as the presence of an acute brain lesion on computed tomography. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, dangerous injury mechanism, irritability on examination, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, and clinical signs of basal skull fracture. ICI was present in 159 (4.1%) patients. The presence of a scalp hematoma (n = 1,189) in any location was associated with significantly greater odds of ICI (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.06 to 6.02), particularly for those located in temporal/parietal (OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 3.9 to 9.3) and occipital regions (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 3.5 to 8.9). Both small and localized and large and boggy hematomas were significantly associated with ICI, although larger hematomas conferred larger odds (OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 6.3 to 15.5). Although the presence of a scalp hematoma was associated with greater odds of ICI in all age groups, odds were greatest in children aged 0 to 6 months (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 1.5 to 119.3). Linear skull fractures were present in 156 (4.0%) patients. Of the 111 patients with scalp hematoma and ICI, 57 (51%) patients had

  18. Epidemiological survey of head and neck injuries and trauma in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Rosh K V; Kozin, Elliott D; Fagenholz, Peter J; Lee, Daniel J; Shrime, Mark G; Gray, Stacey T

    2014-11-01

    Head and neck trauma results in a range of injuries, spanning minor lacerations to life-threatening airway compromise. Few studies provide in-depth analysis of injuries to the head and neck (HN). We aim to (1) describe HN injury prevalence in the US and (2) investigate patient disposition and the outcome of mortality. Case series with chart review. Nationwide emergency department (ED) sample. The 2011 database was queried for encounters with a primary diagnosis of HN injury, as categorized by the Barell Injury Matrix. Weighted estimates for demographics, injury category, and mechanism were extracted. Predictors of mortality and admission were determined by multivariable regression. We identified 131 million ED encounters. A weighted total of 5,418,539 visits were related to primary HN injuries. Average age was 30 (SE = 0.4), and 56.8% were male. Sixty-four percent of injuries were attributed to fall or blunt trauma. Open wounds comprised 41.8% of injuries. The most common procedure was laceration repair (70%). The majority of patients (97%) were discharged home. Mortality rate was less than 1%. Predictors of admission and mortality (P < .05) included multiple trauma, vessel trauma, and burns. Other risk factors included foreign-body, older age, and male gender. Primary HN injuries commonly present to emergency rooms in the US. The majority of HN injuries are non-life threatening and do not require admission to the hospital or result in death. These data have implications for HN injury surveillance and may be used to risk-stratify patients who present with injuries in the acute care setting. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  19. Experimental inhalation injury in the goat.

    PubMed

    Walker, H L; McLeod, C G; McManus, W F

    1981-11-01

    Inhalation injuries are usually produced by inhalation of gaseous or particulate products of incomplete combustion and are rarely due to heat per se unless steam is inhaled. The clinical and anatomic characteristics of an appropriate animal model should mimic the disease encountered clinically. A model of inhalation injury has been produced in anesthetized goats through the use of a modified bee smoker. The smoke is delivered at a low temperature and contains byproducts of incomplete combustion. This reproducible injury produces necrotic tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis with pseudomembrane and cast formation in association with mild multifocal atelectasis and bronchopneumonia. These lesions spontaneously resolve within 3 weeks without supportive therapy. The upper trachea, protected from smoke injury by the inflated cuff of the endotracheal tube, showed no evidence of injury. This nonlethal injury is proposed as an appropriate model for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of inhalation injury.

  20. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools.

  1. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  2. Neuropsychological function 23 years after mild traumatic brain injury: a comparison of outcome after paediatric and adult head injuries.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Erik; Nestvold, Knut; Anderson, Vicki

    2007-08-01

    To the authors' knowledge no study comparing very long-term neuropsychological outcome after mild paediatric and adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been published. The primary objective of this study was to compare neuropsychological outcome 23 years after mainly mild paediatric and adult TBI. The study was a neuropsychological follow-up 23 years after a prospective head injury study conducted at a Norwegian public hospital. One hundred and nineteen patients were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Of these, 45 were paediatric TBI and 74 were adult TBI. Both the paediatric and adult groups obtained scores in the normal range. In the paediatric group significant relationships were found between head injury severity and current neuropsychological function. The most important predictors of poor outcome were length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and a combination of PTA and EEG pathology within 24 hours of injury. No influence of pre- and post-injury risk factors on current neuropsychological function was evident. The findings indicate that children sustaining complicated mild TBI may be more vulnerable to development of chronic mild neuropsychological dysfunction than adults sustaining similar head injuries.

  3. Training and equipment to prevent athletic head and neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin M; Serenelli, Catherine

    2003-07-01

    Due to the potential for catastrophic neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sport, the sports health care professional must take proper measures to prevent such injuries. Strength training of the cervical spine, teaching of proper sporting techniques, and use of protective sports equipment are three primary means of attempting to prevent neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sports. There are other avenues to assist in preventing these injuries, such as flexibility programs. The sports health care professional, therefore, must be knowledgeable of the needs of each individual athlete when developing prevention plans.

  4. Mouse closed head injury model induced by a weight-drop device.

    PubMed

    Flierl, Michael A; Stahel, Philip F; Beauchamp, Kathryn M; Morgan, Steven J; Smith, Wade R; Shohami, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury represents the leading cause of death in young individuals. Various animal models have been developed to mimic human closed head injury (CHI). Widely used models induce head injury by lateral fluid percussion, a controlled cortical impact or impact acceleration. The presented model induces a CHI by a standardized weight-drop device inducing a focal blunt injury over an intact skull without pre-injury manipulations. The resulting impact triggers a profound neuroinflammatory response within the intrathecal compartment with high consistency and reproducibility, leading to neurological impairment and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. In this protocol, we define standardized procedures for inducing CHI in mice and determine various severity grades of CHI through modulation of the weight falling height. In experienced hands, this CHI model can be carried out in as little as 30 s per animal, with additional time required for subsequent posttraumatic analysis and data collection.

  5. Acute and long-term management of sports-related closed head injuries.

    PubMed

    Asthagiri, Ashok R; Dumont, Aaron S; Sheehan, Jonas M

    2003-07-01

    Aggressive participation in athletics is rewarded in many ways in our society. As long as there is such strong impetus for participation in athletics, the risks of head injuries for participants will remain. Important strides made in understanding of the pathophysiology of head injuries may lead to improved treatment strategies in the future. In light of the current lack of effective therapies, however, the best options remain injury prevention, early and appropriate recognition, and limitation of subsequent, further injury. Frequently the medical staff is encouraged to allow the athlete to return to play based on the desires of the coach, team, fans, parents, and even the athlete himself. A thorough understanding of the potentially serious risks of repetitive injury, however, mandates that only a proper conservative period of observation and evaluation will best serve the competitor.

  6. [Acute head injuries in primary health care--internet survey conducted with general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Luoto, Teemu M; Artsola, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Liimatainen, Suvi; Kosunen, Elise; Ohman, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Patients with head injury constitute a large population treated in primary health care. It is essential to recognize patients with traumatic brain injury among this notable population to determine the need for more specific evaluation. General practitioners (n=331) in Pirkanmaa hospital district in Finland received an email link to answer the survey. The response rate was 54.1% (n=179). Mean survey score was 20.5 points (max. 25). Only acquaintance with the national traumatic brain injury practice guidelines was associated with greater survey scores. The general practitioners' level of knowledge in managing head injuries was good. Deficiencies were found in the questions dealt with post-traumatic amnesia and the definition of traumatic brain injury.

  7. Role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in severe head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Advait; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Oak, Sanjay N; Gupta, Rahul K; Sanghvi, Beejal V; Bachani, Mitesh; Patil, Rajashekhar

    2012-01-01

    A brain injury results in a temporary or permanent impairment of cognitive, emotional, and/or physical function. Predicting the outcome of pediatric brain injury is difficult. Prognostic instruments are not precise enough to reliably predict individual patient's mortality and long-term functional status. The purpose of this article is to provide a guide to the strengths and limitations of the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in treating pediatric patients with severe brain injury. We studied total 56 patients of head injury. Out of them 28 received HBOT. Only cases with severe head injury [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) < 8] with no other associated injury were included in the study group. After an initial period of resuscitation and conservative management (10-12 days), all were subjected to three sessions of HBOT at 1-week interval. This study group was compared with a control group of similar severity of head injury (GCS < 8). The study and control groups were compared in terms of duration of hospitalization, GCS, disability reduction,and social behavior. Patients who received HBOT were significantly better than the control group on all the parameters with decreased hospital stay, better GCS, and drastic reduction in disability. In children with traumatic brain injury, the addition of HBOT significantly improved outcome and quality of life and reduced the risk of complications.

  8. Impairment of remote memory after closed head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; High, W M; Meyers, C A; Von Laufen, A; Hayden, M E; Eisenberg, H M

    1985-01-01

    Evidence of partial retrograde amnesia for episodic memories of no personal salience was found in head injured patients (n = 10) tested during posttraumatic amnesia or shortly after its resolution (n = 10), but there was no selective preservation of the earliest memories. In contrast, head injured patients tested during posttraumatic amnesia exhibited relatively preserved retention of early autobiographical memories which they recalled as accurately as oriented head injured patients. It is suggested that reminiscence of salient, early events increases their resistance to partial retrograde amnesia and contributes to the observed temporal gradient. PMID:4009192

  9. Subjective complaints versus neuropsychological test performance after moderate to severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Lannoo, E; Colardyn, F; Vandekerckhove, T; De Deyne, C; De Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychological test performance and subjective complaints of 85 patients with moderate to severe head injury were investigated at 6 months postinjury. The neuropsychological test battery included 10 measures of attention, memory, mental flexibility, reaction time, visuoconstruction and verbal fluency. Subjective complaints were assessed using a self-report questionnaire subdivided into four subscales (somatic, cognitive, emotional and behavioural). Ratings were obtained for the pre-injury and current status. Thirty-three trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head injured, relatives also completed the questionnaire. Head injured patients performed significantly below trauma control patients on nearly all test measures. Head injured patients and their relatives reported a significant increase in subjective complaints since the injury on all four subscales, with no differences between patients' and relatives' reports. These changes were also reported by the trauma controls, but they report fewer changes in somatic and cognitive functioning. Exploratory canonical correlation analyses revealed no correlations between any of the four scales of the questionnaire and the test measures, nor for the head injured, the trauma controls, or the relatives, indicating no relevant relationship between subjective complaints and neuropsychological test performance.

  10. Elderly patients with severe head injury in coma from the outset--has anything changed?

    PubMed

    Ushewokunze, S; Nannapaneni, R; Gregson, B A; Stobbart, L; Chambers, I R; Mendelow, A D

    2004-12-01

    Advancing age is known to be a determinant of outcome in head injury. We have sought to discover whether there has been any change in the outcome of elderly patients with severe head injury in Newcastle, where these patients have continued to be treated with maximum intervention. A review of prospectively collected data from the Newcastle Head Injury Database for the period 1990 to 2000 was carried out. All patients aged 70 years and above who had sustained a severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score of 8 or less from the outset) were included. The Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) was determined at 6 months. Seventy-one patients were identified. Fifty-seven (80%) died and 2 (3%) were in a vegetative state, 11 (16%) had severe disability, 1 (1%) had moderate disability and no patients made a good recovery. The natural history of this condition remains unchanged and due consideration should be given to this when evaluating interventions for elderly patients with a severe head injury.

  11. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    PubMed

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population.

  12. A nurse-led paediatric head injury follow-up service.

    PubMed

    Falk, Ann-Charlotte

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a nurse-led follow-up service, duration of children's late head injury symptoms and parent/child informational needs. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In Sweden; 7200 children and adolescents are hospitalized every year because of head trauma, and 90% of all head traumas are considered a mild head injury. Although the head injury may be mild, 5-15% of children report sequelae (headache, dizziness, fatigue or memory problems), and the need for a follow-up service has been proposed several times. An empirical descriptive study of a nurse-led follow-up service to improve the quality of care among children with mild-to-moderate head injuries. The data were collected in the period 2003-2005 at a Swedish University Hospital. In total, 149 children (mean age: 9.3 years) received the follow-up service. In 92% of cases, one follow-up visit was performed. Eight per cent needed several visits to ensure symptom resolution. Ninety-one per cent of all children described late symptoms [headache (75%) and tiredness (74%)] at the follow-up visits. The mean symptom duration was 5 weeks. However, 18% of the children reported long-lasting symptoms for 8 weeks, and 16 children (10%) reported long-lasting symptoms beyond 3 months postinjury. An early follow-up service with the aim of meeting the family's needs and reducing any negative impact after a childhood head injury could minimize long-lasting complications for both parents and children. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Predicting multiplanar cervical spine injury due to head-turned rear impacts using IV-NIC.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C; Panjabi, Manohar M; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Malcolmson, George F

    2006-09-01

    Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) hypothesizes that dynamic three-dimensional intervertebral motion beyond physiological limit may cause multiplanar soft-tissue injury. Present goals, using biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head in head-turned rear impacts, were to: (1) correlate IV-NIC with multiplanar injury, (2) determine IV-NIC injury threshold at each intervertebral level, and (3) determine time and mode of dynamic intervertebral motion that caused injury. Impacts were simulated at 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g horizontal accelerations of T1 vertebra (n = 6; average age: 80.2 years; four male, two female donors). IV-NIC was defined at each intervertebral level and in each motion plane as dynamic intervertebral rotation divided by physiological limit. Three-plane pre- and post-impact flexibility testing measured soft-tissue injury; that is significant increase in neutral zone (NZ) or range of motion (RoM) at any intervertebral level, above baseline. IV-NIC injury threshold was average IV-NIC peak at injury onset. IV-NIC extension peaks correlated best with multiplanar injuries (P < 0.001): extension RoM (R = 0.55) and NZ (R = 0.42), total axial rotation RoM (R = 0.42) and NZ (R = 0.41), and total lateral bending NZ (R = 0.39). IV-NIC injury thresholds ranged between 1.1 at C0-C1 and C3-C4 to 2.9 at C7-T1. IV-NIC injury threshold times were attained between 83.4 and 150.1 ms following impact. Correlation between IV-NIC and multiplanar injuries demonstrated that three-plane intervertebral instability was primarily caused by dynamic extension beyond the physiological limit during head-turned rear impacts.

  14. Clinical decision rules for adults with minor head injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harnan, Sue E; Pickering, Alastair; Pandor, Abdullah; Goodacre, Steve W

    2011-07-01

    There are many clinical decision rules for adults with minor head injury, but it is unclear how they compare in terms of diagnostic accuracy. This study aimed to systematically identify clinical decision rules for adults with minor head injury and compare the estimated diagnostic accuracies for any intracranial injury and injury requiring neurosurgical intervention. Several electronic bibliographic databases covering biomedical, scientific, and gray literature were searched from inception to March 2010. At least two independent reviewers determined the eligibility of cohort studies that described a clinical decision rule to identify adults with minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score, 13-15) at risk of intracranial injury or injury requiring neurosurgical intervention. Twenty-two relevant studies were identified. Differences existed in patient selection, outcome definition, and reference standards used. Nine rules stratified patients into high- and moderate-risk categories (to identify neurosurgical or nonsurgical intracranial lesions). The Canadian Computed Tomography Head Rule (CCHR) high-risk criteria have sensitivity of 99% to 100% with specificity of 48% to 77% for injury requiring neurosurgical intervention. Other rules such as New Orleans criteria, National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study II, Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, Scandinavian, and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network produce similar sensitivities for injury requiring neurosurgical intervention but with lower and more variable specificity values. The most widely researched decision rule is the CCHR, which has consistently shown high sensitivity for identifying injury requiring neurosurgical intervention with an acceptable specificity to allow considered use of cranial computed tomography. No other decision rule has been as widely validated or demonstrated as acceptable results, but its exclusion criteria make it difficult to apply

  15. Penetrating Bihemispheric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Collective Review of Gunshot Wounds to the Head.

    PubMed

    Turco, Lauren; Cornell, David L; Phillips, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Head injuries that cross midline structures of the brain are bihemispheric. Other terms have been used to describe such injuries, but bihemispheric is the most accurate and should be standard nomenclature. Bihemispheric head injuries are associated with greater mortality and morbidity than other penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Currently, there is a tendency to manage severe gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head nonoperatively, despite reports of improved outcome in military patients treated aggressively. Thus, controversy exists in the management of civilian TBI. PubMed was searched for query terms, and PRISMA guidelines were used. Studies were selected by relevance and inclusion of data regarding etiology, diagnosis, and management of bihemispheric TBI. Case reports, studies not in English, and records lacking information on mechanism or bihemispheric injuries were excluded. Thirteen studies were included and most contained level IV evidence. The mean mortality rate of all head GSWs was 62% in adults and 32% in children. Bihemispheric GSWs had greater mortality rates of 82% in adults and 60% in children. There was a larger proportion of self-inflicted injury in studies with greater rates of bihemispheric injuries. Bihemispheric injuries have greater mortality rates than other penetrating TBI. Violation of midline brain structures such as the diencephalon and mesencephalon, increased rate of self-inflicted wounds, and lack of a standard management algorithm may increase the lethality of these injuries. Although bihemispheric injuries historically have been considered nonsalvageable, an aggressive surgical approach has been shown to improve outcomes, particularly in the military population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Children With Arachnoid Cysts Who Sustain Blunt Head Trauma: Injury Mechanisms and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alexander J; Kuppermann, Nathan; Thelen, Angela E; Stanley, Rachel M; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-03-01

    Arachnoid cysts are abnormal intracranial fluid collections, and there is concern that these cysts may bleed or rupture following blunt head trauma. Our objective was to determine the risk of cyst-related complications in a cohort of children with arachnoid cysts who were evaluated for head trauma. We analyzed the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) head trauma public use data set, which was the product of a study that enrolled children with blunt head trauma from June 2004 to September 2006. We identified children with arachnoid cysts on cranial computed tomography (CT) and described the patient demographics, mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations, CT evidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and clinical outcomes. Clinically important TBI was defined as TBI leading to: 1) death from TBI, 2) neurosurgical intervention, 3) intubation for > 24 hours for the TBI, or 4) hospitalization for 2 or more nights for the head injury in association with TBI on CT. Data were available for 43,399 children who sustained blunt head trauma, of whom 15,899 had cranial CT scans obtained and 68 (0.4%) had arachnoid cysts. Falls were the most common mechanisms of injury (47%) and 87% of children had either moderate or severe injury mechanisms. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores ranged from 6 to 15, with 61 (90%) having GCS scores of 15. Two of the children with arachnoid cysts had TBIs on CT, one of which was clinically important. There were no identified cases of arachnoid cyst-related bleeding or complications. In this cohort of 68 children with arachnoid cysts who sustained head trauma, none demonstrated cyst-related bleeding or complications. This suggests the risk of arachnoid cyst-related complications in children following blunt head trauma is low and evaluation should align with existing clinical decision rules. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  18. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  19. Research study on neck injury lessening with active head restraint using human body FE model.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Junji

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the active head restraint system in reducing neck injury risk of car occupants in low-speed rear impacts. A human body FE model "THUMS" was used to simulate head and neck kinematics of the occupant and to evaluate loading to the neck. Joint capsule strain was calculated to predict neck injury risk as well as NIC. The validity of the model was confirmed comparing its mechanical responses to those in human subjects in the literatures. Seat FE models were also prepared representing one with a fixed head restraint and the other one with an active head restraint system. The active head restraint system was designed to move the head restraint forward and upward when the lower unit was lower unit was loaded by the pelvis. Rear impact simulations were performed assuming a triangular acceleration pulse at a delta-V of 25 km/h. The model reproduced similar head and neck motions to those measured in the human volunteer test, except for active muscular responses. The calculated joint capsule strain also showed a good match with those of PMHS tests in the literature. A rear-impact simulation was conducted using the model with the fixed head restraint. The result revealed that NIC was strongly correlated with the relative acceleration between the head and the torso and that its maximum peak appeared when the head contacted the head restraint. It was also found that joint capsule strain grew in later timing synchronizing with the relative displacement. Another simulation with the active head restraint system showed that both NIC and joint capsule strain were lowered owing to the forward and upward motion of the head restraint. A close investigation of the vertebral motion indicated that the active head restraint reduced the magnitude of shear deformation in the facet joint, which contributed to the strain growth in the fixed head restraint case. Rear-impact simulations were conducted using a human body FE model, THUMS

  20. [Mild head injury in children and adults: Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G

    2015-06-01

    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time.

  1. [Mild head injury in children and adults. Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G

    2015-01-01

    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time.

  2. Working memory after mild, moderate, or severe childhood closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Roncadin, Caroline; Guger, Sharon; Archibald, Jennifer; Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    Children with closed head injury (CHI) perform poorly on complex tasks requiring working memory (WM). It is unclear to what extent WM itself is compromised, and whether WM varies with factors related to the CHI, such as injury severity, age at injury, and time since injury. We studied verbal WM in 126 school-age children with CHI, divided into mild, moderate, and severe injury severity groups. WM distributions were significantly skewed toward lower scores in the moderate and severe groups, although the distribution in the mild group was normal. Age at injury and time since injury predicted WM components only for the moderate group. Survivors of moderate or severe childhood CHI have persisting WM deficits limiting the computational workspace required for many cognitive tasks.

  3. Does routine follow up after head injury help? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Wade, D T; Crawford, S; Wenden, F J; King, N S; Moss, N E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Medical Disability Society's 1988 recommendation that "every patient attending hospital after a head injury should be registered and offered an outpatient follow up appointment" by determining whether offering a routine follow up service to patients presenting to hospital with a head injury of any severity affects outcome six months later. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial design with masked assessment of outcome. SETTING: A mixed rural and urban health district with a population of about 560000. PATIENTS: 1156 consecutive patients resident in Oxfordshire aged between 16 and 65 years presenting over 13 months to accident and emergency departments or admitted to hospital and diagnosed as having a head injury of any severity, including those with other injuries. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were registered and randomised to one of two groups. Both groups continued to receive the standard service offered by the hospitals. The early follow up group were approached at 7-10 days after injury and offered additional information, advice, support, and further intervention as needed. All randomised patients were approached for follow up assessment six months after injury by independent clinicians blind to their group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Validated questionnaires were used to elicit ratings of post-concussion symptoms (the Rivermead postconcussion symptoms questionnaire), and changes in work, relationships, leisure, social, and domestic activities (the Rivermead head injury follow up questionnaire). RESULTS: The two groups were comparable at randomisation. Data was obtained at six months on 226 of 577 "control" patients and 252 of 579 "trial" patients (59% were lost to follow up). There were no significant differences overall between the trial and control groups at follow up, but subgroup analysis of the patients with moderate or severe head injuries (posttraumatic amnesia > or = one hour, or admitted to hospital), showed that those in the early

  4. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI.

  5. Are the symptoms and severity of head injury predictive of clinical findings three months later?

    PubMed

    Falk, Ann-Charlotte; Cederfjäll, Claes; Von Wendt, Lennart; Klang, Birgitta

    2006-12-01

    To describe symptoms and functional disabilities 3 mo after a minimal, mild or moderate head injury in children, and to analyse relationships between these and initial symptoms and management documented at the time of the injury. The sample consisted of all children (0-15 y) admitted to an emergency department during a 1-mo period with a history of head injury. Data were collected from the medical records at the time of the injury, and questionnaires about symptoms/change and functional problems 3 mo after the injury. Symptoms and functional problems were reported in 35% of the children 3 mo after a head injury. Documented altered consciousness (in children less than 5 y) and disorientation (in children 5 y of age or older) at the emergency department were correlated with changes in behaviour at 3 mo. The initial duration of unconsciousness was not predictive of subsequent behaviour. The difficulties in predicting outcomes in head-injured children, especially younger ones, indicate the need for a follow-up appointment in order to identify children with special needs. Further studies are needed regarding the early signs and symptoms in different age groups.

  6. Emotional and cognitive consequences of head injury in relation to the glasgow outcome scale.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J T; Pettigrew, L E; Teasdale, G M

    2000-08-01

    There is current debate over the issue of the best way of assessing outcome after head injury. One criticism of scales of disability and handicap such as the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) is that they fail to capture the subjective perspective of the person with head injury. The aims of the study were to investigate aspects of the validity of structured interviews for the GOS, and address the issue of the relation between the GOS and subjective reports of health outcome. A total of 135 patients with head injury were assessed using the GOS and an extended GOS (GOSE) and other measures of outcome and clinical status at 6 months after injury. There were robust correlations between the GOS and measures of initial injury severity (particularly post-traumatic amnesia) and outcome assessed by disability scales (particularly the disbility rating scale (DRS)); however, associations with cognitive tests were generally modest. There were also strong correlations with self report measures of health outcome: both the GOS and GOSE were related to depression measured by the Beck depression inventory, mental wellbeing assessed by the general health questionnaire, and to all subscales of the short form-36. The GOS scales were also strongly associated with frequency of reported symptoms and problems on the neurobehavioural functioning inventory. The GOS and GOSE show consistent relations with other outcome measures including subjective reports of health outcome; they thus remain useful overall summary assessments of outcome of head injury.

  7. Head injuries in Leeds: changes in epidemiology and survival over 12 years

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, M; Sloan, J; Barlow, I

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To map the pattern of survival and epidemiology of patients admitted to accident and emergency, at a regional neurosciences unit with an isolated head injury, over a 12 year period. Methods: The TARN database of a regional neuroscience referral centre was analysed to identify patients who where admitted after a significant, isolated head injury between January 1990 and December 2001. Demographic data about the patient and nature and cause of the injury were extracted and survival was mapped over the time period. Statistical analysis was performed to identify change in survival. Results: There were 810 eligible patients. The most common cause of injury was road traffic accident (47%) with an average of 42.6% patients transferred from other hospitals. The most common disposal of patients was to an intensive care unit (35%). There was an overall increase in the number of patients but survival did not increase over the time period. Mean survival was 81.8% and overall survival decreased from 95.0% in 1990 to 81.6% in 2001, although this did not represent significant change (p = 0.990). Conclusions: Short term survival after significant head injury has not changed significantly over the 12 year period studied. No subset of patients is having a disproportionate effect on survival but in patients aged over 75, survival increased significantly. Further multicentre work is indicated to map a more accurate clinical picture of head injury survival. PMID:15208224

  8. Head injury with and without hospital admission: comparisons of incidence and short-term disability.

    PubMed Central

    Fife, D

    1987-01-01

    All persons with head injuries (skull fracture or injury to the cranial contents resulting in a physician visit or at least one day of disability), regardless of treatment or hospital admission status, were identified from National Health Interview Survey data for the years 1977-81. Among those who reported such head injuries within the two weeks prior to interview, only 16 per cent were admitted to hospitals. Children, members of low-income families, and those injured at home, school, or in a recreational setting were less likely to be admitted to hospital than others. Among those who sustained a head injury in the previous three months and had some disability from that injury during the two weeks prior to interview, those not admitted to hospital included one-half of those with three to seven days of bed disability and one-third of those with more than seven days of bed disability; and they accounted for one-half of all disability days. These findings indicate that hospital-based head injury incidence data are incomplete and may contain substantial biases. PMID:2954475

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging in chronic head injury survivors: correlations with learning and memory indices.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; Menon, D K; Chatfield, D A; Williams, G B; Pena, A; Sahakian, B J; Pickard, J D

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a unique insight into the cellular integrity of the brain. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging underestimates the extent of pathology following closed head injury, diffusion-weighted imaging has been shown to more accurately delineate the extent of cerebral damage. There have only been a few case studies of DTI in chronic head injury survivors. This study used DTI to investigate changes in anisotropy and diffusivity in survivors of head injury at least 6 months after their injury. The relationship between cognition and diffusion abnormality was also investigated. The voxel-based analysis revealed significant bilateral decreases in anisotropy, in major white matter tracts and association fibers in the temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. Statistically significant increases in diffusivity were also found in widespread areas of the cortex. A significant positive correlation was found between diffusivity and impairment of learning and memory in the left posterior cingulate, left hippocampal formation and left temporal, frontal and occipital cortex. The common pattern of abnormality despite heterogeneous injury mechanism and lesion location in the group suggests that these cellular changes reflect secondary insults. The importance of diffusion abnormalities in head injury outcome is emphasized by the significant correlation between a learning and memory index and diffusivity in areas known to subserve this cognitive function.

  10. The impact of blood ethanol concentration on the classification of head injury severity in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rønning, Pål; Gunstad, Per Ole; Skaga, Nils-Oddvar; Langmoen, Iver Arne; Stavem, Knut; Helseth, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is classified into mild, moderate and severe, based on the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). However, TBI patients are often influenced by ethanol, which in itself can attenuate the level of consciousness. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on the GCS group classification in TBI patients. The Oslo University Hospital trauma database was searched for all patients admitted with a head injury where the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) had been measured (n = 1004). The effect of BEC on GCS groups was analysed using multivariate ordinal logistic regression. This study identified 546, 142 and 316 patients in the mild, moderate and severe groups, respectively. Increasing BEC by 1 g kg(-1) and pre-hospital intubation had OR = 1.34 and 16.34 for being in a more severe GCS group, respectively. Increasing head abbreviated injury scale (head-AIS) was significantly associated with being in a more severe GCS group. The modelled probability of detecting a head-AIS of 4 or 5 in a patient with BEC of 2.0 g kg(-1) was 20%, 38% and 65% in the mild, moderate and severe groups, respectively. Increasing BEC was associated with increasing odds of being in a more severe GCS group. However, because the modelled probability of significant brain injury was high in patients with high levels of BEC, a reduced level of consciousness in intoxicated patients mandates further radiological investigations.

  11. Cerebral sinodural thrombosis following minor head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal; Cohen, José E

    2013-04-01

    Cerebral sinodural thrombosis (CSDT) is a rare complication of minor head trauma in children. Despite recommendations, anticoagulation is frequently withheld. We aimed to evaluate the etiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of pediatric CSDT following minor head trauma, and specifically to evaluate factors associated with anticoagulation use following minor head trauma in pediatric patients with CSDT. A literature search from 1990 to 2012 identified manuscripts discussing epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and outcome in pediatric patients with CSDT subsequent to minor head trauma. One pediatric patient diagnosed with CSDT following minor head trauma in our institution was also included in the study. There were 18 pediatric patients with CSDT following minor trauma, including the current patient. Mean patient age was 7.8years (range 23months-15years). There was a strong female predominance (2.4:1). Vomiting and headache were the most common symptoms. Five patients had pre-existing risk factors (gastroenteritis, protein S deficiency, estroprogestenic medication, elevated antiphospholipid antibodies, malnutrition). Anticoagulation was administered to six patients with additional risk factors, severe symptoms, or deterioration. There was no mortality, 12 patients recovered fully, and four patients improved with residual symptoms. One patient required lumboperitoneal shunt placement. Pediatric CSDT is a rare complication of minor head trauma, with variable presentation. Anticoagulation has generally been reserved for patients suffering from severe symptoms, for those who deteriorate neurologically during observation, and for those who suffer from a concomitant prothrombotic disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Terrance T; Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Brody, David L

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury-axonal injury-is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage, raising

  13. “Studying Injured Minds” – The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 Years of Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Raymont, Vanessa; Salazar, Andres M.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI) during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology, and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established. PMID:21625624

  14. "Studying injured minds" - the Vietnam head injury study and 40 years of brain injury research.

    PubMed

    Raymont, Vanessa; Salazar, Andres M; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI) during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology, and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established.

  15. Experimental Injury Biomechanics of the Pediatric Neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, Roger W.; Luck, Jason F.

    Motor vehicle related crashes rank as the most common cause of spinal related injuries in the pediatric population (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Eleraky et al. 2000; Hamilton and Myles 1992a; Bonadio 1993; Babcock 1975). Pediatric spinal related trauma accounts for between 1 and 12 % of all spinal related injuries (Hamilton and Myles 1992a; Hadley et al. 1988; Aufdermaur 1974). Cervical spine trauma in children accounts for approximately 2 % of all cervical spinal injuries (Henrys et al. 1977). Approximately 1-2 % of all children admitted for traumatic injury are related to injuries to the cervical spine (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Orenstein et al. 1994; Rachesky et al. 1987). Overall, pediatric neck injury rates are significantly lower than adult rates; however, the neck injury rate in children between the ages of 11 and 15 years approaches the adult rate of 18.8 per 100,000 (McGrory et al 1993; Myers and Winkelstein 1995). For children less than 11 years of age, neck injuries are relatively rare (1.2 per 100,000), but have particularly devastating consequences (McGrory et al. 1993). The overall mortality rate amongst victims of pediatric spinal trauma is approximately 16-41 % but considerably higher for the youngest ages (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Eleraky et al. 2000; Givens et al. 1996; Orenstein et al. 1994; Hamilton and Myles 1992b).

  16. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Head and Spinal Injuries Due to Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2016-10-01

    Synopsis Head and spinal injuries commonly occur during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). The goal of this clinical commentary is to discuss real-life versus simulated MVCs and to present clinical, biomechanical, and epidemiological evidence of MVC-related injury mechanisms. It will also address how this knowledge may guide and inform the design of injury mitigation devices and assist in clinical decision making. Evidence indicates that there exists no universal injury tolerance applicable to the entire population of the occupants of MVCs. Injuries sustained by occupants depend on a number of factors, including occupant characteristics (age, height, weight, sex, bone mineral density, and pre-existing medical and musculoskeletal conditions), pre-MVC factors (awareness of the impending crash, occupant position, usage of and position of the seatbelt and head restraint, and vehicle specifications), and MVC-related factors (crash orientation, vehicle dynamics, type of active or passive safety systems, and occupant kinematic response). Injuries resulting from an MVC occur due to blunt impact and/or inertial loading. An S-shaped curvature of the cervical spine and associated injurious strains have been documented during rear-, frontal-, and side-impact MVCs. Data on the injury mechanism and the quantification of spinal instability guide and inform the emergent and subsequent conservative or surgical care. Such care may require determining optimal patient positioning during transport, which injuries may be treated conservatively, whether reduction should be performed, optimal patient positioning intraoperatively, and whether bracing should be worn prior to and/or following surgery. The continued improvement of traditional injury mitigation systems, such as seats, seatbelts, airbags, and head restraints, together with research of newer collision-avoidance technologies, will lead to safer motor vehicles and ultimately more effective injury management strategies. J Orthop Sports

  17. Head injury in heroes of the Civil War and its lasting influence.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Victor M; Holland, Ryan; Mau, Christine; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-07-01

    The Civil War era was an age-defining period in the history of the United States of America, the effects of which are still seen in the nation today. In this era, the issue of head injury pervaded society. From the president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, to the officers and soldiers of the Union and Confederate armies, and to the population at large, head injury and its ramifications gripped the nation. This article focuses on 3 individuals: Major General John Sedgwick, First Lieutenant Alonzo Cushing, and Harriet Tubman, as examples of the impact that head injury had during this era. These 3 individuals were chosen for this article because of their lasting legacies, contributions to society, and interesting connections to one another.

  18. [Intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor closed head injury].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, S; Tomokiyo, M; Koga, H; Furukawa, Y; Nomura, S; Shimokawa, S; Nakagawa, S; Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T

    2001-10-01

    Thrombosis of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery as a result of nonpenetrating head and neck injury is not uncommon. However, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head and neck injury without skull fracture is rare. We report a case of 14-year-old male who suffered a minor head injury during an athletic meeting of his school and developed a right hemiparesis and a lethargy state resulting from thrombosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery. On admission, skull films and a CT scan revealed no abnormality. One hour later, he fully recovered. One day later, no definite lesions were detected on T1-weighted and T2-weighted image of MRI, but an abnormal high signal lesion in the left frontal lobe was detected on diffusion-weighted image of MRI. On additional MR angiography, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery due to dissection was demonstrated.

  19. T-wave inversion after a severe head injury without ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Roberto; Materia, Valeria; Pasquini, Annalisa; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; Marte, Filippo; Patanè, Salvatore

    2011-09-01

    Electrocardiographic changes mimicking an acute coronary event with T-wave inversion have been reported in the resting electrocardiogram in patients without ischemic heart disease but with acute ischemic stroke, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, or intracerebral hemorrhage, or a severe head injury. We present a case of T-wave inversion in a 73-year-old Italian woman admitted to the Emergency Department following a severe head injury. Pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and acute coronary event were excluded. Ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage were also excluded. Also this case focuses attention on T-wave inversion after a severe head injury without ischemic heart disease. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral auditory assessment in minor head injury: a prospective study in tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Lingamdenne Paul; Mathew, John; Balraj, Achamma; Job, Anand; Singh, Pushp Raj

    2011-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common problem encountered in ENT practice. Hearing loss following head injury is a major medical problem in both adults and children, which may go unnoticed when it does not affect speech frequencies. Sensorineural hearing loss at high frequencies is a common finding in minor head injury. Patients with history suggestive of mild head injury (MHI) according to Glasgow coma scale score were evaluated. The most common cause of MHI was road traffic accidents involving two wheeler riders without helmets. Higher the frequencies affected, and severe the hearing loss, poorer was the prognosis. Distortion product oto-acoustic emissions assessment at 3000 and 4000 Hz were found to be significant and has a higher predictive value in assessing outer hair cell damage.

  1. Head injury incidence and mortality in New Zealand over 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Kool, Bridget; Chelimo, Carol; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    Although reducing the burden of head injuries is an important focus of several injury prevention initiatives, they remain a large proportion of injury-related deaths. In New Zealand, trends over time and the socio-economic distribution of the cause-specific incidence of head injuries have received little attention. We analyzed primary hospitalizations (2000-2009) and deaths (1999-2008) due to head injury using national mortality and hospital discharge databases, specifically exploring variations in age-specific rates by major causes over time and by socio-economic deprivation. Population-based incidence rate estimates were calculated using census denominators. Children aged <5 years and adults aged ≥65 years had the highest rates of hospitalization and mortality, respectively. Transport-related incidents and falls were the leading causes, with most fatal injuries occurring on roads and most hospitalized injuries occurring at home. There was a significant increase in mortality rates among older adults over the decade, and in most age groups, mortality rates increased with increasing levels of socio-economic deprivation. The findings of this review alongside the significant risks of premature death and disability reinforce the need to explore policies that address the specific causes as well as socio-economic inequalities in their distribution in New Zealand. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas M.; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V.; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S.; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein’s models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein’s analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31–0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26–0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. PMID:26998593

  3. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Epidemiology of Hospital-Referred Head Injury in Ardabil City

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Abbasi, Vahid; Kahnamouei-aghdam, Fariba; Molaei, Behnam; Iziy, Elham; Ojaghi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Trauma is the leading cause of death for youth in developing countries. Given the prevalence of head trauma (HT) in society and its complication and burden, the epidemiologic study of head trauma is necessary and is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods. This retrospective population-based survey describes the epidemiology of head injury in a defined population in Ardabil city. It includes all 204 patients with head injury referred to the University Hospital of Ardabil, Iran, during 2013-2014. Data were collected by a checklist and analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. Significance level p < 0.05 was considered. Results. Of all registered cases, 146 (71.6%) were male and the rest of them were female. Most of HT patients lived in Ardabil city (60.8%). The mean age of patients was 22.6 ± 25.9 and most of victims were young. 24.5% of traumatic patients have injuries in severe to critical level (grade 3-4). The most cause of trauma was accidents (41.7%). Most of injuries occurred in night (55.9%) and in summer season (42.2%). Causes were traffic accident in 41.7%. Conclusion. Results showed that the leading cause of head trauma especially in the warm seasons is accidents and so, designing programs to reduce road accidents can dramatically reduce the rate of trauma in the future in Ardabil province. PMID:28255457

  5. The CRASH trial protocol (Corticosteroid randomisation after significant head injury) [ISRCTN74459797

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Background Worldwide, millions of people are treated each year for significant head injury. A substantial proportion die, and many more are disabled. If short term corticosteroid infusion could be reliably shown to reduce these risks by just a few percent then this might affect the treatment of a few hundred thousand patients a year, protecting thousands from death or long term disability. Study design CRASH is a large simple, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of a 48-hour infusion of corticosteroids on death and on neurological disability, among adults with head injury and some impairment of consciousness. Head injured patients with impaired consciousness who are judged to be 16 years or older are eligible if the responsible doctor is, for any reason, substantially uncertain whether or not to use corticosteroids. Organisation The CRASH trial will determine reliably the effects on death and disability of a short corticosteroid infusion following significant head injury. To detect or refute improvements of only a few percent in outcome, many thousands of acute head injury patients must be randomised between control and steroid infusions. Such large numbers will be possible only if hundreds of doctors and nurses can collaborate in the participating emergency departments. Since they are busy, and working in emergency situations, the trial involves them in almost no extra work: no special investigations or changes to usual management are required, and data collection is absolutely minimal. The trial is on-going and new collaborators are welcome. Further information about the trial is available at PMID:11439175

  6. Sustained attention and information processing speed in chronic survivors of severe closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; High, W M; Goldstein, F C; Williams, D H

    1988-01-01

    Sustained attention and information processing speed in 15 long-term survivors of severe closed head injury and 14 demographically matched controls have been examined. The average time between head injury and testing was 3.6 years. The performance of patients on all tasks was impaired relative to controls, thus documenting persistent deficits in attention. Of particular interest was the finding that controls were capable of redirecting and improving their sustained attention during a test session versus the steady decline in patient performance. The findings are discussed within the framework of controlled attentional processes.

  7. Prevention and management of infections associated with combat-related head and neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kyle; Hayes, David K; Blice, Jeffrey P; Hale, Robert G

    2008-03-01

    Maxillofacial injuries constitute 16% of all war-related injuries. This review focuses on data available from military and civilian studies to provide evidence-based recommendations for the modification of infections associated with combat-related injuries to the head and neck. The major emphasis of this review is on the study of subsequent infection, perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis, debridement of devitalized tissue, optimal time to wound closure to achieve a water tight seal, wound irrigation with removal of debris and gross contaminants, fracture fixation, and removal of ocular foreign bodies with intravitreal antibiotics. Further studies are needed in combat-related injuries to the head and neck in military personnel to provide the highest evidence-based medicine recommendations.

  8. Moral decision-making in university students with self-reported mild head injury.

    PubMed

    van Noordt, Stefon; Chiappetta, Katie; Good, Dawn

    2017-10-01

    Converging evidence shows that the prefrontal cortex is involved in moral decision-making. Individuals who have suffered injury to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex are more willing to endorse personal moral transgressions (e.g., make their decisions faster, and have attenuated sympathetic responses to those violations). We examined whether university students who have experienced a mild head injury (MHI), and are asymptomatic, present with a similar pattern of responding to moral dilemmas. Students reporting a history of MHI responded more quickly when making moral choices and exhibited less reticence toward the endorsement of personal moral transgressions than their non-MHI counterparts. Our results are consistent with studies involving persons with more serious, and evident, neuronal injury, and emphasize the important relationship between head injury and moral decision-making.

  9. Traumatic pneumorrachis after isolated closed head injuries: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios F; Singh, Ranjodh; Stefanopoulos, Panagiotis; Petsanas, Adamantios; Hadjigeorgiou, Fivos G; Fountas, Kostas

    2016-12-01

    Pneumorrachis (PR) is characterized by the presence of air within the spinal canal. It can be classified descriptively into internal or intradural and external or epidural. The causes of PR can be divided as iatrogenic, nontraumatic and traumatic. In the present study, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all previous cases of PR after an isolate head injury. Two additional cases were also reported. We concluded, that PR after isolated head injuries is a rare but likely an underdiagnosed entity. It is a marker of severe injury and the majority of such patients have a poor outcome. Although, PR is usually asymptomatic and reabsorbs spontaneously, prompt recognition and management of the underlying cause is essential. Therefore, clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion for serious underlying injury in cases where initial radiological imaging reveals intraspinal air.

  10. [A Case of Transoral Penetrating Head Injury from a Crossbow-Fired Arrow].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoto; Fujita, Yuichi; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Sakagami, Yoshio; Okazaki, Ken; Kida, Kouta

    2017-09-01

    Penetrating head injuries are extremely rare in Japan. The authors describe a case involving a penetrating head injury from an arrow fired from a crossbow. A 52-year-old man who had shot himself transorally in a suicide attempt was admitted to the authors' hospital. On admission, he was conscious and exhibited no neurological deficits. The end of the arrow was visible inside his oral cavity. Computed tomography revealed the arrow had penetrated the right cerebellum and occipital lobe, resulting in a very small hematoma. Digital subtraction angiography revealed no significant vascular injuries. After considering these findings and the nature of the object, the authors decided to remove the arrow from the cranium by pulling it from the patient's oral cavity. To remove the arrow, surgery was performed with several devices, including intraoperative X-ray, endoscopy, and intraoperative angiography. The authors were able to completely remove the arrow, and the patient experienced no new deficits, except mild ataxia and mild dysphasia, and no signs of cerebral infection or cerebrospinal fluid leakage after the surgery. Although most cases of penetrating head injuries require craniotomies, the authors were able to safely remove the foreign object in this case without performing a craniotomy. Because guidelines for the treatment of penetrating head injuries have not been established, the treatment of each case must be modified according to the nature of the foreign object and the findings of preoperative imaging techniques.

  11. The cost-effectiveness of diagnostic management strategies for children with minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M W; Goodacre, S; Stevenson, M D; Pandor, A; Pickering, A

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic management strategies for children with minor head injury and identify an optimal strategy. A probabilistic decision analysis model was developed to estimate the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) accrued by each of six potential management strategies for minor head injury, including a theoretical 'zero option' strategy of discharging all patients home without investigation. The model took a lifetime horizon and the perspective of the National Health Service. The optimal strategy was based on the Children's Head injury Algorithm for the prediction of Important Clinical Events (CHALICE) rule, although the costs and outcomes associated with each strategy were broadly similar. Liberal use of CT scanning based on a high sensitivity decision rule is not only effective but also cost saving, with the CHALICE rule being the optimal strategy, although there is some uncertainty in the results. Incremental changes in the costs and QALYs are very small when all selective CT strategies are compared. The estimated cost of caring for patients with brain injury worsened by delayed treatment is very high compared with the cost of CT scanning. This analysis suggests that all hospitals receiving children with minor head injury should have unrestricted access to CT scanning for use in conjunction with evidence-based guidelines.

  12. Predicting severe head injury after light motor vehicle crashes: implications for automatic crash notification systems.

    PubMed

    Talmor, Daniel; Thompson, Kimberly M; Legedza, Anna T R; Nirula, Ram

    2006-07-01

    <