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Sample records for experimental pelas favas

  1. Effects of cultivar and culture conditions on gamma-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinated fava beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Bai, Qingyun; Jin, Xinjiang; Wen, Huanbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2010-01-15

    High levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulate in plant tissues under various stresses. GABA accumulation is also influenced by cultivar. This aim of this study was to select the most promising cultivar of fava bean for GABA accumulation and to optimise the culture conditions for GABA production in germinated fava beans by response surface methodology based on central composite design (CCD). GABA content and glutamate decarboxylase activity in germinated seeds of cultivar S2 were significantly higher than those in other cultivars (P < 0.05). A significant negative correlation (r = -0.765, P < 0.05) between germination percentage and 1000-kernel weight was observed. There was a linear relationship between GABA content and sprout length (R(2) = 0.816). The regression model fitted to the experimental data of CCD was valid in predicting GABA production in germinated fava beans. Temperature and pH value of the culture solution had significant effects on GABA content in germinated fava beans. Under optimal culture conditions (33.6 degrees C, pH 3.19 and an air flow rate of 1.19 L min(-1)), GABA content reached up to 2.41 g kg(-1) dry weight, about 48 times that in raw seeds. Germinated fava bean is a good resource of GABA-rich food. Both cultivar and culture conditions have significant effects on GABA production. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Chemical analysis and hemolytic activity of the fava bean aglycon divicine.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Schey, K L; Meier, G P; Jollow, D J

    1993-01-01

    Divicine is an unstable aglycon metabolite of the fava bean pyrimidine beta-glucoside vicine. Divicine has long been thought to be a mediator of an acute hemolytic crisis, known as favism, in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans (Vicia faba). However, a recent report has questioned the chemical identity of the divicine that was used in most of the studies on divicine hemotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the hemolytic potential of synthetic divicine. Divicine was synthesized and its identity and purity were confirmed by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The stability and redox behavior of divicine, under physiological conditions, were examined by HPLC and cyclic voltammetry. The data indicate that divicine is readily oxidized under aerobic conditions; however, it was sufficiently stable at pH 7.4 to permit its experimental manipulation. When 51Cr-labeled rat erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to the parent glucoside, vicine (5 mM), and then readministered to rats, no decrease in erythrocyte survival was observed. In contrast, erythrocyte survival was dramatically reduced by in vitro exposure to divicine (1.5 mM). These data demonstrate that divicine is a direct-acting hemolytic agent and thus may be a mediator of the hemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Hemagglutination by fava bean extract inhibited by simple sugars.

    PubMed

    Perera, C B; Frumin, A M

    1966-02-18

    Hemagglutination by extract of fava bean was inhibited by 5-percent d-glucose, d-fructose, or maltose, but not by 5-percent d-galactose or lactose. Failure to inhibit seems to reflect the presence of a hydroxyl group at the carbon No. 4 position. Hemagglutination was enhanced by dextran of high molecular weight, but not by dextran of low molecular weight. The finding supports the hypothesis that large molecular size explains the enhancement by gum acacia of hemagglutination by fava bean.

  5. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Favism. Acute hemolysis after intake of fava beans].

    PubMed

    Holm, B; Jensenius, M

    1998-01-30

    Acute haemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase deficiency is a common disorder in American and African Blacks, in Mediterranean people and among Orientals. The erythrocytes in affected individuals have insufficient reducing power against toxic peroxydes and free radicals generated during metabolism. Normally, affected individuals are without signs of disease, but under the influence of oxydants severe intravascular haemolysis may occur. One of the most important oxydants is the fava bean which, when ingested, may cause acute favism, a condition which has a 10% mortality if not treated properly. We describe a 35 year-old man from Iraq who developed serious haemolytic anemia with a fall in haemoglobin to 6.5 g/100 ml three days after ingestion of fava beans. He was treated with intravenous fluids and blood transfusions. He recovered and was discharged from hospital after nine days. This is the first described case of favism in Norway.

  7. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  8. Serum lipoprotein pattern as modified in G6PD-deficient children during haemolytic anaemia induced by fava bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Dessì, S; Batetta, B; Spano, O; Pulisci, D; Mulas, M F; Muntoni, S; Armeni, M; Sanna, C; Antonucci, R; Pani, P

    1992-04-01

    In the present study, plasma lipid concentrations were determined at different times after admission in sera from G6PD-deficient children during haemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion. Reductions in total, LDL and HDL cholesterol were found in association with the maximum of bone marrow hyperplasia. A return towards normal values occurred with regression of the disease. No changes in other lipid parameters were observed. These data suggest that alterations of lipoprotein pattern, other than in experimental animals, are also present in humans with non-malignant proliferative processes. These changes appear to be a consequence of the disease, probably due to an increased utilization of cholesterol by proliferating cells.

  9. Development and characterization of 21 EST-derived microsatellite markers in Vicia faba (fava bean).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu; Yang, Tao; Guan, Jianping; Wang, Shumin; Wang, Haifei; Sun, Xuelian; Zong, Xuxiao

    2011-02-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed in Vicia faba L. by screening the NCBI database. Markers were validated and explored for size polymorphism among fava bean accessions. Twenty-one EST-SSR primer pairs were identified, and the loci characterized were size polymorphic among 32 fava bean genotypes from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles (N(a)) per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) ranged from 0.0476 to 0.8304, respectively. These markers will be useful to study genetic diversity, genetic mapping, and molecular breeding in fava bean.

  10. Cryoablation in fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA): a minimally invasive treatment option.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Raja; Alomari, Ahmad I; Kerr, Cindy L; Miller, Patricia; Spencer, Samantha A

    2016-07-01

    Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA) is a complex vascular malformation that typically presents with persistent pain, discomfort, contracture and other disabling symptoms. There are no minimally invasive treatment options to effectively control these symptoms. Image-guided percutaneous cryoablation, which has been used to control pain in people with cancer, could be used for similar indications in FAVA. To assess the role of image-guided percutaneous cryoablation for control of symptoms in FAVA lesions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 20 children and young adults with FAVA who underwent percutaneous cryoablation at 26 sites, from September 2013 to August 2015. The outcome was based on the brief pain inventory scoring (BPI), concurrent symptoms, clinical response and patient satisfaction. After cryoablation there was significant improvement in pain, which dropped by 3 points (pain now) to 3.7 points (pain in the last 24 h). Most patients indicated that pain interfered less in their everyday social life. Concurrent symptoms like swelling, physical limitations and skin hyperesthesia also improved. Clinical response was greatest at 2-5 months follow-up after cryoablation, with acceptable patient satisfaction thereafter. Technical response was 100%. There were no major complications. Image-guided percutaneous cryoablation is a safe and effective option for treatment of symptomatic FAVA lesions.

  11. Serum lipoprotein pattern as modified in G6PD-deficient children during haemolytic anaemia induced by fava bean ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Dessì, S.; Batetta, B.; Spano, O.; Pulisci, D.; Mulas, M. F.; Muntoni, S.; Armeni, M.; Sanna, C.; Antonucci, R.; Pani, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, plasma lipid concentrations were determined at different times after admission in sera from G6PD-deficient children during haemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion. Reductions in total, LDL and HDL cholesterol were found in association with the maximum of bone marrow hyperplasia. A return towards normal values occurred with regression of the disease. No changes in other lipid parameters were observed. These data suggest that alterations of lipoprotein pattern, other than in experimental animals, are also present in humans with non-malignant proliferative processes. These changes appear to be a consequence of the disease, probably due to an increased utilization of cholesterol by proliferating cells. PMID:1571275

  12. Glutamate functions in stomatal closure in Arabidopsis and fava bean.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Riichiro; Mori, Izumi C; Kamizono, Nobuto; Shichiri, Yudai; Shimatani, Tetsuo; Miyata, Fumika; Honda, Kenji; Iwai, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells are indispensable for higher plants because they control gas exchange and water balance to maintain photosynthetic activity. The signaling processes that govern their movement are controlled by several factors, such as abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and carbon dioxide. Herein, we demonstrated that the amino acid glutamate (Glu), a well-known mammalian neurotransmitter, functions as a novel signaling molecule in stomatal closure in both Arabidopsis and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). Pharmacological and electrophysiological analyses provided important clues for the participation of Glu-receptors, Ca(2+), and protein phosphorylation during the signaling process. Genetic analyses using Arabidopsis ABA-deficient (aba2-1) and ABA-insensitive (abi1-1 and abi2-1) mutants showed that ABA is not required for Glu signaling. However, loss-of-function of the Arabidopsis gene encoding Slow Anion Channel-Associated 1 (SLAC1) and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 6 (CPK6) impaired the Glu response. Moreover, T-DNA knockout mutations of the Arabidopsis Glu receptor-like gene (GLR), GLR3.5, lost their sensitivity to Glu-dependent stomatal closure. Our results strongly support functional Glu-signaling in stomatal closure and the crucial roles of GLRs in this signaling process.

  13. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved.

  14. Development and characterization of 20 novel polymorphic STS markers in Vicia faba (fava bean).

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifei; Yang, Tao; Guan, Jianping; Ma, Yu; Sun, Xuelian; Zong, Xuxiao

    2011-07-01

    Sequence tagged site (STS) primers were developed for Vicia faba, based on amplified bands by ISSR primers. The usefulness of these STS markers was validated for size polymorphism among fava bean accessions. Based on the sequences derived from intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification, 66 sequence tagged site (STS) primer pairs were developed and screened, and 20 of them were polymorphic. The polymorphism of these markers was identified in 32 fava bean germplasm from different global geographical locations. Alleles (N(a)) per locus numbered 2 to 4, and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.714. There was significant variation in H(E) among germplasm from different regions for individual primers. These novel polymorphic STS markers may be useful and convenient for further studies of population genetics, cultivar identification, and evolution in fava bean.

  15. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-05-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect. The objective was to determine the relation between dietary fava beans, plasma and urinary catechols, and urinary sodium excretion in 13 healthy volunteers. Catechol and sodium data were compared by using a longitudinal design in which all participants consumed a fixed-sodium study diet on day 1 and the fixed-sodium diet plus fava beans on day 2. Blood was sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a meal, and 3 consecutive 4-h urine samples were collected. Mean (±SD) plasma dopa was significantly greater 1 h after fava bean consumption (11,670 ± 5440 compared with 1705 ± 530 pg/mL; P = 0.001) and remained elevated at 6 h. Plasma dopamine increased nearly 15-fold during this period. Fava bean consumption also increased urinary dopamine excretion to 306 ± 116, 360 ± 235, and 159 ± 111 μg/4-h urine sample compared with 45 ± 21, 54 ± 29, and 44 ± 17 μg in the 3 consecutive 4-h samples after the control diet (P ≤ 0.005). These substantial increases in plasma and urinary dopa and dopamine were unexpectedly associated with decreased urinary sodium. The failure of fava bean consumption to provoke natriuresis may indicate that dopa concentrations in commercially available beans do not raise renal dopamine sufficiently to stimulate sodium excretion, at least when beans are added to a moderate-sodium diet in healthy volunteers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064739.

  16. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect. Objective: The objective was to determine the relation between dietary fava beans, plasma and urinary catechols, and urinary sodium excretion in 13 healthy volunteers. Design: Catechol and sodium data were compared by using a longitudinal design in which all participants consumed a fixed-sodium study diet on day 1 and the fixed-sodium diet plus fava beans on day 2. Blood was sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a meal, and 3 consecutive 4-h urine samples were collected. Results: Mean (±SD) plasma dopa was significantly greater 1 h after fava bean consumption (11,670 ± 5440 compared with 1705 ± 530 pg/mL; P = 0.001) and remained elevated at 6 h. Plasma dopamine increased nearly 15-fold during this period. Fava bean consumption also increased urinary dopamine excretion to 306 ± 116, 360 ± 235, and 159 ± 111 μg/4-h urine sample compared with 45 ± 21, 54 ± 29, and 44 ± 17 μg in the 3 consecutive 4-h samples after the control diet (P ≤ 0.005). These substantial increases in plasma and urinary dopa and dopamine were unexpectedly associated with decreased urinary sodium. Conclusion: The failure of fava bean consumption to provoke natriuresis may indicate that dopa concentrations in commercially available beans do not raise renal dopamine sufficiently to stimulate sodium excretion, at least when beans are added to a moderate-sodium diet in healthy volunteers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064739. PMID:23553159

  17. Case of neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome precipitated by abrupt fava bean discontinuance.

    PubMed

    Ladha, Shafeeq S; Walker, Russell; Shill, Holly A

    2005-05-01

    Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome (NMLS) is well described in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The syndrome is characterized by fever, rigidity, autonomic instability, elevated creatine phosphokinase levels, and altered level of consciousness, which is usually precipitated by levodopa withdrawal. In recent years, patients have used fava beans to treat Parkinson's symptoms, because the beans contain appreciable amounts of levodopa and have been thought to be a safe adjunctive therapy. We describe a case of NMLS, which was precipitated by the abrupt cessation of fava bean ingestion. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch.

    PubMed

    Escobar, M C; Van Tassell, M L; Martínez-Bustos, F; Singh, M; Castaño-Tostado, E; Amaya-Llano, S L; Miller, M J

    2012-06-01

    Of 20 Lactobacillus and 8 Bifidobacterium species examined, only Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 was able to ferment starch from fava beans. Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh-style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) were manufactured with 3 combinations of probiotics: L. rhamnosus GG only, B. breve only, or both L. rhamnosus GG and B. breve. During 4 wk of storage at 4°C, the addition of fava bean starch to the cheese was not found to cause significant differences in the viability of either probiotic strain. However, the microstructure and texture of Panela cheese were altered, resulting in a much softer product. A sensory panel showed that the presence of added fava bean starch in Panela cheese was less desirable to consumers, whereas probiotic supplementation had no effect on perceived taste or appearance. Panela cheese could be a suitable food for inclusion of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exopolysaccharides Production during the Fermentation of Soybean and Fava Bean Flours by Leuconostoc mesenteroides DSM 20343.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Coda, Rossana; Shi, Qiao; Tuomainen, Päivi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija

    2017-04-05

    Consumption of legumes is highly recommended due to their beneficial properties. Thus, there is a great interest in developing new legume-based products with good texture. In situ produced microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are regarded as efficient texture modifiers in the food industry. In this study, soybean and fava bean flours with different levels of added sucrose were fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides DSM 20343. After fermentation, a significant increase in viscosity was observed. Sugars, glucans, fructans, mannitol, lactic acid, and acetic acid were quantified to follow the EPS and metabolite production. By treating the fermented doughs selectively with dextranase or levanase, the major role of glucans in viscosity improvement was confirmed. The roles of microbial fructansucrase and endogenous α-galactosidase in degradation of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) were also investigated. This study shows the potential of Ln. mesenteroides DSM 20343 in tailoring viscosity and RFO profiles in soybean and fava bean flours.

  20. G6PD deficiency and fava bean consumption do not produce hemolysis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitayaporn, D; Charoenlarp, P; Pattaraarechachai, J; Pholpoti, T

    1991-06-01

    Favism, a hemolytic condition associated with fava bean consumption among the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient persons, is well described in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. However, it is not well documented among the Thais or other Southeast Asians. It is possible that it does exist but that hemolysis which develops is of very minor degree and thus escapes clinical detection. This cross-sectional study hypothesizes that if the fava bean and G6PD deficiency interact in the Thai population, they should cause a significant difference in hematocrit level. The study was carried out in a community hospital in a malaria endemic area. We found that there was a trivial difference of the hematocrit (approximately 1%) which was too small to warrant any clinical significance after controlling for the extraneous effects of age, sex, use of malaria chemoprophylaxis, falciparum infection, use of analgesics/antipyretics and admission status of the patients (p = 0.668). This may be due to the presence of different G6PD mutants to those found elsewhere or due to different consumption patterns of fava beans among the Thais compared to people in other areas with high prevalence of G6PD deficiency.

  1. Searching for Variability in the Gamma-ray Sky using the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Daniel; Buehler, Rolf; Ajello, Marco; Giomi, Matteo; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the second Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA) catalog, consisting of a search for week long variability above 100 MeV using the new Pass 8 data selection. The catalog includes over 2000 flares, spanning 6 years of the Fermi mission, with hundreds of flares that are not associated with any known catalog source. FAVA was designed to efficiently search for variable sources over a wide range of energies and timescales. Unlike a traditional likelihood analysis, the analysis performed by FAVA uses the mission averaged emission as a background, and is as such independent of any model for the diffuse gamma-ray emission. This makes the FAVA analysis especially sensitive to variable sources in the Galactic plane. This analysis is also computationally inexpensive, allowing for blind searches for flux variations over the entire sky. We will present some of the interesting flares identified through this analysis, and highlight those that are typically missed through traditional analysis methods. We will also present the new public FAVA webpage, which is designed to alert the community of new gamma-ray flares in real time and allow users to create relative flux light curves for any position on the sky; a task that is currently computationally intensive to perform over long intervals using traditional analysis tools.

  2. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses of unknown analytical response in imported Fava beans: 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole.

    PubMed

    Petzinger, G; Barry, T L; Roach, J A; Musser, S M; Sphon, J

    1995-01-01

    A halogenated unidentified analytical response (UAR) was encountered in a number of imported Fava bean samples during the Food and Drug Administration's routine pesticide-monitoring program. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses identified the halogenated component as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole, a naturally occurring promutagen in Fava beans that has been linked to incidents of gastric cancer. Data from electron impact, positive and negative chemical ionization, collision-induced dissociation, and deuteration studies of this compound are presented, along with GC retention time data.

  3. In situ synthesis of exopolysaccharides by Leuconostoc spp. and Weissella spp. and their rheological impacts in fava bean flour.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yaqin; Coda, Rossana; Säde, Elina; Tuomainen, Päivi; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2017-05-02

    Fava bean flour is regarded as a potential plant-based protein source, but the addition of it at high concentration is restricted by its poor texture-improving ability and by anti-nutritional factors (ANF). Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are regarded as good texture modifiers. In this study, fava bean flour was fermented with Leuconostoc spp. and Weissella spp. with or without sucrose addition, in order to evaluate their potential in EPS production. The contents of free sugars, organic acids, mannitol and EPS in all fermented fava bean doughs were measured. Rheological properties of sucrose-enriched doughs, including viscosity flow curves, hysteresis loop and dynamic oscillatory sweep curves, were measured after fermentation. As one of the ANF, the degradation of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) was also studied by analyzing RFO profiles of different doughs. Quantification of EPS revealed the potential of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 in EPS production, and the rheological analysis showed that the polymers produced by this strain has the highest thickening and gelling capability. Furthermore, the viscous fava bean doughs containing plant proteins and synthesized in situ EPS may have a potential application in the food industry and fulfill consumers' increasing demands for "clean labels" and plant-originated food materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Haemoglobin-E in the presence of oxidative substances from fava bean may be protective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Kitayaporn, D; Nelson, K E; Charoenlarp, P; Pholpothi, T

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out at a community hospital in eastern Thailand in order to study the association between haemoglobin E and Plasmodium falciparum malaria; 271 P. falciparum cases and 271 controls were enrolled. After adjusting for age, sex, time since last malaria attack, history of mosquito net use, and history of fava bean consumption in the previous month, neither heterozygous nor homozygous haemoglobin E provided significant protection against P. falciparum infection, with odds ratios (OR) = 0.91 (95% confidence limits = 0.61, 1.36) and 0.78 (0.34, 1.82) respectively when compared to persons with haemoglobin A who were not consumers of fava beans. However, haemoglobin E carriers who ate fava beans were significantly protected against P. falciparum malaria with OR = 0.26 (0.09, 0.76) and OR = 0.001 (0.00, 1120.59) for subjects with heterozygous and homozygous haemoglobin E, respectively. The study suggests a possible synergistic protective effect of haemoglobin E on the risk of P. falciparum malaria in subjects who have consumed fava beans.

  5. Purification of diamine oxidase and its properties in germinated fava bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2012-06-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid with bioactive functions for human health. Diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) is one of the key enzymes for GABA formation. In the present study, this enzyme was purified from 5 day germinated fava bean and its properties were investigated in vitro. The molecular mass of the enzyme estimated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was 121 kDa. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) displayed a single band at a molecular mass of 52 kDa. The enzyme had optimal activity at 40 °C and retained its activity after being incubated at 30 °C for 30 min. It showed higher activity at pH 6.5 than at other pH values. The enzyme was significantly inhibited by Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), aminoguanidine, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na(2)), L-cysteine and β-mercaptoethanol. The K(m) value of DAO was 0.23 mmol L(-1) for putrescine and 0.96 mmol L(-1) for spermidine. However, the enzyme did not degrade spermine. DAO from germinated fava bean was purified. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of the enzyme were mild. The enzyme had higher affinity to putrescine than to spermidine and spermine. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Levodopa and Carbidopa from Fava Bean, Green Peas and Green Beans by High Performance Liquid Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mehran S.M., Mohseni; B., Golshani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson’s disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. Material and Methods: The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson’s disease. Result: We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects. PMID:23905090

  8. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Du, Guankui; Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  9. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans. PMID:26981882

  10. Rare earth elements minimal harvest year variation facilitates robust geographical origin discrimination: The case of PDO "Fava Santorinis".

    PubMed

    Drivelos, Spiros A; Danezis, Georgios P; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2016-12-15

    This study examines the trace and rare earth elemental (REE) fingerprint variations of PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) "Fava Santorinis" over three consecutive harvesting years (2011-2013). Classification of samples in harvesting years was studied by performing discriminant analysis (DA), k nearest neighbours (κ-NN), partial least squares (PLS) analysis and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) using rare earth elements and trace metals determined using ICP-MS. DA performed better than κ-NN, producing 100% discrimination using trace elements and 79% using REEs. PLS was found to be superior to PNN, achieving 99% and 90% classification for trace and REEs, respectively, while PNN achieved 96% and 71% classification for trace and REEs, respectively. The information obtained using REEs did not enhance classification, indicating that REEs vary minimally per harvesting year, providing robust geographical origin discrimination. The results show that seasonal patterns can occur in the elemental composition of "Fava Santorinis", probably reflecting seasonality of climate.

  11. Do favic patients resume fava beans ingestion later in their life, a study for this, and a new hypothesis for favism etiology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salah Noori

    2013-03-01

    The etiology of favism remains unclear and the fate of favic patients has not previously been studied. Therefore, individuals who had experienced an episode of favism were studied regarding subsequent fava bean ingestion, including the reason for fava bean ingestion after the initial favic attack and any adverse reactions. In addition, a new hypothesis for the etiology of favism is proposed. From June 2005 to June 2012, a total of 38 patients with a history of favism were included in this study. Circumstances regarding the initial favic attack were obtained from medical records and patient interviews, and subsequent fava bean ingestion and recurrence of symptoms were investigated. Three of the 38 patients (7.9%) were female, and 35 (92.1%) were male. The mean age was 27.9 years (14-63 years). The first attack of favism occurred before 10 years of age for 31 patients (81.6%) and in the springtime for 35 patients (92.1%). Thirty-three patients (86.7%) regularly ate fava beans before the attack, and 35 (92.1%) resumed eating fava beans within 1-17 years after the attack without symptoms. Two patients (5.2%) experienced a single recurrence of symptoms. No evidence of hemolysis was found in the four patients checked after fava bean re-ingestion. Patients resumed eating fava bean for various reasons, and the recurrence of symptoms was uncommon. An infectious agent such as a virus may play a role in the development of favism. Copyright © 2013 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  13. New fava bean guard cell signaling mutant impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sumio; Shimomura, Naoki; Nakashima, Atsushi; Etoh, Takeomi

    2003-09-01

    We isolated a mutant from Vicia faba L. cv. House Ryousai. It wilts easily under strong light and high temperature conditions, suggesting that its stomatal movement may be disturbed. We determined responses of mutant guard cells to some environmental stimuli. Mutant guard cells demonstrated an impaired ability to respond to ABA in 0.1 mM CaCl(2) and stomata did not close in the presence of up to 1 mM ABA, whereas wild-type stomata closed when exposed to 10 micro M ABA. Elevating external Ca(2+) caused a similar degree of stomatal closure in the wild type and the mutant. A high concentration of CO(2) (700 micro l liter(-1)) induced stomatal closure in the wild type, but not in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose the working hypothesis that the mutation occurs in the region downstream of CO(2) and ABA sensing and in the region upstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The mutant is named fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure).

  14. Cytosolic Concentration of Ca2+ Regulates the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, T.; Nishimura, M.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1995-01-01

    Opening of the stomata is driven by the light-activated plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase, although the activation and inactivation mechanism of the enzyme is not known. In this study, we show that the H+-ATPase in guard cells is reversibly inhibited by Ca2+ at physiological concentrations. Isolated microsomal membranes of guard cell protoplasts from fava bean exhibited vanadate-sensitive, ATP-dependent proton pumping. The activity was inhibited almost completely by 1 [mu]M Ca2+ with a half-inhibitory concentration at 0.3 [mu]M and was restored immediately by the addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, a calcium chelating reagent. Similar reversible inhibition by Ca2+ was shown by the generation of electrical potential in the membranes. Activity of ATP hydrolysis was inhibited similarly by Ca2+ in the same membrane preparations. The addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid and EGTA, Ca2+ chelators, to epidermal peels of fava bean induced stomatal opening in the dark, and the opening was suppressed by vanadate. This suggests that the lowered cytosolic Ca2+ activated the proton pump in vivo and that the activated pump elicited stomatal opening. Inhibition of H+-ATPase by Ca2+ may depolarize the membrane potential and could be a key step in the process of stomatal closing through activation of the anion channels. Furthermore, similar inhibition of the proton pumping and ATP hydrolysis by Ca2+ was found in isolated plasma membranes of mesophyll cells of fava bean. These results suggest that Ca2+ regulates the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases in higher plant cells, thereby modulating stomatal movement and other cellular processes in plants. PMID:12242406

  15. Cytosolic Concentration of Ca2+ Regulates the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, T.; Nishimura, M.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1995-08-01

    Opening of the stomata is driven by the light-activated plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase, although the activation and inactivation mechanism of the enzyme is not known. In this study, we show that the H+-ATPase in guard cells is reversibly inhibited by Ca2+ at physiological concentrations. Isolated microsomal membranes of guard cell protoplasts from fava bean exhibited vanadate-sensitive, ATP-dependent proton pumping. The activity was inhibited almost completely by 1 [mu]M Ca2+ with a half-inhibitory concentration at 0.3 [mu]M and was restored immediately by the addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, a calcium chelating reagent. Similar reversible inhibition by Ca2+ was shown by the generation of electrical potential in the membranes. Activity of ATP hydrolysis was inhibited similarly by Ca2+ in the same membrane preparations. The addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid and EGTA, Ca2+ chelators, to epidermal peels of fava bean induced stomatal opening in the dark, and the opening was suppressed by vanadate. This suggests that the lowered cytosolic Ca2+ activated the proton pump in vivo and that the activated pump elicited stomatal opening. Inhibition of H+-ATPase by Ca2+ may depolarize the membrane potential and could be a key step in the process of stomatal closing through activation of the anion channels. Furthermore, similar inhibition of the proton pumping and ATP hydrolysis by Ca2+ was found in isolated plasma membranes of mesophyll cells of fava bean. These results suggest that Ca2+ regulates the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases in higher plant cells, thereby modulating stomatal movement and other cellular processes in plants.

  16. Effects of ABA and CaCl₂ on GABA accumulation in fava bean germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Hui, Qianru; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and CaCl2 on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation of germinated fava bean under hypoxia-NaCl stress were investigated. Exogenous ABA resulted in the enhancement of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. CaCl2 increased both enzyme activities in shoot and GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. ABA downregulated GAD expression in cotyledon and radicle, while upregulated that in shoot; it also upregulated DAO expression in each organ. CaCl2 upregulated GAD expression in cotyledon, while downregulated that in radicle. However, it upregulated DAO expression in shoot, downregulated that in radicle. ABA inhibitor fluridon and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited GAD and DAO activities significantly so that inhibited GABA accumulation through reducing ABA biosynthesis and chelating Ca(2+), respectively. However, they upregulated GAD and DAO expression in varying degrees. These results indicate that ABA and Ca(2+) participate in GABA biosynthesis in fava bean during germination under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

  17. An Abscisic Acid-Activated and Calcium-Independent Protein Kinase from Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J.; Assmann, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of stomatal aperture is known to involve both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent signal transduction pathways. Electrophysiological studies suggest that protein phosphorylation is involved in ABA action in guard cells. Using biochemical approaches, we identified an ABA-activated and Ca2+- independent protein kinase (AAPK) from guard cell protoplasts of fava bean. Autophosphorylation of AAPK was rapidly (~1 min) activated by ABA in a Ca2+- independent manner. ABA-activated autophosphorylation of AAPK occurred on serine but not on tyrosine residues and appeared to be guard cell specific. AAPK phosphorylated histone type III-S on serine and threonine residues, and its activity toward histone type III-S was markedly stimulated in ABA-treated guard cell protoplasts. Our results suggest that AAPK may play an important role in the Ca2+-independent ABA signaling pathways of guard cells. PMID:12239380

  18. An Abscisic Acid-Activated and Calcium-Independent Protein Kinase from Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed

    Li, J.; Assmann, S. M.

    1996-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of stomatal aperture is known to involve both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent signal transduction pathways. Electrophysiological studies suggest that protein phosphorylation is involved in ABA action in guard cells. Using biochemical approaches, we identified an ABA-activated and Ca2+- independent protein kinase (AAPK) from guard cell protoplasts of fava bean. Autophosphorylation of AAPK was rapidly (~1 min) activated by ABA in a Ca2+- independent manner. ABA-activated autophosphorylation of AAPK occurred on serine but not on tyrosine residues and appeared to be guard cell specific. AAPK phosphorylated histone type III-S on serine and threonine residues, and its activity toward histone type III-S was markedly stimulated in ABA-treated guard cell protoplasts. Our results suggest that AAPK may play an important role in the Ca2+-independent ABA signaling pathways of guard cells.

  19. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Resistance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency to malaria: effects of fava bean hydroxypyrimidine glucosides on Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture and on the phagocytosis of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, H; Atamna, H; Shalmiev, G; Kanaani, J; Krugliak, M

    1996-07-01

    The balanced polymorphism of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD-) is believed to have evolved through the selective pressure of malarial combined with consumption of fava beans. The implicated fava bean constituents are the hydroxypyrimidine glucosides vicine and convicine, which upon hydrolysis of their beta-O-glucosidic bond, became protein pro-oxidants. In this work we show that the glucosides inhibit the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, increase the hexose-monophosphate shunt activity and the phagocytosis of malaria-infected erythrocytes. These activities are exacerbated in the presence of beta-glucosidase, implicating their pro-oxidant aglycones in the toxic effect, and are more pronounced in infected G6PD- erythrocytes. These results suggest that G6PD- infected erythrocytes are more susceptible to phagocytic cells, and that fava bean pro-oxidants are more efficiently suppressing parasite propagation in G6PD- erythrocytes, either by directly affecting parasite growth, or by means of enhanced phagocytic elimination of infected cells. The present findings could account for the relative resistance of G6PD- bearers to falciparum malaria, and establish a link between dietary habits and malaria in the selection of the G6PD- genotype.

  1. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH

    PubMed Central

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-01-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4–10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

  2. Sequence analysis of diamine oxidase gene from fava bean and its expression related to γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in seeds germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Yin, Yongqi; Guo, Liping; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-06-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized via the polyamine degradation pathway in plants, with diamine oxidase (DAO) being the key enzyme. In this study the cDNA of DAO in fava bean was cloned and its expression in seeds germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress was investigated. Fava bean DAO cDNA is 2199 bp long and contains 2025 bp of open reading frame that encodes 675 amino acid peptides with a calculated molecular weight of 76.31 kDa and a pI of 5.41. Hypoxia and hypoxia-NaCl stress enhanced DAO activity and resulted in GABA accumulation in germinating fava bean. However, DAO gene expression was down-regulated under hypoxia compared with non-stress condition, while its expression in the cotyledon and shoot was up-regulated under hypoxia-NaCl. In addition, DAO expression could be promoted to enhance GABA accumulation after increasing the stress intensity using NaCl. DAO gene expression was significantly inhibited by aminoguanidine treatment under hypoxia but increased under hypoxia-NaCl. Under hypoxia, GABA accumulation due to NaCl was mainly concentrated in the cotyledon. The GABA content increase under hypoxia did not result from DAO gene expression, but DAO existing in seeds was activated under hypoxia. DAO gene expression was up-regulated to enhance GABA accumulation after increasing the stress intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  4. Inhibitory effect of a fava bean component on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Golenser, J; Miller, J; Spira, D T; Navok, T; Chevion, M

    1983-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that G-6-PD deficiency associated with fava bean ingestion confers resistance to malaria by studying the in vitro interactions between malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum), human erythrocytes with varying degrees of G-6-PD deficiency, and isouramil (IU), a fava bean extract that is known to cause oxidant stress and hemolysis of G-6-PD-deficient erythrocytes. Untreated G-6-PD-deficient and normal erythrocytes supported the in vitro growth of P. falciparum equally well. However, after pretreatment with IU, G-6-PD-deficient erythrocytes did not support parasite growth in vitro, whereas growth remained high in normal erythrocytes. Parasite growth was proportional to the G-6-PD activity of the IU-treated erythrocytes. In contrast, when parasitized erythrocytes were exposed to IU, parasites even in normal erythrocytes were destroyed. Ring forms were much less sensitive than late trophozoites and schizonts. The results suggest that there are two modes by which IU affects the development of P. falciparum and demonstrate in vitro that G-6-PD deficiency confers resistance against malaria under conditions of fava-bean-associated oxidant stress.

  5. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-09

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation.

  6. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis.

  7. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening.

  8. Evidence for G-Protein Regulation of Inward K+ Channel Current in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed

    Fairley-Grenot, K.; Assmann, S. M.

    1991-09-01

    Recent reports have shown that GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) are present in plants but have given limited indication as to their site of action. G-proteins in animal cells transduce extracellular signals into intracellular or membrane-mediated events, including the regulation of ion channels. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we provide evidence that a G-protein in guard cells of fava bean regulates the magnitude (and not the kinetics) of inward current through K+-selective ion channels in the plasma membrane. GDP[beta]S (100 to 500 [mu]M) increases inward K+ current, whereas GTP[gamma]S (500 [mu]M) has the opposite effect. The control nucleotides ADP[beta]S and ATP[gamma]S (500 [mu]M) do not affect K+ current. Reduction of inward current by GTP[gamma]S is eliminated in the presence of the Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N[prime],N[prime],-tetraacetic acid) (5 mM). When applied intracellularly, the G-protein regulators, cholera toxin and pertussis toxin, both decrease inward K+ current. The entry of K+ (and anions) into guard cells increases their turgor, opening stomatal pores in the leaf epidermis that allow gas exchange with the environment. Our data suggest the involvement of a G-protein in the inhibition of K+ uptake and stomatal opening. Changes in stomatal aperture, vital to both photosynthesis and plant water status, reflect guard-cell responsiveness to a variety of known environmental signals. The results presented here indicate that, in plants as well as animals, ion channel regulation by environmental stimuli may be mediated by G-proteins.

  9. Evidence for G-Protein Regulation of Inward K+ Channel Current in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed Central

    Fairley-Grenot, K; Assmann, SM

    1991-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) are present in plants but have given limited indication as to their site of action. G-proteins in animal cells transduce extracellular signals into intracellular or membrane-mediated events, including the regulation of ion channels. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we provide evidence that a G-protein in guard cells of fava bean regulates the magnitude (and not the kinetics) of inward current through K+-selective ion channels in the plasma membrane. GDP[beta]S (100 to 500 [mu]M) increases inward K+ current, whereas GTP[gamma]S (500 [mu]M) has the opposite effect. The control nucleotides ADP[beta]S and ATP[gamma]S (500 [mu]M) do not affect K+ current. Reduction of inward current by GTP[gamma]S is eliminated in the presence of the Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N[prime],N[prime],-tetraacetic acid) (5 mM). When applied intracellularly, the G-protein regulators, cholera toxin and pertussis toxin, both decrease inward K+ current. The entry of K+ (and anions) into guard cells increases their turgor, opening stomatal pores in the leaf epidermis that allow gas exchange with the environment. Our data suggest the involvement of a G-protein in the inhibition of K+ uptake and stomatal opening. Changes in stomatal aperture, vital to both photosynthesis and plant water status, reflect guard-cell responsiveness to a variety of known environmental signals. The results presented here indicate that, in plants as well as animals, ion channel regulation by environmental stimuli may be mediated by G-proteins. PMID:12324626

  10. Affinophoresis of pea lectin and fava bean lectin with an anionic affinophore, bearing rho-aminophenyl-alpha-D-mannoside as an affinity ligand.

    PubMed

    Shimura, K; Kasai, K

    1987-07-29

    Affinophoresis is an electrophoretic separation technique for biological polymers with the aid of an affinophore, which is a macromolecular polyelectrolyte bearing affinity ligands. The affinophore migrates rapidly in an electric field, and consequently the electrophoretic mobility of molecules having an affinity for the ligand is specifically changed. An anionic affinophore-bearing mannosyl residue was synthesized for the affinophoresis of lectins. rho-Aminophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and aminomethanesulphonic acid were coupled to about one-tenth and one-fifth, respectively, of the carboxyl groups of succinyl-poly-L-lysine with an average degree of polymerization of 120 by the use of a water-soluble carbodiimide. Extracts of seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) or fava bean (Vicia fava) were subjected to two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, in which the first dimension was ordinary agarose gel electrophoresis and the second dimension was affinophoresis with the affinophore. The separated proteins were stained with Coomassie Blue R250. The lectins in both seed extracts were separated from a diagonal line formed by other proteins in the extracts. About 10 ng of the separated pea lectin was detected on a nitrocellulose blot by immunostaining with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated second antibody.

  11. Data fusion for food authentication. Combining rare earth elements and trace metals to discriminate "Fava Santorinis" from other yellow split peas using chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Drivelos, Spiros A; Higgins, Kevin; Kalivas, John H; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2014-12-15

    "Fava Santorinis", is a protected designation of origin (PDO) yellow split pea species growing only in the island of Santorini in Greece. Due to its nutritional quality and taste, it has gained a high monetary value. Thus, it is prone to adulteration with other yellow split peas. In order to discriminate "Fava Santorinis" from other yellow split peas, four classification methods utilising rare earth elements (REEs) measured through inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are studied. The four classification processes are orthogonal projection analysis (OPA), Mahalanobis distance (MD), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and k nearest neighbours (KNN). Since it is known that trace elements are often useful to determine geographical origin of food products, we further quantitated for trace elements using ICP-MS. Presented in this paper are results using the four classification processes based on the fusion of the REEs data with the trace element data. Overall, the OPA method was found to perform best with up to 100% accuracy using the fused data.

  12. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. A role for sugar transporters during seed development: molecular characterization of a hexose and a sucrose carrier in fava bean seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Sauer, N; Wobus, U

    1997-01-01

    To analyze sugar transport processes during seed development of fava bean, we cloned cDNAs encoding one sucrose and one hexose transporter, designated VfSUT1 and VfSTP1, respectively. sugar uptake activity was confirmed after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene expression was studied in relation to seed development. Transcripts were detected in both vegetative and seed tissues. In the embryo, VfSUT1 and VfSTP1 mRNAs were detected only in epidermal cells, but in a different temporal and spatial pattern. VfSTP1 mRNA accumulates during the midcotyledon stage in epidermal cells covering the mitotically active parenchyma, whereas the VfSUT1 transcript was specific to outer epidermal cells showing transfer cell morphology and covering the storage parenchyma. Transfer cells developed at the contact area of the cotyledonary epidermis and the seed coat, starting first at the early cotyledon stage and subsequently spreading to the abaxial region at the late cotyledon stage. Feeding high concentrations of sugars suppressed both VfSUT1 expression and transfer cell differentiation in vitro, suggesting a control by carbohydrate availability. PMID:9212465

  14. A role for sugar transporters during seed development: molecular characterization of a hexose and a sucrose carrier in fava bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Sauer, N; Wobus, U

    1997-06-01

    To analyze sugar transport processes during seed development of fava bean, we cloned cDNAs encoding one sucrose and one hexose transporter, designated VfSUT1 and VfSTP1, respectively. sugar uptake activity was confirmed after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene expression was studied in relation to seed development. Transcripts were detected in both vegetative and seed tissues. In the embryo, VfSUT1 and VfSTP1 mRNAs were detected only in epidermal cells, but in a different temporal and spatial pattern. VfSTP1 mRNA accumulates during the midcotyledon stage in epidermal cells covering the mitotically active parenchyma, whereas the VfSUT1 transcript was specific to outer epidermal cells showing transfer cell morphology and covering the storage parenchyma. Transfer cells developed at the contact area of the cotyledonary epidermis and the seed coat, starting first at the early cotyledon stage and subsequently spreading to the abaxial region at the late cotyledon stage. Feeding high concentrations of sugars suppressed both VfSUT1 expression and transfer cell differentiation in vitro, suggesting a control by carbohydrate availability.

  15. Increased red cell calcium, decreased calcium adenosine triphosphatase, and altered membrane proteins during fava bean hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (Mediterranean variant) individuals.

    PubMed

    Turrini, F; Naitana, A; Mannuzzu, L; Pescarmona, G; Arese, P

    1985-08-01

    RBCs from four glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient (Mediterranean variant) subjects were studied during fava bean hemolysis. In the density-fractionated RBC calcium level, Ca2+-ATPase activity, reduced glutathione level, and ghost protein pattern were studied. In the bottom fraction, containing most heavily damaged RBCs, calcium level ranged from 143 to 244 mumol/L RBCs (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 17 +/- 5 mumol/L RBCs). The Ca2+-ATPase activity ranged from 0.87 to 1.84 mumol ATP consumed/g Hb/min (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 2.27 +/- 0.4). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of ghosts showed: (1) the presence of high mol wt aggregates (in three cases they were reduced by dithioerythritol; in one case, only partial reduction was possible); (2) the presence of multiple, scattered new bands; and (3) the reduction of band 3. Oxidant-mediated damage to active calcium extrusion, hypothetically associated with increased calcium permeability, may explain the large increase in calcium levels. They, in turn, could activate calcium-dependent protease activity, giving rise to the profound changes in the ghost protein pattern.

  16. Cropping systems affect paddy soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks (in rice-garlic and rice-fava systems) in temperate region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Anqiang; Liu, Jian; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Baokun; Zhai, Limei; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-12-31

    The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils. A six-year field experiment was conducted to clarify the dynamics of SOC and TN stocks in the paddy topsoil (0-20cm) when crop rotation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) -garlic (Allium sativum) (RG) was changed to rice-fava (Vicia faba L.) (RF), and to examine how the dynamics were affected by two N management strategies. The results showed that SOC stocks increased by 24.9% in the no N (control) treatment and by 18.9% in the treatment applied with conventional rate of N (CON), when RG was changed to RF. Correspondingly, TN stocks increased by 8.5% in the control but decreased by 2.6% in the CON. Compared with RG, RF was more conducive to increase the contents of soil microbial biomass C and N. Moreover, changing the cropping system from RG to RF increased the year-round N use efficiency from 21.6% to 34.4% and reduced soil N surplus in the CON treatment from 547kg/ha to 93kg/ha. In conclusion, changes in the cropping system from RG to RF could markedly increase SOC stocks, improve N utilization, reduce soil N surplus, and thus reduce the risk of N loss in the paddy soil. Overall, this study showed the potential of paddy agro-ecological systems to store C and maintain N stocks in the temperate regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of a soluble calmodulin binding protein from fava bean roots: identification of glutamate decarboxylase as a calmodulin-activated enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, V; Snedden, W A; Shelp, B J; Assmann, S M

    1994-01-01

    The identity of a soluble 62-kD Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin binding protein (CaM-BP) from fava bean seedlings was determined. Using 125I-CaM overlay assays, a class of soluble CaM-BPs was detected in extracts of tissues comprising the axis of 1.5-week-old seedlings, excluding the root tip and emergent leaves. The size of these CaM-BPs was not uniform within all parts of the plant; the apparent molecular masses were 62 kD in roots, 60 kD in stems, and 64 kD in nodules. The root 62-kD CaM-BP was purified, and internal microsequence analysis was performed on the protein. A tryptic peptide derived from the CaM-BP consisted of a 13-residue sequence corresponding to a highly conserved region of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of glutamate to form the stress-related metabolite gamma-aminobutyrate. Activity assays of partially purified, desalted, root GAD revealed a 50% stimulation by the addition of 100 microM Ca2+, a 100% stimulation by the addition of 100 microM Ca2+ plus 100 nM CaM, and no appreciable stimulation by CaM in the absence of added Ca2+. The demonstration that plant GAD is a Ca(2+)-CaM-stimulated enzyme provides a model in which stress-linked metabolism is modulated by a Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathway. PMID:7919983

  18. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles1

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhen-Ming; Ward, John M.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    1999-01-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca2+, calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg2+ levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg2+ inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a Ki of approximately 0.23 mm in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg2+ at 1 mm also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg2+, cytosolic Ca2+ at less than 10 μm did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg2+ was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca2+ activated SV currents with a Kd of approximately 227 nm, suggesting a synergistic Mg2+-Ca2+ effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg2+ concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca2+ with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg2+-Ca2+ binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca2+ and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg2+ sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg2+ concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K+ leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening. PMID:10557247

  19. Analysis of a soluble calmodulin binding protein from fava bean roots: identification of glutamate decarboxylase as a calmodulin-activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ling, V; Snedden, W A; Shelp, B J; Assmann, S M

    1994-08-01

    The identity of a soluble 62-kD Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin binding protein (CaM-BP) from fava bean seedlings was determined. Using 125I-CaM overlay assays, a class of soluble CaM-BPs was detected in extracts of tissues comprising the axis of 1.5-week-old seedlings, excluding the root tip and emergent leaves. The size of these CaM-BPs was not uniform within all parts of the plant; the apparent molecular masses were 62 kD in roots, 60 kD in stems, and 64 kD in nodules. The root 62-kD CaM-BP was purified, and internal microsequence analysis was performed on the protein. A tryptic peptide derived from the CaM-BP consisted of a 13-residue sequence corresponding to a highly conserved region of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of glutamate to form the stress-related metabolite gamma-aminobutyrate. Activity assays of partially purified, desalted, root GAD revealed a 50% stimulation by the addition of 100 microM Ca2+, a 100% stimulation by the addition of 100 microM Ca2+ plus 100 nM CaM, and no appreciable stimulation by CaM in the absence of added Ca2+. The demonstration that plant GAD is a Ca(2+)-CaM-stimulated enzyme provides a model in which stress-linked metabolism is modulated by a Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathway.

  20. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated.

  1. Synthesis of high-affinity, hydrophobic monosaccharide derivatives and study of their interaction with concanavalin A, the pea, the lentil, and fava bean lectins.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, D; Osborne, S E; Glick, G D; Goldstein, I J

    1992-12-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) and agglutinins from the pea (PSA), lentil (LCH), and fava bean (VFA) constitute a group of D-mannose/D-glucose binding legume lectins. In addition to their sugar binding specificity, these lectins also contain sites that bind hydrophobic ligands. The present study explores a class of nonpolar binding sites reportedly present adjacent to the carbohydrate binding site in PSA, LCH, and VFA. A series of 2-O- and 3-O-substituted nitrobenzoyl and nitrobenzyl derivatives of methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside were synthesized. Evaluation of their binding to Con A, PSA, LCH, and VFA was carried out by the technique of hapten inhibition of precipitation reaction. The hapten inhibition assay results reveal that the presence of a methyl or methylene group at the O-2 or O-3 position of the sugar is essential for hydrophobic interaction with PSA, LCH, and VFA. The substitution of methyl by nitrobenzyl leads to enhanced binding (1.7-16.7 times for the 2-O-substituted compounds and 7.9-40.5 times for the 3-O-substituted compounds) with the m-nitrobenzyl group contributing to maximum binding. A hydrophobic interaction is also involved between Con A and 2-O-nitrobenzyl derivatives, resulting in enhanced binding, but the corresponding 3-O-isomers bind poorly due probably to steric reasons. These results may be rationalized on the basis of the recently published X-ray data of Con A and VFA. The nitrobenzyl derivatives, after transformation to their azido analogs, have potential applications in the photoaffinity labeling of these lectins.

  2. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  3. 4-Chloro-6-methoxyindole is the precursor of a potent mutagen (4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-hydroxy-1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime) that forms during nitrosation of the fava bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Tannenbaum, S R; Büchi, G; Lee, G C

    1984-10-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) upon treatment with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, form a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, comparable in specific activity to the most potent known mutagens for several strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The precursor of the mutagen was isolated and identified as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole by u.v., i.r., m.s. and n.m.r. The precursor was dechlorinated with NaBH4 and PdCl2 as the catalyst and the product obtained from this reaction was identified as 6-methoxyindole. Since synthetic 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole was not available, structure activity studies were conducted on substituted indoles. Nitrosation of 4-chloroindole closely follows the results for nitrosation of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole. The major product of nitrosation of 4-chloroindole is 4-chloro-2-hydroxy-N1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime. Thus, it appears that the major nitrosation product of 4-chloroindole and of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole is a stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound. This is the first reported case of stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compounds. In the presence of N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDD), the alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound rearranges to an aromatic diazonium ion which couples with the diamine to form an azo dye. Studies on nitrosation kinetics indicate that the nitrosation of indoles are relatively fast reactions. Both the structural and rate studies give strong support to the hypothesis that intragastric nitrosation of fava beans yield the putative gastric carcinogen in the high-risk area in Colombia.

  4. PVO / NGO initiatives, Latin America. Grupo pela VIDDA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    "VIDDA" is a Portuguese acronym representing enhancement, integration, and dignity of people living with HIV/AIDS (PWAs). The groups are composed of people infected with HIV, their friends, relatives, lovers, and anyone who feels that his or her everyday life has been affected by the epidemic. They hope that through solidarity they can respond to the difficult situation facing people who are HIV positive in Brazil. Grupo pela VIDDA seeks to raise the consciousness of the government and the society and force them to take responsibility for the epidemic. Their fundamental objective is to fight for PWAs to have a full range of civil rights. "This is a fight that we have in common with all the Brazilian people who are searching for democracy, the right to work, and access to good health services," states a Grupo pela VIDDA brochure. Through their network they provide accurate and current information, counseling, legal assistance, and sponsor support groups. For more information, please contact Grupo pela VIDDA, Rua General Jardim, 556 CEP 01223-010, Cx Postal 54063, CEP 01296, Sao Paulo SP, tel/fax: +55 11 258 7729; or Rua 7 de Setembro, 48 12 andar CEP 20050-000, tel: +55 21 224 1654, fax: +55 21 294 5602. There are also offices in Curitiba, Goiania, Niteroi, Recife, and Vitoria. full text

  5. Comparison of physicochemical properties of 7S and 11S globulins from pea, fava bean, cowpea, and French bean with those of soybean--French bean 7S globulin exhibits excellent properties.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Aiko; Fukuda, Takako; Zhang, Meili; Motoyama, Shiori; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2008-11-12

    Legume seeds contain 7S and/or 11S globulins as major storage proteins. The amino acid sequences of them from many legumes are similar to each other in the species but different from each other, meaning that some of these proteins from some crops exhibit excellent functional properties. To demonstrate this, we compared protein chemical and functional properties (thermal stability, surface hydrophobicity, solubility as a function of pH, and emulsifying properties) of these proteins from pea, fava bean, cowpea, and French bean with those of soybean as a control at the same conditions. The comparison clearly indicated that the 7S globulin of French bean exhibited excellent solubility (100%) at pH 4.2-7.0 even at a low ionic strength condition (mu = 0.08) and excellent emulsion stability (a little phase separation after 3 days) at pH 7.6 and mu = 0.08, although the emulsions from most of the other proteins separated in 1 h. These results indicate that our assumption is correct.

  6. Effects of sequentially released BMP-2 and BMP-7 from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds on the bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xialin; Yi, Weihong; Jin, Anmin; Duan, Yang; Min, Shaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are helpful for the therapy of large bone defects and provide an alternative to autogenous bone and allografts. Recently, multiple growth factors are delivered to mimic the natural process of bone healing in the bone tissue engineering. Herein, we investigated the effects of sequential released bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) from polylactide-poly (ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PELA) microcapsule-based scaffolds on the bone regeneration. Through improving the double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, BMP-7 was encapsulated in PELA microcapsules, to the surface of which BMP-2 was attached. Then, the scaffold (BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7) was fused by these microcapsules with dichloromethane vapor method. In vitro, it sequentially delivered bioactive BMP-2 and BMP-7 and partially imitated the profile of BMPs expression during the fracture healing. To determine the bioactivity of released BMP-2 and BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was analyzed in MC3T3-E1 cells. When compared with simple BMP-2 plus BMP-7group and pure PELA group, the AKP activity in BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7 group significantly increased. MTT assay indicated the BMP-loaded PELA scaffold had no adverse effects on cell activity. In addition, the effects of BMP-loaded scaffolds were also investigated in a rat femoral defect model by micro-computed tomographic (mCT) and histological examination. At 4 and 8 weeks post-implantation, BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7 significantly promoted osteogenesis as compared to other groups. The scaffold underwent gradual degradation and replacement by new bones at 8 weeks. Our findings suggest that the sequential release of BMP-2 and BMP-7from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds is promising for the therapy of bone defects. PMID:26396672

  7. Effects of sequentially released BMP-2 and BMP-7 from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds on the bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xialin; Yi, Weihong; Jin, Anmin; Duan, Yang; Min, Shaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are helpful for the therapy of large bone defects and provide an alternative to autogenous bone and allografts. Recently, multiple growth factors are delivered to mimic the natural process of bone healing in the bone tissue engineering. Herein, we investigated the effects of sequential released bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) from polylactide-poly (ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PELA) microcapsule-based scaffolds on the bone regeneration. Through improving the double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, BMP-7 was encapsulated in PELA microcapsules, to the surface of which BMP-2 was attached. Then, the scaffold (BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7) was fused by these microcapsules with dichloromethane vapor method. In vitro, it sequentially delivered bioactive BMP-2 and BMP-7 and partially imitated the profile of BMPs expression during the fracture healing. To determine the bioactivity of released BMP-2 and BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was analyzed in MC3T3-E1 cells. When compared with simple BMP-2 plus BMP-7group and pure PELA group, the AKP activity in BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7 group significantly increased. MTT assay indicated the BMP-loaded PELA scaffold had no adverse effects on cell activity. In addition, the effects of BMP-loaded scaffolds were also investigated in a rat femoral defect model by micro-computed tomographic (mCT) and histological examination. At 4 and 8 weeks post-implantation, BMP-2/PELA/BMP-7 significantly promoted osteogenesis as compared to other groups. The scaffold underwent gradual degradation and replacement by new bones at 8 weeks. Our findings suggest that the sequential release of BMP-2 and BMP-7from PELA microcapsule-based scaffolds is promising for the therapy of bone defects.

  8. Optimization of entrapping conditions to improve the release of BMP-2 from PELA carriers by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Li, Xialin; Min, Shaoxiong; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zhifang; Jin, Anmin

    2014-12-23

    A microcapsule prepared from triblock copolymer poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA, PELA) was investigated as a controlled release carrier for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The rhBMP-2/PELA microspheres were prepared using the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method. This work was conducted to optimize the entrapping conditions of the rhBMP-2 loaded PELA copolymer. The effects on encapsulation efficiency (EE) of different molecular weights (MW) of PEG in the copolymer, the amount of PELA, the amount of rhBMP-2, the span-20 concentration, the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration and stirring time were tested. On the basis of single-factor experiments, the optimum parameters were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the highest EE of BMP-2 was achieved with a span-20 concentration of 0.5%, PEG MW 4000 Da, a stirring time of 30 min at 800 rpm min(-1), 282.3 mg of PELA, 1 μg of rhBMP-2 and PVA concentration 0.79%. Under these optimal conditions, it was predicted that the highest EE to be achieved would be 76.5%; the actual EE achieved was 75%.

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of four heat shock protein genes in Ericerus pela (Homoptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Pu; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Dong-Li; Hu, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the function of small heat shock protein genes (shsps) and hsp70 in Ericerus pela, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequences of hsp21.5, hsp21.7, hsp70, and hsc70 and the genomic sequence of hsc70. Open reading frames of the four hsps were 570, 564, 1,908, and 1,962 base pairs (bp), respectively, which encode proteins with calculated molecular mass of 21.5, 21.7, 69.8, and 71.6 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of the conserved Hsp motifs in all four proteins. The genomic DNA of hsc70 had four introns. ep-hsp21.5 was orthologous and ep-hsp21.7 was species specific. Expression of all four transcripts during heat or cold stress and development was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All four hsps were upregulated during heat or cold stress in female adults, indicating a correlation between the four hsps and heat or cold-stress tolerance in female adults. ep-hsp21.7 and ep-hsp70 were upregulated during heat stress in male larvae, implying a correlation between the two hsps and heat-stress tolerance in male larvae. The four ep-hsps were also upregulated during the developmental process in males, and ep-hsp21.5, ep-hsp70, and ep-hsc70 were upregulated in females, which indicates their possible role in the developmental regulation of E. pela.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the Chinese white wax scale Ericerus pela with focus on genes involved in wax biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pu; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified.

  11. Using PELA to Predict International Business Students' English Writing Performance with Contextualised English Writing Workshops as Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Caroline; Delante, Nimrod Lawsin; Wang, Pengji

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of Post-Entry English Language Assessment (PELA) as a predictor of international business students' English writing performance and academic performance. An intervention involving the implementation of contextualised English writing workshops was embedded in a specific business subject targeted at students who…

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of the Chinese White Wax Scale Ericerus pela with Focus on Genes Involved in Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. Conclusion/Significance The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified. PMID:22536429

  13. Experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Kawecki, Tadeusz J; Lenski, Richard E; Ebert, Dieter; Hollis, Brian; Olivieri, Isabelle; Whitlock, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evolution is the study of evolutionary processes occurring in experimental populations in response to conditions imposed by the experimenter. This research approach is increasingly used to study adaptation, estimate evolutionary parameters, and test diverse evolutionary hypotheses. Long applied in vaccine development, experimental evolution also finds new applications in biotechnology. Recent technological developments provide a path towards detailed understanding of the genomic and molecular basis of experimental evolutionary change, while new findings raise new questions that can be addressed with this approach. However, experimental evolution has important limitations, and the interpretation of results is subject to caveats resulting from small population sizes, limited timescales, the simplified nature of laboratory environments, and, in some cases, the potential to misinterpret the selective forces and other processes at work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Pi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corris, G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of pi by means of experimental methods. Polygon circle ratios, Archimedes' method, Buffon's needles, a Monte Carlo method, and prime number approaches are used. Presents three BASIC programs for the calculations. (YP)

  15. Experimental Pi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corris, G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of pi by means of experimental methods. Polygon circle ratios, Archimedes' method, Buffon's needles, a Monte Carlo method, and prime number approaches are used. Presents three BASIC programs for the calculations. (YP)

  16. Convenience experimentation.

    PubMed

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental philosophy.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  18. PELA microspheres with encapsulated arginine-chitosan/pBMP-2 nanoparticles induce pBMP-2 controlled-release, transfected osteoblastic progenitor cells, and promoted osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolong; Qiu, Sujun; Zhang, Yuxian; Yin, Jie; Min, Shaoxiong

    2017-03-01

    Repair of the bone injury remains a challenge in clinical practices. Recent progress in tissue engineering and therapeutic gene delivery systems have led to promising new strategies for successful acceleration of bone repair process. The aim of this study was to create a controlled-release system to slowly release the arginine-chitosan/plasmid DNA nanoparticles encoding BMP-2 gene (Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs), efficiently transfect osteoblastic progenitor cells, secrete functional BMP-2 protein, and promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, chitosan was conjugated with arginine to generate arginine-chitosan polymer (Arg-CS) for gene delivery. Mix the Arg-CS with pBMP-2 to condense pBMP-2 into nano-sized particles. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that the transfection efficiency of Arg-CS/pBMP-2 nanoparticles and the expression level of BMP-2 was obviously exceed control groups. Further, PELA microspheres as the controlled-release carrier for the nanoparticles were used to encapsulate Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs. We demonstrated that the Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs could slowly release from the PELA microspheres at least for 42 d. During the co-culture with the PELA microspheres, the content of BMP-2 protein secreted by MC3T3-E1 reached the peak at 7 d. After 21d, the secretion of BMP-2 protein still maintain a higher level. The alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and osteogenesis-related gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR analysis all showed the PELA microspheres entrapping with Arg-CS/pBMP-2 NPs can obviously induce the osteogenic differentiation. The results indicated that the Arg-CS is a suitable gene vector which can promote the gene transfection. And the novel PELA microspheres-nanoparticle controlled-release system has potential clinical application in the future after further research.

  19. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. Experimental macroevolution†

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  1. experimental tectonophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handin, John; Logan, J. M.

    Because virtually all tectonophysical processes are masked by the overburden, or occur too slowly for adequate observation in anthropocentric time, or both, they must be studied in carefully controlled laboratory experiments that simulate the natural environment as realistically as is practicable. Extrapolations of laboratory data in space and time are invalid unless the experimental and natural phenomenologies are essentially the same. The size of conventional specimens is of the order of 10 cm, whereas the discontinuities (defects in a continuum) in real rock-masses are often much larger, of the order of l m of more. Furthermore, such discontinuities as macrofractures (joints) may well dominate the mechanical and fluid-transport properties in nature. Adequate sampling of rock-mass properties will probably always require in-situ testing, but testing machines much larger than any now available could provide useful data at least at intermediate scale.

  2. Experimental tectonophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Handin, J.; Logan, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Because virtually all tectonophysical processes are marked by the overburden, or occur to slowly for adequate observation in anthropocentric time, or both, they must be studied in carefully controlled laboratory experiments that simulate the natural environment as realistically as is practicable. Extrapolations of laboratory data in space and time are invalid unless the experimental and natural phenomenologies are essentially the same. The size of conventional specimens is of the order of 10 cm, whereas the discontinuities (defects in a continuum) in real rock-masses are often much larger, of the order of 1 m or more. Furthermore, such discontinuities as macrofractures (joints) may well dominate the mechanical and fluid-transport properties in nature. Adequate sampling of rock-mass properties will probably always require in-situ testing, but testing machines much larger than any now available could provide useful data at least at intermediate scale.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL THYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R. H.

    1898-01-01

    From the results of the various experiments already detailed I feel justified in drawing the following conclusions: (1) Absolutely fresh thyroid gland is not poisonous, in the usual sense of the term, when absorbed through the alimentary canal. (2) The symptoms of induced thyroidism are manifestations of an intoxication resulting from the ingestion of decomposed thyroid material, a conclusion that agrees in part with the previously related observations of Lanz. (3) The so-called experimental thyroidism is not specific for the thyroid only, for the ingestion of many substances derived from animal tissues other than the thyroid gland may produce an intoxication strikingly similar in every respect to that of experimental thyroidism. (4) Most, if not all, animal tissues yield substances which, if injected in large quantities directly into the circulation or beneath the skin, will produce an intoxication often very similar to that produced by injections of various substances derived from the fresh thyroid tissue. (5) The effects resulting from the intravascular or subcutaneous injections of aqueous extracts, decoctions and the concentrated extractives of the thyroid tissue, of the thymus, of muscle, etc., are by no means necessarily indicative of the function and the action of the hypothetical internal secretions of the same tissues during life. (6) The utilization of the fact that ingestion of decomposed thyroid material produces on certain occasions an intoxication with certain symptoms similar to some of those of G-raves' disease is not justifiable for the furtherance of the theory that the symptoms of exophthalmic goitre result from an over-production of the thyroid secretion. (7) Our results lead us to conclude with Drechsel that the fresh thyroid tissue yields at least probably two substances that are capable of palliating the symptoms of the acute cachexia in totally thyroidless dogs. (8) The thymus tissue also yields one and probably two substances that are as

  4. EXPERIMENTAL THYROIDISM.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, R H

    1898-03-01

    FROM THE RESULTS OF THE VARIOUS EXPERIMENTS ALREADY DETAILED I FEEL JUSTIFIED IN DRAWING THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS: (1) Absolutely fresh thyroid gland is not poisonous, in the usual sense of the term, when absorbed through the alimentary canal. (2) The symptoms of induced thyroidism are manifestations of an intoxication resulting from the ingestion of decomposed thyroid material, a conclusion that agrees in part with the previously related observations of Lanz. (3) The so-called experimental thyroidism is not specific for the thyroid only, for the ingestion of many substances derived from animal tissues other than the thyroid gland may produce an intoxication strikingly similar in every respect to that of experimental thyroidism. (4) Most, if not all, animal tissues yield substances which, if injected in large quantities directly into the circulation or beneath the skin, will produce an intoxication often very similar to that produced by injections of various substances derived from the fresh thyroid tissue. (5) The effects resulting from the intravascular or subcutaneous injections of aqueous extracts, decoctions and the concentrated extractives of the thyroid tissue, of the thymus, of muscle, etc., are by no means necessarily indicative of the function and the action of the hypothetical internal secretions of the same tissues during life. (6) The utilization of the fact that ingestion of decomposed thyroid material produces on certain occasions an intoxication with certain symptoms similar to some of those of G-raves' disease is not justifiable for the furtherance of the theory that the symptoms of exophthalmic goitre result from an over-production of the thyroid secretion. (7) Our results lead us to conclude with Drechsel that the fresh thyroid tissue yields at least probably two substances that are capable of palliating the symptoms of the acute cachexia in totally thyroidless dogs. (8) The thymus tissue also yields one and probably two substances that are as

  5. Sex differences in piercing-sucking sites on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) infested by the Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela (Chavannes) (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, J J; Wang, Z L; Chen, X M; Chen, Y

    2013-04-01

    The type of host tissues and cells ingested by piercing and sucking insects greatly affects their nutrient intake, which may subsequently affect insect fitness. This study describes the sex differences in feeding site selection between male and female nymphs of the Chinese white wax scale insect (CWWS), Ericerus pela (Chavannes), feeding on leaves of the Chinese privet, Ligustrum lucidum. Our data showed that the stylet tips of female nymphs terminated in the phloem sieve elements of main or lateral veins, while those of male nymphs terminated in the palisade parenchyma. We concluded that female nymphs fed from sieve elements and males fed from parenchyma cells. The potential impact of these feeding patterns was discussed in relation to the selection of a site for attachment, nutrient acquisition, and mouthpart stretching mechanism. Among these factors, selection of a site for attachment and mouthpart stretching mechanism may be the main cause of sex differences in feeding sites between female and male nymphs of CWWS.

  6. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  7. The Experimental College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiklejohn, Alexander

    "The Experimental College" tells the story of a 4-year academic experiment at the University of Wisconsin established by Alexander Meiklejohn. Aimed at finding a method of teaching that would help students develop "intelligence in the conduct of their own lives," the Experimental College discarded major requirements,…

  8. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  9. Wind River Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    The Wind River Experimental Forest, known as the cradle of forest research in the Pacific Northwest, is a major center for ecological and silvicultural research in west-side Pacific Northwest forests. In the state of Washington, Wind River Experimental Forest is in the south-central area of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, north of the Columbia River Gorge National...

  10. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  11. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  12. 7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST GARAGE, AND FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST RESIDENCE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic generator experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The results for an experimental study of a one wavelength MHD induction generator operating on a liquid flow are presented. First the design philosophy and the experimental generator design are summarized, including a description of the flow loop and instrumentation. Next a Fourier series method of treating the fact that the magnetic flux density produced by the stator is not a pure traveling sinusoid is described and some results summarized. This approach appears to be of interest after revisions are made, but the initial results are not accurate. Finally, some of the experimental data is summarized for various methods of excitation.

  14. Experimental Semiotics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21369364

  15. Summary of experimental talks

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1999-12-08

    This final talk of the meeting briefly discussed a number of experimental topics that the author found particularly interesting in the area of High Energy Physics. It also includes some critical comments about the future direction of their discipline.

  16. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  17. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  18. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    PubMed

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  19. Frozen waves: experimental generation.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Tarcio A; Gesualdi, Marcos R R; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), where FW CGHs were first computationally implemented, and later electronically implemented, on the LC-SLM for optical reconstruction. The experimental results are in agreement with the corresponding theoretical analytical solutions and hold excellent prospects for implementation in scientific and technological applications.

  20. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  1. Self-experimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, John K

    2003-01-01

    Except in certain cases of unusual risk, self-experimentation should not be encouraged. It is usually scientifically inadequate for lack of proper controls and sufficient subjects to generate meaningful results. It is also inadequate as an ethical test because even if lay persons are also enrolled, self-experimentation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish that they may participate. It is not necessary to establish that lay persons may participate because institutional ethics review and informed consent are better ways to determine this. It is not sufficient because the investigator may be more risk accepting or not medically typical. Moreover, because scientific research is now done in teams, self-experimentation may involve undue influence when junior investigators participate as research subjects.

  2. Experimental quantum channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, He; Liu, Chang; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Yao, Xing-Can; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Sanders, Barry C.; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-not gate. All types of quantum channels can be decomposed by the algorithm and implemented on this device. We deploy our system to simulate various quantum channels, such as quantum-noise channels and weak quantum measurement. Our results advance experimental quantum channel simulation, which is integral to the goal of quantum information processing.

  3. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  4. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  5. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  6. Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ward W. McCaughey

    1996-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, established in 1961, is representative of the vast expanses of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) found east of the Continental Divide in Montana, southwest Alberta, and Wyoming. Discrete generations of even-age lodgepole stands form a mosaic typical of the fireprone forests at moderate to high altitudes in the Northern Rocky...

  7. Research, Innovation and Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    This is the second in a series of annual presentations on the innovative, experimental, and research activities conducted at Santa Fe Junior College. The studies include: classroom activities, college-wide research, short statements on different instructional approaches to formal dissertation abstracts, subjective observations, intricate…

  8. Experimental fluvial geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, S.A.; Mosley, M.P.; Weaver, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors bring together the results of several years of experimental work in drainage basin evolution, hydrology, river-channel morphology, and sedimentology. These investigations are related to real-world applications, particularly geological exploration and mapping. This text shows how awareness of natural phenomena can improve management of the natural environment, such as the control of rivers and eroding gullies.

  9. Experimental review on pentaquarks

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, M. V. Mizuk, R. V.

    2008-04-15

    The experimental evidence for pentaquarks is reviewed and compared with the experiments that do not see any sign of pentaquarks. This paper is based on a lecture given at the 33rd ITEP Winter School of Physics in the beginning of 2005. Results obtained since then are summarized in the epilogue.

  10. Experimental review on pentaquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, M. V.; Mizuk, R. V.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental evidence for pentaquarks is reviewed and compared with the experiments that do not see any sign of pentaquarks. This paper is based on a lecture given at the 33rd ITEP Winter School of Physics in the beginning of 2005. Results obtained since then are summarized in the epilogue.

  11. Maybeso Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Valerie Rapp

    2004-01-01

    The Maybeso Experimental Forest is in southeast Alaska within the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States and home to the Northern Hemi-sphere's largest temperate rain forest. Located about 42 miles west of Ketchikan, Alaska, it is on Prince of Wales Island, the largest island of the Alexander Archipelago and the third largest...

  12. The Experimental College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiklejohn, Alexander; Powell, John Walker, Ed.

    In the early twentieth century, Alexander Meiklejohn believed the undergraduate college must teach students how to think. He aspired to make students into thinking, caring, active citizens with the intellectual skills to participate in a democratic society. In 1927, with the founding of the Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin, he…

  13. Kane Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    1999-01-01

    The 1,737 acres of forest land that comprise the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF), were originally part of the Allegheny National Forest. On March 23, 1932, the land was formally dedicated to research use for the Allegheny Forest Experiment Station (now the Northeastern Research Station). The KEF was established to promote the study of the unglaciated portion of the...

  14. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  15. The Experimental College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiklejohn, Alexander; Powell, John Walker, Ed.

    In the early twentieth century, Alexander Meiklejohn believed the undergraduate college must teach students how to think. He aspired to make students into thinking, caring, active citizens with the intellectual skills to participate in a democratic society. In 1927, with the founding of the Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin, he…

  16. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  17. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  18. Trends in animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  19. Bartlett Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Jane Gamal-Eldin

    1998-01-01

    The Bartlett Experimental Forest is a field laboratory for research on the ecology and management of northern forest ecosystems. Research on the Bartlett includes: 1) extensive investigations on structure and dynamics of forests at several levels, and developing management alternatives to reflect an array of values and benefits sought by users of forest lands, 2) a...

  20. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  1. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  2. Experimental design and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Festing, M F

    1997-01-01

    Rodent gerontology experiments should be carefully designed and correctly analyzed so as to provide the maximum amount of information for the minimum amount of work. There are five criteria for a "good" experimental design. These are applicable both to in vivo and in vitro experiments: (1) The experiment should be unbiased so that it is possible to make a true comparison between treatment groups in the knowledge that no one group has a more favorable "environment." (2) The experiment should have high precision so that if there is a true treatment effect there will be a good chance of detecting it. This is obtained by selecting uniform material such as isogenic strains, which are free of pathogenic microorganisms, and by using randomized block experimental designs. It can also be increased by increasing the number of observations. However, increasing the size of the experiment beyond a certain point will only marginally increase precision. (3) The experiment should have a wide range of applicability so it should be designed to explore the sensitivity of the observed experimental treatment effect to other variables such as the strain, sex, diet, husbandry, and age of the animals. With in vitro data, variables such as media composition and incubation times may also be important. The importance of such variables can often be evaluated efficiently using "factorial" experimental designs, without any substantial increase in the overall number of animals. (4) The experiment should be simple so that there is little chance of groups becoming muddled. Generally, formal experimental designs that are planned before the work starts should be used. (5) The experiment should provide the ability to calculate uncertainty. In other words, it should be capable of being statistically analyzed so that the level of confidence in the results can be quantified.

  3. Teaching experimental design.

    PubMed

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering.

  5. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  6. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    PubMed Central

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  7. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2016-07-12

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  8. Experimental Robot Psychology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-05

    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be...05 NOV 1985 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-11-1985 to 00-11-1985 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Robot Psychology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 21 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE

  9. USACDEC Experimentation Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Evaluated impact of assigning five crewmen per tank in selected armor units (conducted in West Germany and several CONUS posts). TASYAAL Effectiveness of...in the form of findings, assessments, and suggested Improvements. These test results have great potential impact on the decision making process. They...reports of experimentation are ODEC’s most widely distributed and visible product. Many CDEC reports have had significant impact on the organization

  10. MSFC Skylab experimenter's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined in the main text and amplified, as appropriate, in appendixes. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  11. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Collaborative Research Alliance (CS CRA) and Applied Research and Experimentation Partner (AREP) Programs 19 3.3 Researcher Empowerment and...comprising of social, communications and information networks. Sometimes it is better for users to look for information that can be found on websites or...in data repositories; other times it is better for users to consult subject matter experts (SMEs); and many times users should employ a hybrid

  12. Blois V: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  13. The Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith

    1958-01-01

    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  14. SAA drift: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  15. Genetics of experimental hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dominiczak, A F; Clark, J S; Jeffs, B; Anderson, N H; Negrin, C D; Lee, W K; Brosnan, M J

    1998-12-01

    Experimental models of genetic hypertension are used to develop paradigms to study human essential hypertension while removing some of the complexity inherent in the study of human subjects. Since 1991 several quantitative trait loci responsible for blood pressure regulation have been identified in various rat crosses. More recently, a series of interesting quantitative trait loci influencing cardiac hypertrophy, stroke, metabolic syndrome and renal damage has also been described. It is recognized that the identification of large chromosomal regions containing a quantitative trait locus is only a first step towards gene identification. The next step is the production of congenic strains and substrains to confirm the existence of the quantitative trait locus and to narrow down the chromosomal region of interest. Several congenic strains have already been produced, with further refinement of the methodology currently in progress. The ultimate goal is to achieve positional cloning of the causal gene, a task which has so far been elusive. There are several areas of cross-fertilization between experimental and human genetics of hypertension, with a successful transfer of two loci directly from rats to humans and with new pharmacogenetic approaches which may be utilized in both experimental and clinical settings.

  16. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  17. Play, experimentation and creativity.

    PubMed

    Caper, R

    1996-10-01

    Beginning with Klein's description of a psychotic boy's inability to play, published in 1930, the author explores the relationship between play and symbol-formation, and the use of play by children and adults as a serious type of experimentation by means of which one learns about the internal and external worlds. In this view, play is a way of externalising fantasies originating in one's inner world so they may be seen and learned about. Play is also a vehicle of projection, a fact that allows one to use it to assess the impact of one's inner world on the external world, especially on the minds of one's objects. In this way, playing becomes a way of probing external reality as well. This type of learning depends on the ability to keep internal and external realities distinct even while projecting the former into the latter. In psychotic states, this ability is lost, and the psychotic patient's projections, instead of being usable as a form of playful experimentation, lead to delusions and claustrophobic anxiety. A brief clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these points. The author then explores the application of these ideas to an understanding of artistic creativity, and makes some observations about possible underlying unities between play, scientific experimentation and artistic creativity.

  18. Experimental alcohol blastopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandor, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated

  19. Experimental turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Pavel; Milčák, Petr; Noga, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The experimental air turbine VT400 is located in hall laboratories of the Department of Power System Engineering. It is a single-stage air turbine located in the suction of the compressor. It is able to solve various problems concerning the construction solution of turbine stages. The content of the article will deal mainly with the description of measurements on this turbine. The up-to-now research on this test rig will be briefly mentioned, too, as well as the description of the ongoing reconstruction.

  20. Experimental models of stress

    PubMed Central

    Patchev, Vladimir K.; Patchev, Alexandre V.

    2006-01-01

    Illustrating the complexity of the stress response and its multifaceted manifestations is the leading idea of this overview of experimental paradigms used for stress induction in laboratory animals. The description of key features of models based on naturalistic stressors, pharmacological challenges, and genomic manipulations is complemented by comprehensive analysis of physiological, behavioral, neurochemical, and endocrine changes and their appropriatness as outcome readouts. Particular attention has been paid to the role of sex and age as determinants of the dynamics of the stress response. Possible translational applications of stress-inducing paradigms as models of disease are briefly sketched. PMID:17290800

  1. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  2. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  3. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  4. Experimentation in machine discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    KEKADA, a system that is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments on problems from the history of science, is described. The system incorporates a set of experimentation strategies that were extracted from the traces of the scientists' behavior. It focuses on surprises to constrain its search, and uses its strategies to generate hypotheses and to carry out experiments. Some strategies are domain independent, whereas others incorporate knowledge of a specific domain. The domain independent strategies include magnification, determining scope, divide and conquer, factor analysis, and relating different anomalous phenomena. KEKADA represents an experiment as a set of independent and dependent entities, with apparatus variables and a goal. It represents a theory either as a sequence of processes or as abstract hypotheses. KEKADA's response is described to a particular problem in biochemistry. On this and other problems, the system is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments to refine domain theories. Analysis of the system and its behavior on a number of different problems has established its generality, but it has also revealed the reasons why the system would not be a good experimental scientist.

  5. Experimental Models of Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by interstitial edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and acinar cell necrosis, depending on its severity. Regardless of the extent of tissue injury, acute pancreatitis is a completely reversible process with evident normal tissue architecture after recovery. Its pathogenic mechanism has been known to be closely related to intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In contrast to acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irreversible tissue damage such as acinar cell atrophy and pancreatic fibrosis that results in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Recently, many studies of chronic pancreatitis have been prompted by the discovery of the pancreatic stellate cell, which has been identified and distinguished as the key effector cell of pancreatic fibrosis. However, investigations into the pathogenesis and treatment of pancreatitis face many obstacles because of its anatomical location and disparate clinical course. Due to these difficulties, most of our knowledge on pancreatitis is based on research conducted using experimental models of pancreatitis. In this review, several experimental models of pancreatitis will be discussed in terms of technique, advantages, and limitations. PMID:24944983

  6. Experimental data filtration algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanta, E.; Tamas, R.; Danisor, A.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental data reduction is an important topic because the resulting information is used to calibrate the theoretical models and to verify the accuracy of their results. The paper presents some ideas used to extract a subset of points from the initial set of points which defines an experimentally acquired curve. The objective is to get a subset with significantly fewer points as the initial data set and which accurately defines a smooth curve that preserves the shape of the initial curve. Being a general study we used only data filtering criteria based geometric features that at a later stage may be related to upper level conditions specific to the phenomenon under investigation. Five algorithms were conceived and implemented in an original software consisting of more than 1800 computer code lines which has a flexible structure that allows us to easily update it using new algorithms. The software instrument was used to process the data of several case studies. Conclusions are drawn regarding the values of the parameters used in the algorithms to decide if a series of points may be considered either noise, or a relevant part of the curve. Being a general analysis, the result is a computer based trial-and-error method that efficiently solves this kind of problems.

  7. Experimental trichinellosis in goats.

    PubMed

    Reina, D; Muñoz-Ojeda, M C; Serrano, F; Molina, J M; Navarrete, I

    1996-03-01

    The susceptibility and distribution of Trichinella spiralis infection in goats were examined in ten autochthonous kids, 2 months old and about 10 kg body weight. The animals were divided into two groups: one experimental group with eight animals, infected with 10,000 T. spiralis 'T1' encysted larvae and a control group with two non-infected animals. All the animals of the experimental group infected by the parasite showed that Trichinella larvae have a special affinity for the tongue, masseters, diaphragm, flexor-extensor muscles, intercostal muscles and myocardium in decreasing order. The ELISA test carried out showed the first increments of optical density (OD) on Day 16 postinfection (p.i), peaking on Days 37-44 p.i. and remaining elevated from this day on, with a slight fall at the end of the experiment (Day 90 p.i.). No alterations were observed in the OD obtained in control animals throughout the experiment. The great muscular establishment of T. spiralis larvae and the sigmoidal evolution of antibody levels confirm the host character of the goat to the parasite.

  8. The Durability of Adhesive Joints: An Engineering Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    EXPERIMENTAL: 41 The bean thickness and film thickness were 12.7 mm and 0.38 mm respectively. The specimen width was 25.4 m. The aluminum substrate was vapor...Physics (Academic Press, New York, 1980), Edited by R. A. Fava , Vol. 16, Polymers, Part C, Chap 17, pp. 315-377. 7. J. Comyn, Polymer Permeability

  9. Experimental evolution of multicellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C.; Denison, R. Ford; Borrello, Mark; Travisano, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Multicellularity was one of the most significant innovations in the history of life, but its initial evolution remains poorly understood. Using experimental evolution, we show that key steps in this transition could have occurred quickly. We subjected the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to an environment in which we expected multicellularity to be adaptive. We observed the rapid evolution of clustering genotypes that display a novel multicellular life history characterized by reproduction via multicellular propagules, a juvenile phase, and determinate growth. The multicellular clusters are uniclonal, minimizing within-cluster genetic conflicts of interest. Simple among-cell division of labor rapidly evolved. Early multicellular strains were composed of physiologically similar cells, but these subsequently evolved higher rates of programmed cell death (apoptosis), an adaptation that increases propagule production. These results show that key aspects of multicellular complexity, a subject of central importance to biology, can readily evolve from unicellular eukaryotes. PMID:22307617

  10. Experimental evolution gone wild.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, M; Riebesell, U; Rynearson, T A; Lohbeck, K T; Collins, S

    2015-05-06

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change.

  11. An Experimental LISP Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Wang

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-microprocessor LISP machine whose goal is to exploit the inherent parallelism in the LISP programs fully. The base architecture is a MIMD architecture based on a hybrid model for combinating data driven, demand driven and VoN Neumann process schemes. The basic evaluation strategy is data driven. Lazy evaluation mechanism is introduced to avoid unnecessary and unsafe computations. An experimental system with the four processor elements has been built in HIT, China. The system consists of a Z80 microcomputer and three TP8O1s interconnected through three buses. Each processor evaluates a part of programs asynchronously. The shared memory is divided into two parts: list cell area and enviroment area, each of which has the indepen-dent common bus to avoid the bus bottleneck.

  12. Planetary impact experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Schultz, Peter H.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of impact processes in low- and microgravity environments would be advanced significantly by the construction and use of an impact facility on the Space Station. It is proposed that initial studies begin as soon as possible in ground-based impact laboratories, on the NASA KC-135 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft, and in existing drop towers. The resulting experience and information base could then be applied toward an experiment package designed for use on Shuttle orbiters to support pilot studies in orbital environments. These experiments, as well as the first efforts made on the IOC Space Station, should involve the impact of various free-floating targets; such studies would yield a substantial scientific return while providing valuable experience and engineering information for use in refining the design of the dedicated Space Station Impact Facility. The dedicated facility should be designed to support impact experimentation, including but not limited to cratering, asteroid and ring-particle dynamics, and accretional processes.

  13. Experimental Sloshing Reference Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, C.; Such-Taboada, M.; Ngan, I.; Grigore, L.; Appolloni, M.; Roure, S.; Murray, N.; Mendes Leal, M.; de Wilde, D.; Longo, J.; Bureo-Dacal, R.; Cozzani, A.; Laine, B.

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the sloshing experiment performed on the HYDRA multi-axis hydraulic shaker at ESTEC. Two tank geometries, a rectangular tank and a pill shaped tank, were excited in the lateral direction. Both tanks, manufactured from a transparent material in order to provide high visibility of the phenomenon, were filled with water and several fill ratios were tested, varying the amplitude of the input and the sweep rate. The results of the test are presented from a structural point of view, with the main objective to study the interface force due to dynamic fluid sloshing motion. An investigation of the behaviour of the water around the main resonance of the assembly is conducted through the observation of the identified modes and the damping values. The experimental results confirm the amplification effect at low frequency caused by water sloshing motion and a comparison with data from numerical simulation is provided.

  14. Future experimental programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    I was asked to discuss future experimental programs even though I am a theorist. As a result, I present my own personal views on where the field is, and where it is going, based on what I myself have been working on. In particular, I discuss why we need expeditions into high energies to find clues to where the relevant energy scale is for dark matter, baryon asymmetry and neutrino mass. I also argue that the next energy frontier machine should be justified on the basis of what we know, namely the mass of the Higgs boson, so that we will learn what energy we should aim at once we nail the Higgs sector. Finally, I make remarks on dark energy.

  15. Experimental Quantum Coin Tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, G.; Vaziri, A.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin-tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of “two-party” cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits, resulting in a higher security than using qubits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.

  16. Fusion of experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gesú, Vito; Maccarone, Maria Concetta

    The integration of information from various sensory systems is one of the most difficult challenges in understanding both perception and cognition. For example, the problem of auditory-visual integration is a correspondence problem between perceived auditory and visual scenes. Two main questions arise when designing data analysis systems: what is the useful information to be integrated?, and what are the integration rules? The problem of integrating information becomes relevant whenever: (a) the same kind of data are detected by spatially distributed sensors; (b) heterogeneous data are detected by different sensors; (c) heterogeneous distributed data are involved. General problems concerning the integration of experimental data are reviewed. The case of the BeppoSAX X-ray astronomical satellite is given as an example.

  17. Experimental evolution gone wild

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, M.; Riebesell, U.; Rynearson, T. A.; Lohbeck, K. T.; Collins, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  18. Experimentalism in bioethics research.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, T F

    1983-05-01

    Basson's commentary on my proposals regarding the structure and function of research in bioethics provides a welcome opportunity for extended comparison of standard approaches with the suggestions made in 'What Bioethics Should Be.' I begin by noting a common assumption underlying our respective views. I then address points of fundamental difference, indicating why the experimental method proposed in my original essay presents a potentially more productive strategy for examining moral issues in biomedicine. In the latter respect, I certainly disagree with Basson's contention that "we are unable to test" metaethical hypotheses "against reality" (Basson, p. 185) - a proposition which seems no more defensible than the equally untenable claim that we cannot refine methods of natural science research through examination of their usefulness in advancing our understanding of the correlation of events in nature.

  19. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  20. Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Santagati, Raffaele; Knauer, Sebastian; Gentile, Antonio A.; Wiebe, Nathan; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Rarity, John G.; Laing, Anthony; Thompson, Mark G.

    2017-06-01

    The efficient characterization of quantum systems, the verification of the operations of quantum devices and the validation of underpinning physical models, are central challenges for quantum technologies and fundamental physics. The computational cost of such studies could be improved by machine learning enhanced by quantum simulators. Here we interface two different quantum systems through a classical channel--a silicon-photonics quantum simulator and an electron spin in a diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre--and use the former to learn the Hamiltonian of the latter via Bayesian inference. We learn the salient Hamiltonian parameter with an uncertainty of approximately 10-5. Furthermore, an observed saturation in the learning algorithm suggests deficiencies in the underlying Hamiltonian model, which we exploit to further improve the model. We implement an interactive version of the protocol and experimentally show its ability to characterize the operation of the quantum photonic device.

  1. Experimental Quantum Error Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047

  2. Experimental Boson Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Broome, Matthew; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Ralph, Timothy; Dove, Justin; Aaronson, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Quantum computers are unnecessary for exponentially-efficient computation or simulation if the Extended Church-Turing thesis--a foundational tenet of computer science--is correct. The thesis would be directly contradicted by a physical device that efficiently performs a task believed to be intractable for classical computers. Such a task is BOSONSAMPLING: obtaining a distribution of n bosons scattered by some linear-optical unitary process. Here we test the central premise of BOSONSAMPLING, experimentally verifying that the amplitudes of 3-photon scattering processes are given by the permanents of submatrices generated from a unitary describing a 6-mode integrated optical circuit. We find the protocol to be robust, working even with the unavoidable effects of photon loss, non-ideal sources, and imperfect detection. Strong evidence against the Extended-Church-Turing thesis will come from scaling to large numbers of photons, which is a much simpler task than building a universal quantum computer.

  3. Experimental adaptive process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.

  4. Experimental Physics - Modern Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, R. A.

    1988-10-01

    Designed for physics students treating the underlying basis for modern techniques and the devices used, this timely survey describes current experimental methods in a clear and accessible text. This up-to-date volume provides an essential part of undergraduate physics training; until now, students were often expected to learn many of these methods in the laboratory without proper introduction. The broad coverage of available techniques includes discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment, as well as such topics as discrete semiconductor devices, signal processing, thermometry, optical components, nuclear instrumentation, and x-ray diffraction methods. Professor Dunlap's text will serve not only as a complete introduction for majors but also as a reference work for technicians throughout a professional career. In addition to tutorial discussions presented, tables of numerical data and constants are included, further enhancing the book as a permanent reference.

  5. Experimental Literacy Assessment Battery (LAB).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    READING, * LITERACY , EDUCATION, HUMAN RESOURCES, MODELS, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, AIR FORCE TRAINING, LANGUAGE, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, VOCABULARY, INFORMATION PROCESSING, COMPREHENSION.

  6. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment

  7. Experimental quantum data locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  8. [Liver transplantation. Experimental aspects].

    PubMed

    Duca, S

    1981-01-01

    Following an overview of the data published in the specialized literature in connection with liver transplantation the author presents original experimental studies in this field. One of the first aspects considered is the stage of obtaining the graft of liver tissue. The selective perfusion was used, in situ, of the dog liver, and conditions were achieved which were similar to those obtained in other methods of graft preparation. Two washing solutions were used: a simple one, currently used in the practice, and another one which was enriched with various substrates. Biochemical parameters of tissue sampled by bioptic puncture have demonstrated that the first solution induces a lowering of the glycogen contents of hepatocytes, and this alters the biological qualities or the graft. The fact is stressed that the obtention of the hepatic tissue for grafting should be considered in fact as an in situ conservation. With regard to the liver transplantation proper it is shown that the author has performed the sector heterotopic procedure in the rat. Vascular anastomoses have been made with histoacryl-N-blau by the method of prosthesis with lost tubing. Problems raised by the vascular re-connection of the auxilliary hepatic tissue, and those related to the space where this tissue should be placed are also discussed in detail. The survival time was not longer than 30 hours.

  9. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Hutchison, W. M.; Siim, J. Chr.; Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Two chimpanzees were given by mouth large numbers of viable oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected cats. Before the experiment the first chimpanzee had a positive dye test reaction (1:250), an indication that it had undergone an earlier infection of toxoplasmosis; the serum antibody titres remained unchanged, no evidence of illness was found, and oocysts did not appear in its faeces during the subsequent six weeks. The second chimpanzee showed a negative dye test reaction before infection, and this converted to positive on the 7th day, rose to a peak on the 35th day, and remained high for six months. This animal appeared unwell during the first week, and on the 7th day its blood proved infective to mice; on the 40th day the lymph nodes became enlarged and biopsy specimens of a node and muscle in the 11th week were also infective to mice. No oocysts were passed in the faeces. The presumed cycle in the chimpanzee and in man and the relationships between Toxoplasma and Isospora are discussed. PMID:5575975

  10. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  11. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  12. X-38 Experimental Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Fitzgerald, Steve M.

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 program seeks to demonstrate an autonomously returned orbital test flight vehicle to support the development of an operational Crew Return Vehicle for the International Space Station. The test flight, anticipated in 2002, is intended to demonstrate the entire mission profile of returning Space Station crew members safely back to earth in the event of medical or mechanical emergency. Integral to the formulation of the X-38 flight data book and the design of the thermal protection system, the aerothermodynamic environment is being defined through a synergistic combination of ground based testing and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the X-38 development. Global and discrete surface heat transfer force and moment, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on scaled models of the proposed X-38 configuration in different test gases at Mach 6, 10 and 20. The test parametrics include angle of attack from 0 to 50 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10 (exp 6) to 16 x 10 (exp 6)/ ft, rudder deflections of 0, 2, and 5 deg. and body flap deflections from 0 to 30 deg. Results from hypersonic aerodynamic screening studies that were conducted as the configuration evolved to the present shape at, presented. Heavy gas simulation tests have indicated that the primary real gas effects on X-38 aerodynamics at trim conditions are expected to favorably influence flap effectiveness. Comparisons of the experimental heating and force and moment data to prediction and the current aerodynamic data book are highlighted. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition were investigated at Mach 6 and the development of a transition correlation for the X-38 vehicle is described. Extrapolation of ground based heating measurements to flight radiation equilibrium wall temperatures at Mach 6 and 10 were

  13. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  14. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  15. Priest River Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Priest River Experimental Forest was among the first experimental forests: it was set aside as a forestry research center in September 1911. The forest served as the headquarters for the Priest River Experiment Station until 1930 when it was incorporated into the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, which, in turn, joined the Intermountain...

  16. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  17. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  18. Experimental Learning Enhancing Improvisation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira Christopoulos, Tania; Wilner, Adriana; Trindade Bestetti, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present improvisation training and experimentation as an alternative method to deal with unexpected events in which structured processes do not seem to work. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the literature of sensemaking and improvisation, the study designs a framework and process model of experimental learning…

  19. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

  20. Experimental Learning Enhancing Improvisation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira Christopoulos, Tania; Wilner, Adriana; Trindade Bestetti, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present improvisation training and experimentation as an alternative method to deal with unexpected events in which structured processes do not seem to work. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the literature of sensemaking and improvisation, the study designs a framework and process model of experimental learning…

  1. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  2. Psychopharmacology's debt to experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Lori A; Steinberg, Hannah; Sykes, Elizabeth A B

    2006-05-01

    The role of experimental psychology in the development of psychopharmacology has largely been ignored in recent historical accounts. In this article the authors attempt to redress that gap by outlining work in early experimental psychology that contributed significantly to the field. While psychiatrists focused on the therapeutic nature of drugs or their mimicry of psychopathology, experimental psychologists used psychoactive drugs as tools to study individual differences in normal behavior as well as to develop methodologies using behavior to study mechanisms of drug action. Experimental work by Kraepelin, Rivers, and Hollingworth was particularly important in establishing drug-screening protocols still used today. Research on nitrous oxide and on the effects of drug combinations is discussed to illustrate the importance of experimental psychology to psychopharmacology.

  3. Experimental Evolution with Caenorhabditis Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C.; Baer, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host–pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. PMID:28592504

  4. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.

    PubMed

    Pluhar, Evelyn B

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation.

  5. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  6. Experimental models of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Paula L; Caissie, Amanda L; Burnier, Miguel N

    2004-06-01

    Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been directed toward developing suitable experimental models for the study of uveal melanoma. Animal models of uveal melanoma have undergone many improvements, leading to the development of experimental systems that better represent the disease in human beings. A major advance has come from the use of human uveal melanoma cell lines capable of inducing tumour growth and metastatic disease in immunodeficient hosts. Knowledge gained from the use of experimental models will ultimately be translated into better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with uveal melanoma. In this review the authors describe the current state-of-the-art designs of experimental models of uveal melanoma, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of the available models. Novel findings from a rabbit model of uveal melanoma are also presented.

  7. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  8. Experimental techniques and measurement accuracies

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.; DiIorio, G.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1985-02-01

    A brief description of the experimental tools available for fusion neutronics experiments is given. Attention is paid to error estimates mainly for the measurement of tritium breeding ratio in simulated blankets using various techniques.

  9. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  10. Experimental studies: randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gjorgov, A N

    1998-01-01

    There are two major approaches to medical investigations: observational studies and experimental trials. The classical application of the experimental design to studies of human populations is the randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a new drug or treatment. A further application of the experimental studies is to the testing of hypotheses about the etiology of a disease, already tested and corroborated from various forms of observational studies. Ethical considerations and requirements for consent of the experimental subjects are of primary concern in the clinical trials, and those concerns set the first and final limits for implementing a trial. General moral principles in research with human and animal beings, defined by the "Nuremberg Code," deal with strict criteria for approval, endorsement and evaluation of a clinical trial.

  11. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  12. Experimental realization of quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Lopaeva, E D; Ruo Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Olivares, S; Brida, G; Genovese, M

    2013-04-12

    We present the first experimental realization of the quantum illumination protocol proposed by Lloyd [Science 321, 1463 (2008)] and S. Tan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253601 (2008)], achieved in a simple feasible experimental scheme based on photon-number correlations. A main achievement of our result is the demonstration of a strong robustness of the quantum protocol to noise and losses that challenges some widespread wisdom about quantum technologies.

  13. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  14. Design approaches to experimental mediation☆

    PubMed Central

    Pirlott, Angela G.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., “measurement-of-mediation” designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable. PMID:27570259

  15. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  16. Animal experimentation ethics from an experimenter's point of view.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, B E

    1986-01-01

    The experimental biologist faces two kinds of ethical problems: practical and philosophical. The practical problems comprise increased costs of experimental animals, and the risk of being harassed or even raided by animal activists. There is also today a growing bureaucratic ethics overhead that has to be paid for, one way or another. The philosophical problems are the true ethical problems. Most laws and regulations emphasize that pain and agony should be minimized, but it is shown that this is neither always necessary nor always adequate. Scientists expect logical reasoning and opinions based on facts, but it is easy to find examples that the public opinion is quite illogical concerning pain and agony. For instance, you may under certain circumstances very well torture and kill animals just for pleasure. Our present legislation should be amended so as to concur better with current public views on how animals should be treated. The Swedish Committees on Animal Experimentation Ethics were intended to help scientists understand the demands of the public opinion. It is doubtful if they have been successful. The ethics of animal experimentation are perforce centered on the experimenter. He alone, at the final moment, makes the decision whether or not to use and, eventually, to kill the animal. When he kills, he obviously has a reason for doing so, and has decided that the purpose justifies the action. With the very large increase in the number of animal experiments in the last few decades, society has justifiably become increasingly concerned about the ethical considerations involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded.

  18. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  19. A histochemical study of protein-bound SH and SS in chromosomes of hyacinth and fava bean root tips.

    PubMed

    Wiese, D A

    1980-01-01

    Root tips were fixed in ethanol-acetic acid and in neutral formalin containing a mercaptide-forming agent to protect thiols from autoxidation. Serial paraffin sections 2 micrometers thick were labelled for thiols, disulfides and both together with the azogenic maleimide 'APM'. Nuclei were stained somewhat lighter for thiols, and nucleoli much darker, than was the surrounding cytoplasm; disulfide staining was paler and more evenly distributed. However, regardless of the fixative employed, mitotic chromosomes (precisely localized by fluorescent Feulgen counterstaining) contained negligible amounts of either thiols or disulfides. Although published biochemical studies also have indicated low concentrations of cyst(e)inyl residues in chromosomal proteins, the present findings contradict most previous histochemical reports.

  20. pCyP B: a chloroplast-localized, heat shock-responsive cyclophilin from fava bean.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Lane, W S; Schreiber, S L

    1994-06-01

    When the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 bind to their intracellular receptors (immunophillins), they form complexes that bind to calcineurin and block calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways in immune cells. Previously, we reported that higher plants also express immunophilins and have a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathway sensitive to immunophilin-ligand complexes. Based on an N-terminal peptide sequence of a chloroplast-localized cyclophilin (pCyP B), we isolated a cDNA clone encoding the preprotein of the cyclophilin. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA starts with a putative transit sequence for chloroplast targeting. The mature pCyP B protein has rotamase activity with low-substrate specificity. Enzyme activity was inhibited by CsA with an inhibition constant of 3.9 nM. Similar to other CyPs from mammalian cells, pCyP B, when complexed with CsA, inhibited the phosphatase activity of bovine calcineurin. The mRNA level of pCyP B was high in leaf tissue but was not detectable in roots. Expression of the transcript in the leaf tissues was regulated by light and induced by heat shock. These findings illustrate the conserved nature of cyclophilin proteins among all of the eukaryotes and suggest that cyclophilins have a unique mode of regulation in higher plants.

  1. CO(2)-triggered chloride release from guard cells in intact fava bean leaves. Kinetics of the onset of stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Hanstein, Stefan M; Felle, Hubert H

    2002-10-01

    The influence of CO(2) on Cl(-) release from guard cells was investigated within the intact leaf by monitoring the Cl(-) activity in the apoplastic fluid of guard cells with a Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrode. In illuminated leaves adapted to a CO(2) concentration within the cuvette of 350 microL L(-1), an increase of 250 microL L(-1) CO(2) triggered a transient rise in the apoplastic Cl(-) activity from 3 to 14 mM within 10 min. This Cl(-) response was similar to the Cl(-) efflux evoked by turning off the light, when the substomatal CO(2) was kept constant (CO(2) clamp). Without CO(2) clamp, substomatal CO(2) increased by 120 microL L(-1) upon "light off." The response to an increase in CO(2) within the cuvette from 250 to 500 microL L(-1) in dark-adapted leaves was equivalent to the response to an increase from 350 to 600 microL L(-1) in the light. No Cl(-) efflux was triggered by 2-min CO(2) pulses (150-800 microL L(-1)). After a switch from 350 microL L(-1) to CO(2)-free cuvette air, the guard cells were less sensitive to a rise in CO(2) and to light off, but the sensitivity to both stimuli partially recovered. Changes in CO(2) also caused changes of the guard cell apoplastic voltage, which were generally faster than the observed Cl(-) responses, and which also promptly occurred when CO(2) did not initiate Cl(-) efflux. The comparatively slow activation of Cl(-) efflux by CO(2) indicates that an intermediate effector derived from CO(2) has to accumulate to fully activate plasma membrane anion channels of guard cells.

  2. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  3. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  4. An experimenter and his methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonovich, S. R.

    1990-12-01

    A review of experimental works by Ernst Mach has been given. The works reffer to optics and acoustics. The author is representing Ernst Mach as a physicist rather than a phylosopher, which contradicts the point of view obviously accepted in Soviet history of sciences and philosophy.

  5. Skill Development in Experimental Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagán, Héctor; Sayós, Rosa; García, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general…

  6. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  7. The Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Alexander; Ross K. Watkins

    1977-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of work done on the Fraser Experimental Forest. It replaces Station Paper No.8, published in 1952 and revised by L. D. Love in 1960. Included are descriptions of physical features and resource values, and highlights of past and current research programs.

  8. Learning Experimentation through Science Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Jürgen; Lederman, Norman G.; Groß, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are essential for both doing science and learning science. The aim of the German youth science fair, "Jugend forscht," is to encourage scientific thinking and inquiry methods such as experimentation. Based on 57 interviews with participants of the competition, this study summarises students' conceptions and steps of learning…

  9. An Experimental Approach To… Everything!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Taylor; Flowers, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The goal of formal education is student learning. By emphasizing experimentation in the classroom or lab, students learn about the results of a particular inquiry. But more importantly, they learn to refine their approach to learning by creating new knowledge rather than merely remembering what they have been told. An inquiry approach where…

  10. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  11. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  12. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is located in one of the most productive forests of the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old western white pines were important for producing lumber products, matches, and toothpicks. Deception Creek is located in the heart of the western white pine forest type, allowing researchers to focus on the...

  13. Evaluating E-Labs' Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisent, Michel; Maguiraga, Lassana; Bernard, Prosper; Larhrib, Samir

    2004-01-01

    This communication discusses preliminary results on an experimentation of e-Learning with MIS students, mainly in order to cope with the logistics of lab organization. A learning management software was installed which changed completely the learning process, from content to logistics. Students have expressed their satisfaction with the e-Learning…

  14. Learning Experimentation through Science Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Jürgen; Lederman, Norman G.; Groß, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are essential for both doing science and learning science. The aim of the German youth science fair, "Jugend forscht," is to encourage scientific thinking and inquiry methods such as experimentation. Based on 57 interviews with participants of the competition, this study summarises students' conceptions and steps of learning…

  15. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  16. Experimental Disability: A Gestalt Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofaro, Gregory A.; James, Fleming, III

    1980-01-01

    Experimental disability offers rehabilitation counselor educators and trainers a vehicle for developing student-counselor awareness and sensitivity to psychosocial problems of disability. Gestalt counseling techniques, which emphasize the bipolarities of the disability experience, are used to explore the feelings, behaviors, and attitudes…

  17. An Experimental Approach To… Everything!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Taylor; Flowers, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The goal of formal education is student learning. By emphasizing experimentation in the classroom or lab, students learn about the results of a particular inquiry. But more importantly, they learn to refine their approach to learning by creating new knowledge rather than merely remembering what they have been told. An inquiry approach where…

  18. Open Architecture / FORCEnet Experimentation Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-04

    Louis CNI LCS 11OA – FORCEnet Experimentation • Requirements input (SME/warfighters) • Metrics (MOP/MOE) • Data Collection and Analysis Plan ( DCAP ...MOE) • Data Collection and Analysis Plan ( DCAP ) Environment Design • Experiment Architecture • CONOPS/Scenario supporting metrics Fosters Teamwork

  19. Experimental medicine 1000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the roots of experimental medicine in its modern form, including clinical trials and drug-potency studies, first started during the European Renaissance in the 16th to the 18th centuries. This study is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary primary-source investigation of the original Arabic works of 11 Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9th and the 13th centuries. The study critically evaluated and documented their contributions to the development of the scientific method and experimental medicine during that medieval Islamic era in several areas including critical appraisal of previous knowledge, clinical observations and case reports, clinical therapeutic trials, drug potency trials, experimentation on animals, dissection and dissection experiments as well as postmortem examinations. In each of the above-mentioned areas, significant contributions were made during the Medieval Islamic era from as early as the ninth century AD. PMID:21747591

  20. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  1. Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Carman

    2005-02-01

    The present experimental evidence for the existence of light pentaquarks is reviewed, including both positive and null results. I also discuss the CLAS experiments at Jefferson Laboratory that are forthcoming in the near future to address questions regarding existence, mass, width, and other quantum numbers of these five-quark baryon states.

  2. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  3. 47 CFR 73.1510 - Experimental authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... during the experimental period (12 midnight local time to local sunrise) and at additional hours if... experimental transmissions. (d) The FCC may request a report of the research, experimentation and results at...

  4. Rheology of welding: experimental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quane, S. L.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    The rheological behavior of pyroclastic deposits during welding is incompletely understood and is based on a surprisingly small number of experimental studies. Previous pioneering experimental studies were done on small (1 cm thick) samples of ash/crystal mixtures under constant load. They established minimum welding temperatures between 600 and 700^oC under loads of 0.7 MPa (˜40 m of ignimbrite) to 3.6 MPa (˜250 m depth of ignimbrite). However, these data are neither sufficiently comprehensive nor coherent enough to fully describe the rheology of pyroclastic mixtures. In addition, previous studies did not examine the microstructural and geometric changes associated with welding compaction. Our goal is to provide accurate and comprehensive constitutive relationships between material properties, temperature, load and strain rate for pyroclastic material undergoing welding. Here we present results from a newly designed experimental apparatus. The experimental apparatus consists of a LoadTrac II fully automated uniaxial compression load frame manufactured by Geocomp Corporation. The load frame has a built in displacement transducer and can run both constant strain rate (10-6 to 0.25 cm/s) and constant load (up to 1150 kg) tests to a maximum displacement of 7.5 cm. The sample assembly comprises 5 cm diameter cylindrical upper and lower pistons (insulating ceramic with steel conductive ends) housed in a copper jacket. Samples are 5 cm diameter cores and can vary in length from 1 to 15 cm depending on experimental needs. A fiber insulated tube furnace capable of reaching temperatures ≈1000^oC surrounds the sample assembly. Temperature is measured using a thermocouple located inside the sample through the bottom piston; the furnace controller is capable of maintaining temperature fluctuations to <5^oC. Deformation experiments are performed on pre-fabricated cylinders of soda-lime glass beads and rhyolitic volcanic ash, as well as, cores of pumiceous rhyodacite

  5. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  6. Experimental coevolution of species interactions.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Koskella, Britt

    2013-06-01

    Coevolution, the process of reciprocal adaptation and counter-adaptation between ecologically interacting species, affects most organisms and is considered a key force structuring biological diversity. Our understanding of the pattern and process of coevolution, particularly of antagonistic species interactions, has been hugely advanced in recent years by an upsurge in experimental studies that directly observe coevolution in the laboratory. These experiments pose new questions by revealing novel facets of the coevolutionary process not captured by current theory, while also providing the first empirical tests of longstanding coevolutionary ideas, including the influential Red Queen hypothesis. In this article, we highlight emerging directions for this field, including experimental coevolution of mutualistic interactions and understanding how pairwise coevolutionary processes scale up within species-rich communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Melioration and self-experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Neuringer, Allen

    1984-01-01

    Operant researchers rarely use the arena of applied psychology to motivate or to judge their research. Absence of tests by application weakens the field of basic operant research. Early in their development, the physical and biological sciences emphasized meliorative aspects of research. Improvement of human life was a major goal of these young sciences. This paper argues that if basic operant researchers analogously invoked a melioration criterion, the operant field might avoid its tendency toward ingrowth and instead generate a broadly influential science. Operant researchers could incorporate melioration by (a) creating animal models to study applied problems; (b) confronting questions raised by applied analysts and testing hypotheses in applied settings; or (c) performing self-experiments—that is, using experimental methods and behavioral techniques to study and change the experimenter's behavior. PMID:16812398

  8. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  9. [Experimental treatment or medical research?].

    PubMed

    Ploem, M C Corette; Terwiel, Jim

    2010-01-01

    If in the Netherlands a doctor offers experimental treatment to patients purely because it is in their patients' best interest, thus without serving any scientific goal, this does not fall under the scope of the Dutch Medical Research involving Human Subjects Act (WMO), but under specifications on the medical treatment agreement (WGBO) laid down in the civil code. If the doctor deviates from professional standards and the current protocols and guidelines, he or she must be able to account for that. The WMO applies as soon as doctors offer experimental treatments within the context of a research protocol, or perform research interventions such as randomization or the removal of extra tissue. Then specific provisions regarding medical ethical protocol review and written informed consent should be met.

  10. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  11. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  12. Multimodal MRI of experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Brain imaging data from experimental stroke models and stroke patients have shown that there is often a gradual progression of potentially reversible ischemic injury toward infarction. Reestablishing tissue perfusion and/or treating with neuroprotective drugs in a timely fashion are expected to salvage some ischemic tissues. Diffusion-weighted imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in which contrast is based on water motion can detect ischemic injury within minutes after onsets, whereas computed tomography and other imaging modalities fail to detect stroke injury for at least a few hours. Along with quantitative perfusion imaging, the perfusion-diffusion mismatch which approximates the ischemic penumbra could be imaged non-invasively. This review describes recent progresses in the development and application of multimodal MRI and image analysis techniques to study ischemic tissue at risk in experimental stroke in rats. PMID:24323751

  13. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

    2016-10-01

    The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Experimental Determination of Ramsey Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  15. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  16. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  17. [Histopathologic studies in experimental uveitis].

    PubMed

    Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Woźniak, Zdzisław; Szymaniec, Stanisław; Lugowski, Czesław; Agopsowicz, Karolina

    2004-01-01

    Experimental uveitis is one of the main models in the diseases of autoimmunological background. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the quantitative histological changes in the experimental uveitis, induced by different types of homogenous endotoxin salts of Havnia alvei. We studied 74 eyes of Lewis rats (males) divided into 4 groups. Each group received a homogenous salt of Havnia alvei in a single subcutaneous injection. In the 1 group-LPS Ca++, in 2 group-LPS Na++, in 3 group-LPS 981, in 4 group physiological salt (control group). The histologic and immunocitochemical examinations were performed after 24, 48 hours, and after 4 and 7 days following the injection. The histologic changes were analyzed (he intensity of inflammatory reaction) using a Highly Optimazed Microscope Enviroment system. The most intensive inflammation was observed in experimental group after 24 hours (n the LPS 981D group in 5 rats out of 6, in LPS Ca++ group in 3 rats out of 6). After 48 hours the intensity of inflammatory reaction visibly decreased. On the fourth day the inflammation revealed a minimal intensity and after 7 days was practically absent. In the control group minimal inflammation was observed only in a few rats. Cilliary body hypermia was present for 48 hours in most of the experimental rats. Only a few of them had hyperemia on the fourth day. In the posterior segment minimal inflammation was noted at the end of the first day (I and II-nd group after 24 hours); this process continued until the fourth day, on the 7th day disappeared. The most intensive inflammation of the anterior and posterior choroidal segment is caused by homogenous salts of Havnia alvei 981.

  18. Data archiving in experimental physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L.R.; Watson, W. III; Bickley, M. |; Clausen, M. |

    1998-07-01

    In experimental physics, data is archived from a wide variety of sources and used for a wide variety of purposes. In each of these environments, trade-offs are made between data storage rate, data availability, and retrieval rate. This paper presents archive alternatives in EPICS, the overall archiver design and details on the data collection and retrieval requirements, performance studies, design choices, design alternatives, and measurements made on the beta version of the archiver.

  19. Starkey experimental forest and range.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2004-01-01

    The Starkey Experimental Forest and Range. (Starkey) is a one-of-a-kind, world class research facility, located in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Starkey is the primary field location for scientific study of the effects of deer, elk, and cattle on ecosystems. Most of the 28,000-acre forest and range is enclosed by a game-proof fence.The research...

  20. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  1. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Nonisothermal hydrologic transport experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1992-09-01

    A field heater experimental plan is presented for investigating hydrologic transport processes in unsaturated fractured rock related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground repository. The experimental plan provides a methodology for obtaining data required for evaluating conceptual and computer models related to HLW isolation in an environment where significant heat energy is produced. Coupled-process models are currently limited by the lack of validation data appropriate for field scales that incorporate relevant transport processes. Presented in this document is a discussion of previous nonisothermal experiments. Processes expected to dominate heat-driven liquid, vapor, gas, and solute flow during the experiment are explained, and the conceptual model for nonisothermal flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock is described. Of particular concern is the ability to confirm the hypothesized conceptual model specifically, the establishment of higher water saturation zones within the host rock around the heat source, and the establishment of countercurrent flow conditions within the host rock near the heat source. Field experimental plans are presented using the Apache Leap Tuff Site to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology. Both small-scale preliminary experiments and a long-term experiment are described.

  3. Experimental Crystallization of Yamato 980459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.; Galenas, M. G.; Danielson, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, only two martian meteorites QUE 94201 (QUE) and Yamato 980459 (Y98) have been experimentally shown to me true melt compositions. Most martian meteorites are instead, cumulates or partial cumulates. We have performed experiments on a Y98 composition to assess whether QUE could be related to Y98 by some fractionation process [1]. Y98 is a basaltic shergottite from the SNC (Shergotty, Nakhla, Chassigny) meteorite group. Y98 is composed of 26% olivine, 48% pyroxene, 25% mesostasis, and no plagioclase [2]. The large size of the olivine megacrysts and absence of plagioclase suggest that the parental melt which formed this meteorite had begun cooling slowly until some mechanism, such as magma ascent, caused rapid cooling [3]. Y98 s olivines have the highest Mg content of all the shergottites suggesting that it is the most primitive [4]. Y98 has been determined to be a melt composition by comparing the composition of experimental liquidus olivines with the composition of the cores of Y98 olivines [4]. The liquidus of Y98 is predicted by MELTS [5] and by experimentation [6] to be 1450 C. Analyses of Y98 show it to be very depleted in LREEs and it has similar depleted patterns as other shergottites such as QUE [7].

  4. Experimental Studies on Rutile Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Klemme, S.; Butler, I. B.; Harley, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Rutile (TiO2) is an important high field strength element (HFSE) sequestering mineral, and has been implicated in the observed depletion of HFSE in arc magmas. It is thought that rutile is insoluble in slab-derived fluids, and remains residual in the subducted slab. Indeed, experimental data indicates a very low solubility of rutile in pure H2O (Tropper and Manning, 2005), and this low solubility may result in HFSE depleted fluids imparting a depleted signature to arc magmas. However, there is scant experimental data available on rutile solubility in fluids of more complex compositions (Ayers and Watson, 1993). We are carrying out a systematic experimental study into the effect of specific chemical components on rutile solubility in fluids and also silicate melts. This should further our understanding of HFSE mobility in metamorphic rocks within subduction zones. References: J. C. Ayers and E. B. Watson (1993) Rutile solubility in supercritical aqueous fluids and the high P-T mobility of elements it concentrates. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 114, 321-330. P. Tropper and C. E. Manning (2005) Very low solubility of rutile in H2O at high pressure and temperature, and its implications for Ti mobility in subduction zones. American Mineralogist 90(2-3), 502-505.

  5. Moriond QCD 2013 Experimental Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, Dmitri

    2013-06-28

    The article presents experimental highlights of Moriond 2013 QCD conference. This was fantastic conference and the first Moriond QCD since the discovery of the Higgs boson. Many new results about its properties have been presented at the conference with Higgs-like particle becoming a Higgs as it properties match expected for the Higgs boson pretty well. There were many new results presented in all experimental areas including QCD, elecroweak, studies of the top, bottom and charm quarks, searches for physics beyond Standard Model as well as studies of the heavy ion collisions. 56 experimental talks have been presented at the conference and it is impossible to cover each result in the summary, so highlights are limited to what I was able to present in my summary talk presented on March 16 2013. The proceedings of the conference cover in depth all talks presented and I urge you to get familiar with all of them. Theoretical Summary of the conference was given by Michelangelo Mangano, so theory talks are not covered in the article.

  6. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  7. Joint Experimentation on Scalable Parallel Processors (JESPP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    constructive simulation runs and live tests). The nature of joint experimentation relies on a discovery -type of approach when dealing with 2015 (or later...Continuous Experimentation Environment gets underway in 2004. Analysis vs. Discovery Before describing the joint experimentation data...collection strategy, a short description of the difference between analysis and discovery experimentation is warranted. Analytical data is largely derived

  8. Problems of the experimental implementation of MTJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaletskiy, L. A.; Rudy, A. S.; Trushin, O. S.; Naumov, V. V.; Mironenko, A. A.; Vasilev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of MRAM technology based on standard magnetic tunneling junctions are presented. Basic steps of experimental fabrication of MRAM cell are considered. Experimental samples of MTJ with variable lateral sizes are fabricated. Current-voltage characteristics of the tunnel barriers are investigated. Main parameters of the tunnel barriers are estimated from comparison of the experimental data with the theory.

  9. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Radder, Hans

    2009-10-29

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science.

  10. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  11. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  12. Experimental Cryosurgery Investigations In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gage, A.A.; Baust, J.M.; Baust, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cryosurgery is the use of freezing temperatures to elicit an ablative response in a targeted tissue. This review provides a global overview of experimentation in vivo which has been the basis of advancement of this widely applied therapeutic option. The cellular and tissue-related events that underlie the mechanisms of destruction, including direct cell injury (cryolysis), vascular stasis, apoptosis and necrosis, are described and are related to the optimal methods of technique of freezing to achieve efficacious therapy. In vivo experiments with major organs, including wound healing, the putative immunological response following thawing, and the use of cryoadjunctive strategies to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to freezing, are described. PMID:19833119

  13. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  14. NATO IST 124 Experimentation Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-10

    machine templates built to run the scenario defined by the NATO-IST-124 panel; and flexible scripting and EMANE configuration files that give users the...virtual machine (EMANE_9.2.1_13G) is registered with DAVC version 2.0. • Users have access to the NATO-IST-124 experimentation package (nato...EMANE_9.2_13G” virtual machine with the following 2 networks: 172.15.0.0/24 and 172.16.0.0/24 (Figs. 2 and 3). Approved for public release

  15. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. (Specialized Interface)

  16. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.; Intrieri, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests are currently being conducted at the Ames Research Center. These tests are intended to investigate the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of two basic configurations, which are: the blunt-cone Galileo probe which is scheduled to be launched in late 1989 and will enter the atmosphere of Jupiter in 1994, and a generic slender cone configuration to provide experimental aerodynamic data including good flow-field definition which computational aerodynamicists could use to validate their computer codes. Some of the results obtained thus far are presented and work for the near future is discussed.

  17. Experimental therapeutics in the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Norton, Stata

    2003-02-01

    Detailed accounts of therapeutics at the time of the European Renaissance written by the participants have not survived in large numbers. One manuscript, dated 1562, was written by friars in a religious order in Italy dedicated to the care of the sick. Their remedies, methods of preparation, and uses were detailed by the friars and offer a glimpse into the beginnings of experimentation with drugs and rejection of tradition and authority in determining the effectiveness of a remedy. These developing concepts were combined in the manuscript with traditional treatments dating back through the Middle Ages to the medical methods of Greece and Rome.

  18. Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.

  19. Experimental studies of glass refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.; Kondos, P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic components of the experimental apparatus were selected and acquired. Techniques were developed for the fabrication of the special crucibles necessary for the experiments. Arrangements were made for the analysis of glass and gas bubble samples for composition information. Donations of major equipment were received for this project from Owens, Illinois where a similar study had been conducted a few year ago. Decisions were made regarding the actual glass composition to be used, the gas to be used in the first experiments, and the temperatures at which the experiments should be conducted. A microcomputer was acquired, and work was begun on interfacing the video analyzer to it.

  20. SAA drift:experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Kudela, K.; Romashova, V. V.; Drozdov, A. Yu.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth's magnetic field connected with magnetic momentum changing. Besides these variations affects on the trapped belt South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations including Space Shuttle short-time flights approved the existence SAA westward drift with speed 0.1-1.0 (deg/year) and northward drift with speed approximately 0.1 (deg/year). In this work we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in SINP MSU in 1972-2003 from different satellites. There were analyzed the fluxes of protons with energy > 50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy > 500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1-1.0 MeV in SAA area and their maxima location. The data about fluxes were obtained onboard the orbital stations ``Salut-6'' (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the identical experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact of the SAA westward drift. Moreover the same analysis of maximum flux location of electrons with hundreds keV energy (satellites ``Kosmos-484'' (1972), ``Interkosmos-17'' (1977) and ``Activny'' (``Interkosmos-24'', 1991)) confirmed not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  1. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  2. [Experimental models of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is a severe disease with high mortality. Clinical studies can bring some data about etiology, pathogenesis and the course of acute pancreatitis. However, studies concerning early events of this disease and the new concepts of treatment cannot be performed on humans, due to ethical reasons. Animal models of acute pancreatitis have been developed to solve this problem. This review presents currently used experimental models of acute pancreatitis, their properties and clinical relevance. Experimental models of acute pancreatitis can be divided into in vivo (non-invasive and invasive) and ex vivo models. The onset, development, severity and extent of acute pancreatitis, as well as the mortality, vary considerably between these different models. Animal models reproducibly produce mild, moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. One of the most commonly used models of acute pancreatitis is created by administration of supramaximal doses of cerulein, an analog of cholecystokinin. This model produces acute mild edematous pancreatitis in rats, whereas administration of cerulein in mice leads to the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis evoked by retrograde administration of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct is the most often used model of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Ex vivo models allow to eliminate the influence of hormonal and nervous factors on the development of acute pancreatitis.

  3. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  4. X-38 Experimental Controls Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Steve; Estes, Jay; Bordano, Aldo J.

    2000-01-01

    X-38 Experimental Control Laws X-38 is a NASA JSC/DFRC experimental flight test program developing a series of prototypes for an International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle, often called an ISS "lifeboat." X- 38 Vehicle 132 Free Flight 3, currently scheduled for the end of this month, will be the first flight test of a modem FCS architecture called Multi-Application Control-Honeywell (MACH), originally developed by the Honeywell Technology Center. MACH wraps classical P&I outer attitude loops around a modem dynamic inversion attitude rate loop. The dynamic inversion process requires that the flight computer have an onboard aircraft model of expected vehicle dynamics based upon the aerodynamic database. Dynamic inversion is computationally intensive, so some timing modifications were made to implement MACH on the slower flight computers of the subsonic test vehicles. In addition to linear stability margin analyses and high fidelity 6-DOF simulation, hardware-in-the-loop testing is used to verify the implementation of MACH and its robustness to aerodynamic and environmental uncertainties and disturbances.

  5. Experimental telemanipulation in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Schurr, M O; Breitwieser, H; Melzer, A; Kunert, W; Schmitt, M; Voges, U; Buess, G

    1996-06-01

    Today's rigid endoscopic instruments limit the intracorporeal mobility of the surgical tool and are a severe impediment for the further spread of endoscopic techniques in operative medicine. Since 1992 flexible, steerable instruments with additional links for pivoting and rotating the tip have been developed and experimentally evaluated. The latest versions of this series of instruments are equipped with electromotors for better handling. The next aim in this development is a fully mobile telemanipulator with six motion axes dedicated to use in endoscopic surgery. Its first tests are planned for 1995. For successful operation of an electric telemanipulator, the man-machine interface (MMI) is of cardinal importance. For the definition of surgical requirements for the MMI, a conventional master-slave manipulator designed for technical application was modified for use in guiding a laparoscopic instrument. Master and slave sites of the system were 1.3 km apart and linked by means of a fiber-optic cable. Using this modified telepresence system, remote laparoscopic cholecystectomy was feasible in a phantom model. In a standardized test series using a test parcours, different parameters of the control system were modified, and their influence on the execution time of the parcours tasks was recorded. Well-suited parameter configurations were found and allowed experimental verification and completion of the important aspects of our concepts for development of an endoscopic manipulator MMI.

  6. Experimental approach to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Leifels, Yvonne

    2014-05-09

    The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is of fundamental importance in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics In the laboratory, there are different means to study the nuclearmatter equation of state and its density dependence in particular: nuclear masses, neutron skins, pygmy resonance, and nuclear structure at the drip line give access to nuclear matter properties at densities lower than and at saturation density ρ0. Heavy ion reactions at energies above 0.1 AGeV are the only means to study nuclear matter at densities larger than normal nuclear matter density ρ0. In the beamenergy range of 0.1 to 2A GeV nuclear matter is compressed upto three times ρ0. Access to nuclear matter properties is achieved by simulating nuclear collisions by means of microscopic transport codes, or statistical or hydrodynamicalmodels. Characteristics of heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and experimental observables which allow to constrain nuclear matter properties by comparing experimental results with those of transport codes are presented. Special emphasis will be given to the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is the most relevant connection between neutron stars and heavy ion collisions.

  7. Experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Argumedo, G S; Sanz, C R; Olguín, H J

    2012-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a systemic disease resulting from either thyroid gland's anatomical and functional absence or lack of hypophyseal stimulation, both of which can lead to deficiency in thyroid hormone (TH) production. TH is essential for human and animal development, growth, and function of multiple organs. Children with deficient TH can develop alterations in central nervous system (CNS), striated muscle, bone tissue, liver, bone marrow, and cardiorespiratory system. Among the clinical outlook are signs like breathing difficulty, cardiac insufficiency, dysphagia, and repeated bronchial aspiration, constipation, muscle weakness, cognitive alterations, cochlear dysfunction, reduced height, defects in temperature regulation, anaemia, jaundice, susceptibility to infection, and others. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that TH is very essential for normal brain development. Other research work based on mice pointed out that a reduced level of TH in pregnant mother leads to congenital hypothyroidism in animal models and it is associated with mental retardation, deep neurologic deficiency that impacts on cognitive, learning, and memory functions. The principal experimental model studies that have focused on hypothyroidism are reviewed in this study. This is important on considering the fact that almost all animal species require thyroid hormones for their metabolism.

  8. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  9. Experimental stress remagnetization of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.

    1996-09-01

    Pseudo-single-domain (PSD) and multidomain (MD) magnetite grains remagnetize in weak magnetic field (30 μT) during experimental triaxial deformation. The magnetite is supported in a calcite-cement matrix. Minor remagnetization occurs with hydrostatic stress of 100 MPa. Significant remagnetization requires hydrostatic pressure of 150 MPa with differential stress of ≥5 MPa superposed on the sample. Intergranular differential stresses must be much higher due to amplification at grain asperities. Stress remagnetization does not need chemical or thermal energy. New components of magnetic remanence are added parallel to the remagnetizing field. However, this only happens in grains or parts of grains with coercivities of remanence < 15 and > 60 mT. Grains with coercivities of 20-55 mT remember the primary magnetization and are not stress magnetized. These coercivity limits do not depend on the differential stress or strain rate of the experiment. The spatial distribution of vector components of remanence was isolated by AF demagnetization. After deforming a magnetized sample, the components of remanence spread along a partial great circle between the initial remanence and the direction of the remagnetizing field. The directions of the original magnetization and the remagnetizing field are the only factors controlling the course of the remagnetization path. Triaxial deformation shortened these samples by < 17%. Thus, grain rotation fails to explain the changes in directions of magnetism. The remagnetization is attributed to the low field during stress deflection of domain walls that were possibly locked in place by deformation features. If the experimental results are transferable to nature, it is possible that a pulse of excess crustal stress > 25 MPa could partially remagnetize low-dislocation-density magnetite. The experiments show that the directions of the remagnetizing field and the primary magnetization are the only variables that affect the demagnetization

  10. The beginnings of experimental petrology.

    PubMed

    Eugster, H P

    1971-08-06

    Van't Hoff's work constitutes the first systematic contribution to experimental petrology. At all times, the problem was perceived as geologic in nature and the laboratory results were checked against natural assemblages whenever possible. The phase rule was not used, nor, for that matter, was chemical thermodynamics, except for the Van't Hoff equation. However, the work of Van't Hoff and Van Deventer was indirectly involved in the evolution of phase theory by Roozeboom, Van Rijn van Alkemade, and Schreinemakers. Meyerhoffer himself wrote the first text explicitly devoted to the phase rule. The impact of Van't Hoff's study was enormous, but it was restricted to those geologists willing and able to cope with chemistry. Foremost among them were igneous petrologists who had long since accepted chemical arguments for classification purposes. I consider the Geophysical Laboratory program to be the most direct heir of the Van't Hoff approach. Although the shape of that program was formulated independently by Van Hise, Becker, Day, and others, the inspiration they derived from Van't Hoff's successes is clearly acknowledged. The study of the fusion of plagioclases by Day and Allen (41), which directly led to the authorization for the Geophysical Laboratory, was the igneous counterpart of Van't Hoff's low-temperature experimental petrology. On metamorphic petrology, too, Van't Hoff left his mark, with V. M. Goldschmidt acting as his disciple. The interpretation of the Kristiania contact rocks was explicitly based on Van't Hoff's double salt law in preference to the phase rule. Sedimentologists remained unaffected and continued their preoccupation with description and classification. Chemical arguments remained subordinate in their work and of an elementary nature, underscoring the chasm between "hard" rocks and "soft" rocks. This gulf is only now beginning to close as a result of the blossoming of experimental petrology and geochemistry since World War II. At last the

  11. 'Impulsar': Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2008-04-28

    The Objective of the 'Impulsar' project is to accomplish a circle of experimental, engineering and technological works on creation of a high efficiency laser rocket engine. The project includes many organizations of the rocket industry and Academy of Sciences of Russia. High repetition rate pulse-periodic CO{sub 2} laser system project for launching will be presented. Optical system for 15 MW laser energy delivery and optical matrix of laser engine receiver will by discussed as well. Basic characteristics of the laser-based engine will be compared with theoretical predictions and important stages of further technology implementation (low frequency resonance). Relying on a wide cooperation of different branches of science and industry organizations it is very possible to use the accumulated potential for launching of nano-vehicles during the upcoming 4-5 years.

  12. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Lane-Petter, W

    1976-09-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee.

  13. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  14. [Experimental study of vestibular neurectomy].

    PubMed

    Pech, A; Cannoni, M; Appaix, M; Cahier, S; Lacour, M; Roll, J P

    1976-06-01

    The authors describe an experimental study carried out on baboons. After unilateral vestibular neurectomy, the behaviour disorders on the one hand, and on the other, modifications and temporal development of reflex muotatic excitability of the spine using Hoffmann's reflex method are analyzed. As far as behaviour is concerned, a four-day period of motor restriction following the operation causes more marked residual disorders in comparison with controls. From the neurophysiological point of view, neurectomy results in seriously disordered spinal reflexes characterized by ipsilateral hypo-excitability developing in there stages: a tw-day initial critical phase during which the disorders are at their worst, a four-day recuperative stage with partial regression of the disorders, finally a chronic compensation stage in which spinal excitability returns to normal after several months.

  15. Experimental contextuality in classical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-03-01

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright’s inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.

  16. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Dijkman, Karin; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A; Kap, Yolanda S

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset, a small-bodied Neotropical primate, is a well-known and validated animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). This model can be used for exploratory research, i.e., investigating the pathogenic mechanisms involved in MS, and applied research, testing the efficacy of new potential drugs.In this chapter, we will describe a method to induce EAE in the marmoset. In addition, we will explain the most common immunological techniques involved in the marmoset EAE research, namely isolation of mononuclear cells (MNC) from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue, assaying T cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation, MNC phenotyping by flow cytometry, antibody measurement by ELISA, generation of B cell lines and antigen-specific T cell lines, and assaying cytotoxic T cells.

  17. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  18. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    ScienceCinema

    Roberts, Tom [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  19. Experimental computation with oscillatory integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-06-26

    A previous study by one of the present authors, together with D. Borwein and I. Leonard [8], studied the asymptotic behavior of the p-norm of the sinc function: sinc(x) = (sin x)/x and along the way looked at closed forms for integer values of p. In this study we address these integrals with the tools of experimental mathematics, namely by computing their numerical values to high precision, both as a challenge in itself, and also in an attempt to recognize the numerical values as closed-form constants. With this approach, we are able to reproduce several of the results of [8] and to find new results, both numeric and analytic, that go beyond the previous study.

  20. Experimental compressive phase space tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Lee, Justin; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

    2012-01-01

    Phase space tomography estimates correlation functions entirely from snapshots in the evolution of the wave function along a time or space variable. In contrast, traditional interferometric methods require measurement of multiple two–point correlations. However, as in every tomographic formulation, undersampling poses a severe limitation. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of compressive reconstruction of the classical optical correlation function, i.e. the mutual intensity function. Our compressive algorithm makes explicit use of the physically justifiable assumption of a low–entropy source (or state.) Since the source was directly accessible in our classical experiment, we were able to compare the compressive estimate of the mutual intensity to an independent ground–truth estimate from the van Cittert–Zernike theorem and verify substantial quantitative improvements in the reconstruction. PMID:22513541

  1. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  2. Overview of Experimental Capabilities - Supersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of experimental capabilities applicable to the area of supersonic research. The contents include: 1) EC Objectives; 2) SUP.11: Elements; 3) NRA; 4) Advanced Flight Simulator Flexible Aircraft Simulation Studies; 5) Advanced Flight Simulator Flying Qualities Guideline Development for Flexible Supersonic Transport Aircraft; 6) Advanced Flight Simulator Rigid/Flex Flight Control; 7) Advanced Flight Simulator Rapid Sim Model Exchange; 8) Flight Test Capabilities Advanced In-Flight Infrared (IR) Thermography; 9) Flight Test Capabilities In-Flight Schlieren; 10) Flight Test Capabilities CLIP Flow Calibration; 11) Flight Test Capabilities PFTF Flowfield Survey; 12) Ground Test Capabilities Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics (LITA); 13) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); 14) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); and 15) Ground Test Capabilities EDL Optical Measurement Capability (PIV) for Rigid/Flexible Decelerator Models.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Microstructured Evaporators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibel, W.; Westermann, S.; Maikowske, S.; Brandner, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Microfluidic devices have become more and more popular over the last decades [1]. Cooling is a topic where microstructures offer significant advantages compared to conventional techniques due the much higher possible surface to volume ratios and short heat transfer lengths. By evaporating of a fluid in microchannels, compact, fast and powerful cooling devices become possible [2]. Experimental results for different designs of microstructured evaporators are presented here. They have been obtained either using water as evaporating coolant or the refrigerant R134a (Tetrafluoroethane). A new microstructured evaporator design consisting of bended microchannels instead of straight channels for a better performance is shown and compared to previous results [2] for the evaporation of R134a in straight microchannels.

  4. A device for experimental radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bova, F; Spiegelmann, R; Friedman, W A

    1991-01-01

    As radiosurgery evolves into a widely available treatment modality for a variety of intracranial lesions, the need for basic research concerning the radiobiology of high-dose single-fraction ionizing radiation becomes crucial. A device especially designed for experimental radiosurgery in the cat is described. It incorporates basic parts of the Kopf stereotactic frame for accurate target positioning. A motorized pendular movement of the machine is used to describe a radiation arc, while the radiation source (either a linear accelerator or a cobalt machine) remains stationary. The pathway of the different radiation arcs is modified by rotation of the animal platform around the machine isocenter. Mechanical accuracy tests have shown a maximal alignment error of 0.15 mm, comparing favorably with that reported for modern clinical radiosurgical systems.

  5. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  6. CHLORIDE RETENTION IN EXPERIMENTAL HYDRONEPHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Norman M.; Pulford, D. Schuyler

    1923-01-01

    1. In acute experimental hydronephrosis chloride retention occurs as well as retention of water, urea, and phenolsulfonephthalein. 2. If both water and chlorides are retained there may be no appreciable rise in the plasma chloride content. 3. When chlorides are retained, but not water, the chloride content of the plasma rises strikingly. 4. After the removal of the ureteral obstruction in acute hydronephrosis all renal functions, water, urea, and chloride excretion, may be rapidly restored in equal degree, or the chlorides may be retained temporarily while there is free excretion of water and urea. 5. In chronic hydronephrosis adequate daily excretion of urea and chlorides may be maintained by a compensatory polyuria. 6. Chloride retention or an abnormal chloride excretion may occur in certain renal lesions when there is no change in the urea, phenolsulfonephthalein, or water excretion. PMID:19868720

  7. [Experimental coronary stenoses and occlusions].

    PubMed

    Neef, H; Pannwitz, H G; Pauer, H D; Bretschneider, G; Beschauner, B; Gabriel, G; Kentsch, G

    1977-01-01

    A constrictor for experimentally inducing stenoses and obstructions of the coronary artery is described. Smallness, good adaptability to every vascular diameter, atraumatic insertion, and slow swelling are its advantages. Within 12 months a coronary artery could be constricted by two thirds. In one third of the cases the lumen was narrowed by more than 75 per cent. Just 50 per cent of the cases showed chronic infarction after coronary obstruction, the other half developed differently marked myocardiac fibrosis. At high-degree narrowing of the arteries, 75 per cent of the cases showed disseminated myocardiac fibrosis. The occlusion of the vessel is caused by constrictor, by fibroplastic alteration of the vascular wall, and by thrombosis. Different degrees of myocardiac ischemia are sequelae of different development of collaterals. The constrictor may be used for studies on the development of collaterals as well as on therapeutic measures in chronic ischemia of the myocardium.

  8. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  9. Experimental applications of smart composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Yang, Qiang; MacDonald, Douglas O.; Westhaver, Paul A. D.

    1997-03-01

    The issues of fabrication, evaluation and experimental testing of smart composites are discussed. The technology for the fabrication of fiber reinforced polymer composites with embedded fiber optic sensors is developed. Smart composites are produced by a custom built pultruder. It is shown that the mechanical properties of pultruded carbon reinforced composites with and without optical fiber are superior to that of pultruded glass analogue. The embedded optical fibers do not have significant effect on the tensile properties of pultruded FRP, but they deteriorate the shear strength of composites. Polyimide coating on optical fiber results in a good interface between optical fiber and host material; whereas acrylate coating cannot withstand the high production temperature and causes sever debonding of optical fiber and resin. The specific application in view is the use of smart reinforcements for innovative concrete structures.

  10. VENUS-2 Experimental Benchmark Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    The VENUS critical facility is a zero power reactor located at SCK-CEN, Mol, Belgium, which for the VENUS-2 experiment utilized a mixed-oxide core with near-weapons-grade plutonium. In addition to the VENUS-2 Core, additional computational variants based on each type of fuel cycle VENUS-2 core (3.3 wt. % UO{sub 2}, 4.0 wt. % UO{sub 2}, and 2.0/2.7 wt.% MOX) were also calculated. The VENUS-2 critical configuration and cell variants have been calculated with MCU-REA, which is a continuous energy Monte Carlo code system developed at Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' and is used extensively in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The calculations resulted in a k{sub eff} of 0.99652 {+-} 0.00025 and relative pin powers within 2% for UO{sub 2} pins and 3% for MOX pins of the experimental values.

  11. Experimental subjects are not different

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M.; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this “particular” subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  12. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma☆

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L.; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

  13. Experimental Ten-Photon Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, W.; Huang, H.-L.; Liu, C.; Chen, C.; Luo, Y.-H.; Su, Z.-E.; Wu, D.; Li, Z.-D.; Lu, H.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, X.; Peng, C.-Z.; Li, L.; Liu, N.-L.; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement among ten spatially separated single photons. A near-optimal entangled photon-pair source was developed with simultaneously a source brightness of ˜12 MHz /W , a collection efficiency of ˜70 % , and an indistinguishability of ˜91 % between independent photons, which was used for a step-by-step engineering of multiphoton entanglement. Under a pump power of 0.57 W, the ten-photon count rate was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to previous experiments, while maintaining a state fidelity sufficiently high for proving the genuine ten-particle entanglement. Our work created a state-of-the-art platform for multiphoton experiments, and enabled technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks, such as the realization of Shor's error correction code and high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling.

  14. [Experimental models of Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, R; del Val-Fernández, J; Catalán-Alonso, M J; Barcia-Albacar, J A; Matías-Guiu, J

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease caused by triplet repetition in exon 1 of the huntingtin protein located in chromosome 4. Medium spiny neurons in the striatum are selectively affected. Clinical manifestations include progressive behavioural, motor and cognitive disorders. There is no treatment available today capable of modifying the natural course of the disease. A great amount of research work is being carried out, much of which involves animal models of the disease. We reviewed the articles published in PubMed on basic research into HD and analysed the most frequently used models. Transgenic mouse models, excitotoxic models, transgenic fly models and cell cultures are all used in studies into HD. The advantages and disadvantages of each of them are highlighted. The contribution made by each model of HD must be known in order to draw up a correct design in experimental studies of the disease.

  15. Experimental Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, David

    2012-07-01

    Our knowledge of the γ-ray sky has dramatically changed due to the advent of the new ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VEPJTAS) and the satellite-borne instruments (AGILE and Fermi). These facilities boosted the number of γ-ray sources by one order of magnitude in the last 6 years, providing us with about 2000 sources detected above 100 MeV (from space) and about 100 sources detected above 100 GeV (from the ground). The combination of this large leap in experimental capabilities together with the fact that the Universe is still quite unexplored at these extreme energies is evidence of a large scientific discovery potential that will surely make the decade 2010-2020 a golden age for γ-ray astronomy. In this manuscript I provide a subjective review of some of the most exciting observations from this rapidly evolving field during the last two years.

  16. Experimental contextuality in classical light.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-03-14

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright's inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.

  17. Experimental contextuality in classical light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright’s inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields. PMID:28291227

  18. Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G

    2008-11-14

    Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.

  19. Loxiglumide protects against experimental pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Setnikar, I; Bani, M; Cereda, R; Chisté, R; Makovec, F; Pacini, M A; Revel, L

    1987-10-01

    Loxiglumide (D,L-4-(3,4-dichloro-benzoylamino)- 5-(N-3-methoxypropyl-pentylamino)-5-oxo-pentanoic acid, CR 1505) is a derivative of pentanoic acid and belongs to a newly discovered class of agents with cholecystokinin antagonistic activities. Loxiglumide has preventive effects on different types of experimental pancreatitis, induced e.g. by ceruletide (i.p. ED50 ca. 9 mumol/kg), by intrapancreatic taurocholate (i.p. ED50 ca. 80 mumol/kg) or by choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet (i.p. ED50 ca. 45 mumol/kg). Loxiglumide has a simple, non-polypeptidic chemical structure and may be a candidate for clinical investigations in man, e.g. for pancreatitis.

  20. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  1. TOOTH GROWTH IN EXPERIMENTAL SCURVY

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, Gilbert; Zall, Celia

    1930-01-01

    1. The incisor teeth of guinea pigs have a constant rate of growth in health. 2. Deprivation of Vitamin C causes the teeth to cease growing. Readministration of the vitamin restores the growth. 3. Administration of small amounts of antiscorbutic substance results in rates of growth roughly proportional to dosage. 4. Under standard experimental conditions used in the testing of foodstuffs for antiscorbutic value, the rate of tooth growth would appear to be a precise indication of the degree of scurvy, being more delicate than the Sherman score, and more constant as well as more simple, than the Höjer method. 5. Stress in terms of usage appears to exaggerate the scorbutic lesions in the teeth. PMID:19869749

  2. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  3. Cervical carcinoma: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    A mouse model system was used to investigate the preventive efficacy of a subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine on the development of HSV induced cervical carcinoma. Ten groups of mice were vaccinated before receiving repeated intravaginal exposure to HSV-type 2 inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. At 20 months postvaccination, neutralizing antibody activity to herpes simplex viruses was detected in the sera of the mice which had received the highest vaccine dose. Although three experimental mice and one control mouse developed cervical tumours and five mice developed preinvasive malignant changes, 87% of cervices were of normal or koilocytotic appearance on histological examination. There was therefore no evidence from this study that repeated exposure of mouse cervices to inactivated HSV-2 induced a significant incidence of preinvasive or invasive cervical carcinoma.

  4. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Petter, W.

    1976-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee. PMID:966259

  5. Experimental Ten-Photon Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, W; Huang, H-L; Liu, C; Chen, C; Luo, Y-H; Su, Z-E; Wu, D; Li, Z-D; Lu, H; Hu, Y; Jiang, X; Peng, C-Z; Li, L; Liu, N-L; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement among ten spatially separated single photons. A near-optimal entangled photon-pair source was developed with simultaneously a source brightness of ∼12  MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ∼70%, and an indistinguishability of ∼91% between independent photons, which was used for a step-by-step engineering of multiphoton entanglement. Under a pump power of 0.57 W, the ten-photon count rate was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to previous experiments, while maintaining a state fidelity sufficiently high for proving the genuine ten-particle entanglement. Our work created a state-of-the-art platform for multiphoton experiments, and enabled technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks, such as the realization of Shor's error correction code and high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling.

  6. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  7. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Graeff, F G; Parente, A; Del-Ben, C M; Guimarães, F S

    2003-04-01

    This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  8. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  9. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  10. Experimental Constraints on Ureilite Petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletary, Steven; Grove, Timothy L.

    2006-01-01

    This experimental study explores the petrogenesis of ureilites by a partial melting/smelting process. Experiments have been performed over temperature (1150-1280 C), pressure (5-12.5 MPa), and low oxygen fugacity (graphite-CO gas) conditions appropriate for a hypothetical ureilite parent body approximately 200 km in size. Experimental and modeling results indicate that a partial melting/smelting model of ureilite petrogenesis can explain many of the unique characteristics displayed by this meteorite group. Compositional information preserved in the pigeonite-olivine ureilites was used to estimate the composition of melts in equilibrium with the ureilites. The results of 20 experiments saturated with olivine, pyroxene, metal, and liquid with appropriate ureilite compositions are used to calibrate the phase coefficients and pressure-temperature dependence of the smelting reaction. The calibrated coefficients are used to model the behavior of a hypothetical residue that is experiencing fractional smelting. The residue is initially olivine-rich and smelting progressively depletes the olivine content and enriches the pyroxene and metal contents of the residues. The modeled residue composition at 1260 C best reproduces the trend of ureilite bulk compositions. The model results also indicate that as a ureilite residue undergoes isothermal decompression smelting over a range of temperatures, Ca/Al values and Cr203 contents are enriched at lower temperatures (below about 1240 C) and tend to decrease at higher temperatures. Therefore, fractional smelting can account for the high Ca/A1 and Cr203 wt% values observed in ureilites. We propose that ureilites were generated from an olivine-rich, cpx-bearing residue. Smelting began when the residue was partially melted and contained liquid, olivine, and carbon. These residues experienced varying degrees of fractional smelting to produce the compositional variability observed within the pigeonite-bearing ureilites. Variations in

  11. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  12. The 1986 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium will provide a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that will be flown in the future.

  13. Experimental "evolutional machines": mathematical and experimental modeling of biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilkov, A. V.; Loginov, I. A.; Morozova, E. V.; Shuvaev, A. N.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Experimentalists possess model systems of two major types for study of evolution continuous cultivation in the chemostat and long-term development in closed laboratory microecosystems with several trophic structure If evolutionary changes or transfer from one steady state to another in the result of changing qualitative properties of the system take place in such systems the main characteristics of these evolution steps can be measured By now this has not been realized from the point of view of methodology though a lot of data on the work of both types of evolutionary machines has been collected In our experiments with long-term continuous cultivation we used the bacterial strains containing in plasmids the cloned genes of bioluminescence and green fluorescent protein which expression level can be easily changed and controlled In spite of the apparent kinetic diversity of evolutionary transfers in two types of systems the general mechanisms characterizing the increase of used energy flow by populations of primer producent can be revealed at their study According to the energy approach at spontaneous transfer from one steady state to another e g in the process of microevolution competition or selection heat dissipation characterizing the rate of entropy growth should increase rather then decrease or maintain steady as usually believed The results of our observations of experimental evolution require further development of thermodynamic theory of open and closed biological systems and further study of general mechanisms of biological

  14. Control design for the SERC experimental testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, Robert; Blackwood, Gary; Macmartin, Douglas G.; How, Jonathan; Anderson, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on control design for the Space Engineering Research Center experimental testbeds are presented. Topics covered include: SISO control design and results; sensor and actuator location; model identification; control design; experimental results; preliminary LAC experimental results; active vibration isolation problem statement; base flexibility coupling into isolation feedback loop; cantilever beam testbed; and closed loop results.

  15. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Art McKee; Pamela. Druliner

    1998-01-01

    The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is a world renowned center for research and education about the ecology and management of forests and streams. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east of Eugene, Oregon, the Andrews Experimental Forest lies in the Blue River Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. Established in 1948, the Experimental Forest is administered...

  16. The '3Is' of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    2012-05-29

    Animal experimentation in scientific research is a good thing: important, increasing and often irreplaceable. Careful experimental design and reporting are at least as important as attention to welfare in ensuring that the knowledge we gain justifies using live animals as experimental tools.

  17. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  18. Experimental Trichinella infection in seals.

    PubMed

    Kapel, C M O; Measures, L; Møller, L N; Forbes, L; Gajadhar, A

    2003-11-01

    The susceptibility of seals to infection with Trichinella nativa and the cold tolerant characteristics of muscle larvae in seal meat were evaluated. Two grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, were inoculated with 5000 (100 larvae/kg) T. nativa larvae and two grey seals with 50000 (1000 larvae/kg). One seal from each dose group and two control seals were killed at 5 and 10 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). At 5 weeks p.i., infection was established in both low and high dose seals with mean larval densities of 68 and 472 larvae per gram (lpg), respectively, using eight different muscles for analyses. At 10 weeks p.i., mean larval densities were 531 and 2649 lpg, respectively, suggesting an extended persistence of intestinal worms. In seals with high larval density infections, the distribution of larvae in various muscles was uniform, but in one seal with a low larval density infection, predilection sites of larvae included muscle groups with a relative high blood flow, i.e. diaphragm, intercostal and rear flipper muscles. Trichinella-specific antibody levels, as measured by ELISA, increased during the 10 week experimental period. Infected seal muscle was stored at 5, -5 and -18 degrees C for 1, 4 and 8 weeks. Muscle larvae released from stored seal muscle by artificial digestion were inoculated into mice to assess viability and infectivity. Larvae from seal muscle 10 weeks p.i. tolerated -18 degrees C for 8 weeks but larvae from seal muscle 5 weeks p.i. tolerated only 1 week at -18 degrees C, supporting the hypothesis that freeze tolerance increases with the age of the host-parasite tissue complex. The expressed susceptibility to infection, extended production of larvae, antibody response and freeze tolerance of T. nativa in seals are new findings from the first experimental Trichinella infection in any marine mammal and suggest that pinnipeds (phocids, otariiids or walrus) may acquire Trichinella infection by scavenging even small amounts of infected tissue left by hunters or

  19. Experimental evolution meets marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Boyd, Philip W

    2013-07-01

    Our perspective highlights potentially important links between disparate fields-biological oceanography, climate change research, and experimental evolutionary biology. We focus on one important functional group-photoautotrophic microbes (phytoplankton), which are responsible for ∼50% of global primary productivity. Global climate change currently results in the simultaneous change of several conditions such as warming, acidification, and nutrient supply. It thus has the potential to dramatically change phytoplankton physiology, community composition, and may result in adaptive evolution. Although their large population sizes, standing genetic variation, and rapid turnover time should promote swift evolutionary change, oceanographers have focussed on describing patterns of present day physiological differentiation rather than measure potential adaptation in evolution experiments, the only direct way to address whether and at which rate phytoplankton species will adapt to environmental change. Important open questions are (1) is adaptation limited by existing genetic variation or fundamental constraints? (2) Will complex ecological settings such as gradual versus abrupt environmental change influence adaptation processes? (3) How will increasing environmental variability affect the evolution of phenotypic plasticity patterns? Because marine phytoplankton species display rapid acclimation capacity (phenotypic buffering), a systematic study of reaction norms renders them particularly interesting to the evolutionary biology research community. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Experimental high-speed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Klein, William P.; Vercillo, Richard; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Parra, Miguel V.; Dallas, William J.

    1993-09-01

    Many existing local area networking protocols currently applied in medical imaging were originally designed for relatively low-speed, low-volume networking. These protocols utilize small packet sizes appropriate for text based communication. Local area networks of this type typically provide raw bandwidth under 125 MHz. These older network technologies are not optimized for the low delay, high data traffic environment of a totally digital radiology department. Some current implementations use point-to-point links when greater bandwidth is required. However, the use of point-to-point communications for a total digital radiology department network presents many disadvantages. This paper describes work on an experimental multi-access local area network called XFT. The work includes the protocol specification, and the design and implementation of network interface hardware and software. The protocol specifies the Physical and Data Link layers (OSI layers 1 & 2) for a fiber-optic based token ring providing a raw bandwidth of 500 MHz. The protocol design and implementation of the XFT interface hardware includes many features to optimize image transfer and provide flexibility for additional future enhancements which include: a modular hardware design supporting easy portability to a variety of host system buses, a versatile message buffer design providing 16 MB of memory, and the capability to extend the raw bandwidth of the network to 3.0 GHz.

  1. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  2. Experimental overview of axion searches

    SciTech Connect

    van Bibber, K.

    1995-06-28

    Experimental methods to search for the ``invisible axion`` (f{sub a} {much_gt} 250 GeV) are reviewed. The report focuses on the axion-photon coupling, both for laboratory experiments as well as those looking for stellar or cosmologically produced axions. The conclusion is that while the axion-photon mixing in principle would permit laboratory axion searches which are broadband in mass, in fact no such experiment could have the sensitivity to the axion, where m{sub afa} {approx} m{sub {pi}f{pi}}. The only experiments which promise to have any chance to find the axion are the microwave cavity experiments, which presume axions to constitute our galactic halo dark matter. The conversion of axions into a monochromatic microwave signal in a resonant circuit affords the experiment the extraordinary sensitivity required to see the axion, at the expense of being narrow-band in mass, i.e. a tuning experiment. Two such efforts are underway in the world.

  3. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  4. Experimental Evolution of Species Recognition.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David W; Denton, Jai A; McConnell, Ellen; Greig, Duncan

    2015-06-29

    Sex with another species can be disastrous, especially for organisms that mate only once, like yeast. Courtship signals, including pheromones, often differ between species and can provide a basis for distinguishing between reproductively compatible and incompatible partners. Remarkably, we show that the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not reject mates engineered to produce pheromones from highly diverged species, including species that have been reproductively isolated for up to 100 million years. To determine whether effective discrimination against mates producing pheromones from other species is possible, we experimentally evolved pheromone receptors under conditions that imposed high fitness costs on mating with cells producing diverged pheromones. Evolved receptors allowed both efficient mating with cells producing the S. cerevisiae pheromone and near-perfect discrimination against cells producing diverged pheromones. Sequencing evolved receptors revealed that each contained multiple mutations that altered the amino acid sequence. By isolating individual mutations, we identified specific amino acid changes that dramatically improved discrimination. However, the improved discrimination conferred by these individual mutations came at the cost of reduced mating efficiency with cells producing the S. cerevisiae pheromone, resulting in low fitness. This tradeoff could be overcome by simultaneous introduction of separate mutations that improved mating efficiency alongside those that improved discrimination. Thus, if mutations occur sequentially, the shape of the fitness landscape may prevent evolution of the optimal phenotype--offering a possible explanation for the poor discrimination of receptors found in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental investigations of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various experimental studies of elastohydrodynamic lubrication have been reviewed. The various types of machines used in these investigations, such as the disc, two and four ball, crossed-cylinders, and crossed-axes rolling disc machine, are described. The measurement of the most important parameters, such as film shape, film thickness, pressure, temperature, and traction, is considered. Determination of the film thickness is generally the most important of these effects since it dictates the extent to which the asperities on opposing surfaces can come into contact and thus has a direct bearing on wear and fatigue failure of the contacting surfaces. Several different techniques for measuring film thickness have been described, including electrical resistance, capacitance, X-ray, optical interferometry, laser beam diffraction, strain gage, and spring dynamometer methods. An attempt has been made to describe the basic concepts and limitations of each of these techniques. These various methods have been used by individual researchers, but there is no universally acceptable technique for measuring elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Capacitance methods have provided most of the reliable data for nominal line or rectangular conjunctions, but optical interferometry has proved to be the most effective procedure for elliptical contacts. Optical interferometry has the great advantage that it reveals not only the film thickness, but also details of the film shape over the complete area of the conjunction.

  6. Experimental investigation of plasmofluidic waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Bonwoo; Kwon, Min-Suk; Shin, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-16

    Plasmofluidic waveguides are based on guiding light which is strongly confined in fluid with the assistance of a surface plasmon polariton. To realize plasmofluidic waveguides, metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, are employed. The insulator of the MISIM waveguide is removed to form 30-nm-wide channels, and they are filled with fluid. The plasmofluidic waveguide has a subwavelength-scale mode area since its mode is strongly confined in the fluid. The waveguides are experimentally characterized for different fluids. When the refractive index of the fluid is 1.440, the plasmofluidic waveguide with 190-nm-wide silicon has propagation loss of 0.46 dB/μm; the coupling loss between it and an ordinary silicon photonic waveguide is 1.79 dB. The propagation and coupling losses may be reduced if a few fabrication-induced imperfections are removed. The plasmofluidic waveguide may pave the way to a dynamically phase-tunable ultracompact device.

  7. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-12-17

    Objective The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  8. Experimental animal models of osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Peng, Jiang; Qin, Ling; Lu, Shibi

    2011-08-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) or avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common bone metabolic disorder, mostly affecting femoral head. Although many biological, biophysical, and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. It lacks consensus on an optimal approach for treatment. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of ability to systematically compare treatment efficacy using an ideal animal model that mimics full-range osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) in humans with high incidence of joint collapse accompanied by reparative reaction adjacent to the necrotic bone in a reproducible and accessible way. A number of preclinical animal ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. This paper describes a number of different methods for creating animal experimental ON models. Advantages and disadvantages of such models are also discussed as reference for future research in battle against this important medical condition.

  9. Experimental Tests Of Paleoclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J D; Anderson, J K; Arlen, T C; Bateman, G; Budny, R V; Fujita, T; Greenfield, C M; Greenwald, M; Groebner, R J; Hill, D N; Hogeweij, G D; Kaye, S M; Kritz, A H; Lazarus, E A; Leonard, A C; Mahdavi, M A; McLean, H S; Osborne, T H; Pankin, A Y; Petty, C C; Sarff, J S; St. John, H E; Stacey, W M; Stutman, D; Synakowski, E J; Tritz, K

    2006-09-12

    Predictions of the recently developed paleoclassical transport model are compared with data from many toroidal plasma experiments: electron heat diffusivity in DIII-D, C-Mod and NSTX ohmic and near-ohmic plasmas; transport modeling of DIII-D ohmic-level discharges and of the RTP ECH 'stair-step' experiments with eITBs at low order rational surfaces; investigation of a strong eITB in JT-60U; H-mode Te edge pedestal properties in DIII-D; and electron heat diffusivities in non-tokamak experiments (NSTX/ST, MST/RFP, SSPX/spheromak). The radial electron heat transport predicted by the paleoclassical model is found to agree with a wide variety of ohmic-level experimental results and to set the lower limit (within a factor {approx} 2) for the radial electron heat transport in most resistive, current-carrying toroidal plasmas -- unless it is exceeded by fluctuation-induced transport, which often occurs in the edge of L-mode plasmas and when the electron temperature is high ({approx}>T{sub e}{sup crit} {approx}B{sup 2/3}{bar {alpha}}{sup 1/2} keV) because then paleoclassical transport becomes less than gyro-Bohm-level anomalous transport.

  10. The Experimental MJO Prediction Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane; Weickmann, Klaus; Dole, Randall; Schubert, Siegfried; Alves, Oscar; Jones, Charles; Newman, Matthew; Pan, Hua-Lu; Roubicek, Andres; Saha, Suranjana; hide

    2006-01-01

    Weather prediction is typically concerned with lead times of hours to days, while seasonal-to-interannual climate prediction is concerned with lead times of months to seasons. Recently, there has been growing interest in 'subseasonal' forecasts---those that have lead times on the order of weeks (e.g., Schubert et al. 2002; Waliser et al. 2003; Waliser et al. 2005). The basis for developing and exploiting subseasonal predictions largely resides with phenomena such as the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), mid-latitude blocking, and the memory associated with soil moisture, as well as modeling techniques that rely on both initial conditions and slowly varying boundary conditions (e.g., tropical Pacific SST). An outgrowth of this interest has been the development of an Experimental MJO Prediction Project (EMPP). Th project provides real-time weather and climate information and predictions for a variety of applications, broadly encompassing the subseasonal weather-climate connection. Th focus is on the MJO because it represents a repeatable, low-frequency phenomenon. MJO's importance among the subseasonal phenomena is very similar to that of El Nino-Southern Oscillation(ENSO) among the interannual phenomena. This note describes the history and objectives of EMPP, its status,capabilities, and plans.

  11. Experimental test of induced rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fincher, Curtis R.; Gochanour, Craig R.

    1987-02-01

    Recent theoretical models for the nematic phase of semiflexible polymer chains predict a strong coupling between order and the conformational degrees of freedom of the chain. The presence of order in the nematic phase results in a strong preference for linear or rod-like conformations over flexible, random coil conformations. This conformational selection or induced rigidity is predicted to be general phenomenon associated with semiflexible chains. We have tested these predictions using a soluble polydiacetylene (4BCMU) as a probe. The 4BCMU chain undergoes a conformational transition (rod-coil) as a function of temperature in toluene which is accompanied by a large change in optical properties allowing the conformational transition to be followed spectroscopically in extremely dilute solutions. 4BCMU is miscible with both isotropic and nematic solutions of poly-(n-hexyl isocyanate) in toluene. If current models of induced rigidity are accurate, there should be a large shift in the transition temperature for the 4BCMU transition in nematic poly-(n-hexyl isocyanate) solutions. Experimentally we find no shift in the transition for nematic solutions when compared to dilute isotropic solutions. Possible explanations for the discrepancy between theory and experiment are discussed.

  12. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  13. Experimental Tests of Nucleation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dea, Jack Yuen

    1982-03-01

    In recent years there has been controversy surrounding experimental nucleation data that did not conform to classical nucleation theory. More recent data, however, suggest good agreement between theory and experiment. At the Desert Research Institute (DRI), it was decided to perform sensitive tests of nucleation in soluble aerosol particles using newly developed instruments and techniques. Very steady aerosol generation was accomplished with a newly developed atomizer; very high monodispersity in the sample aerosol was achieved using two electrical mobility analyzers in series; and, very fine control over the supersaturation was achieved using a newly developed CFD (Continuous Flow Diffusion) cloud chamber built for NASA for use in zero -gravity situations. The results of a series of experiments indicated that the supersaturation needs to be about 15% greater than predicted by theory. However, a mass correction, taking into account the shape of the salt particles produced data that are in excellent agreement with theory. Moreover, the relative hygroscopicity of several soluble substances and the slopes of the Kohler curves obtained agreed very well with theory. The results mean that the hygroscopicity of various substances can be rated using the Kohler curves. Calculations have been done to determine the hygroscopicity of a number of sulfate compounds. The results of these calculations indicate that under restricted conditions (aerosol diameters < 0.1 (mu)m and aerosol particles composed of either one soluble compound or one soluble compound plus an insoluble component), it is possible to distinguish apart most of the sulfate species using either the DFC cloud chamber or an instantaneous version of the CFD cloud chamber. These results point to a possible application of nucleation theory to aerosol species differentiation in the atmosphere.

  14. [Regeneration of planarians: experimental object].

    PubMed

    Sheĭman, I M; Kreshchenko, I D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the expediency of using invertebrates, such as flatworms and planarians, as experimental objects. Free-living planarian flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria) are invertebrate animals in which a bilateral symmetry appears for the first time in evolution and organs and tissues form. As the highest ecological link of the food chain--predators--these animals are characterized by a set of behavioral reactions controlled by a differentiated central nervous system. Planarians have unsurpassed ability to regenerate lost or damaged body parts. Owing to the ease of their breeding and their convenience for manipulations, these animals are used to study the influence of chemical and physical factors on the processes of life, growth, and reproduction. Currently, planarians are recognized as a model for biological research in the field of regeneration, stem cell biology, study of their proliferation and differentiation, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The genome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea was fully sequenced, which opened up the opportunity to work with this object at the molecular biological level. Furthermore, planarians are used in neurobiological and toxicological studies, in studying the evolutionary aspects of centralization of the nervous system, mechanisms of muscle contraction, and in the development of new antiparasitic drugs. This review aims to demonstrate the relevance and diversity of research conducted on simple biological objects--planarians--to awider audience to show the historical continuity of these studies and their wide geographical distribution and to focus on the studies carried out in Russia, which, as a rule, are not included in the foreign reviews on planarian regeneration.

  15. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  16. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrieri, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

  17. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  18. Experimental Volcanology: Fragmentation and Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieler, O.

    2005-12-01

    An increasing number of scientists design new experiments to analyse processes that control the dynamics of explosive eruptions. There research is mostly coupled to numerical models and aims toward its controlling parameters. The fragmentation process, its threshold and the speed of the fragmentation wave as well as the energy consumed by the fragmentation are some hot spots of the experimental volcanology. Analysing the fragmentation behaviour of volcaniclastics as close to the natural system as possible, we found a number of physical constrains. Identifying the porosity as determining factor of the threshold, we realised that neither threshold nor the speed of the fragmentation process are solely controlled by the rock density. The later results of the shock tube type apparatus lead to the analysis of the specific surface area and permeability as direct links to textural features. Permeability analysis performed in a modified shock tube type apparatus, show two clear, distinct trends for dome rock and pyroclastic samples. The specific surface determined by Argon sorbtion (BET) as well as textural features of pumices from Campi Flegrei, Montserrat and Krakatoa (1883) give in contrary evidence of a more complex story. Large spherical, or ellipsoidal bubbles around fractured crystals prove that the high permeability of the pumice has partially developed after the fixing of the bubble size distribution. This puts up the question, if permeability measurements on pyroclastic samples reveal relevant numbers! The surface tension controlled 'self sealing' behaviour of surfaces from foaming obsidian hinders in situ measurements. Close textural investigations will have to clarify how the 'post process' samples deviate from the syneruptive conduit filling.

  19. Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision.

    PubMed

    de Gracia, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sánchez-González, Álvaro; Sawides, Lucie; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-17

    To present and validate a prototype of an optical instrument that allows experimental simulation of pure bifocal vision. To evaluate the influence of different power additions on image contrast and visual acuity. The instrument provides the eye with two superimposed images, aligned and with the same magnification, but with different defocus states. Subjects looking through the instrument are able to experience pure simultaneous vision, with adjustable refractive correction and addition power. The instrument is used to investigate the impact of the amount of addition of an ideal bifocal simultaneous vision correction, both on image contrast and on visual performance. the instrument is validated through computer simulations of the letter contrast and by equivalent optical experiments with an artificial eye (camera). Visual acuity (VA) was measured in four subjects (AGE: 34.3 ± 3.4 years; spherical error: -2.1 ± 2.7 diopters [D]) for low and high contrast letters and different amounts of addition. The largest degradation in contrast and visual acuity (∼25%) occurred for additions around ±2 D, while additions of ±4 D produced lower degradation (14%). Low additions (1-2 D) result in lower VA than high additions (3-4 D). A simultaneous vision instrument is an excellent tool to simulate bifocal vision and to gain understanding of multifocal solutions for presbyopia. Simultaneous vision induces a pattern of visual performance degradation, which is well predicted by the degradation found in image quality. Neural effects, claimed to be crucial in the patients' tolerance of simultaneous vision, can be therefore compared with pure optical effects.

  20. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  1. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  2. FURTHER STUDIES IN EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Adler, I.

    1917-01-01

    by the very extensive but more or less intermittent blocking of the pulmonary circulation by the oil. The musculature of the artery appears to be the main force applied to overcome the resistance in the circulation. In no case has hypertrophy of the right heart been found. The lesions in the pulmonary arteries of the dogs produced experimentally are closely analogous to atherosclerosis of the human pulmonary artery. PMID:19868168

  3. Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to

  4. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    the plume that emerge as the key variables in volcanic lightning generation. A proportionality between fine ash content of the jet and number of lightning strikes is also evident in our experiments. This first recorded experimental generation of volcanic lightning means that rapid progress can now be expected (under controlled laboratory conditions) in understanding electrical phenomena produced during explosive volcanic eruptions. This in turn may aid the development of lightning monitoring systems for the forecasting of volcanic ash emissions into the atmosphere. Furthermore, our experiments are significant for the investigation of self-charging mechanism of particles that are relevant for atmospheric phenomena (such as dust storms) on Earth and other planetary bodies.

  5. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  6. [Experimental antitriatomic program in Santiago].

    PubMed

    Neghme, A; Schenone, H; Villarroel, F; Rojas, A

    1991-01-01

    The rural migration to urban centers occurred since the 40s in many Latin American countries, including Santiago the capital city of Chile, originated a growing belt of premises built with light poor material (the rests of previous rural habitations, mud, pieces of timber, plastic and cardboard for walls, and cane stalks and artificial clinkstones for roofs) giving raise to many types of slums. This situation facilitated the passive transport of the different instars, including eggs, of triatomine bugs. Due to the fact that in the 1959-1960 warm seasons, the Santiago province health institutions had received an increasing reported number of triatomine bugs (Triatoma infestans) in dwellings from different periurban, even urban and rural sections of the province, the central local health authorities with the advise of the University of Chile, Department of Parasitology decided to carry out an experimental program against these vectors of Chagas' disease. The program consisted basically in an spray and thorough application of liquid forms (emulsion, suspension, solution) of 1% lindane (average > or = 500 mg per 1 m2), depending on the material of the constructions, to all the surfaces of walls, ceilings, attics and peridomiciliary structures of all the infested dwellings in a sector and those located less than 100 m around. In order to reach triatomine bugs not affected, for different reasons, in the first spraying, a second application, identical to the first was performed to the total number of premises between 30 and 120 days later. Periodical evaluations were made, and positive dwellings found and neighboring ones were sprayed again. During insecticide applications adequate protection measures for spraying workers, inhabitants, domestic animals, household goods and food were adopted. All the steps of the program were accompanied by health education activities directed to individuals, families, school teachers and community institutions, tending to motivate the

  7. Experimental Aerobraking with Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    Venus Express has successfully orbited Venus in its polar 24 hour, 250km by 66000 km, orbit since April 2006 and has provided a wealth of new data from our sister planet. Approaching the end of the mission we are now planning an experimental campaign dedicated to aerobraking at altitudes down to as low as about 130km. These low pericentre passes will provide direct measurements of density, temperature, magnetic field and energetic particles in a region not accessible by other methods. Experience of operations and studies of spacecraft responses will be valuable knowledge for possible future missions that might need this techniques as a part of its nominal operations. Aerobraking was considered in the early design phase of the mission but it was fairly soon realised that the nominal mission would not need this. However, a few important design features were maintained in order to allow for this in case it should be needed at a later stage. The inherently stable geometry of the spacecraft configuration and the inclusion of a software mode for aerobraking are the two most important elements from this early design phase. An recent study by industry has determined the constraints for the spacecraft and identified several potential scenarios. The present highly elliptical orbit has as one of its inherent features a downward drift of the pericentre altitude of between 1 and 4 km/day. However, at certain times, when the Sun is in the orbital plane, this drift disappears for a period of up to two weeks. This is a very well suited time to carry out these initial experiments as it is makes operations safer and it reduces the heat input on the spacecraft as the solar panels will be edge-on towards the sun during the aerobraking. Already a number of low altitude operations have been carried out during the so called atmospheric drag campaigns. The spacecraft has then dipped down to altitudes as low as 165 km and a good characterisation of this region has been performed. This

  8. Experimental reproduction of tsunami deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, T.; Matsuyama, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2015-12-01

    in reproducing tsunami deposit and would show typical pattern of topography change and deposition caused by the tsunami incursion. The experimental method used in this study and the obtained deposition patterns will help understanding the relationship between hydraulic condition and resulting tsunami deposition.

  9. Charge of the containerless experimentation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    The experimentation was undertaken to study the elimination or reduction of surface contamination for which there is adequate Earth-based technology along with the reduction of dynamic nucleation for which there a paucity of reliable data. One objective is to delineate scientific justification of the U.S. Containerless Experimentation Program in Microgravity for the next decade and beyond. Another objective is for the guidance of NASA to define the next generation of containerless experimentation instruments in microgravity.

  10. Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms in fibrous composites are studied. Methods to identify failure in composite materials includes interferometry, holography, fractography and ultrasonics.

  11. Experimental Approaches at Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, John A

    2002-02-13

    Precision measurements have played a vital role in our understanding of elementary particle physics. Experiments performed using e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions have contributed an essential part. Recently, the precision measurements at LEP and SLC have probed the standard model at the quantum level and severely constrained the mass of the Higgs boson [1]. Coupled with the limits on the Higgs mass from direct searches [2], this enables the mass to be constrained to be in the range 115-205 GeV. Developments in accelerator R and D have matured to the point where one could contemplate construction of a linear collider with initial energy in the 500 GeV range and a credible upgrade path to {approx} 1 TeV. Now is therefore the correct time to critically evaluate the case for such a facility. The Working Group E3, Experimental Approaches at Linear Colliders, was encouraged to make this evaluation. The group was charged with examining critically the physics case for a Linear Collider (LC) of energy of order 1 TeV as well as the cases for higher energy machines, assessing the performance requirements and exploring the viability of several special options. In addition it was asked to identify the critical areas where R and D is required (the complete text of the charge can be found in the Appendix). In order to address this, the group was organized into subgroups, each of which was given a specific task. Three main groups were assigned to the TeV-class Machines, Multi-TeV Machines and Detector Issues. The central activity of our working group was the exploration of TeV class machines, since they are being considered as the next major initiative in high energy physics. We have considered the physics potential of these machines, the special options that could be added to the collider after its initial running, and addressed a number of important questions. Several physics scenarios were suggested in order to benchmark the physics reach of the linear collider and persons were

  12. The 1988 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium was held to provide a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that have been flown on shuttle missions and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future. Experiment design and payload integration issues are also examined.

  13. The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelme, Neal (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's symposium provides a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium was on payloads that were flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future.

  14. The Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Cary C. Russell; Ronald E. Thill; David L. Kulhavy

    2002-01-01

    On December 14, 1944, the Seventy-Eighth United States Congress passed a bill that authorized the transfer of 2,560 acres in Nacogdoches County, Texas, to the research branch of the United States Forest Service (USFS). This land became the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest (SFAEF) on September 19. 1945. One of eighty-one federal experimental forests and ranges...

  15. Penobscot Experimental Forest: resources, administration, and mission

    Treesearch

    Alan J. Kimball

    2014-01-01

    The Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) was established more than 60 years ago as a result of private forest landowners' interest in supporting forest research in Maine. In 1950, nine pulp and paper and land-holding companies pooled resources and purchased almost 4,000 acres of land in east-central Maine. The property was named the Penobscot Experimental Forest...

  16. Valuable lessons-learned in transcriptomics experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Oskar; Rauwerda, Han; Dekker, Rob J; de Leeuw, Wim C; Wackers, Paul F K; Ensink, Wim A; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M

    2015-01-01

    We have collected several valuable lessons that will help improve transcriptomics experimentation. These lessons relate to experiment design, execution, and analysis. The cautions, but also the pointers, may help biologists avoid common pitfalls in transcriptomics experimentation and achieve better results with their transcriptome studies. PMID:26098945

  17. Fernow Experimental Forest: Research History and Opportunities

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth Adams; Pamela J. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Frederica. Wood

    2012-01-01

    The Fernow Experimental Forest (39.03° N, 79.67° W) is located in north-central West Virginia near the community of Parsons, in the Allegheny Mountain section of the mixed mesophytic forest (Braun 1950). Named after Bernhard Fernow, an early forestry research pioneer, the Fernow Experimental Forest (Fernow) was established in 1934 from land originally...

  18. The 1985 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. R. (Editor); Mosier, F. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium provided a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus is on payloads that have been flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the near future.

  19. Optimizing Experimental Designs: Finding Hidden Treasure.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical experimental design theory, the predominant treatment in most textbooks, promotes the use of blocking designs for control of spatial variability in field studies and other situations in which there is significant variation among heterogeneity among experimental units. Many blocking design...

  20. Experimental Influence Coefficients and Vibration Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Kordes, Eldon E.

    1959-01-01

    Test results are presented for both symmetrical and antisymmetrical static loading of a wing model mounted on a three-point support system. The first six free-free vibration modes were determined experimentally. A comparison is made of the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies with the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies calculated from the experimental influence coefficients.

  1. New model systems for experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sinéad

    2013-07-01

    Microbial experimental evolution uses a few well-characterized model systems to answer fundamental questions about how evolution works. This special section highlights novel model systems for experimental evolution, with a focus on marine model systems that can be used to understand evolutionary responses to global change in the oceans.

  2. Assessing Students' Experimentation Processes in Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emden, Markus; Sumfleth, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In recent science education, experimentation features ever more strongly as a method of inquiry in science classes rather than as a means to illustrate phenomena. Ideas and materials to teach inquiry abound. Yet, tools for assessing students' achievement in their processes of experimentation are lacking. The present study assumes a basal,…

  3. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  4. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  5. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  6. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  7. Flora of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Treesearch

    Steve J. Popovich; Wayne D. Shepperd; Donald W. Reichert; Michael A. Cone

    1993-01-01

    This report lists 441 vascular plant taxa in 228 genera and 63 families encountered on the 9,300-ha Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Synonyms appearing in previous publications and other works pertaining to the Fraser Experimental Forest, as well as appropriate Colorado floras and less-technical field guides, are included. Plant communities and habitats...

  8. Assessing Students' Experimentation Processes in Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emden, Markus; Sumfleth, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In recent science education, experimentation features ever more strongly as a method of inquiry in science classes rather than as a means to illustrate phenomena. Ideas and materials to teach inquiry abound. Yet, tools for assessing students' achievement in their processes of experimentation are lacking. The present study assumes a basal,…

  9. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  10. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  11. A new dimension in space experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space experimentation, cosmic origins, the long-term effects of the space environment on living things, the long-term effects of space environment on materials and hardware, seeds in space, power generation in space, experimentation with crystals, and thermal control are discussed.

  12. Leveraging the Cloud for Integrated Network Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    network experimentation. This research continues Project Everest’s efforts to leverage cloud services for network experimentation. Project Everest is a...11 2.2.3.1 Live Network Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.3.2 Everest ...VINI, Live Network Testing, Everest and techniques implemented by this research. The Conclusion section summarizes the techniques and research

  13. FELIX construction status and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Praeg, W.F.; Knott, M.J.; Lari, R.J.; McGhee, D.G.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    FELIX (Fusion Electromagnetic Induction Experiment) is an experimental test facility being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the study of electromagnetic effects in the first wall/blanket/shield (FWBS) systems of fusion reactors. The facility design, construction status, experimental program, instrumentation, and associated computer-code comparisons are described.

  14. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  15. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... fishing. (a) General. The Regional Administrator may authorize, for limited purposes, the direct or incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may be...

  16. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... fishing. (a) General. The Regional Administrator may authorize, for limited purposes, the direct or incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may be...

  17. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  18. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  19. Valuable lessons-learned in transcriptomics experimentation.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Oskar; Rauwerda, Han; Dekker, Rob J; de Leeuw, Wim C; Wackers, Paul F K; Ensink, Wim A; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M

    2015-01-01

    We have collected several valuable lessons that will help improve transcriptomics experimentation. These lessons relate to experiment design, execution, and analysis. The cautions, but also the pointers, may help biologists avoid common pitfalls in transcriptomics experimentation and achieve better results with their transcriptome studies.

  20. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  1. Mainstreaming Caenorhabditis elegans in experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jeremy C.; Cutter, Asher D.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evolution provides a powerful manipulative tool for probing evolutionary process and mechanism. As this approach to hypothesis testing has taken purchase in biology, so too has the number of experimental systems that use it, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The depth of biological knowledge about Caenorhabditis nematodes, combined with their laboratory tractability, positions them well for exploiting experimental evolution in animal systems to understand deep questions in evolution and ecology, as well as in molecular genetics and systems biology. To date, Caenorhabditis elegans and related species have proved themselves in experimental evolution studies of the process of mutation, host–pathogen coevolution, mating system evolution and life-history theory. Yet these organisms are not broadly recognized for their utility for evolution experiments and remain underexploited. Here, we outline this experimental evolution work undertaken so far in Caenorhabditis, detail simple methodological tricks that can be exploited and identify research areas that are ripe for future discovery. PMID:24430852

  2. Experimental chaos detection in the Duffing oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyebe Fouda, J. S. Armand; Bodo, Bertrand; Djeufa, Guy M. D.; Sabat, Samrat L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of four algorithms namely the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE), 0-1 test, conditional entropy of ordinal patterns (CPE) and recently developed permutation largest slope entropy (PLSE) algorithm for experimental chaos detection in the Duffing oscillator. We consider an electrical model of the Duffing oscillator and its equivalent electronic circuit for generating the data to validate the effectiveness of the algorithms. The performance of the PLSE is compared with the 0-1 test and the CPE algorithms on the data set obtained from the simulated circuit; and with the MLE for the data collected from the experimental circuit. The experimental data are acquired using a digital oscilloscope with 1 MHz sampling frequency. From the comparison of the experimental spectra of the four methods with the analog phase portraits of the real system, it appears that the PLSE is the more reliable algorithm for chaos detection from experimental data.

  3. Mainstreaming Caenorhabditis elegans in experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy C; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-03-07

    Experimental evolution provides a powerful manipulative tool for probing evolutionary process and mechanism. As this approach to hypothesis testing has taken purchase in biology, so too has the number of experimental systems that use it, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The depth of biological knowledge about Caenorhabditis nematodes, combined with their laboratory tractability, positions them well for exploiting experimental evolution in animal systems to understand deep questions in evolution and ecology, as well as in molecular genetics and systems biology. To date, Caenorhabditis elegans and related species have proved themselves in experimental evolution studies of the process of mutation, host-pathogen coevolution, mating system evolution and life-history theory. Yet these organisms are not broadly recognized for their utility for evolution experiments and remain underexploited. Here, we outline this experimental evolution work undertaken so far in Caenorhabditis, detail simple methodological tricks that can be exploited and identify research areas that are ripe for future discovery.

  4. [Experimental studies in Polish psychiatric journals].

    PubMed

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Sieradzki, Adrian; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Scientific studies in psychiatry from a methodological point of view could be divided into correlational and experimental. Experimental studies are based on active selection of independent and dependent variables, attributing values of the independent variable to persons under study and measuring values of dependent variables. An example of the experimental study is a comparison of two therapeutic methods. Experiments are feeble to selection, informational and confounding bias. This review comprises experimental papers published in journals: "Psychiatria Polska", "Postepy Psychiatrii i Neurologii", "Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii", "Rocznik Psychogeriatryczny", "Wiadomości Psychiatryczne" oraz "Alkoholizm i Narkomania" from January 1998 to December 2002. 11 experimental publications, 6 randomised, 2 probably randomised and 3 case-control studies were found. The smallest study included 14 persons, the largest 180 persons. The number of experimental groups varied from 2 to 4. 9 studies evaluated features of specific methods of therapy and rehabilitation, among them 6 evaluated efficacy of medications. 2 studies evaluated relations between psychopathological and physiological variables. Experiments were based on groups of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (3), alcohol and drug dependence (2), depression (3), insomnia (1), bronchial asthma (1), and hypertension (1). The review showed that experimental studies do not form a main-stream in Polish psychiatric journals.

  5. [Experimental evaluation of the wound healing dynamics].

    PubMed

    Minaev, S V

    2003-01-01

    The experimental clinical investigation of the influence of systemic enzymotherapy on the course of the wound process was carried out in rats and in clinic. The rats of the experimental group have demonstrated more rapid debridement of the wound from blood clots and tissue detritus, intensive formation of granular tissue and its ripening. The experimental investigation has shown that using the preparation of systemic enzymotherapy (Vobenzyme) stimulates processes of healing at the expense of quicker changing the inflammation phases as well as prevents the development of early and late complications on the side of postoperative wounds. It was confirmed by clinical observations in 36 patients from 4 to 14 years of age.

  6. Experimental millimeter-wave satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Shimada, Masaaki; Arimoto, Yoshinori; Shiomi, Tadashi; Kitazume, Susumu

    This paper describes an experimental system of millimeter-wave satellite communications via Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) and a plan of experiments. Two experimental missions are planned using ETS-VI millimeter-wave (43/38 GHz bands) transponder, considering the millimeter-wave characteristics such as large transmission capacity and possibility to construct a small earth station with a high gain antenna. They are a personal communication system and an inter-satellite communication system. Experimental system including the configuration and the fundamental functions of the onboard transponder and the outline of the experiments are presented.

  7. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception.

  8. Experimental area power monitoring during shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Pathiyil, J.

    1989-03-01

    The power consumption at the site is increasing every year and the power consumption in the fixed target beam lines is constantly changing for each run. Since we do not have an energy monitoring program in effect in the experimental areas; we are not in a position to tell whether we are using the electrical energy efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the summer and winter base load of the three experimental areas while the beamlines are off and also to identify what kind loads are on. The most important purpose was to find the base loads in each of the big experimental halls during the shutdown.

  9. EXFOR Library of Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The EXFOR library contains an extensive compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data up to 1 GeV. Neutron reactions have been compiled systematically since the discovery of the neutron, while charged particle(up to carbon) and photon reactions have been covered less extensively. Files contain nuclear reaction data such as cross sections, spectra, angular distributions, polarizations, etc, along with information on experimental technique, error analysis, and applied standards. Numerous search parameters include: target, beam, product, experimental method, and even author and publication names. The library contains data from more than 20,000 experiments. (Specialized Interface)

  10. Drought Adaptation Mechanisms Should Guide Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew E; Medina, Viviana

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism, or hypothesis, of how a plant might be adapted to drought should strongly influence experimental design. For instance, an experiment testing for water conservation should be distinct from a damage-tolerance evaluation. We define here four new, general mechanisms for plant adaptation to drought such that experiments can be more easily designed based upon the definitions. A series of experimental methods are suggested together with appropriate physiological measurements related to the drought adaptation mechanisms. The suggestion is made that the experimental manipulation should match the rate, length, and severity of soil water deficit (SWD) necessary to test the hypothesized type of drought adaptation mechanism.

  11. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  12. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  13. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  14. [Systemic enzyme therapy of experimental gout glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Ignatenko, G A; Mukhin, I V

    2004-01-01

    Renal lesion deteriorates the course and prognosis of gouty glomerulonephritis. Current pathogenetic therapy is not sufficiently effective. Effects of different treatments on morphological and functional manifestations of renal disorders in experimental gouty glomerulonephritis are reviewed.

  15. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  16. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Weng, C.K.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  17. Experimental Evidence of Chaos from Memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Gale, Ella

    Until now, most memristor-based chaotic circuits proposed in the literature are based on mathematical models which assume ideal characteristics such as piecewise-linear or cubic nonlinearities. The idea, illustrated here and originating from the experimental approach for device characterization, is to realize a chaotic system exploiting the nonlinearity of only one memristor with a very simple experimental set-up using feedback. In this way, a simple circuit is obtained and chaos is experimentally observed and is confirmed by the calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. Numerical results using the Strukov model support the existence of robust chaos in our circuit. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of chaos in a real memristor circuit and suggests that memristors are well placed for hardware encryption.

  18. Teaching the Inquiry Process through Experimental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudwell, Lara

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Experimental Mathematics course taught at Valparaiso University since 2009. We focus on aspects of the course that facilitate students' abilities to ask and explore their own research questions.

  19. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  20. Experimental Drug Shows Promise Against Dangerous Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166953.html Experimental Drug Shows Promise Against Dangerous Viruses Medicine worked in lab tests against germs that ... researchers say. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that infect birds and mammals, including humans. These ...

  1. Cancer in Light of Experimental Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sprouffske, Kathleen; Merlo, Lauren M.F.; Gerrish, Philip J.; Maley, Carlo C.; Sniegowski, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer initiation, progression, and the emergence of therapeutic resistance are evolutionary phenomena of clonal somatic cell populations. Studies in microbial experimental evolution and the theoretical work inspired by such studies are yielding deep insights into the evolutionary dynamics of clonal populations, yet there has been little explicit consideration of the relevance of this rapidly growing field to cancer biology. Here, we examine how the understanding of mutation, selection, and spatial structure in clonal populations that is emerging from experimental evolution may be applicable to cancer. Along the way, we discuss some significant ways in which cancer differs from the model systems used in experimental evolution. Despite these differences, we argue that enhanced prediction and control of cancer may be possible using ideas developed in the context of experimental evolution, and we point out some prospects for future research at the interface between these traditionally separate areas. PMID:22975007

  2. Demonstration before Experimentation: A Laboratory Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ding-Yu; Bedworth, David D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the need for laboratory demonstrations prior to experimentation. Describes an introductory computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) course and includes suggestions for teachers. Provides a model exercise on train control. (YP)

  3. Experimental Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigations of flow past spinning cylinders is presented in the context of their application and relevance to flow past projectiles. A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on flow past spinning cylinders that are sting-mounted and oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number range of up to 300000 and rotation numbers of up to 2 (based on cylinder diameter). The experimental validation of the tunnel characteristics and the benchmarking of the flow field in the tunnel are described. The experimental results for spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented along with available computational and experimental findings. This work was funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC.

  4. International review of experimental pathology. Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, G.W.; Epstein, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the experimental pathology advancements made in recent years. Specifically discussed are - Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, immune deficient diseases, Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas and other lymphoproliferative disorders.

  5. Experimental evidence of the compressibility of arteries.

    PubMed

    Yosibash, Zohar; Manor, Itay; Gilad, Ilan; Willentz, Udi

    2014-11-01

    A definitive answer to the question whether artery walls are incompressible is to our opinion not yet categorically provided. Experimental-based evidence on the level of compressibility in artery walls is not easily achieved because of the difficulties associated with the measurement of very small differences in volumes under physiological pressure in these biological tissues. Past experiments aimed at addressing the question considered different species, different arteries, the experimental devices were not accurate enough and a statistical analysis of the results was missing. A precise experimental device together with a thorough testing protocol, a careful selection of arteries and a statistical analysis is presented for a definitive evaluation of the artery wall compressibility. We provide experimental evidence that in saphenous and femoral porcine arteries under physiological pressure range a relative compressibility of 2-6% is observed. The pre-assumption of incompressibility in many phenomenological constitutive models of artery walls should probably be re-evaluated.

  6. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  7. Teaching the Inquiry Process through Experimental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudwell, Lara

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Experimental Mathematics course taught at Valparaiso University since 2009. We focus on aspects of the course that facilitate students' abilities to ask and explore their own research questions.

  8. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  9. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  10. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  11. A Cognitive Approach to Experimental Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    A review of selected experiments indicates that not all examples of experimental amnesia are due to the failure of a memory to fixate. In sum, the empirical retrograde amnesia gradient does not necessarily support traditional consolidation theory. (Editor)

  12. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke.

  13. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  15. Flutter Calculations for an Experimental Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    2003-01-01

    During testing, an experimental forward-swept fan encountered flutter at part-speed conditions. A three-dimensional propulsion aeroelasticity code, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, was used to model the aeroelastic behavior of this fan. This paper describes the flutter calculations and compares the results to the experimental measurements. Results of sensitivity studies are also presented that show the relative importance of different aspects of aeroelastic modeling.

  16. Experimental models of anxiety. Problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griez, E

    1984-01-01

    In a brief review of the field of experimental psychopathology, the author observes that few adequate laboratory models of anxiety have been produced. Criteria to set up valid anxiety models are discussed. The carbon dioxide inhalation technique, an anxiomimetic intervention, is then proposed as a new human panic attack model and compared to the existing lactate infusion method. Both appear as promising agents in the experimental study of panic anxiety.

  17. An Experimental Analysis of Another Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2006-01-01

    The present article discusses how events outside a subject's skin and not accessible to another subject but to an experimenter may contribute to experimental analyses of private events. Of 16 undergraduates, 8, referred to as instructors, first learned conditional discriminations (i.e., B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, and B4C4) in a standard matching-to-sample…

  18. Practical High-Throughput Experimentation for Chemists

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Large arrays of hypothesis-driven, rationally designed experiments are powerful tools for solving complex chemical problems. Conceptual and practical aspects of chemical high-throughput experimentation are discussed. A case study in the application of high-throughput experimentation to a key synthetic step in a drug discovery program and subsequent optimization for the first large scale synthesis of a drug candidate is exemplified. PMID:28626518

  19. An experimental study on microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    We report both the simulation and experimental results of using a ring cathode instead of the solid cathode to reduce the back bombardment effect of a thermionic cathode microwave electron gun. The result shows that the back bombardment power is decreased about 2/3 without changing the beam quality apparently which allows operation at higher repetition rate. Experimental results are compared with the simulation with good agreement.

  20. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Reprinted from the Achie of Surgery ECTE February 1982, Volume 117 Copyright 19 2. American Medical Association MAY 2 8 1982 V0A Experimental Proteus ... mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of... Proteus mirabills as have examined human burn isolates from the genera an experimental pathogen. Infliction of a nonfatal scald injury Enterobacter

  1. Experimental Evaluation of StRATUS (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2014-0142 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) Michael A. Falugi Structures Technology Branch Aerospace...Conference Paper Preprint 01 May 2012 – 28 February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Steel Reinforced Advanced Thin Unitized Structure ( StRATUS ) is a new hybrid laminate concept composed of carbon fiber composite sandwiched between thin

  2. [An experimental model of suppurative osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Privalov, V A; Svetlakov, A L; Kushakovskiĭ, O S; Ebert, L Ia; Giniatullin, R U; Svetlakova, I A; Iarovoĭ, N N

    2000-01-01

    A new experimental rabbit model of acute purulent osteomyelitis is proposed. The model is reproduced by percutaneous introduction of 4 million St. aureus microorganisms into the medullary channel of the femoral bone after aseptic destruction of the bone marrow by ethyl alcohol and hot saline. The model satisfies the demands of good reproduction, reduces probability of contamination of periosteal tissues during intraosteal inoculation and provides reproduction of local inflammation without its generalization which results in reduced number of fatal outcomes among experimental animals.

  3. [Animal experimentation, computer simulation and surgical research].

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Alain

    2009-11-01

    We live in a digital world In medicine, computers are providing new tools for data collection, imaging, and treatment. During research and development of complex technologies and devices such as artificial hearts, computer simulation can provide more reliable information than experimentation on large animals. In these specific settings, animal experimentation should serve more to validate computer models of complex devices than to demonstrate their reliability.

  4. An Experimental Analysis of Another Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2006-01-01

    The present article discusses how events outside a subject's skin and not accessible to another subject but to an experimenter may contribute to experimental analyses of private events. Of 16 undergraduates, 8, referred to as instructors, first learned conditional discriminations (i.e., B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, and B4C4) in a standard matching-to-sample…

  5. New experimental techniques for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenk, R.

    1993-01-01

    Solar cell capacitance has special importance for an array controlled by shunting. Experimental measurements of solar cell capacitance in the past have shown disagreements of orders of magnitude. Correct measurement technique depends on maintaining the excitation voltage less than the thermal voltage. Two different experimental methods are shown to match theory well, and two effective capacitances are defined for quantifying the effect of the solar cell capacitance on the shunting system.

  6. [Correlation between retention force of experimental plates and viscosity of experimental fluids].

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Dragan; Stanković, Dragutin; Stanković, Jasmina; Stanković, Saša; Mladenović, Lidija

    2011-01-01

    Saliva viscosity plays a significant role in the biophysical segment of the total retention potential of total dentures. The aim of the paper was to establish the dependence of dynamic retention force of experimental plates on experimental fluid viscosity and especially time dependence of these parameters, following at the same time relative changes of the distance between the experimental plate and dentures support established by the dislocation of the experimental plate in both directions. For experimental verification we used an original device with the aim to enable in vivo simulation on the phantom made of the upper total denture prosthesis support and experimental plate. The experiment consisted of two parts. In the first part we determined the value of the dynamic retention force with plates without and with achieved ventilation effect. In the second part we determined time dependence of the dynamic retention force of experimental plates on the viscosity of experimental fluids that had been priorly determined on identical samples (8 ml of experimental fluid samples) using a rotational viscometer (Haake RV-12) with a sensor (MV, Germany). Under the conditions of variable viscosity rates of seven experimental fluids (from 0.02 to 1309.04 mPa s), we registered the time dependence of dynamic retention force of the experimental plate related to fluid viscosity during the action of the continual dislocating force of the separating directions. In addition, the maximal height of the dislocation of the experimental plate was registered. The dynamic retention force, manifested by the separating direction of the experimental plate dislocation, was increased concurrently with increased viscosity. The increase of dynamic retention force depends directly on medium viscosity. Close border values of fluid viscosity above the investigated ones, the impossibility of experimental layer thinning and the decrease of distance height probably influence the onset of separating

  7. Evaluation of an experimental dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; El-Waseffy, Noha A; Hasan, Ahmed M; El-Falal, Abeer A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture toughness, hardness, ceramic/metal bond strength and microstructure of experimental dental porcelain and compare it with commercial type. Specimens of specific dimensions were prepared. Fracture toughness was assessed by a three-point bending test. The Vickers hardness was measured using a microhardness tester. The ceramometal bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. The load was applied at the porcelain/metal interface via a chisel edged blade with a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min until fracture. The polished specimens of dental porcelain were chemically etched and the microstructure was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed comparable fracture toughness and bond strength for both materials, while the experimental porcelain exhibited higher hardness. The experimental porcelain showed uniform cohesive failure while the commercial type showed mixed mode of failure. The microstructure of the experimental porcelain was tetragonal leucite crystals dispersed randomly in a glass matrix. The leucite crystals exist in two forms, acicular and rod like structures. It was concluded that the experimental porcelain has adequate fracture toughness and ceramic/metal bond strength that can resist the rapid crack propagation and its consequent catastrophic failure, which indicates a material serviceability in the oral cavity.

  8. In vivo experimental models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carmen; Rubio-Osornio, Moises; Retana-Márquez, Socorro; Verónica Custodio, Marisol López; Paz, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the different in vivo experimental models that have been used for the study of epileptogenesis. In this review we will focus on how to replicate the different models that have led to the study of partial seizures, as well as generalized seizures and the status epilepticus. The main characteristics that participate in the processes that generate and modulate the manifestations of different models of epileptogenesis are described. The development of several models of experimental epilepsy in animals has clearly helped the study of specific brain areas capable of causing convulsions. The experimental models of epilepsy also have helped in the study the mechanisms and actions of epilepsy drugs. In order to develop experimental animal models of epilepsy, animals are generally chosen according to the kind of epilepsy that can be developed and studied. It is currently known that animal species can have epileptic seizures similar to those in humans. However, it is important to keep in mind that it has not been possible to entirely evaluate all manifestations of human epilepsy. Notwithstanding, these experimental models of epilepsy have allowed a partial understanding of most of the underlying mechanisms of this disease.

  9. Using experimental design to define boundary manikins.

    PubMed

    Bertilsson, Erik; Högberg, Dan; Hanson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    When evaluating human-machine interaction it is central to consider anthropometric diversity to ensure intended accommodation levels. A well-known method is the use of boundary cases where manikins with extreme but likely measurement combinations are derived by mathematical treatment of anthropometric data. The supposition by that method is that the use of these manikins will facilitate accommodation of the expected part of the total, less extreme, population. In literature sources there are differences in how many and in what way these manikins should be defined. A similar field to the boundary case method is the use of experimental design in where relationships between affecting factors of a process is studied by a systematic approach. This paper examines the possibilities to adopt methodology used in experimental design to define a group of manikins. Different experimental designs were adopted to be used together with a confidence region and its axes. The result from the study shows that it is possible to adapt the methodology of experimental design when creating groups of manikins. The size of these groups of manikins depends heavily on the number of key measurements but also on the type of chosen experimental design.

  10. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  11. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it possible to determine these values, and thereby identify an optimal experimental design. After describing the method, it is demonstrated in two content areas in cognitive psychology in which models are highly competitive: retention (i.e., forgetting) and categorization. The optimal design is compared with the quality of designs used in the literature. The findings demonstrate that design optimization has the potential to increase the informativeness of the experimental method. PMID:19618983

  12. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-30

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  13. [Experimentation with women: science fiction or reality?].

    PubMed

    Villar Amigó, Vicente M

    2008-01-01

    Many people will not have heard about the experimentation that has been, and continues to be, carried out on women, because much of the media makes no mention of the matter. Just a few examples that could be mentioned are experimentation with the contraceptive pill, forced sterilization, egg donation, surrogate motherhood, kidney and other organ donation, and unnecessary therapy and surgery. In a few cases such experimentation could well be termed exploitation of women, with all kinds of excuses or humanitarian reasons, and sometimes communitarian purposes and even reasons concerning possible benefits for the whole of society, being mentioned. The present work aims to stimulate reflection about some types of research which can only be regarded as exploitation of women.

  14. Combustion experimentation aboard the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the preliminary concept, specifications, and general requirements of a proposed Combustion Facility (CF) for the Spacelab payload of the Space Transportation System. The CF will permit an experimenter to use suitably contained liquid, gas, or solid fuels. He can specify and establish the composition and pressure level of the atmosphere in which the combustion will take place. It will be possible to characterize the experiment with common types of instrumentation as well as selected specialized equipment, to study the combustion process visually by direct observation and by motion picture coverage, and to obtain time histories of pertinent experimental parameters. During an experimental period, the CF will depend on Spacelab resources for power, heat rejection, and vacuum. Activating the CF and preparing it for the various experiments, performing the experiments, and shutting down the facility will be largely manual operations performed by flight personnel.

  15. Modern Experimental Techniques in Turbine Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Bencic, T. J.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes application of two modern experimental techniques, thin-film thermocouples and pressure sensitive paint, to measurement in turbine engine components. A growing trend of using computational codes in turbomachinery design and development requires experimental techniques to refocus from overall performance testing to acquisition of detailed data on flow and heat transfer physics to validate these codes for design applications. The discussed experimental techniques satisfy this shift in focus. Both techniques are nonintrusive in practical terms. The thin-film thermocouple technique improves accuracy of surface temperature and heat transfer measurements. The pressure sensitive paint technique supplies areal surface pressure data rather than discrete point values only. The paper summarizes our experience with these techniques and suggests improvements to ease the application of these techniques for future turbomachinery research and code verifications.

  16. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  17. Women in the experimental analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Swindell, Samantha

    1998-01-01

    We examined the status of women in the experimental analysis of behavior by comparing authorship by women in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) to authorship by women in three similar journals. For all journals, the percentage of articles with at least one female author, the percentage of authors who are female, and the percentage of articles with a female first author increased from 1978 to 1997. However, the participation by women in JEAB lagged behind participation in the other journals on each measure. Female membership on the editorial board of JEAB also failed to increase from 1978 to 1997. Suggestions are made that may increase the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:22478307

  18. An experimental look into subelectron charge flow.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Roie; Baldridge, Kim K; Scherz, Avigdor

    2003-10-22

    The prediction and measurement of charge distribution among interacting chemical entities in complex environments is a major challenge for modern chemistry. It encompasses information concerning fundamental quantities such as the electronic chemical potential and hardness of molecular fragments as well as their interactions with the surroundings. Although a wealth of theoretical work has been accumulated from the days of Pauling to the present, a specific molecular model system that allows quantitative and direct measurement of these properties has not yet been reported. Because atomic charges are not quantum mechanical observables, they cannot be derived from first principles, but rather they rely on the availability of high-precision experimental data and the interpretation of related experimental observables. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that a fragmental charge flow between a chelated metal center and reversibly bound molecules can be accurately monitored experimentally.

  19. Effect of cholecystokinin on experimental neuronal aging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Jiang; Lu, Qin-Chi; Cai, Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on lipofusin value, neuronal dendrite and spine ultrastructure, and total cellular protein during the process of experimental neuronal aging. METHODS: Experimental neuronal aging study model was established by NBA2 cellular serum-free culture method. By using single intracellular lipofusin value from microspectrophotometry, morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines from the scanner electron microscopy, and total cellular protein as the indexes of experimental neuronal aging, we observed the effect of CCK8 on the process of experimental neuronal aging. RESULTS: Under the condition of serum-free culture, intracellular fluorescence value (%) increased with the extension of culture time (1 d 8.51±3.43; 5 d 10.12±3.03; 10 d 20.54±10.3; 15 d 36.88±10.49; bP<0.01). When CCK was added to serum-free culture medium, intracellular lipofusin value (%) decreased remarkably after consecutive CCK reaction for 10 and 15 d (control 36.88±10.49; 5 d 32.03±10.01; 10 d 14.37±5.55; 15 d 17.31±4.80; bP<0.01). As the time of serum-free culturing was prolonged, the number of neuronal dendrite and spine cells decreased. The later increased in number when CCK8 was added. CCK8 could improve the total cellular protein in the process of experimental neuronal aging. CONCLUSION: CCK8 may prolong the process of experimental neuronal aging by maintaining the structure and the number of neuronal dendrite and spine cells and changing the total cellular protein. PMID:15641144

  20. Experimental quantum digital signature over 102 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Liu, Hui; Tang, Qi-Jie; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Quantum digital signature (QDS) is an approach to guarantee the nonrepudiation, unforgeability, and transferability of a signature with information-theoretical security. Previous experimental realizations of QDS relied on an unrealistic assumption of secure channels and the longest distance is several kilometers. Here, we have experimentally demonstrated a recently proposed QDS protocol without assuming any secure channel. Exploiting the decoy state modulation, we have successfully signed a one-bit message through an up to 102-km optical fiber. Furthermore, we continuously run the system to sign the longer message "USTC" with 32 bits at the distance of 51 km. Our results pave the way towards the practical application of QDS.

  1. Experimental verification of low sonic boom configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.; Wang, H. H.; Sorensen, H.

    1972-01-01

    A configuration designed to produce near field signature has been tested at M = 2.71 and the results are analyzed, by taking in account three-dimensional and second order effects. The configuration has an equivalent total area distribution that corresponds to an airplane flying at 60,000 ft. having a weight of 460,000 lbs, and 300 ft. length. A maximum overpressure of 0.95 lb/square foot has been obtained experimentally. The experimental results agree well with the analysis. The investigation indicates that the three-dimensional effects are very important when the measurements in wind tunnels are taken at small distances from the airplane.

  2. Tensegrity structures - Computational and experimental tensegrity mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Detlef; Lim, Yi Chung; Long, David S.

    2017-07-01

    The present paper deals with tensegrity structures. We review the definition of tensegrity structures, and describe both experimental and computational form finding methods. Also described are the numerical methods for the simulation of prestress induced stiffness, and the static and dynamic structural analyses. Furthermore, we present laboratory models and measurement methods for identifying the realized geometry and prestress state. Finally, computationally and experimentally obtained geometries and prestress states are compared, a representative realization of a real world tensegrity tower is shown and the modeling of biological cells as tensegrity structures is adressed.

  3. Mach 5 inlet CFD and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Lois J.; Reddy, D. R.; Rupp, George D.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental research program was conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10 x 10 ft supersonic wind tunnel. The 2-D inlet model was designed to study the Mach 3.0 to 5.0 speed range for an over-under turbojet plus ramjet propulsion system. The model was extensively instrumented to provide both analytical code validation data as well as inlet performance information. Support studies for the program include flow field predictions with both 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) and 3-D full Navier-Stokes (FNS) analytical codes. Analytical predictions and experimental results are compared.

  4. Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.

  5. Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Pictured here is a DC-XA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) prototype concept with an RLV logo. The Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X) was originally developed by McDornell Douglas for the Department of Defense (DOD). The DC-XA is a single-stage-to-orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing, launch vehicle concept, whose development is geared to significantly reduce launch costs and will provide a test bed for NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology as the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA).

  6. Tandem mirror thermal barrier experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Coensgen, F.H.; Drake, R.P.; Simonen, T.C.

    1980-01-02

    This report describes an experimental plan for the development of the Tandem Mirror Thermal Barrier. Included is: (1) a description of thermal barrier related physics experiments; (2) thermal barrier related experiments in the existing TMX and Phaedrus experiments; (3) a thermal barrier TMX upgrade; and (4) initiation of investigations of axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Experimental studies of the first two items are presently underway. Results are expected from the TMX upgrade by the close of 1981 and from axisymmetric tandem mirror experiments at the end of 1983. Plans for Phaedrus upgrades are developing for the same period.

  7. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    SciTech Connect

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B.

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  8. EBTS:DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

    2000-11-06

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap.

  9. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Quantum State Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Ryo; Iefuji, Minako; Oyama, Satoshi; Yamagata, Koichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Akio; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2012-09-01

    The first experimental demonstration of an adaptive quantum state estimation (AQSE) is reported. The strong consistency and asymptotic efficiency of AQSE have been mathematically proven [A. Fujiwara, J. Phys. A 39, 12489 (2006)JPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/40/014]. In this Letter, the angle of linear polarization of single photons, the phase parameter between the right and the left circularly polarization, is estimated using AQSE, and the strong consistency and asymptotic efficiency are experimentally verified. AQSE will provide a general useful method in both quantum information processing and metrology.

  10. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1999-01-01

    This termination report covers the latter part of a single research effort spanning several grant cycles. During this time there was a single title, "Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites", but there were several contract numbers as the mode and location of NASA contract administration changed. Initially, the project was funded as an increment to the PI's other grant, "Early Differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and Modeling Studies", but subsequently it became an independent grant. Table 1 contains a brief summary of the dates and contract numbers.

  11. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  12. [Claude Bernard, founder of experimental physiology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y; Li, X; Xu, W

    2001-07-01

    Claude Bernard was a famous French physiologist and philosopher in the 19th century. His experimental researches almost involved all fields of physiology. It is generally recognized by physiologists that in the research of Bernard in the digestion of pancreas, glucogenesis in the liver, and the vasomotor mechanism and the mechanism of action of curari and carbon monoxide were all at the lead. His researches established the foundation for modern physiology, modern biochemistry and the works of Pavlov, and were the initiation of experimental physiology.

  13. Experimental study of uncentralized squeeze film dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration response of a rotor system supported by a squeeze film damper (SFD) was experimentally investigated in order to provide experimental data in support of the Rotor/Stator Interactive Finite Element theoretical development. Part of the investigation required the designing and building of a rotor/SFD system that could operate with or without end seals in order to accommodate different SFD lengths. SFD variables investigated included clearance, eccentricity mass, fluid pressure, and viscosity and temperature. The results show inlet pressure, viscosity and clearance have significant influence on the damper performance and accompanying rotor response.

  14. Experimental characterization of composites. [load test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental characterization for composite materials is generally more complicated than for ordinary homogeneous, isotropic materials because composites behave in a much more complex fashion, due to macroscopic anisotropic effects and lamination effects. Problems concerning the static uniaxial tension test for composite materials are considered along with approaches for conducting static uniaxial compression tests and static uniaxial bending tests. Studies of static shear properties are discussed, taking into account in-plane shear, twisting shear, and thickness shear. Attention is given to static multiaxial loading, systematized experimental programs for the complete characterization of static properties, and dynamic properties.

  15. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  16. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Byun, Y.; Ducasse, Q.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Gunsing, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Jurado, B.; Larsen, A. C.; Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J.

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  17. Lepton Flavor Violation. — Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, M.

    2005-06-01

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the charged sector has been gaining great interests these days. Experimental researches looking for muon LFV such as MEG and MECO are in preparation, and aiming to discover the muon LFV signal within this decade. There is also another activity called PRISM/PRIME project underway, which aims to expand muon LFV research furthermore. The status of those experimental studies will be described. The idea of building Muon Factory and its relevance to the future of neutrino physics is also commented upon.

  18. The HiPER Experimental Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Badziak, J.; Davies, J.; Gizzi, L.; Hallo, L.; Norreys, P.; Roth, M.; Santos, J.; Tickhoncuk, V.; Woolsey, N.

    2010-02-02

    WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in 'HiPER dedicated time slots' in European Laser Facilities.

  19. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  20. Experimental and computational studies of dynamic stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, L. W.; Platzer, M. F.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Ekaterinaris, J.

    1989-01-01

    A review of dynamic stall research in progress under the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics is presented. This effort, which includes both experimental and computational studies of the dynamic stall process, is directed toward better understanding and modeling of the fluid flow that occurs on helicopters and aircraft flying in conditions that induce dynamic stall. The results of research now in progress are presented, with discussion of the experimental program on compressibility effects on dynamic stall, related CFD studies of the stall process based on Navier-Stokes modeling, and viscous-inviscid flow modeling of the incipient stall process.

  1. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  2. Experimental evidence for Abraham pressure of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; She, Weilong; Peng, Nan; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    The question of how much momentum light carries in media has been debated for over a century. Two rivalling theories, one from 1908 by Hermann Minkowski and the other from 1909 by Max Abraham, predict the exact opposite when light enters an optical material: a pulling force in Minkowski's case and a pushing force in Abraham's. Most experimental tests have agreed with Minkowski's theory, but here we report the first quantitative experimental evidence for Abraham's pushing pressure of light. Our results matter in optofluidics and optomechanics, and wherever light exerts mechanical pressure.

  3. An Experimental Study of Thrust Augmenting Ejectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    A , AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THRUST AUG’XENTING EJECTORS THESIS William D. Lewis Captain 11. S. Army AFIT/GAE/Ai/83D- 13 1 DTIC Li~i ELECTE JANI...83D-13 AN LEPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THRUST AUG-M..TING EJECTORS "l•HSIS William D. Levis Captain U. S. Army AF1T/GAAE/AA/$3D- 13 ’jK Approved for public...release; distribution unliaited I V .,, AFIT/GAE/AA/83D- 13 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THRUST AUGMENTING EJECTORS THESIS Presented to *he Faculty of the

  4. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  5. Comparison of the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of theoretically and experimentally designed supercritical airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    A lifting airfoil theoretically designed for shockless supercritical flow utilizing a complex hodograph method has been evaluated in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at design and off-design conditions. The experimental results are presented and compared with those of an experimentally designed supercritical airfoil which were obtained in the same tunnel.

  6. Reconciling Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Chloe

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to interpret evidence on the impact of full-day kindergarten resulting from different study designs, and provides guidance on how this evidence taken in tandem may inform the design and implementation of full-day kindergarten policies. Incorporating both experimental and quasi-experimental estimates on…

  7. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  8. Children's Understanding of Experimental Contrast and Experimental Control: An Inventory for Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Experimentation skills are a central component of scientific thinking, and many studies have investigated whether and when primary-school children develop adequate experimentation strategies. However, the answers to these questions vary substantially depending on the type of task that is used: while discovery tasks, which require children to…

  9. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  10. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  11. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  12. Experimental velocity distributions in a granular submonolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadillo-Martínez, Alejandra T.; Sánchez, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Experimental speed distributions are obtained for driven granular submonolayers of binary mixtures of single spheres and dimers of spheres. The results are well-described by a distribution originally developed for a single-species one-dimensional system. This suggests that such a distribution may be extended to other mixtures such as systems exhibiting aggregation and dissociation.

  13. Luquillo Experimental Forest: Research History and Opportunities

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Harris; Ariel E. Lugo; Sandra Brown; Tamara Heartsill-Scalley

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this Luquillo Experimental Forest: Research History and Opportunities are to synthesize the new research that has emerged from the LEF since the publication of Brown et al. (1983) into a concise summary of key research findings and to highlight opportunities for future research that will contribute to a greater understanding of the structure and function...

  14. Tree response to experimental watershed acidification

    Treesearch

    N.K. Jensen; E.J. Holzmueller; P.J. Edwards; M. Thomas-Van Gundy; D.R. DeWalle; K.W.J. Williard

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Eastern USA are threatened by acid deposition rates that have increased dramatically since industrialization. We utilized two watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to examine long-term effects of acidification on ecological processes. One watershed has been treated with ammonium sulfate (approximately twice the ambient...

  15. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  16. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  17. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  18. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  19. Experimental and computational study of thaumasite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtzová, Eva; Kucková, Lenka; Kožíšek, Jozef; Pálková, Helena; Tunega, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The structure of thaumasite has been studied experimentally by means of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and FTIR methods, and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) method. Very good agreement was achieved between calculated and experimental structural parameters. In addition, calculations offered the refinement of the positions of the hydrogen atoms. The detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds existing in the thaumasite structure has been performed. Several types of hydrogen bonds have been classified. The water molecules coordinating Ca{sup 2+} cation act as proton donors in moderate O-H···O hydrogen bonds formed with CO₃⁻²and SO₄⁻² anions. The multiple O-H···O hydrogen bonds exist among water molecules themselves. Finally, relatively weak hydrogen bonds form water molecules with the OH groups from the coordination sphere of the Si(OH)₆⁻² anion. Further, calculated vibrational spectrum allowed complete assignment of all vibrational modes which are not available from the experimental spectrum that has a complex structure with overlapped bands, especially below 1500 cm⁻¹. Highlights: • The thaumasite structure was studied experimentally and using DFT method. • We used DFT method for the refinement of the positions of hydrogen atoms. • A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds was done. • A complete assignment of all bands to particular types of vibrations was done.

  20. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  1. How experimental trial context affects perceptual categorization.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Thomas J; Mack, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.

  2. Experimental models of demyelination and remyelination.

    PubMed

    Torre-Fuentes, L; Moreno-Jiménez, L; Pytel, V; Matías-Guiu, J A; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Matías-Guiu, J

    2017-08-29

    Experimental animal models constitute a useful tool to deepen our knowledge of central nervous system disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis, however, there is no such specific model able to provide an overview of the disease; multiple models covering the different pathophysiological features of the disease are therefore necessary. We reviewed the different in vitro and in vivo experimental models used in multiple sclerosis research. Concerning in vitro models, we analysed cell cultures and slice models. As for in vivo models, we examined such models of autoimmunity and inflammation as experimental allergic encephalitis in different animals and virus-induced demyelinating diseases. Furthermore, we analysed models of demyelination and remyelination, including chemical lesions caused by cuprizone, lysolecithin, and ethidium bromide; zebrafish; and transgenic models. Experimental models provide a deeper understanding of the different pathogenic mechanisms involved in multiple sclerosis. Choosing one model or another depends on the specific aims of the study. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665.17 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... fishery management agency of the affected state, accompanied by the following information: (i) The...

  4. Experimental validation of structural optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of validating structural optimization methods by use of experimental results is addressed. The need for validating the methods as a way of effecting a greater and an accelerated acceptance of formal optimization methods by practicing engineering designers is described. The range of validation strategies is defined which includes comparison of optimization results with more traditional design approaches, establishing the accuracy of analyses used, and finally experimental validation of the optimization results. Examples of the use of experimental results to validate optimization techniques are described. The examples include experimental validation of the following: optimum design of a trussed beam; combined control-structure design of a cable-supported beam simulating an actively controlled space structure; minimum weight design of a beam with frequency constraints; minimization of the vibration response of helicopter rotor blade; minimum weight design of a turbine blade disk; aeroelastic optimization of an aircraft vertical fin; airfoil shape optimization for drag minimization; optimization of the shape of a hole in a plate for stress minimization; optimization to minimize beam dynamic response; and structural optimization of a low vibration helicopter rotor.

  5. Experimental realization of coherent perfect polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanhong; Andrews, James H; Crescimanno, Michael

    2016-05-15

    Coherent perfect processes enable high optical efficiencies in optical conversion phenomena such as coherent perfect absorption or coherent perfect polarization rotation. A linear optical coherent perfect process based on Faraday rotation has been evaluated experimentally, achieving contrast limited by other optical components of the system and demonstrating like-parity resonance doublets above threshold.

  6. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  7. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  8. 14 CFR 21.475 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.475 Section 21.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures §...

  9. MATHEMATICS I, VOLUME 3, EXPERIMENTAL EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    THIS IS VOLUME 3 OF A THREE-VOLUME EXPERIMENTAL EDITION CONTAINING A SEQUENCE OF ENRICHED MATERIALS FOR SEVENTH-GRADE MATHEMATICS. THESE MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO BE USED FOR A PROGRAM OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION FOR THE ACCELERATED STUDENT OR FOR CLASSROOM PRESENTATION BY THE TEACHER. THE PRESENTATION OF THE MATERIAL IS SUCH AS TO REFLECT…

  10. USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges

    Treesearch

    Ralph H. Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Forests and Ranges (EF&Rs) have provided and continue to provide scientific information for the management of National Forests, industrial and private lands. In accordance with federal authority 4062.01 of the Forest Service Manual, section 4000 provisions of the Organic Administration Act of 1897 (16 USC 551), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable...

  11. GUIDE-0: An Experimental Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murai, Shinnichi

    A description is provided of GUIDE-0, an experimental information system. The system serves as a bibliographic aid for students who are taking introductory computer science courses whose material is at least partially implemented via PLATO-IV lessons. Following a brief introduction to the system in Chapter I, the second Chapter describes the…

  12. An Experimental Investigation of Cognitive Defusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilecki, Brian C.; McKay, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared cognitive defusion with other strategies in reducing the impact of experimentally induced negative emotional states. Sixty-seven undergraduates were assigned to one of three conditions (cognitive defusion, thought suppression, or control) and instructed in standardized approaches relevant to each condition before viewing…

  13. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT.... Participating in air races, including (for such participants) practicing for such air races and flying to and...

  14. The National Ignition Facility: Experimental Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H

    2003-09-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} bar, conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars, planets and in nuclear weapons. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules of infrared light and over 16 kJ at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper discusses NIF's current and future experimental capability, plans for facility diagnostics, cryogenic target systems, specialized optics for experiments, and potential enhancements to NIF such as green laser operation and high-energy short pulse operation.

  15. Essays on Experimental Economics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Scott Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I consider three separate explanations for how price affects the usage rate of a purchased product: Screening, signaling, and sunk-cost bias. I propose an experimental design that disentangles the three effects. Furthermore, in order to quantify and compare these effects I introduce a simple structural model and show that the…

  16. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  17. Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Encke, W.

    1947-01-01

    A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.

  18. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  19. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-01-01

    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

  20. Experimental Course Report, Grade Nine, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert B.

    Reported are the results of an experimental course taught at the ninth grade level. The course included both modern and traditional topics in algebra. Presented are a rationale for the course, a list of the topics included in the course, a description of instructional techniques and methods used in presenting and developing some of the main ideas…