Science.gov

Sample records for experimental protocol development

  1. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)experimental apparatus and protocol enable rapid and accurate determination of the MIC and MLC values of EO gases and perhaps other types of gaseous antimicrobial agents. PMID:26350124

  2. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)experimental apparatus and protocol enable rapid and accurate determination of the MIC and MLC values of EO gases and perhaps other types of gaseous antimicrobial agents.

  3. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  4. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smart phones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  5. Treatment protocol development

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, C.; Gavin, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue.

  6. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  7. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  8. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  9. Developing family planning nurse practitioner protocols.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J W; Roberto, D

    1984-01-01

    This article focuses on the process of development of protocols for family planning nurse practitioners. A rationale for the use of protocols, a definition of the types and examples, and the pros and cons of practice with protocols are presented. A how-to description for the development process follows, including methods and a suggested tool for critique and evaluation. The aim of the article is to assist nurse practitioners in developing protocols for their practice.

  10. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  11. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  12. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  13. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  14. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota.

  15. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. PMID:26210759

  16. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  17. Collaborative patient care protocols: a development process.

    PubMed

    Blaufuss, J; Wynn, J; Hujcs, M

    1993-01-01

    Computerization of these protocols is in progress. This project is funded for one year with projected completion in January 1994. This study will form a framework in which further research can be completed. Utilizing protocols will allow the measurement of nursing decision making by testing relationships between parameters and interventions and by identifying rules for decision making. For example, questions that may be answered include which physiologic parameters do clinicians treat and in what order or priority, as well as what is the impact on patient outcomes in regard to cost of care and complications. Computerized patient care protocols can be further developed to meet patient-specific needs. A computerized data base will facilitate managing large amounts of patient data and tailoring instructions to these patients. One of the goals of this project was to measure the feasibility of developing computerized patient care protocols and implementing them in a critical care setting. Eventually, this experience will facilitate implementing computerized protocols at other sites. An additional benefit is the ability to implement continuous quality improvement strategies in a prospective manner rather than by retrospective review. PMID:10171735

  18. The Vocational Assessment Protocol: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dale F.; Menz, Fredrick E.

    This report describes a 48-month project which developed, field tested, and evaluated the utility of the Vocational Assessment Protocol (VAP) for use with persons with traumatic brain injury resulting in a severe and persistent disability. The VAP is intended to assist in the community-based vocational rehabilitation of these individuals. The VAP…

  19. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  20. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  1. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  2. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  3. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  4. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  6. A generic representation format of physiological experimental protocols for computer simulation using ontology.

    PubMed

    Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    For computer simulations of physiological experiments using physiological models, a machine-readable format of experimental protocols is effective. Here, we propose an XML-based language, PEPML (Physiological Experimental Protocol Markup Language). In the PEPML, conditions and procedures of an experimental protocol are procedurally described as a list of events, each of which consists of a condition for execution and an action to be executed. Since variables used in a protocol can be specified using an ontology, the protocol can be applied to various models without editing tasks. The PEPML allows both application of multiple protocols to a single model and application of a single protocol to multiple models. This feature facilitates the efficient simulation for verifications, comparisons and utilizations of physiological models.

  7. Experimental Demonstration of a Quantum Protocol for Byzantine Agreement and Liar Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Sascha; Bourennane, Mohamed; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adán; Weinfurter, Harald

    2008-02-01

    We introduce a new quantum protocol for solving detectable Byzantine agreement (also called detectable broadcast) between three parties, and also for solving the detectable liar detection problem. The protocol is suggested by the properties of a four-qubit entangled state, and the classical part of the protocol is simpler than that of previous proposals. In addition, we present an experimental implementation of the protocol using four-photon entanglement.

  8. Experimental demonstration of a quantum protocol for byzantine agreement and liar detection.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Sascha; Bourennane, Mohamed; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Cabello, Adán; Weinfurter, Harald

    2008-02-22

    We introduce a new quantum protocol for solving detectable Byzantine agreement (also called detectable broadcast) between three parties, and also for solving the detectable liar detection problem. The protocol is suggested by the properties of a four-qubit entangled state, and the classical part of the protocol is simpler than that of previous proposals. In addition, we present an experimental implementation of the protocol using four-photon entanglement.

  9. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from investigators who want to conduct clinical trials with specific agents. |

  10. Experimental Protocol to Investigate Particle Aerosolization of a Product Under Abrasion and Under Environmental Weathering.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Neeraj; Le Bihan, Olivier Louis; Bressot, Christophe; Morgeneyer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present article presents an experimental protocol to investigate particle aerosolization of a product under abrasion and under environmental weathering, which is a fundamental element to the approach of nanosafety-by-design of nanostructured products for their durable development. This approach is basically a preemptive one in which the focus is put on minimizing the emission of engineered nanomaterials' aerosols during the usage phase of the product's life cycle. This can be attained by altering its material properties during its design phase without compromising with any of its added benefits. In this article, an experimental protocol is presented to investigate the nanosafety-by-design of three commercial nanostructured products with respect to their mechanical solicitation and environmental weathering. The means chosen for applying the mechanical solicitation is an abrasion process and for the environmental weathering, it is an accelerated UV exposure in the presence of humidity and heat. The eventual emission of engineered nanomaterials is studied in terms of their number concentration, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition. The purpose of the protocol is to study the emission for test samples and experimental conditions which are corresponding to real life situations. It was found that the application of the mechanical stresses alone emits the engineered nanomaterials' aerosols in which the engineered nanomaterial is always embedded inside the product matrix, thus, a representative product element. In such a case, the emitted aerosols comprise of both nanoparticles as well as microparticles. But if the mechanical stresses are coupled with the environmental weathering, the experimental protocol reveals then the eventual deterioration of the product, after a certain weathering duration, may lead to the emission of the free engineered nanomaterial aerosols too. PMID:27684430

  11. Experimental Protocol to Investigate Particle Aerosolization of a Product Under Abrasion and Under Environmental Weathering.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Neeraj; Le Bihan, Olivier Louis; Bressot, Christophe; Morgeneyer, Martin

    2016-09-16

    The present article presents an experimental protocol to investigate particle aerosolization of a product under abrasion and under environmental weathering, which is a fundamental element to the approach of nanosafety-by-design of nanostructured products for their durable development. This approach is basically a preemptive one in which the focus is put on minimizing the emission of engineered nanomaterials' aerosols during the usage phase of the product's life cycle. This can be attained by altering its material properties during its design phase without compromising with any of its added benefits. In this article, an experimental protocol is presented to investigate the nanosafety-by-design of three commercial nanostructured products with respect to their mechanical solicitation and environmental weathering. The means chosen for applying the mechanical solicitation is an abrasion process and for the environmental weathering, it is an accelerated UV exposure in the presence of humidity and heat. The eventual emission of engineered nanomaterials is studied in terms of their number concentration, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition. The purpose of the protocol is to study the emission for test samples and experimental conditions which are corresponding to real life situations. It was found that the application of the mechanical stresses alone emits the engineered nanomaterials' aerosols in which the engineered nanomaterial is always embedded inside the product matrix, thus, a representative product element. In such a case, the emitted aerosols comprise of both nanoparticles as well as microparticles. But if the mechanical stresses are coupled with the environmental weathering, the experimental protocol reveals then the eventual deterioration of the product, after a certain weathering duration, may lead to the emission of the free engineered nanomaterial aerosols too.

  12. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  13. Alternative experimental protocol to demonstrate the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR) have recently proven an important new theorem in the foundations of quantum mechanics [Pusey , Nature Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys2309 8, 475 (2012)]. Here we propose alternative experimental protocols which lead to the PBR result for a special case and a weaker PBR-like result generally. Alternative experimental protocols support the assumption of measurement independence required for the PBR theorem.

  14. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  15. Experimental protocol for packaging and encrypting multiple data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredy Barrera, John; Trejos, Sorayda; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel single optical packaging and encryption (SOPE) procedure for multiple inputs. This procedure is based on a merging of a 2f scheme with a digital holographic technique to achieve efficient handling of multiple data. Through the 2f system with a random phase mask attached in its input plane, and the holographic technique, we obtain each processed input. A posteriori filtering and repositioning protocol on each hologram followed by an addition of all processed data, allows storing these data to form a single package. The final package is digitally multiplied by a second random phase mask acting as an encryption mask. In this way, the final user receives only one encrypted information unit and a single key, instead of a conventional multiple-image collecting method and several keys. Processing of individual images is cast into an optimization problem. The proposed optimization aims to simplify the handling and recovery of images while packing all of them into a single unit. The decoding process does not have the usual cross-talk or noise problems involved in other methods, as filtering and repositioning precedes the encryption step. All data are recovered in just one step at the same time by applying a simple Fourier transform operation and the decoding key. The proposed protocol takes advantage of optical processing and the versatility of the digital format. Experiments have been conducted using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. An application is subsequently demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of the SOPE procedure.

  16. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  17. Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications.

  18. Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Protocol Development and Initial Outcome Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellard, Kristen K.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment developed to be applicable across the emotional disorders. The UP consists of 4 core modules: increasing emotional awareness, facilitating flexibility in appraisals, identifying and preventing behavioral and emotional avoidance, and situational and…

  19. Drug-usage evaluation by disease state: developing protocols.

    PubMed

    Enlow, M L

    1996-07-01

    The Joint Commission definition of drug-usage evaluation (DUE) also applies to DUE by disease state. The criteria for disease process selection, key processes being evaluated, methods to develop initial DUE protocols, and DUE validation and approval processes are reviewed. The treatment of community-acquired pneumonia is a disease state DUE performed at Saint Joseph Health Center in Kansas City, Missouri. The preliminary protocol was developed by a collaborative network of clinical pharmacists in the metropolitan area. Outcome measures were included in the evaluation. The results were used as baseline data in the development of a pneumonia clinical pathway.

  20. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  1. Development and validation of rapid magnetic particle based extraction protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to control and eradicate transboundary animal diseases, early diagnosis and reaction is essential for the implementation of control activities. Thus, mobile diagnostic units which allow analytical testing close to the site of occurrence could provide valuable support for centralized laboratories. Consequently, the availability of diagnostic tests using mobile amplification and detection technologies has been increasing over the past years. However, methods enabling rapid and simple nucleic acid extraction also under resource-limited settings are still scarce. Methods In the present study rapid extraction protocols based on magnetic particle technology have been developed. For this purpose, the two open extraction platforms KingFisher™ Duo (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and BioSprint® 15 (Qiagen) as well as the fully automated EZ1® advanced XL instrument (Qiagen) were used. All protocols were validated in comparison to standard manual extraction using blood and serum samples from animals infected with Schmallenberg virus or bovine viral diarrhea virus. Results All newly developed protocols allowed a complete extraction within 30 minutes of time. The fully automated EZ1-extraction yielded the highest reproducibility, whereas slightly higher intra- and inter-assay variations were observed using the open platforms. Compared to the manual procedure, the analytical sensitivity of all the rapid protocols was 1 log10 step reduced for extraction from blood samples. For sera a reduced dynamic range could only be observed using the maximally shortened BioSprint 15 protocol. Validation using clinical samples showed an excellent concordance of all the rapid extraction protocols to the standard manual extraction procedure, independent of sample materials and target viruses. Conclusions The results of this study show that the speed-optimized novel extraction protocols allow rapid and simple nucleic acid extractions for a variety of target viruses without

  2. Fiber Laser Component Testing for Space Qualification Protocol Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, S.; Buelow, M.; Nelson, B.; Starcher, Y.; Thienel, L.; Rhodes, C.; Tull, Jackson; Drape, T.; Westfall, C.

    A test protocol for the space qualifying of Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser (DPFL) components was developed under the Bright Light effort, sponsored by AFRL/VSE. A literature search was performed and summarized in an AMOS 2005 conference paper that formed the building blocks for the development of the test protocol. The test protocol was developed from the experience of the Bright Light team, the information in the literature search, and the results of a study of the Telcordia standards. Based on this protocol developed, test procedures and acceptance criteria for a series of vibration, thermal/vacuum, and radiation exposure tests were developed for selected fiber laser components. Northrop Grumman led the effort in vibration and thermal testing of these components at the Aerospace Engineering Facility on Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. The results of the tests conducted have been evaluated. This paper discusses the vibration and thermal testing that was executed to validate the test protocol. The lessons learned will aid in future assessments and definition of space qualification protocols. Components representative of major items within a Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser were selected for testing; including fibers, isolators, combiners, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes. Selection of the components was based on guidelines to test multiple models of typical fiber laser components. A goal of the effort was to test two models (i.e. different manufacturers) of each type of article selected, representing different technologies for the same type of device. The test articles did not include subsystems or systems. These components and parts may not be available commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), and, in fact, many are custom articles, or newly developed by the manufacturer. The primary goal for this effort is a completed taxonomy that lists all relevant laser components, modules, subsystems, and interfaces, and cites the documentation for space

  3. Engineering platform and experimental protocol for design and evaluation of a neurally-controlled powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Harper, Stephen; Lee, Michael; Huang, He

    2014-01-01

    To enable intuitive operation of powered artificial legs, an interface between user and prosthesis that can recognize the user's movement intent is desired. A novel neural-machine interface (NMI) based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion developed in our previous study has demonstrated a great potential to accurately identify the intended movement of transfemoral amputees. However, this interface has not yet been integrated with a powered prosthetic leg for true neural control. This study aimed to report (1) a flexible platform to implement and optimize neural control of powered lower limb prosthesis and (2) an experimental setup and protocol to evaluate neural prosthesis control on patients with lower limb amputations. First a platform based on a PC and a visual programming environment were developed to implement the prosthesis control algorithms, including NMI training algorithm, NMI online testing algorithm, and intrinsic control algorithm. To demonstrate the function of this platform, in this study the NMI based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion was hierarchically integrated with intrinsic control of a prototypical transfemoral prosthesis. One patient with a unilateral transfemoral amputation was recruited to evaluate our implemented neural controller when performing activities, such as standing, level-ground walking, ramp ascent, and ramp descent continuously in the laboratory. A novel experimental setup and protocol were developed in order to test the new prosthesis control safely and efficiently. The presented proof-of-concept platform and experimental setup and protocol could aid the future development and application of neurally-controlled powered artificial legs. PMID:25079449

  4. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  5. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-01

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as `problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  6. CCT WG8 CMC Review Protocols: Development and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, G. F.; Ballico, M.; Bojkovski, J.; de Groot, M.; Liedberg, H. G.; Pokhodun, A. I.

    2008-06-01

    The primary objectives of the Consultative Committee on Thermometry Working Group 8 (CCT WG8) are to establish and maintain lists of service categories, to agree on detailed technical review criteria of submitted calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs), and, where necessary, to develop rules for the preparation of CMC entries. One of the main tasks of CCT WG8 is the creation of harmonized CMC review protocols for thermometry and humidity that are scientifically based. The work of CCT WG8 is performed by the Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Working Group on Thermometry chairpersons and invited technical experts. The CCT WG8 develops practical, pragmatic guidelines for CMC reviews that let the CMC review process proceed according to a set of objective numerical criteria and specified technical evidence to reduce the possibility of disagreement. The CCT WG8 CMC review protocols are designed so that CMC reviews are scientifically based and not designed to bluntly increase uncertainties. The CMC review protocols currently developed and accepted by CCT WG8 cover International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) fixed-point cells, ITS-90 calibration temperature subranges for standard platinum resistance thermometers, industrial thermometers, radiation thermometry, and humidity. This article describes the methods used by the CCT WG8 committee to create the review protocols.

  7. Protocol Development, Treatment Fidelity, Adherence to Treatment, and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy leaders have emphasized the importance of intervention effectiveness research. The CONSORT and TREND checklists have been suggested as useful tools for reporting the results of randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Despite such recommendations, research protocols and reports continue to underutilize the available tools, a situation reflecting limited resources for and experience with the conduct of effectiveness research. To address this issue, and using the CONSORT statement to structure the analysis, this article discusses strategies for optimization of protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control. We recommend several approaches to increase the quality of research throughout these various processes. Examples of implementation from our laboratory provide evidence of the utility of these strategies. PMID:23433268

  8. Cheating and Anti-Cheating in Gossip-Based Protocol: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanchun; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Nan

    During recent years, there has been a rapid growth in deployment of gossip-based protocol in many multicast applications. In a typical gossip-based protocol, each node acts as dual roles of receiver and sender, independently exchanging data with its neighbors to facilitate scalability and resilience. However, most of previous work in this literature seldom considered cheating issue of end users, which is also very important in face of the fact that the mutual cooperation inherently determines overall system performance. In this paper, we investigate the dishonest behaviors in decentralized gossip-based protocol through extensive experimental study. Our original contributions come in two-fold: In the first part of cheating study, we analytically discuss two typical cheating strategies, that is, intentionally increasing subscription requests and untruthfully calculating forwarding probability, and further evaluate their negative impacts. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to defending cheating behaviors in gossip-based protocol. In the second part of anti-cheating study, we propose a receiver-driven measurement mechanism, which evaluates individual forwarding traffic from the perspective of receivers and thus identifies cheating nodes with high incoming/outgoing ratio. Furthermore, we extend our mechanism by introducing reliable factor to further improve its accuracy. The experiments under various conditions show that it performs quite well in case of serious cheating and achieves considerable performance in other cases.

  9. Critical assessment of OmpF channel selectivity: merging information from different experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M. L.; García-Giménez, E.; Aguilella, V. M.; Alcaraz, A.

    2010-11-01

    The ion selectivity of a channel can be quantified in several ways by using different experimental protocols. A wide, mesoscopic channel, the OmpF porin of the outer membrane of E. coli, serves as a case study for comparing and analysing several measures of the channel cation-anion permeability in chlorides of alkali metals (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl). We show how different insights can be gained and integrated to rationalize the global image of channel selectivity. To this end, reversal potential, channel conductance and bi-ionic potential (two different salts with a common anion on each side of the channel but with the same concentration) experiments are discussed in light of an electrodiffusion model based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism. Measurements and calculations based on the atomic crystal structure of the channel show that each protocol displays a particular balance between the different sources of selectivity.

  10. Tendencies in the development of utilization protocols, seminar report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, A.

    1983-07-01

    The open system interconnections model (OSI) structured approach to specify protocols is discussed. A stratification in seven levels characterizes the architecture of the system. Transfer level protocol characterization of utilization protocols in the OSI model, data flow control, and presentation and application levels are described.

  11. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  12. Experimental quantum networking protocols via four-qubit hyperentangled Dicke states.

    PubMed

    Chiuri, A; Greganti, C; Paternostro, M; Vallone, G; Mataloni, P

    2012-10-26

    We report the experimental demonstration of two quantum networking protocols, namely quantum 1→3 telecloning and open-destination teleportation, implemented using a four-qubit register whose state is encoded in a high-quality two-photon hyperentangled Dicke state. The state resource is characterized using criteria based on multipartite entanglement witnesses. We explore the characteristic entanglement-sharing structure of a Dicke state by implementing high-fidelity projections of the four-qubit resource onto lower-dimensional states. Our work demonstrates for the first time the usefulness of Dicke states for quantum information processing. PMID:23215188

  13. An experimental field protocol for investigating the postmortem interval using multidisciplinary indicators.

    PubMed

    Schoenly, K; Griest, K; Rhine, S

    1991-09-01

    This article proposes an experimental field protocol for investigating the postmortem interval using specially designed apparatus and human and pig cadavers. We further propose that this goal can only be achieved by a multidisciplinary group, comprised of forensic entomologists, pathologists, and anthropologists. The apparatus and collecting methods described by the authors establish the means by which data can be collected on several fronts simultaneously: the sequential arrival and variety of insects in the decay process, the character and manner of soft tissue decomposition, the sequence and nature of bone exposure and order of disarticulation of skeletal remains, and the influence of climate and season on decay rates and arthropod succession. A central feature of this protocol involves the construction and use of a dual-functioning insect trap that allows separate but simultaneous capture of arriving and emerging populations while successional and decompositional processes of the cadaver are left intact. Results of trap performance tests in an arid climate and preliminary arthropod data collected from field-exposed pig carcasses are presented. The use of this protocol could provide important and badly needed baseline data for both medical investigators and law enforcement personnel, information that is critical to understanding the causes, manner, and time of death, which the law requires to be ascertained. PMID:1955831

  14. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges. PMID:27458364

  15. Driving Position Field Study, Differences with the Whiplash Protocol and Biomechanics Experimental Responses

    PubMed Central

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Pozo, Eduardo Del; Lessley, David; Barrios, Jose Manuel; Nombela, Mario; Cisneros, Oscar; de Miguel, Juan Luis; Seguí-Gómez, María

    2011-01-01

    Rear-impact collisions at low speed are a leading cause of economic costs among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, EuroNCAP has incorporated in its protocol the whiplash test, to reproduce a low-speed rear impact. This paper presents a field driving study to assess the potential differences between the EuroNCAP dummy tests and actual drivers in the field, focusing on occupant position and biomechanics experimental results. A total of 182 drivers were randomly selected in two geographical areas in Spain. The driving position of each driver was recorded with a focus on the most relevant measurements for rear impact. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain means, standard deviations and density functions to compare observational seating position with that of the EuroNCAP testing protocol. The observational data showed a similar seatback angle to that used in the EuroNCAP protocol (24° in front of 25° for the protocol), a greater distance between the head vertex and the top of the head restraint (53mm compared to 39.5mm), and less distance between the occipital bone of the head and the headrest (67.9 compared to 89.3mm). Based on these data, 4 dummy tests were conducted using the dummy BioRID IIg. The baseline test was designed to reproduce the dummy position according to EuroNCAP 3.0 whiplash protocol. Three different additional tests were defined to reproduce the actual observed driving position as well as to assess a “worst case” scenario in terms of reduced seatback angle. These variations in initial driver position, comparing the EuroNCAP protocol to the observational study results, were not observed to cause significant differences in the biomechanical values measured in the BioRID IIg, The T1 acceleration was reduced less than 8%, the NIC was increased about 8%, and the NKm presented a reduction of 20%. Reducing the seat angle was observed to be more harmful in terms of NIC. PMID:22105385

  16. Development of Volunteer International Craniofacial Surgery Missions: The Komedyplast Protocol.

    PubMed

    Taub, Peter James; Lin, Alexander Y; Cladis, Franklyn P; Baker, Stephen B; Gooden, Cheryl K; Kumar, Anand; Losee, Joseph E; Menard, Robert; Starks, Red; Duncan, John A; De Pawlikowski, Wieslawa; Cecchi, Andres Wiegering; Weinzweig, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Volunteer surgical missions to provide cleft care to patients in developing countries has been done successfully for a number of years. Similar missions that provide craniofacial surgery introduce a dramatic step up in complexity. While articles have addressed protocols for the safe delivery of cleft care around the world, little has been written on volunteer craniofacial surgical missions. Komedyplast was established in March 2001 as a 501c(3) nonprofit organization to provide craniofacial surgical care to underserved populations and educate local surgeons in craniofacial principles. During 9 annual missions, the organization has provided surgical care to more than 150 patients with various complex, congenital, craniofacial conditions. The article addresses important safeguards that have been implemented to maximize safety and minimize risk.

  17. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  18. Development of a protocol for predicting bacterial resistance to microbicides.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Laura; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  19. The water maze paradigm in experimental studies of chronic cognitive disorders: Theory, protocols, analysis, and inference.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Minesh; Xu, Josie; Sakic, Boris

    2016-09-01

    An instrumental step in assessing the validity of animal models of chronic cognitive disorders is to document disease-related deficits in learning/memory capacity. The water maze (WM) is a popular paradigm because of its low cost, relatively simple protocol and short procedure time. Despite being broadly accepted as a spatial learning task, inference of generalized, bona fide "cognitive" dysfunction can be challenging because task accomplishment is also reliant on non-cognitive processes. We review theoretical background, testing procedures, confounding factors, as well as approaches to data analysis and interpretation. We also describe an extended protocol that has proven useful in detecting early performance deficits in murine models of neuropsychiatric lupus and Alzheimer's disease. Lastly, we highlight the need for standardization of inferential criteria on "cognitive" dysfunction in experimental rodents and exclusion of preparations of a limited scientific merit. A deeper appreciation for the multifactorial nature of performance in WM may also help to reveal other deficits that herald the onset of neurodegenerative brain disorders. PMID:27229758

  20. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo; Yu, Qingzhong; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-03-01

    While there is typically 100% survivability in birds challenged with vNDV under experimental conditions, either with vaccines formulated with a strain homologous or heterologous (different genotype) to the challenge virus, vaccine deficiencies are often noted in the field. We have developed an improved and more stringent protocol to experimentally evaluate live NDV vaccines, and showed for the first time under experimental conditions that a statistically significant reduction in mortality can be detected with genotype matched vaccines. Using both vaccine evaluation protocols (traditional and improved), birds were challenged with a vNDV of genotype XIII and the efficacy of live heterologous (genotype II) and homologous (genotype XIII) NDV vaccines was compared. Under traditional vaccination conditions there were no differences in survival upon challenge, but the homologous vaccine induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific to the challenge virus. With the more stringent challenge system (multiple vaccine doses and early challenge with high titers of vNDV), the birds administered the homologous vaccine had superior humoral responses, reduced clinical signs, and reduced mortality levels than those vaccinated with the heterologous vaccine. These results provide basis for the implementation of more sensitive methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy.

  1. Developing a notebook protocol for the high school chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Roselyn I.

    The focus of this project is to increase science literacy in high school students using a protocol that emphasizes writing. A protocol or lesson sequence comprises a code of behavior to encourage learning through reflection, writing, and self-assessment. A basic protocol may have a sequence of writing elements or tasks which checks for prior knowledge, looks at lesson standards, studies content, and summarizes learning. Using the protocol, students will demonstrate evidence of their learning through writing. The project will identify a progression of tasks which enable students to master content and express mastery through writing. The student's interactive notebook will record evidence of their learning. Several styles of writing and reporting tasks will be explored using the notebook. Students will help implement and identify tasks that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of science content.

  2. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  3. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  4. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H

    2000-03-01

    Humans have only a limited ability to incorporate information in decision making. In certain situations, the mismatch between this limitation and the availability of extensive information contributes to the varying performance and high error rate of clinical decision makers. Variation in clinical practice is due in part to clinicians' poor compliance with guidelines and recommended therapies. The use of decision-support tools is a response to both the information revolution and poor compliance. Computerized protocols used to deliver decision support can be configured to contain much more detail than textual guidelines or paper-based flow diagrams. Such protocols can generate patient-specific instructions for therapy that can be carried out with little interclinician variability; however, clinicians must be willing to modify personal styles of clinical management. Protocols need not be perfect. Several defensible and reasonable approaches are available for clinical problems. However, one of these reasonable approaches must be chosen and incorporated into the protocol to promote consistent clinical decisions. This reasoning is the basis of an explicit method of decision support that allows the rigorous evaluation of interventions, including use of the protocols themselves. Computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation and management of intravenous fluid and hemodynamic factors in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome provide case studies for this discussion. PMID:10691588

  5. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H

    2000-03-01

    Humans have only a limited ability to incorporate information in decision making. In certain situations, the mismatch between this limitation and the availability of extensive information contributes to the varying performance and high error rate of clinical decision makers. Variation in clinical practice is due in part to clinicians' poor compliance with guidelines and recommended therapies. The use of decision-support tools is a response to both the information revolution and poor compliance. Computerized protocols used to deliver decision support can be configured to contain much more detail than textual guidelines or paper-based flow diagrams. Such protocols can generate patient-specific instructions for therapy that can be carried out with little interclinician variability; however, clinicians must be willing to modify personal styles of clinical management. Protocols need not be perfect. Several defensible and reasonable approaches are available for clinical problems. However, one of these reasonable approaches must be chosen and incorporated into the protocol to promote consistent clinical decisions. This reasoning is the basis of an explicit method of decision support that allows the rigorous evaluation of interventions, including use of the protocols themselves. Computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation and management of intravenous fluid and hemodynamic factors in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome provide case studies for this discussion.

  6. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  7. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  8. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  9. Using generalizability theory to develop clinical assessment protocols.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Clinical assessment protocols must produce data that are reliable, with a clinically attainable minimal detectable change (MDC). In a reliability study, generalizability theory has 2 advantages over classical test theory. These advantages provide information that allows assessment protocols to be adjusted to match individual patient profiles. First, generalizability theory allows the user to simultaneously consider multiple sources of measurement error variance (facets). Second, it allows the user to generalize the findings of the main study across the different study facets and to recalculate the reliability and MDC based on different combinations of facet conditions. In doing so, clinical assessment protocols can be chosen based on minimizing the number of measures that must be taken to achieve a realistic MDC, using repeated measures to minimize the MDC, or simply based on the combination that best allows the clinician to monitor an individual patient's progress over a specified period of time. PMID:23258312

  10. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  11. Mouse exo utero development system: protocol and troubleshooting.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Makiko; Hatta, Toshihisa; Otani, Hiroki

    2008-12-01

    The exo utero development system allows us to manipulate or operate on live embryos of mice or rats at mid- to late gestation stages, from late organogenetic to histogenetic periods, and keep them alive in situ until the analysis of their effects at a desired time point. We can examine the effects of injecting bioactive molecules or cells into targeted parts of a live embryo, destroying specific embryonic regions, or performing fetal surgery. This system is far simpler and more time- and cost-effective for in vivo functional analyses than establishing genetically modified mouse lines and provides a fine-tuned experimental design for developmental scientists. To promote use of the mouse exo utero development system, we elaborate on the technical procedures, discuss critical points for troubleshooting the system, and illustrate some apparatuses essential for fetal microinjection.

  12. Protocols development for security and privacy of radio frequency identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagha, Fatin

    There are benefits to adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, although there are methods of attack that can compromise the system. This research determined how that may happen and what possible solutions can keep that from happening. Protocols were developed to implement better security. In addition, new topologies were developed to handle the problems of the key management. Previously proposed protocols focused on providing mutual authentication and privacy between readers and tags. However, those protocols are still vulnerable to be attacked. These protocols were analyzed and the disadvantages shown for each one. Previous works assumed that the channels between readers and the servers were secure. In the proposed protocols, a compromised reader is considered along with how to prevent tags from being read by that reader. The new protocols provide mutual authentication between readers and tags and, at the same time, remove the compromised reader from the system. Three protocols are proposed. In the first protocol, a mutual authentication is achieved and a compromised reader is not allowed in the network. In the second protocol, the number of times a reader contacts the server is reduced. The third protocol provides authentication and privacy between tags and readers using a trusted third party. The developed topology is implemented using python language and simulates work to check the efficiency regarding the processing time. The three protocols are implemented by writing codes in C language and then compiling them in MSP430. IAR Embedded workbench is used, which is an integrated development environment with the C/C++ compiler to generate a faster code and to debug the microcontroller. In summary, the goal of this research is to find solutions for the problems on previously proposed protocols, handle a compromised reader, and solve key management problems.

  13. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

  14. Multicenter Evaluation of Geometric Accuracy of MRI Protocols Used in Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Milidonis, Xenios; Lennen, Ross J.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Mueller, Susanne; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Holmes, William M.; Sena, Emily S.; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multicenter preclinical stroke studies should be carried out to improve translation from bench to bedside, but the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners routinely used in experimental stroke has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to assess and compare geometric accuracy of preclinical scanners and examine the longitudinal stability of one scanner using a simple quality assurance (QA) protocol. Six 7 Tesla animal scanners across six different preclinical imaging centers throughout Europe were used to scan a small structural phantom and estimate linear scaling errors in all orthogonal directions and volumetric errors. Between-scanner imaging consisted of a standard sequence and each center’s preferred sequence for the assessment of infarct size in rat models of stroke. The standard sequence was also used to evaluate the drift in accuracy of the worst performing scanner over a period of six months following basic gradient calibration. Scaling and volumetric errors using the standard sequence were less variable than corresponding errors using different stroke sequences. The errors for one scanner, estimated using the standard sequence, were very high (above 4% scaling errors for each orthogonal direction, 18.73% volumetric error). Calibration of the gradient coils in this system reduced scaling errors to within ±1.0%; these remained stable during the subsequent 6-month assessment. In conclusion, despite decades of use in experimental studies, preclinical MRI still suffers from poor and variable geometric accuracy, influenced by the use of miscalibrated systems and various types of sequences for the same purpose. For effective pooling of data in multicenter studies, centers should adopt standardized procedures for system QA and in vivo imaging. PMID:27603704

  15. Multicenter Evaluation of Geometric Accuracy of MRI Protocols Used in Experimental Stroke.

    PubMed

    Milidonis, Xenios; Lennen, Ross J; Jansen, Maurits A; Mueller, Susanne; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Holmes, William M; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multicenter preclinical stroke studies should be carried out to improve translation from bench to bedside, but the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners routinely used in experimental stroke has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to assess and compare geometric accuracy of preclinical scanners and examine the longitudinal stability of one scanner using a simple quality assurance (QA) protocol. Six 7 Tesla animal scanners across six different preclinical imaging centers throughout Europe were used to scan a small structural phantom and estimate linear scaling errors in all orthogonal directions and volumetric errors. Between-scanner imaging consisted of a standard sequence and each center's preferred sequence for the assessment of infarct size in rat models of stroke. The standard sequence was also used to evaluate the drift in accuracy of the worst performing scanner over a period of six months following basic gradient calibration. Scaling and volumetric errors using the standard sequence were less variable than corresponding errors using different stroke sequences. The errors for one scanner, estimated using the standard sequence, were very high (above 4% scaling errors for each orthogonal direction, 18.73% volumetric error). Calibration of the gradient coils in this system reduced scaling errors to within ±1.0%; these remained stable during the subsequent 6-month assessment. In conclusion, despite decades of use in experimental studies, preclinical MRI still suffers from poor and variable geometric accuracy, influenced by the use of miscalibrated systems and various types of sequences for the same purpose. For effective pooling of data in multicenter studies, centers should adopt standardized procedures for system QA and in vivo imaging. PMID:27603704

  16. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  17. Defining standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schukken, Y H; Rauch, B J; Morelli, J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to define standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The standardized protocols describe the selection of cows and herds and define the critical points in performing experimental exposure, performing bacterial culture, evaluating the culture results, and finally performing statistical analyses and reporting of the results. The protocols define both negative control and positive control trials. For negative control trials, the protocol states that an efficacy of reducing new intramammary infections (IMI) of at least 40% is required for a teat disinfectant to be considered effective. For positive control trials, noninferiority to a control disinfectant with a published efficacy of reducing new IMI of at least 70% is required. Sample sizes for both negative and positive control trials are calculated. Positive control trials are expected to require a large trial size. Statistical analysis methods are defined and, in the proposed methods, the rate of IMI may be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. The efficacy of the test product can be evaluated while controlling for important covariates and confounders in the trial. Finally, standards for reporting are defined and reporting considerations are discussed. The use of the defined protocol is shown through presentation of the results of a recent trial of a test product against a negative control. PMID:23415529

  18. Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Groundwater Transport Models: Protocol and Model Development in a Simulative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K.; Urteaga, I.; Han, Q.; Porta, L.; Jayasumana, A.; Illangasekare, T.

    2007-12-01

    , and protocols necessary for a closed-loop simulation online, combining work across multiple disciplines. This simulation environment will expedite software development and a large-scale experimental aquifer will be used for further validation of the techniques. The results presented here address: setup of a WSN simulator which cooperates with transport models, development of fault detection techniques into the WSN routing protocol which are particular to this application, and planned steps in building a transport model capable of working in the WSN context.

  19. Development and Initial Validation of the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavina, Aija

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the development of the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education, a data collection program for multiple interaction behavior measures in elementary inclusive physical education settings. The theoretical and empirical base for the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of…

  20. Development of protocol for the management of cervical cancer symptoms in resource-constrained developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2015-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of women in economically emerging countries. Patients have distressing symptoms from presentation through follow-up or end of life. Cervical cancer imposes significant burden on health care system due to distressing symptoms and associated loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Multitude of drugs and surgical measures in various combinations can relieve these distressing symptoms and various clinical conditions. The protocols and guidelines for alleviation or relief of symptoms by general pharmacological and surgical measures form an important policy subject in planning cervical cancer management program. These protocol and guidelines are based on the mechanism of action of drugs, extrapolation from management of similar symptoms, and clinical situations arising out of other non-cancerous conditions and experience of health care professionals. Therefore, rigorous evaluation of effectiveness of supportive health care services in developing countries is the need of hour. However, evaluation of such protocol and guidelines are not feasible in emerging economies due to resource constraint. Industrialized affluent nations are also not able to implement and further support care guidelines despite its recognition as an integral part of multidisciplinary management of cancer. Aforementioned factors have created blind spot zone of management purview of cervical cancer. Hence, we attempt to develop protocol for management of adverse events of cervical cancer. Symptoms' and medical conditions' management guidelines evolved on the basis of empirical clinical practice in community and premier oncology centers in resource-constrained developing countries has been presented in this short report. This report should not be an end in itself but has to attract attention of policy-makers, academicians, researchers, and practitioners toward advancing supportive care needs of cancer patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

  1. Development of protocol for the management of cervical cancer symptoms in resource-constrained developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2015-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of women in economically emerging countries. Patients have distressing symptoms from presentation through follow-up or end of life. Cervical cancer imposes significant burden on health care system due to distressing symptoms and associated loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Multitude of drugs and surgical measures in various combinations can relieve these distressing symptoms and various clinical conditions. The protocols and guidelines for alleviation or relief of symptoms by general pharmacological and surgical measures form an important policy subject in planning cervical cancer management program. These protocol and guidelines are based on the mechanism of action of drugs, extrapolation from management of similar symptoms, and clinical situations arising out of other non-cancerous conditions and experience of health care professionals. Therefore, rigorous evaluation of effectiveness of supportive health care services in developing countries is the need of hour. However, evaluation of such protocol and guidelines are not feasible in emerging economies due to resource constraint. Industrialized affluent nations are also not able to implement and further support care guidelines despite its recognition as an integral part of multidisciplinary management of cancer. Aforementioned factors have created blind spot zone of management purview of cervical cancer. Hence, we attempt to develop protocol for management of adverse events of cervical cancer. Symptoms' and medical conditions' management guidelines evolved on the basis of empirical clinical practice in community and premier oncology centers in resource-constrained developing countries has been presented in this short report. This report should not be an end in itself but has to attract attention of policy-makers, academicians, researchers, and practitioners toward advancing supportive care needs of cancer patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC

  2. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  3. Development and evaluation of multispecies test protocols for assessing chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Suter, G.W. II; Blaylock, B.G.

    1985-06-01

    Toxicity testing is a well-recognized tool to assist in evaluating the hazards of chemicals to individual biological species. Multispecies toxicity tests, however, are now well developed. Three test systems were examined: the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for N-fixation, soil microbial populations, and algal multispecies interactions. Test protocols were to be developed and tested using several different chemicals. Test protocols for the legume-Rhizobium and soil microorganisms systems were developed and are presented. The algal multispecies system will require more research, and thus no protocol was recommended at this time. Separate abstracts were prepared for each test system. (ACR)

  4. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  5. Guidelines for experimental design protocol and validation procedure for the measurement of heat resistance of microorganisms in milk.

    PubMed

    Condron, Robin; Farrokh, Choreh; Jordan, Kieran; McClure, Peter; Ross, Tom; Cerf, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the heat resistance of dairy pathogens are a vital part of assessing the safety of dairy products. However, harmonized methodology for the study of heat resistance of food pathogens is lacking, even though there is a need for such harmonized experimental design protocols and for harmonized validation procedures for heat treatment studies. Such an approach is of particular importance to allow international agreement on appropriate risk management of emerging potential hazards for human and animal health. This paper is working toward establishment of a harmonized protocol for the study of the heat resistance of pathogens, identifying critical issues for establishment of internationally agreed protocols, including a harmonized framework for reporting and interpretation of heat inactivation studies of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  6. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  7. Experimental comparison between one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youn-Chang; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The decoy-state method allows the use of weak coherent pulses in quantum cryptography, and to date, various strategies for the decoy state have been proposed. Here, we experimentally compare the secret key generation rates between the one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol through a 3.1-km optical fiber at 780 nm. Once the parameters of the experimental setup are optimized for the maximal secret key generation rate for each implementation, it is found that the two-decoy implementation outperforms the one-decoy implementation.

  8. Development of a standard documentation protocol for communicating exposure models.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Altenpohl, A; Fait, G; Fransman, W; Paini, A; Radovnikovic, A; Simon-Cornu, M; Suciu, N; Verdonck, F

    2016-10-15

    An important step in building a computational model is its documentation; a comprehensive and structured documentation can improve the model applicability and transparency in science/research and for regulatory purposes. This is particularly crucial and challenging for environmental and/or human exposure models that aim to establish quantitative relationships between personal exposure levels and their determinants. Exposure models simulate the transport and fate of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and may involve a large set of entities (e.g. all the media the contaminants may pass though). Such complex models are difficult to be described in a comprehensive, unambiguous and accessible way. Bad communication of assumptions, theory, structure and/or parameterization can lead to lack of confidence by the user and it may be source of errors. The goal of this paper is to propose a standard documentation protocol (SDP) for exposure models, i.e. a generic format and a standard structure by which all exposure models could be documented. For this purpose, a CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) workshop was set up with objective to agree on minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be provided on exposure models documentation along with guidelines for the structure and presentation of the information. The resulting CEN workshop agreement (CWA) was expected to facilitate a more rigorous formulation of exposure models description and the understanding by users. This paper intends to describe the process followed for defining the SDP, the standardisation approach, as well as the main components of the SDP resulting from a wide consultation of interested stakeholders. The main outcome is a CEN CWA which establishes terms and definitions for exposure models and their elements, specifies minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be documented, and proposes a structure for communicating the documentation to different

  9. Development of a biological protocol for endotoxin detection using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lorenzo, E; Zuzuarregui, A; Arana, S; Mujika, M

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a biological protocol for endotoxin detection has been developed and optimized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The parameters involved in the formation of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been analyzed, and a study of the pH of the ligand buffer has been performed in order to find the best condition for the ligand immobilization and, in consequence, for the endotoxin detection. The detection limit obtained with the characterized biological protocol corresponds to 1.90 μg/ml. The effectiveness of the optimized biological protocol has been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry analysis. PMID:25183316

  10. Development of a therapeutic hypothermia protocol: implementation for postcardiac arrest STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Mari-Newton; Keasling, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) reduces neurologic injury and mortality in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors. Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the main causes of cardiac arrest and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is recommended as initial treatment for patients who present with acute ST-segment elevated MI (STEMI). Cape Fear Valley Medical Center (CFVMC) was the only designated PCI center in the state of North Carolina without a TH protocol. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to develop and implement a TH protocol for postcardiac arrest STEMI patients at CFVMC. The existing STEMI process was adapted to include the use of TH for STEMI patients who presented from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Steps to development of the protocol included creation of TH STEMI flow map, reallocation of nursing staff, exploration of cooling methods and equipment options, development of a evidence-based physician order set, creation of nursing documentation process and competency assessment, organization of educational sessions, and approval through multiple hospital committees. The development of a postarrest STEMI TH protocol involved multiple disciplines and required approval from several committees. Lack of physician and nursing knowledge of the protocol proved to be the greatest challenge. The TH protocol is a step forward in implementing evidence-based practice and improving the quality of postresuscitation care provided to postcardiac arrest STEMI patients.

  11. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

    PubMed

    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods.

  12. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armeli Minicante, S.; Ambrosi, E.; Back, M.; Barichello, J.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Trave, E.

    2016-07-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a, b and c), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts.

  13. OMIP contribution to CMIP6: experimental and diagnostic protocol for the physical component of the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffies, Stephen M.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Durack, Paul J.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Balaji, V.; Böning, Claus W.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Curchitser, Enrique; Deshayes, Julie; Drange, Helge; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Gleckler, Peter J.; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hallberg, Robert W.; Heimbach, Patrick; Hewitt, Helene T.; Holland, David M.; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jungclaus, Johann H.; Komuro, Yoshiki; Krasting, John P.; Large, William G.; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; McDougall, Trevor J.; Nurser, A. J. George; Orr, James C.; Pirani, Anna; Qiao, Fangli; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Taylor, Karl E.; Treguier, Anne Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valdivieso, Maria; Wang, Qiang; Winton, Michael; Yeager, Stephen G.

    2016-09-01

    The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is an endorsed project in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). OMIP addresses CMIP6 science questions, investigating the origins and consequences of systematic model biases. It does so by providing a framework for evaluating (including assessment of systematic biases), understanding, and improving ocean, sea-ice, tracer, and biogeochemical components of climate and earth system models contributing to CMIP6. Among the WCRP Grand Challenges in climate science (GCs), OMIP primarily contributes to the regional sea level change and near-term (climate/decadal) prediction GCs.OMIP provides (a) an experimental protocol for global ocean/sea-ice models run with a prescribed atmospheric forcing; and (b) a protocol for ocean diagnostics to be saved as part of CMIP6. We focus here on the physical component of OMIP, with a companion paper (Orr et al., 2016) detailing methods for the inert chemistry and interactive biogeochemistry. The physical portion of the OMIP experimental protocol follows the interannual Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). Since 2009, CORE-I (Normal Year Forcing) and CORE-II (Interannual Forcing) have become the standard methods to evaluate global ocean/sea-ice simulations and to examine mechanisms for forced ocean climate variability. The OMIP diagnostic protocol is relevant for any ocean model component of CMIP6, including the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments), historical simulations, FAFMIP (Flux Anomaly Forced MIP), C4MIP (Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate MIP), DAMIP (Detection and Attribution MIP), DCPP (Decadal Climate Prediction Project), ScenarioMIP, HighResMIP (High Resolution MIP), as well as the ocean/sea-ice OMIP simulations.

  14. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  15. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  16. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  17. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  18. Implications of Montreal Protocol: With particular reference to India and other developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, K.

    The various international measures like the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer have been discussed. The predicted depletion of the ozone layer will cause increased ultraviolet radiation-B(UV-B) reaching the Earth's surface which is known to have various adverse impacts on the environment. A study on the state of ozone and UV-B radiation climate over India based on 25 years of network ozone and derived UV-B data which was carried out in Development Alternatives (DA) have been discussed and various likely environmental implications of ozone depletion brought out. The economic implications including the economic costs to India for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol have been addressed. In the conclusion, some of the critical issues of the developing countries and suggested alternative response strategies including R&D activities required for the implementation of the Protocol by the developing countries have been discussed.

  19. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.

  20. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs. PMID:26062288

  1. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  2. EMG analysis of trapezius and masticatory muscles: experimental protocol and data reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Rosati, R; De Menezes, M; Musto, F; Toma, M

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to define a standardised protocol for the electromyographic evaluation of trapezius muscle in dentistry and to assess its within- and between-session repeatability. Surface electromyography of trapezius, masseter and temporal muscles was performed in 40 healthy subjects aged 20-35 years during shoulder elevation, and maximum teeth clenching with and without cotton rolls. Two repetitions were made both within (same electrodes) and between sessions (different electrodes). Maximum voluntary clench on cotton rolls was used to standardise the potentials of the six analysed muscles with tooth contact; shoulder elevation was used to standardise the upper trapezius potentials. From the standardised electromyographic potentials, several indices (muscle symmetry; masticatory muscle torque and relative activity; total masticatory muscle activity; trapezius cervical load, percentage co-contraction of trapezius during teeth clenching) were computed; random (technical error of measurement) and systematic (Student's t-test, Analysis of Variance) errors were assessed. For all indices, no systematic errors were found between the two separate data collection sessions. Within session, limited (lower than 8%) technical errors of measurement were found for temporalis and masseter symmetry, torque and activity indices, and the trapezius cervical load. Larger random errors were obtained for trapezius symmetry and total masticatory muscle activity (up to 20%). Between sessions, no significant differences were found for trapezius co-contraction. In conclusion, a protocol for the standardisation of trapezius muscle that may be used within dental clinical applications was defined, and the repeatability of masseter, temporalis and trapezius electromyographic recordings for serial assessments was assessed in healthy subjects.

  3. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: a structured multidisciplinary protocol development and educational program to advance translational research.

    PubMed

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G; Dowd, Kathleen A; Hurley, Arlene M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality.

  4. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    PubMed

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-01

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. PMID:26612859

  5. [The Development of a Care Protocol for Postoperative Pressure Sore Prevention].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hui-Ling; Wang, Fang; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2015-12-01

    Pressure sores are a common complication caused by long periods of bed rest following major surgery. These sores may increase patient postoperative pain, increase the risk of infections, lengthen the pe-riod of hospitalization, and increase the duration and costs of nursing care. Therefore, maintaining the skin integrity of surgical patients is an important responsibility for operating room nurses and an indicator of nursing care quality. While pressure-sore risk assessment tools and interoperative strategies are available and used in foreign countries, there has been little related research conducted in Taiwan. After examining the relevant literature and considering the current postoperative pressure sore situation in Taiwan, the author developed a postoperative pressure sore care protocol as a reference for clinical staff. Protocol procedures include major breakthrough developments in areas such as post-survey risk assessment for pressure ulcers, pressure ulcer prevention strategies that take surgery-related risk factors into consideration, extra care and protection measures for surgical supine patients, and post-pressure sores. The developed postoperative pressure sore protocol may be incorporated into surgical care procedures during the post-surgical care period in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of post-surgery pressure ulcers. Furthermore, the developed protocol offers the potential to improve and strengthen the quality of surgical care in terms of both healthcare and post-surgical care.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  7. Development and Use of an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lois A.; Weitzman, Lauren M.; Mountain, Lisa M.; Nelson, Kris L.; Oakley, Danielle R.; Smith, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling centers have been challenged to effectively treat the growing number of college students who struggle with disordered eating. In response to this critical issue, an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol (EDATP) was developed to assist clinical disposition in the counseling center setting and identify treatment guidelines…

  8. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a FAP Protocol: Brief Relationship Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Gareth; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Tsai, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a brief Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) protocol that will facilitate reliable implementation of FAP interventions, thus supporting research on FAP process and outcome. The treatment was a four-session individual therapy for clients who were interested in improving their relationship with their…

  9. Development of a dynamic quality assurance testing protocol for multisite clinical trial DCE-CT accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, B.; Keller, H.; Jaffray, D.; Coolens, C.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Credentialing can have an impact on whether or not a clinical trial produces useful quality data that is comparable between various institutions and scanners. With the recent increase of dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) usage as a companion biomarker in clinical trials, effective quality assurance, and control methods are required to ensure there is minimal deviation in the results between different scanners and protocols at various institutions. This paper attempts to address this problem by utilizing a dynamic flow imaging phantom to develop and evaluate a DCE-CT quality assurance (QA) protocol.Methods: A previously designed flow phantom, capable of producing predictable and reproducible time concentration curves from contrast injection was fully validated and then utilized to design a DCE-CT QA protocol. The QA protocol involved a set of quantitative metrics including injected and total mass error, as well as goodness of fit comparison to the known truth concentration curves. An additional region of interest (ROI) sensitivity analysis was also developed to provide additional details on intrascanner variability and determine appropriate ROI sizes for quantitative analysis. Both the QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis were utilized to test variations in DCE-CT results using different imaging parameters (tube voltage and current) as well as alternate reconstruction methods and imaging techniques. The developed QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis was then applied at three institutions that were part of clinical trial involving DCE-CT and results were compared.Results: The inherent specificity of robustness of the phantom was determined through calculation of the total intraday variability and determined to be less than 2.2 ± 1.1% (total calculated output contrast mass error) with a goodness of fit (R{sup 2}) of greater than 0.99 ± 0.0035 (n= 10). The DCE-CT QA protocol was capable of detecting significant deviations from

  10. The role of pheromonal responses in rodent behavior: future directions for the development of laboratory protocols.

    PubMed

    Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

    2013-03-01

    Pheromones--chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific--are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam-pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects.

  11. Development and application of cognitive-pragmatic language ability assessment protocol for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, HyangHee

    2016-01-01

    The study aim was to introduce a newly-developed multifaceted cognitive-pragmatic language assessment protocol. This study was also designed to assess the reliability and validity of the assessment protocol in the discrimination between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and normal control. Individuals in this study were 25 to 64 years old. Ten mTBIs and twenty-two control group were recruited for the preliminary study. Their mean ages were 45.20 and 41.23, respectively. For the main study, we recruited 39 mTBIs and 100 healthy individuals whose mean ages were 44.67 and 40.84, respectively. The newly-developed protocol was completed through a systematic review based on an item analysis. We administered the CAPTBI based on nine domains, 22 subcategories, and 57 items. All nine domains of the CAPTBI were found to be significant variables by which mTBI individuals can be distinguished from normal individuals (p < .001). We also presented the cut-off points by education level to maximize the validity of differentiating the two groups. This study is the first attempt to evaluate mTBI by means of the cognitive-linguistic protocol with multiple domains. The CAPTBI is an appropriate tool for differentiating the cognitive-pragmatic language abilities between mTBI and control group.

  12. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate.

    PubMed

    Conte, Nicolau; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6) or saline solution (CTL; n = 6). After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design. PMID:27556684

  13. Development of a decision support system to predict physicians' rehabilitation protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alshraideh, Mohammad A; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M; Salah, Imad K; Holm, Margo B; Otom, Ali H

    2012-09-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee OA were entered into the MDSS. Demographic variables in the model were age and sex. Clinical variables entered into the model were height, weight, BMI, affected side, severity of knee OA, and severity of pain. All patients in the study received one of three treatment protocols for patients with knee OA: (a) hot packs, followed by electrotherapy and exercise, (b) ice packs, followed by ultrasound and exercise and (c) exercise alone. The resilient back propagation artificial neural network algorithm was used, with a ten-fold cross-validation. It was estimated that the MDSS is able to accurately predict the treatment prescribed by the physician for 87% of the patients. We developed an artificial neural network-based decision support system that can viably aid physicians in determining which treatment protocol would best match the anthropometric and clinical characteristics of patients with knee OA. PMID:22508428

  14. Microbial toxicity of mixtures of organic chemicals in soil medium-experimental protocol and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Arulgnanendran, V.R.J.; Khandan, N.N.

    1995-12-31

    A laboratory procedure was developed to measure the microbial toxicity in soils using respirometric technique. The procedure was tested on 35 organic chemicals and several 8- and 10- component equitoxic mixtures. The chemicals assayed in this study were found to act jointly by simple addition. A modeling approach incorporating partitioning, sorption and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) techniques was developed to estimate single chemical and mixture toxicity. This modeling approach was validated using an external testing set of data.

  15. Development of a CELSS Experimental Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Yin, Y.; Feng, H.; Ai, W.; Liu, X.; Qin, L.

    A CELSS Experimental Facility was developed two years ago. It contains a volume of about 40.0 m3 and a cultivating area of about 8.4 m2; its interior atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, total pressure, lighting intensity, photoperiod, water content in the growing-matrix, CO2-added accumulative amount, O2-released accumulative amount and ethylene concentration are all controlled and logged automatically and effectively; its growing system consists of two rows of racks along its left-and-right sides separately, each side holds two upper-and-lower layers, and the vertical distance of each growing bed can be adjusted automatically and independently; lighting sources consist of both red (95%) and blue (5%) light-emitting diodes (LED), and the average lighting intensity of each lamp bank at 20-cm distance position under it, reaches to 255.0 μmol m-2 s-1. After that, demonstrating tests were carried out and were finally followed by growing lettuce in the facility. The results showed that all subsystems operated well and all parameters were controlled automatically and efficiently. The lettuce plants in the system could grow much well. Successful development of this system laid a necessary foundation for future larger-scale studies on CELSS integration technique.

  16. A protocol to develop clinical guidelines for inclusion‐body myositis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine L.; Sejersen, Thomas; Amato, Anthony A.; Hilton‐Jones, David; Schmidt, Jens; Wallace, Amanda C.; Badrising, Umesh A.; Rose, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Inclusion‐body myositis (IBM) is a late‐onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy associated with selective and progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Current clinical management of IBM is largely supportive due to its uncertain etiology and lack of effective treatment. Establishing a consensus of opinion on questions relating to diagnosis and management of IBM is expected to help reduce inconsistencies in the care and resources allocated to those living with this condition. Methods A protocol has been developed to produce best practice clinical guidelines for IBM based on a combination of published research and expert consensus. Conclusions In this study we describe the proposed protocol for developing methods for producing robust and transparent clinical guidance on aspects of diagnosis, drug treatment, physical and practical management, respiration, nutrition and cardiac management, psychosocial management, and multidisciplinary care. Muscle Nerve 53: 503–507, 2016 PMID:26800092

  17. Experimental investigation into Quaternary badland geomorphic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanin-Grubin, Milica; Kuhn, Nikolaus; Yair, Aaron; Bryan, Rorke; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    to the flood planes of the Red Deer River system. Only a very pronounced contrast between winter weathering and drier summers would generate a colluvium and thus change slope hydrology. In the Zin Valley the development of a thick colluvium at the foot of the slopes has increased infiltration capacity, reducing runoff and sediment yield into the floodplain. Here, only an increase in rainfall magnitude would improve runoff continuity and induce the erosion of the colluvium. This would in turn reduce infiltration capacity and thus initiate a positive feedback on runoff and sediment yield into the Zin River. Overall, Holocene climate change appears to be insufficient to change the geomorphic development in both badlands. However, this stability is achieved not despite of climate, but because of the specific history of geomorphic development. In addition, the combination of erosion and weathering experiments with numerical modeling demonstrates the versatility of Experimental Geomorphology in landscape evolution studies.

  18. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  19. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  20. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  1. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  2. Development of a Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Goldstein, Clark M.; Wright, Lauren R.; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and initial trial of a treatment for adolescents that targets negative emotionality and associated psychological difficulties, particularly anxiety and depressive disorders, as a more singular entity by utilizing an approach rooted in both emotion science and theory. The rationale for such an approach is based upon the perceived need for novel treatment approaches that target commonalities in emotional disorder symptom presentation and their intervention. Utilizing the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders originally developed for adults (Barlow, Allen & Choate, 2004), we conducted a multiple-baseline design study of a slightly modified version of this protocol with three adolescents presenting an array of anxiety and depression symptoms. Adolescent participants in this preliminary investigation evidenced symptom reductions across disorders at post-treatment, with greater improvements noted at a six-month follow-up. Based on these findings and research regarding the association between emotion science and developmental psychopathology, we detail a more extensive set of modifications to the protocol, undertaken in preparation for a subsequent open-trial investigation of the revised treatment. PMID:19617930

  3. Issues in development of a protocol to evaluate children's reasoning about ability and effort in sport.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J; Smith, A G

    1996-10-01

    This study developed a protocol to identify in a sporting activity the developmental stages in differentiating effort and ability derived by Nicholls in 1978 from cognitive tasks. 32 boys aged 8 to 13 years were shown videoclips depicting two performers on a split-screen shooting at off-screen baskets with unequal effort. False scores were presented to indicate that the sporadic worker scored the same as or higher than the consistent worker. Subjects were then interviewed about the performers' ability and effort, and their responses were categorized using Nicholls' criteria for developmental level. The responses showed the same developmental stages derived from cognitive tasks, with some new interpretations specific to this psychomotor task. Issues of generalizability are discussed and alternative protocols recommended.

  4. The Controlled Cortical Impact Model of Experimental Brain Trauma: Overview, Research Applications, and Protocol.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole; Dixon, C Edward

    2016-01-01

    Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly used and highly regarded model of brain trauma that uses a pneumatically or electromagnetically controlled piston to induce reproducible and well-controlled injury. The CCI model was originally used in ferrets and it has since been scaled for use in many other species. This chapter will describe the historical development of the CCI model, compare and contrast the pneumatic and electromagnetic models, and summarize key short- and long-term consequences of TBI that have been gleaned using this model. In accordance with the recent efforts to promote high-quality evidence through the reporting of common data elements (CDEs), relevant study details-that should be reported in CCI studies-will be noted. PMID:27604719

  5. Continuity of Information for Breast Cancer Patients: The Development, Use and Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Care-Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wersch, A.; Bonnema, J.; Prinsen, B.; Pruyn, J.; Wiggers, Th.; van Geel, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary care protocol was developed to achieve continuity and integration of information. The protocol integrates medical, nursing, and a variety of extramural events and activities into a comprehensive description of 15 "moments" in the care of breast cancer surgery patients. Implementation and evaluation are reported and discussed.…

  6. Development of a Communication Protocol for Telephone Disclosure of Genetic Test Results for Cancer Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Egleston, Brian L; Fetzer, Dominique; Forman, Andrea; Bealin, Lisa; Rybak, Christina; Peterson, Candace; Corbman, Melanie; Albarracin, Julio; Stevens, Evelyn; Daly, Mary B; Bradbury, Angela R

    2014-01-01

    Background Dissemination of genetic testing for disease susceptibility, one application of “personalized medicine”, holds the potential to empower patients and providers through informed risk reduction and prevention recommendations. Genetic testing has become a standard practice in cancer prevention for high-risk populations. Heightened consumer awareness of “cancer genes” and genes for other diseases (eg, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s disease), as well as the burgeoning availability of increasingly complex genomic tests (ie, multi-gene, whole-exome and -genome sequencing), has escalated interest in and demand for genetic risk assessment and the specialists who provide it. Increasing demand is expected to surpass access to genetic specialists. Thus, there is urgent need to develop effective and efficient models of delivery of genetic information that comparably balance the risks and benefits to the current standard of in-person communication. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate a theoretically grounded and rigorously developed protocol for telephone communication of BRCA1/2 (breast cancer) test results that might be generalizable to genetic testing for other hereditary cancer and noncancer syndromes. Methods Stakeholder data, health communication literature, and our theoretical model grounded in Self-Regulation Theory of Health Behavior were used to develop a telephone communication protocol for the communication of BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Framework analysis of selected audiotapes of disclosure sessions and stakeholders’ feedback were utilized to evaluate the efficacy and inform refinements to this protocol. Results Stakeholder feedback (n=86) and audiotapes (38%, 33/86) of telephone disclosures revealed perceived disadvantages and challenges including environmental factors (eg, non-private environment), patient-related factors (eg, low health literacy), testing-related factors (eg, additional testing needed), and

  7. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Gregory W.; Williams, John R.; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  8. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): experimental protocol for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Robert; Forster, Piers M.; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-09-01

    The phrasing of the first of three questions motivating CMIP6 - "How does the Earth system respond to forcing?" - suggests that forcing is always well-known, yet the radiative forcing to which this question refers has historically been uncertain in coordinated experiments even as understanding of how best to infer radiative forcing has evolved. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) endorsed by CMIP6 seeks to provide a foundation for answering the question through three related activities: (i) accurate characterization of the effective radiative forcing relative to a near-preindustrial baseline and careful diagnosis of the components of this forcing; (ii) assessment of the absolute accuracy of clear-sky radiative transfer parameterizations against reference models on the global scales relevant for climate modeling; and (iii) identification of robust model responses to tightly specified aerosol radiative forcing from 1850 to present. Complete characterization of effective radiative forcing can be accomplished with 180 years (Tier 1) of atmosphere-only simulation using a sea-surface temperature and sea ice concentration climatology derived from the host model's preindustrial control simulation. Assessment of parameterization error requires trivial amounts of computation but the development of small amounts of infrastructure: new, spectrally detailed diagnostic output requested as two snapshots at present-day and preindustrial conditions, and results from the model's radiation code applied to specified atmospheric conditions. The search for robust responses to aerosol changes relies on the CMIP6 specification of anthropogenic aerosol properties; models using this specification can contribute to RFMIP with no additional simulation, while those using a full aerosol model are requested to perform at least one and up to four 165-year coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations at Tier 1.

  9. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  10. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-06-24

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  11. Development of a PCR protocol to detect aflatoxigenic molds in food products.

    PubMed

    Luque, M Isabel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Andrade, María J; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus species growing in foodstuffs. Because aflatoxins have important health effects, the detection of early contamination of foods by aflatoxigenic molds should be useful. In the present work, a reliable conventional PCR method for detecting aflatoxigenic molds of various species was developed. Fifty-six aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains commonly reported in foodstuffs were tested. Aflatoxin production was first confirmed by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis or/and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the conserved regions of the O-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, six primer pairs were designed. With only the designed primer pair AFF1-AFR3, the expected PCR product (381 bp) was obtained in all of the tested aflatoxigenic strains of various species and genera. Amplification products were not obtained with this primer pair for any of the nonaflatoxigenic reference molds. However, an amplicon of 453 bp was obtained for all aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic mold reference strains with a PCR protocol based on the constitutive fungal β-tubulin gene, which was used as a positive fungal control. The PCR protocol based on omt-1 detected as little as 15 pg of DNA from aflatoxigenic molds and 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g in contaminated food samples. This PCR protocol should be used as a routine technique to detect aflatoxigenic molds in foods. PMID:22221359

  12. Development of a PCR protocol to detect aflatoxigenic molds in food products.

    PubMed

    Luque, M Isabel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Andrade, María J; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus species growing in foodstuffs. Because aflatoxins have important health effects, the detection of early contamination of foods by aflatoxigenic molds should be useful. In the present work, a reliable conventional PCR method for detecting aflatoxigenic molds of various species was developed. Fifty-six aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains commonly reported in foodstuffs were tested. Aflatoxin production was first confirmed by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis or/and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the conserved regions of the O-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, six primer pairs were designed. With only the designed primer pair AFF1-AFR3, the expected PCR product (381 bp) was obtained in all of the tested aflatoxigenic strains of various species and genera. Amplification products were not obtained with this primer pair for any of the nonaflatoxigenic reference molds. However, an amplicon of 453 bp was obtained for all aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic mold reference strains with a PCR protocol based on the constitutive fungal β-tubulin gene, which was used as a positive fungal control. The PCR protocol based on omt-1 detected as little as 15 pg of DNA from aflatoxigenic molds and 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g in contaminated food samples. This PCR protocol should be used as a routine technique to detect aflatoxigenic molds in foods.

  13. Development and Implementation of Clinical Trial Protocol Templates at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Heather; Smolskis, Mary; Bianchine, Peter; Dixon, Dennis O.; Kelly, Grace; Herpin, Betsey; Tavel, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background: A clinical research protocol document must reflect both sound scientific rationale as well as local, national and, when applicable, international regulatory and human subject protections requirements. These requirements originate from a variety of sources, undergo frequent revision and are subject to interpretation. Tools to assist clinical investigators in the production of clinical protocols could facilitate navigating these requirements and ultimately increase the efficiency of clinical research. Purpose: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) developed templates for investigators to serve as the foundation for protocol development. These protocol templates are designed as tools to support investigators in developing clinical protocols. Methods: NIAID established a series of working groups to determine how to improve its capacity to conduct clinical research more efficiently and effectively. The Protocol Template Working Group was convened to determine what protocol templates currently existed within NIAID and whether standard NIAID protocol templates should be produced. After review and assessment of existing protocol documents and requirements, the group reached consensus about required and optional content, determined the format and identified methods for distribution as well as education of investigators in the use of these templates. Results: The templates were approved by the NIAID Executive Committee in 2006 and posted as part of the NIAID Clinical Research Toolkit[1]website for broad access. These documents require scheduled revisions to stay current with regulatory and policy changes. Limitations: The structure of any clinical protocol template, whether comprehensive or specific to a particular study phase, setting or design, affects how it is used by investigators. Each structure presents its own set of advantages and disadvantages. While useful, protocol templates are not stand-alone tools for creating an optimal

  14. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Methods and analyses Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case–control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. Ethics and dissemination The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since

  15. Development of structural MR brain imaging protocols to study genetics and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M. Duff

    2009-01-01

    Structural imaging research offers excellent translational benefits when non-human primate (NHP) models are employed. In this paper, we will discuss the development of anatomical MR imaging protocols for two important applications of structural imaging in NHP: studies of genetic variability in brain morphology and longitudinal imaging of fetal brain maturation trends. In contrast with imaging studies of adult humans, structural imaging in the NHP is challenging due to a comparatively small brain size (2-200 fold smaller volume, depending on the species). This difference in size is further accentuated in NHP studies of brain development, in which fetal brain volumes are 10-50% of their adult size. The sizes of cortical gyri and sulci scale allometrically with brain size. Thus, achieving spatial sampling that is comparable to that of high-quality human studies (∼1.0 mm3) requires a brain-size-adjusted reduction in the sampling volumes of from 500-to-150 microns3. Imaging at this spatial resolution while maintaining sufficient contrast and signal to noise ratio necessitates the development of specialized MRI protocols. Here we discuss our strategy to optimize the protocol parameters for two commonly available structural imaging sequences: MPRAGE and TrueFisp. In addition, computational tools developed for the analysis of human structural images were applied to the NHP studies. These included removal of non-brain tissues, correction for RF inhomogeneity, spatial normalization, building of optimized target brain and analysis of cerebral gyrification and individual cortical variability. Finally, recent findings in the genetics of cerebral gyrification and tracking of maturation trends in the fetal, newborn and adult brain are described PMID:19665566

  16. Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP)—A Biomarker-Driven Protocol for Accelerating Development of Therapies for Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: SWOG S1400

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Roy S.; Gandara, David R.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Redman, Mary W.; LeBlanc, Michael; Mack, Philip C.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Vokes, Everett; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Sparks, Dana; Zhou, Yang; Miwa, Crystal; Miller, Vincent A.; Yelensky, Roman; Li, Yali; Allen, Jeff D.; Sigal, Ellen V.; Wholley, David; Sigman, Caroline C.; Blumenthal, Gideon M.; Malik, Shakun; Kelloff, Gary J.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.; Blanke, Charles D.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP, S1400) is a groundbreaking clinical trial designed to advance the efficient development of targeted therapies for squamous cell cancer (SCCA) of the lung. There are no approved targeted therapies specific to advanced lung SCCA, although The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and similar studies have detected a significant number of somatic gene mutations/amplifications in lung SCCA, some of which are targetable by investigational agents. However, the frequency of these changes is low (5–20%), making recruitment and study conduct challenging in the traditional clinical trial setting. Here we describe our approach to development of a biomarker-driven phase 2/3 multi-substudy “Master Protocol,” employing a common platform (Next Generation DNA Sequencing) to identify actionable molecular abnormalities, followed by randomization to the relevant targeted therapy versus standard of care. PMID:25680375

  17. Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP)-A Biomarker-Driven Protocol for Accelerating Development of Therapies for Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: SWOG S1400.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Roy S; Gandara, David R; Hirsch, Fred R; Redman, Mary W; LeBlanc, Michael; Mack, Philip C; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Vokes, Everett; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Sparks, Dana; Zhou, Yang; Miwa, Crystal; Miller, Vincent A; Yelensky, Roman; Li, Yali; Allen, Jeff D; Sigal, Ellen V; Wholley, David; Sigman, Caroline C; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Malik, Shakun; Kelloff, Gary J; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Blanke, Charles D; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A

    2015-04-01

    The Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP, S1400) is a groundbreaking clinical trial designed to advance the efficient development of targeted therapies for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. There are no approved targeted therapies specific to advanced lung SCC, although The Cancer Genome Atlas project and similar studies have detected a significant number of somatic gene mutations/amplifications in lung SCC, some of which are targetable by investigational agents. However, the frequency of these changes is low (5%-20%), making recruitment and study conduct challenging in the traditional clinical trial setting. Here, we describe our approach to development of a biomarker-driven phase II/II multisubstudy "Master Protocol," using a common platform (next-generation DNA sequencing) to identify actionable molecular abnormalities, followed by randomization to the relevant targeted therapy versus standard of care.

  18. Hydrolysis of triacetin catalyzed by immobilized lipases: effect of the immobilization protocol and experimental conditions on diacetin yield.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Karel; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Porcar, Raul; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The effect of the immobilization protocol and some experimental conditions (pH value and presence of acetonitrile) on the regioselective hydrolysis of triacetin to diacetin catalyzed by lipases has been studied. Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) and lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) were immobilized on Sepabeads (commercial available macroporous acrylic supports) activated with glutaraldehyde (covalent immobilization) or octadecyl groups (adsorption via interfacial activation). All the biocatalysts accumulated diacetin. Covalently immobilized RML was more active towards rac-methyl mandelate than the adsorbed RML. However, this covalent RML preparation presented the lowest activity towards triacetin. For this reason, this preparation was discarded as biocatalyst for this reaction. At pH 7, acyl migration occurred giving a mixture of 1,2 and 1,3 diacetin, but at pH 5.5, only 1,2 diacetin was produced. Yields were improved at acidic pH values and in the presence of 20% acetonitrile (to over 95%). RML immobilized on octadecyl Sepabeads was proposed as optimal preparation, mainly due to its higher specific activity. Each enzyme preparation presented very different properties. Moreover, changes in the reaction conditions affected the various immobilized enzymes in a different way.

  19. Analysis of simultaneous MEG and intracranial LFP recordings during Deep Brain Stimulation: a protocol and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Ashwini; Jha, Ashwani; Neal, Spencer; Reid, Alphonso; Bradbury, David; Aston, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for several neurological and psychiatric disorders. In order to gain insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS and to advance future therapies a better understanding of the effects of DBS on large-scale brain networks is required. New method In this paper, we describe an experimental protocol and analysis pipeline for simultaneously performing DBS and intracranial local field potential (LFP) recordings at a target brain region during concurrent magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement. Firstly we describe a phantom setup that allowed us to precisely characterise the MEG artefacts that occurred during DBS at clinical settings. Results Using the phantom recordings we demonstrate that with MEG beamforming it is possible to recover oscillatory activity synchronised to a reference channel, despite the presence of high amplitude artefacts evoked by DBS. Finally, we highlight the applicability of these methods by illustrating in a single patient with Parkinson's disease (PD), that changes in cortical-subthalamic nucleus coupling can be induced by DBS. Comparison with existing approaches To our knowledge this paper provides the first technical description of a recording and analysis pipeline for combining simultaneous cortical recordings using MEG, with intracranial LFP recordings of a target brain nucleus during DBS. PMID:26698227

  20. Developing protocols for recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy in space.

    PubMed

    Ohi, S

    2000-07-01

    With the advent of the era of International Space Station (ISS) and Mars exploration, it is important more than ever to develop means to cure genetic and acquired diseases, which include cancer and AIDS, for these diseases hamper human activities. Thus, our ultimate goal is to develop protocols for gene therapy, which are suitable to humans on the earth as well as in space. Specifically, we are trying to cure the hemoglobinopathies, beta-thalassemia (Cooley's anemia) and sickle cell anemia, by gene therapy. These well-characterized molecular diseases serve as models for developing ex vivo gene therapy, which would apply to other disorders as well. For example, the procedure may become directly relevant to treating astronauts for space-anemia, immune suppression and bone marrow derived tumors, e.g. leukemia. The adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) is a non-pathogenic human parvovirus with broad host-range and tissue specificity. Exploiting these characteristics we have been developing protocols for recombinant AAV2 (rAAV)-based gene therapy. With the rAAV constructs and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) culture systems in hand, we are currently attempting to cure the mouse model of beta-thalassemia [C57BL/6- Hbbth/Hbbth, Hb(d-minor)] by HSC transplantation (HST) as well as by gene therapy. This paper describes the current status of our rAAV-gene therapy research.

  1. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a “bottom-up” strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.1 We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and *95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.2 In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify *300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases.

  2. N-terminal enrichment: developing a protocol to detect specific proteolytic fragments.

    PubMed

    Schepmoes, Athena A; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a "bottom-up" strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.(1) We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and approximately 95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.(2) In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify >300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases.

  3. Pursuing excellence: development of an oral hygiene protocol for mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer A; Evans, Diana; Christmas, Lauren A; Rodriguez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Oral hygiene in seriously ill patients is a nursing responsibility. Oral hygiene regimens in conjunction with standardized ventilator-associated pneumonia "bundles" reduce the incidence of pneumonia, length of stay, and associated costs in critical care. Following strict adherence to the recommended ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle, the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate at the Northeast Baptist Hospital intensive care units has remained 0% for 36 months. Oral care in this patient population, however, has remained vague based on ritual and nurse preference. This article describes the development of an oral care protocol based on best evidence, providing a rationale for standardization of oral hygiene and the plan for surveillance and updating.

  4. Development of a Canadian Standardized Protocol for Subtyping Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, M. R.; Chui, L.; Ismail, J.; Louie, L.; Murphy, C.; Chang, N.; Alfa, M.

    2001-01-01

    A panel of 24 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains was distributed to 15 laboratories in Canada to evaluate their in-house pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols and interpretation criteria. Attempts to compare fingerprint images using computer-aided analysis were not successful due to variability in individual laboratory PFGE protocols. In addition, individual site interpretation of the fingerprint patterns was inadequate, as 7 of 13 sites (54%) made at least one error in interpreting the fingerprints from the panel. A 2-day standardized PFGE protocol (culture to gel image) was developed and distributed to all of the sites. Each site was requested to use the standardized protocol on five strains from the original panel. Thirteen sites submitted gel images for comparisons. The protocol demonstrated excellent reproducibility and allowed interlaboratory comparisons with Molecular Analyst DST software (Bio-Rad) and 1.5% band tolerance. PMID:11574559

  5. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY TESTING OF SELECTED BENTHIC AND EPIBENTHIC ORGANISMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT QUALITY TEST PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment contamination has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate suite of toxicity tests to assess ecotoxicological impacts on estuarine ecosystems. Existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols recommend a number of test organisms, including amphipods, polych...

  6. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  7. Towards the development of a bioengineered uterus: comparison of different protocols for rat uterus decellularization.

    PubMed

    Hellström, M; El-Akouri, R R; Sihlbom, C; Olsson, B M; Lengqvist, J; Bäckdahl, H; Johansson, B R; Olausson, M; Sumitran-Holgersson, S; Brännström, M

    2014-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) may be the only possible curative treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility, which affects 1 in every 500 females of fertile age. We recently presented the 6-month results from the first clinical UTx trial, describing nine live-donor procedures. This routine involves complicated surgery and requires potentially harmful immune suppression to prevent rejection. However, tissue engineering applications using biomaterials and stem cells may replace the need for a live donor, and could prevent the required immunosuppressive treatment. To investigate the basic aspects of this, we developed a novel whole-uterus scaffold design for uterus tissue engineering experiments in the rat. Decellularization was achieved by perfusion of detergents and ionic solutions. The remaining matrix and its biochemical and mechanical properties were quantitatively compared from using three different protocols. The constructs were further compared with native uterus tissue composition. Perfusion with Triton X-100/dimethyl sulfoxide/H2O led to a compact, weaker scaffold that showed evidence of a compromised matrix organization. Sodium deoxycholate/dH2O perfusion gave rise to a porous scaffold that structurally and mechanically resembled native uterus better. An innovative combination of two proteomic analyses revealed higher fibronectin and versican content in these porous scaffolds, which may explain the improved scaffold organization. Together with other important protocol-dependent differences, our results can contribute to the development of improved decellularization protocols for assorted organs. Furthermore, our study shows the first available data on decellularized whole uterus, and creates new opportunities for numerous in vitro and in vivo whole-uterus tissue engineering applications.

  8. Nasa's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; Scheuger, A.; Race, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  9. NASA's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; Scheuger, A.; Race, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  10. Metal-silicate Partitioning at High Pressure and Temperature: Experimental Methods and a Protocol to Suppress Highly Siderophile Element Inclusions.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Neil R; Brenan, James M; Fei, Yingwei

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of the primitive upper mantle (PUM) composition reveal a depletion in many of the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, thought to result from their extraction to the core during terrestrial accretion. Experiments to investigate the partitioning of these elements between metal and silicate melts suggest that the PUM composition is best matched if metal-silicate equilibrium occurred at high pressures and temperatures, in a deep magma ocean environment. The behavior of the most highly siderophile elements (HSEs) during this process however, has remained enigmatic. Silicate run-products from HSE solubility experiments are commonly contaminated by dispersed metal inclusions that hinder the measurement of element concentrations in the melt. The resulting uncertainty over the true solubility and metal-silicate partitioning of these elements has made it difficult to predict their expected depletion in PUM. Recently, several studies have employed changes to the experimental design used for high pressure and temperature solubility experiments in order to suppress the formation of metal inclusions. The addition of Au (Re, Os, Ir, Ru experiments) or elemental Si (Pt experiments) to the sample acts to alter either the geometry or rate of sample reduction respectively, in order to avoid transient metal oversaturation of the silicate melt. This contribution outlines procedures for using the piston-cylinder and multi-anvil apparatus to conduct solubility and metal-silicate partitioning experiments respectively. A protocol is also described for the synthesis of uncontaminated run-products from HSE solubility experiments in which the oxygen fugacity is similar to that during terrestrial core-formation. Time-resolved LA-ICP-MS spectra are presented as evidence for the absence of metal-inclusions in run-products from earlier studies, and also confirm that the technique may be extended to investigate Ru. Examples are also given of how these data may be applied. PMID:26132380

  11. Dissemination of CBTI to the Non-Sleep Specialist: Protocol Development and Training Issues

    PubMed Central

    Manber, Rachel; Carney, Colleen; Edinger, Jack; Epstein, Dana; Friedman, Leah; Haynes, Patricia L.; Karlin, Bradley E.; Pigeon, Wilfred; Siebern, Allison T.; Trockel, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These “real-life” constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination. Citation: Manber R; Carney C; Edinger J; Epstein D; Friedman L; Haynes PL; Karlin BE; Pigeon W; Siebern AT; Trockel M. Dissemination of CBTI to the non-sleep specialist: protocol development and training issues. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):209-218. PMID:22505869

  12. Developing a quality control protocol for diffusion imaging on a clinical MRI system.

    PubMed

    Delakis, Ioannis; Moore, Elizabeth M; Leach, Martin O; De Wilde, Janet P

    2004-04-21

    This work describes the development of a quality control protocol, which can be implemented to assess the accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. The precision and accuracy of the ADC measurement are analysed with regard to MRI system noise, signal reproducibility and differences between nominal and effective b values. Two aqueous test-solutions of CuSO4 and sucrose are prepared for the quality control protocol. ADC measurement with the CuSO4 solution is more sensitive to differences between nominal and effective b values, on account of the solution's high ADC. ADC measurement with the sucrose solution is more sensitive to signal reproducibility due to the solution's low baseline signal intensity. The ADC of the test-solutions is measured on an MRI system at our centre with a sequence used for clinical studies using diffusion imaging. Two parameters, Q and R, are defined for the analysis of the quality control ADC values. The Q parameter is the ratio of the standard deviation of the quality control mean ADC values over time to the optimal standard deviation, as derived from the effect of thermal noise on the ADC measurement uncertainty. Analysis with the Q parameter indicates that signal reproducibility errors contribute to ADC variations on our MRI system when imaging with high b values (b > 500 mm s(-2)), whereas differences between nominal and effective b values have a greater impact on the ADC measurement when imaging with low b values (b < 500 mm s(-2)). The R parameter is defined as the ratio of the directional variation of the ADC quality control values to the uncertainty of the ADC measurement. Analysis with the R parameter shows that the effect of directional variation of the ADC measurement on our MRI system is more pronounced when imaging with low b values. The quality control protocol identified a systematic error, which introduced a small

  13. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    PubMed

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand.

  14. Perceptual evaluation of dysphonic voices: can a training protocol lead to the development of perceptual categories?

    PubMed

    Ghio, Alain; Dufour, Sophie; Wengler, Aude; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Revis, Joana; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a training protocol for the perceptual evaluation of dysphonia. A group of 38 inexperienced listeners participated in a three-phase experiment: a pretest to evaluate their initial performance on categorization of dysphonic voices, a training phase, and a posttest to detect training-related changes in performance. In parallel, a different group of 14 listeners who were experts in voice assessment took a test that was identical to the posttest taken by the inexperienced subjects. The corpus used for the tests was made up of recordings of 142 voices of women reading aloud, with a sampling of voice qualities ranging from normal to severely degraded. The learners' performance on judgments of moderate and severe dysphonia improved between the pretest and the posttest. No improvement was observed for normal voices, whose initial detection was already good, nor for slight dysphonias, which appear to be the most difficult to learn. The improvements were still present on a delayed posttest taken a week later. Unexpectedly, the inexperienced listeners' initial performance was similar to that of the experts. After the training phase, their scores for severely deteriorated voices were even better than the experts'. In conclusion, our training protocol seems to be effective and could therefore be proposed to voice therapists. However, judging intermediate degrees of dysphonia remains fragile and therefore needs to be reinforced by repeated training.

  15. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation.

  16. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation. PMID:26273933

  17. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    PubMed

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand. PMID:26141731

  18. Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brofenbrenner, Urie

    1977-01-01

    A broader approach to research in human development is proposed that focuses on the progressive accommodation, throughout the life span, between the growing human organism and the changing environments in which it actually lives and grows. The approach emphasizes the use of rigorously designed experiments, both naturalistic and contrived,…

  19. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  20. Development of a first-contact protocol to guide assessment of adult patients in rehabilitation services networks

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana A. P.; Ferreira, Fabiane R.; César, Cibele C.; Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Coster, Wendy J.; Mancini, Marisa C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the development of the Protocol for Identification of Problems for Rehabilitation (PLPR), a tool to standardize collection of functional information based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Development of the protocol: The PLPR was developed for use during the initial contact with adult patients within a public network of rehabilitation services. Steps to develop the protocol included: survey of the ICF codes most used by clinical professionals; compilation of data from functional instruments; development and pilot testing of a preliminary version in the service settings; discussion with professionals and development of the final version. The final version includes: user identification; social and health information; brief functional description (BFD); summary of the BFD; and PLPR results. Further testing of the final version will be conducted. Conclusions: The protocol standardizes the first contact between the user and the rehabilitation service. Systematic use of the protocol could also help to create a functional database that would allow comparisons between rehabilitation services and countries over time. PMID:26786075

  1. Development of a monitoring protocol to enhance mentoring in the IRIS REU site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H.

    2013-12-01

    Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) sites pair interns with scientists expected to oversee and guide an intern's scientific research, and assist in the development of skills, knowledge, and connections that will enhance the intern's professional and personal growth. This aspect of REU sites is generally recognized as a powerful, yet complicated, component that has a strong influence on the overall success of the intern's experience. Evaluations indicate that the quality and consistency of mentoring in REU sites can be highly variable. Traditional strategies to influence mentorship generally include reading lists or short trainings at the beginning of the summer. The efficacy of these approaches is questionable. As a result many REU Site facilitators are deeply interested in the question 'How can REU programs challenge scientists to raise their participation to the level of (truly) mentoring?' The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) REU site is developing a 13-item rubric measuring research skills, and a protocol of training and intern-mentor meetings to discuss progress. The goal of the intervention is to both increase the extent to which the mentoring relationship is centered on the intern, and to enable interns and mentors to feel more effective monitoring interns' personal/professional growth. This intervention was piloted in 2011, refined, and fully implemented in 2012. During the initial week of the program, interns assess their skills, complete the rubric independently, and discuss the completed rubric with their mentor. Midway through the summer interns and mentors each review the rubric and assess the intern's skills. The intern-mentor pairs then meet to collaborate and complete the rubric together. Finally, in the last week of the program, interns and mentors independently assess the intern's skills and complete the rubric, and the pairs again meet to discuss and negotiate these independent assessments. Survey data from 2012

  2. Thoracic dual energy CT: acquisition protocols, current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Ohana, M; Jeung, M Y; Labani, A; El Ghannudi, S; Roy, C

    2014-11-01

    Thanks to a simultaneous acquisition at high and low kilovoltage, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can achieve material-based decomposition (iodine, water, calcium, etc.) and reconstruct images at different energy levels (40 to 140keV). Post-processing uses this potential to maximise iodine detection, which elicits demonstrated added value for chest imaging in acute and chronic embolic diseases (increases the quality of the examination and identifies perfusion defects), follow-up of aortic endografts and detection of contrast uptake in oncology. In CT angiography, these unique features are taken advantage of to reduce the iodine load by more than half. This review article aims to set out the physical basis for the technology, the acquisition and post-processing protocols used, its proven advantages in chest pathologies, and to present future developments.

  3. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  4. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  5. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  6. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  7. Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843 PMID:23941667

  8. Development of Next Generation Energy Audit Protocols for the Rapid and Advanced Analysis of Building Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Christopher Ahlvin

    Current building energy auditing techniques are outdated and lack targeted, actionable information. These analyses only use one year's worth of monthly electricity and gas bills to define energy conservation and efficiency measures. These limited data sets cannot provide robust, directed energy reduction recommendations. The need is apparent for an overhaul of existing energy audit protocols to utilize all data that is available from the building's utility provider, installed energy management system (EMS), and sub-metering devices. This thesis analyzed the current state-of-the-art in energy audits, generated a next generation energy audit protocol, and conducted both audits types on four case study buildings to find out what additional information can be obtained from additional data sources and increased data gathering resolutions. Energy data from each case study building were collected using a variety of means including utility meters, whole building energy meters, EMS systems, and sub-metering devices. In addition to conducting an energy analysis for each case study building using the current and next generation energy audit protocols, two building energy models were created using the programs eQuest and EnergyPlus. The current and next generation energy audit protocol results were compared to one another upon completion. The results show that using the current audit protocols, only variations in season are apparent. Results from the developed next generation energy audit protocols show that in addition to seasonal variations, building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) schedules, occupancy schedules, baseline and peak energy demand levels, and malfunctioning equipment can be found. This new protocol may also be used to quickly generate accurate building models because of the increased resolution that yields scheduling information. The developed next generation energy auditing protocol is scalable and can work for many building types across the

  9. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  10. Developing a monitoring protocol for visitor-created informal trails in Yosemite National Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yu-Fai; Newburger, Todd; Jones, Marci; Kuhn, Bill; Woiderski, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    Informal trails created or perpetuated by visitors is a management challenge in many protected natural areas such as Yosemite National Park. This is a significant issue as informal trail networks penetrate and proliferate into protected landscapes and habitats, threatening ecological integrity, aesthetics, and visitor experiences. In order to develop effective strategies for addressing this problem under an adaptive management framework, indicators must be developed and monitoring protocol must be established to gather timely and relevant data about the condition, extent, and distribution of these undesired trail segments. This article illustrates a process of developing and evaluating informal trail indicators for meadows in Yosemite Valley. Indicator measures developed in past research were reviewed to identify their appropriateness for the current application. Information gaps in existing indicator measures were addressed by creating two new indices to quantify the degree of informal trailing based on its land fragmentation effects. The selected indicator measures were applied to monitoring data collected between 2006 and 2008. The selected measures and indices were evaluated for their ability to characterize informal trail impacts at site and landscape scales. Results demonstrate the utility of indicator measures in capturing different characteristics of the informal trail problem, though several metrics are strongly related to each other. The two fragmentation indices were able to depict fragmentation without being too sensitive to changes in one constituent parameter. This study points to the need for a multiparameter approach to informal trail monitoring and integration with other monitoring data. Implications for monitoring programs and research are discussed.

  11. Development of Monitoring & Verification Technology (MVT) for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Instrumentation and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2008-09-29

    The objective of this CRADA is to further develop the Multiple Elemental Soil Analysis (MESA) system, based on inelastic neutron scattering technology that was originally developed by Dr. Lucian Wielopolski at BNL. The scope of this CRADA will center on the quantification and monitoring of non-destructive in situ carbon loading in soils to evaluate land application emission reduction activities. To accomplish this objective, the CRADA will center on three main joint activities as described below: A. To further develop and characterize a prototype, field deployable MESA system for static and scanning purposes. B. To develop applicable protocols for agricultural land applications; system validation and field sampling schemes. C. To implement field experiments for independent systems validation, verification, and acceptance by third parties for use in the market segment and commercialization. The technical approach involves a system for monitoring characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei stimulated by inelastic neutron scattering from a carbon nucleus. The system consists of a neutron generator emitting fast, 14 MeV, neutrons, shielding materials, and a detection system with nuclear electronics for data acquisition. Following standard system calibration, the results are produced immediately at the end of the counting period.

  12. Development of a protocol to quantify local bone adaptation over space and time: Quantification of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning of small rodents is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring of bone adaptation. However, the life-time bone growth in small rodents makes it a challenge to quantify local bone adaptation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol, which can take into account large bone growth, to quantify local bone adaptations over space and time. The entire right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size of 10.4µm. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration. 80% of tibia length (starting from the endpoint of the proximal growth plate) was selected as the volume of interest and partitioned into 40 regions along the tibial long axis (10 divisions) and in the cross-section (4 sectors). The bone mineral content (BMC) was used to quantify bone adaptation and was calculated in each region. All local BMCs have precision errors (PE%CV) of less than 3.5% (24 out of 40 regions have PE%CV of less than 2%), least significant changes (LSCs) of less than 3.8%, and 38 out of 40 regions have intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of over 0.8. The proposed protocol allows to quantify local bone adaptations over an entire tibia in longitudinal studies, with a high reproducibility, an essential requirement to reduce the number of animals to achieve the necessary statistical power.

  13. Development of a Decision Support System to Predict Physicians' Rehabilitation Protocols for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…

  14. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  15. Practical way to develop 10-color flow cytometry protocols for the clinical laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Bocsi, Jozsef

    2010-02-01

    The latest development of commercial routine flow cytometers (FCM) is that they are equipped with three (blue, red, violet) or more lasers and many PMT detectors. Nowadays routine clinical instruments are capable of detecting 10 or more fluorescence colors simultaneously. Thereby, presenting opportunities for getting detailed information on the single cell level for cytomics and systems biology for improve diagnostics and monitoring of patients. The University Leipzig, Germany) recently started a cluster of excellence to study the molecular background of life style and environment associated diseases, enrolling 25000 individuals (LIFE). To this end the most comprehensive FCM protocol has to be developed for this study. We aimed to optimize fluorochrome and antibody combinations to the characteristics of the instrument for successful 10-color FCM. Systematic review of issues related to sampling, preparation, instrument settings, spillover and compensation matrix, reagent performance, and general principles of panel construction was performed. 10-color FCM enables for increased accuracy in cell subpopulation identification, the ability to obtain detailed information from blood specimens, improved laboratory efficiency, and the means to consistently detect major and rare cell populations. Careful attention to details of instrument and reagent performance allows for the development of panels suitable for screening of samples from healthy and diseased donors. The characteristics of this technique are particularly well suited for the analysis of broad human population cohorts and have the potential to reach the everyday practice in a standardized way for the clinical laboratory.

  16. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP.

  17. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP. PMID:22384948

  18. Developing consistent Landsat data sets for large area applications: the MRLC 2001 protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Huang, C.; Yang, L.; Homer, C.; Larson, C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts in large area land cover mapping over the last two decades was the completion of two U.S. National Land Cover Data sets (NLCD), developed with nominal 1992 and 2001 Landsat imagery under the auspices of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. Following the successful generation of NLCD 1992, a second generation MRLC initiative was launched with two primary goals: (1) to develop a consistent Landsat imagery data set for the U.S. and (2) to develop a second generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). One of the key enhancements was the formulation of an image preprocessing protocol and implementation of a consistent image processing method. The core data set of the NLCD 2001 database consists of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images. This letter details the procedures for processing the original ETM+ images and more recent scenes added to the database. NLCD 2001 products include Anderson Level II land cover classes, percent tree canopy, and percent urban imperviousness at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat imagery. The products are freely available for download to the general public from the MRLC Consortium Web site at http://www.mrlc.gov.

  19. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature—recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Victoria J.; Catley, Mark J.; Grabherr, Luzia; Mazzola, Francesca; Shohag, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing. Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back. Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure. Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it. PMID:26793428

  20. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  1. Disentangling cellular proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test, and its impact on the experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    van Dartel, Dorien A M; Zeijen, Nicole J L; de la Fonteyne, Liset J J; van Schooten, Frederik J; Piersma, Aldert H

    2009-09-01

    The mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) was designed to predict embryotoxicity based on the inhibition of the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) into beating cardiomyocytes in combination with cytotoxicity data in monolayer ESC cultures and 3T3 cells. In the present study, we have tested a diverse group of chemicals in the EST, applying different exposure durations, in an attempt to discriminate between effects on proliferation and differentiation within the EST protocol. Chemicals tested were monobutyl phthalate (MBP), 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). We showed that 5-FU and BrdU behaved principally different from MBP and 6-AN. 5-FU and BrdU specifically affected cell proliferation during the first three days of the EST protocol, as shown by EB size, protein concentration and cell cycle stage analysis. In addition, we studied the differentiation state of cells in the EST protocol with time to elucidate the transition of pluripotent ESC to more differentiated cell types. Analysis by flow cytometry of the pluripotency marker SSEA-1 in EST showed that although total SSEA-1 positive cells remained unchanged up to and including day 5, the signal intensity already decreased from day 3 onwards. Furthermore, RT-PCR data showed an upregulation of the mesodermal marker T at day 3, whereas the cardiac muscle marker Myh6 was upregulated from day 5 onwards. These findings confirm that proliferation and differentiation of ESC in the EST are highly intertwined processes. Based on these findings we suggest an amended EST protocol which could more clearly discriminate between proliferation and differentiation effects of chemicals within the same EST differentiation protocol. This proposal includes a cytotoxicity assessment in EB at day 3 of the EST after day 0-3 exposure, and cardiac muscle foci counts after exposure from day 3-10 in the EST.

  2. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  3. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  4. Development of patient decision support tools for motor neuron disease using stakeholder consultation: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hogden, Anne; Greenfield, David; Caga, Jashelle; Cai, Xiongcai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Motor neuron disease (MND) is a terminal, progressive, multisystem disorder. Well-timed decisions are key to effective symptom management. To date, there are few published decision support tools, also known as decision aids, to guide patients in making ongoing choices for symptom management and quality of life. This protocol is to develop and validate decision support tools for patients and families to use in conjunction with health professionals in MND multidisciplinary care. The tools will inform patients and families of the benefits and risks of each option, as well as the consequences of accepting or declining treatment. Methods and analysis The study is being conducted from June 2015 to May 2016, using a modified Delphi process. A 2-stage, 7-step process will be used to develop the tools, based on existing literature and stakeholder feedback. The first stage will be to develop the decision support tools, while the second stage will be to validate both the tools and the process used to develop them. Participants will form expert panels, to provide feedback on which the development and validation of the tools will be based. Participants will be drawn from patients with MND, family carers and health professionals, support association workers, peak body representatives, and MND and patient decision-making researchers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by Macquarie University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC), approval number 5201500658. Knowledge translation will be conducted via publications, seminar and conference presentations to patients and families, health professionals and researchers. PMID:27053272

  5. Developing a protocol for creating microfluidic devices with a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Robyn; Novak, Eric; Shirk, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidics research requires the design and fabrication of devices that have the ability to manipulate small volumes of fluid, typically ranging from microliters to picoliters. These devices are used for a wide range of applications including the assembly of materials and testing of biological samples. Many methods have been previously developed to create microfluidic devices, including traditional nanolithography techniques. However, these traditional techniques are cost-prohibitive for many small-scale laboratories. This research explores a relatively low-cost technique using a 3D printed master, which is used as a template for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The masters are designed using computer aided design (CAD) software and can be printed and modified relatively quickly. We have developed a protocol for creating simple microfluidic devices using a 3D printer and PDMS adhered to glass. This relatively simple and lower-cost technique can now be scaled to more complicated device designs and applications. Funding provided by the Undergraduate Research Grant Program at Shippensburg University and the Student/Faculty Research Engagement Grants from the College of Arts and Sciences at Shippensburg University.

  6. Development of Analytical Protocols For Organics and Isotopes Analysis on the 2009 MARS Science Laboratory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory, under development for launch in 2009, is designed explore and quantitatively asses a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Its ambitious goals are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize the geology and geochemistry at the MSL landing site, and (3) to investigate planetary processes that influence habitability. The planned capabilities of the rover payload will enable a comprehensive search for organic molecules, a determination of definitive mineralogy of sampled rocks and fines, chemical and isotopic analysis of both atmospheric and solid samples, and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. A range of contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for these measurements and will facilitate sample identification and selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. It includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. These instruments will be designed to analyze either atmospheric samples or gases extracted from solid phase samples such as rocks and fines. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and study by the SAM engineering and science teams for use on the surface of Mars.

  7. Development of a fast and economical genotyping protocol for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in cattle.

    PubMed

    Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Deb, Rajib; Alex, Rani; Sharma, Sheetal; Sengar, Gyanendra S; Prakash, B

    2016-01-01

    Fast and economical means of assaying SNP's are important in diagnostic assays, especially when a large number of animals have to be screened for a genetic disease. This study was aimed at the development of a fast and economical screening assay for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) which is an important genetic disease of cattle industry. Four primers were designed where the outer primers amplify a 354 bp amplicon of CD18 gene carrying the polymorphism responsible for BLAD. The specifically designed inner primers in conjunction with the modified reaction mixture and cyclic conditions ensured amplification of either of wild or mutated alleles. Together with outer primers, the inner primers generated typical banding pattern in agarose gel which discriminated the normal animal against the carrier. We successfully used this protocol in 200 bulls for genotyping the BLAD allele which confirmed by sequencing, showing a cent percentage concordance. With the developed assay the need for restriction digestion or use of costly equipment viz. real time PCR was eliminated. This genotyping assay ensured fast and economical genotyping and could be adopted in every laboratory with a minimum equipment requirement of thermocycler and gel documentation system. PMID:27652018

  8. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Eftis, J.; Hones, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental developments in four distinct areas of fracture mechanics research are described. These are as follows: experimental comparisons of different nonlinear fracture toughness measures, including the nonlinear energy, R curve, COD and J integral methods; the singular elastic crack-tip stress and displacement equations and the validity of the proposition of their general adequacy as indicated, for example, by the biaxially loaded infinite sheet with a flat crack; the thermodynamic nature of surface energy induced by propagating cracks in relation to a general continuum thermodynamic description of brittle fracture; and analytical and experimental aspects of Mode II fracture, with experimental data for certain aluminum, steel and titanium alloys.

  9. The development of the cell cryopreservation protocol with controlled rate thawing.

    PubMed

    Gurina, Tatyana M; Pakhomov, Alexandr V; Polyakova, Anna L; Legach, Evgeniy I; Bozhok, Galyna A

    2016-06-01

    Thawing in the water bath is often considered as a standard procedure. The thermal history of samples thawed in this way is poorly controlled, but cryopreservation and banking of cell-based products require standardization, automation and safety of all the technological stages including thawing. The programmable freezers allow implementation of the controlled cooling as well as the controlled thawing. As the cell damage occurs during the phase transformation that takes place in the cryoprotectant medium in the process of freezing-thawing, the choice of warming rates within the temperature intervals of transformations is very important. The goal of the study was to investigate the influence of warming rates within the intervals of the phase transformations in the DMSO-based cryoprotectant medium on the cell recovery and to develop a cryopreservation protocol with controlled cooling and warming rates. The temperature intervals of phase transformations such as melting of the eutectic mixture of the cryoprotectant solution (MEMCS), melting of the eutectic salt solution (MESS), melting of the main ice mass (MMIM), recrystallization before MEMCS, recrystallization before MESS and recrystallization before MMIM were determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. The biological experiments were performed on the rat testicular interstitial cells (TIC). The highest levels of the cell recovery and metabolic activity after cryopreservation were obtained using the protocol with the high (20 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of crystallization of the eutectics as well as recrystallizations and the low (1 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of melting of the eutectics as well as MMIM. The total cell recovery was 65.3 ± 2.1 %, the recovery of the 3-beta-HSD-positive (Leydig) cells was 82.9 ± 1.8 %, the MTT staining was 32.5 ± 0.9 % versus 42.1 ± 1.7 %; 57.4 ± 2.1 % and 24.0 ± 1.1 % respectively, when compared to the thawing in

  10. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    PubMed

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  11. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Julie, E. Golden; Selvi, S. Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  12. Electrochemotherapy as First Line Cancer Treatment: Experiences from Veterinary Medicine in Developing Novel Protocols.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, E P; Azzarito, T; Fais, S; Fanciulli, M; Baldi, A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is one of the major obstacles to the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The abnormal blood flow within the tumor results in uneven drug distribution. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a tumor treatment that adopts the systemic or local delivery of anticancer drugs with the application of permeabilizing electric pulses having appropriate amplitude and waveforms. This allows the use of lipophobic drugs that frequently have a narrow therapeutic index maintaining at the same time a reduced patient morbidity and preserving appropriate anticancer efficacy. Its use in humans is addressed to the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms or the palliation of skin tumor metastases, and a standard operating procedure has been devised. On the other hand, in veterinary oncology this approach is gaining popularity, thus becoming a first line treatment for different cancer histotypes, in a variety of clinical conditions due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. This review summarizes the state of the art in veterinary oncology as a preclinical model and reports the new protocols in terms of drugs and therapy combination that have been developed.

  13. Development of a Protocol for Simultaneous Assessment of Cognitive Functioning Under Psychosocial Stress.

    PubMed

    Marko, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a protocol for induction of moderate psychosocial stress and investigates its impact on psychological and physiological responses. The proposed procedure was designed to enable researchers to assess cognitive performance under effect of various classes of stressors. The protocol's structure contains three main periods: baseline, assessment, and recovery. The assessment stage starts with task anticipation, during which audience (three-member commission) is introduced and apparatus (cameras, microphones, lights, and physiological measuring devices) stationed. Subsequently, cognitive performance was tested. The protocol was evaluated on 56 university students that were randomly assigned to control or stress (protocol) treatment and administered three cognitive tests (working memory operation span, remote associates test, and semantic fluency). Compared to control sessions, protocol induced state anxiety, interfering worry thoughts, and disturbance during recovery period. In addition, the stress group also showed elevated levels of skin conductance, higher average heart rates, and larger drops in peripheral temperature. Even though more research is needed, these results suggest that the protocol effectively induces both psychological and physiological stress responses and therefore encourages utilization in cognitive-affective and cognitive-biological fields of research. PMID:27467447

  14. Development and testing of a new protocol for evaluating the effectiveness of oil spill surface washing agents.

    PubMed

    Koran, Karen Miller; Venosa, Albert D; Luedeker, Christopher C; Dunnigan, Keith; Sorial, George A

    2009-12-01

    As defined by the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), a surface washing agent (SWA) is a product that removes oil from solid surfaces, such as beaches, rocks, and concrete, through a detergency mechanism and that does not involve dispersing or solubilizing the oil into the water column. Commercial products require testing to qualify for listing on the NCP Product Schedule. Such testing is conducted both for toxicity and effectiveness. Protocols currently exist for bioremediation agents and dispersants, but not SWAs. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a laboratory testing protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of SWAs in removing crude oil from a solid substrate. This paper summarizes some of the defining research supporting this new protocol. Multiple variables were tested to determine their effect on SWA performance. The protocol was most sensitive to SWA-to-oil ratio and rotational speed of mixing. Less sensitive variables were contact time, mixing time, and SWA concentration when total applied mass of active product was constant. EPA recommendations for the testing protocol will be made following round robin testing. PMID:19692099

  15. Development and testing of a new protocol for evaluating the effectiveness of oil spill surface washing agents.

    PubMed

    Koran, Karen Miller; Venosa, Albert D; Luedeker, Christopher C; Dunnigan, Keith; Sorial, George A

    2009-12-01

    As defined by the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), a surface washing agent (SWA) is a product that removes oil from solid surfaces, such as beaches, rocks, and concrete, through a detergency mechanism and that does not involve dispersing or solubilizing the oil into the water column. Commercial products require testing to qualify for listing on the NCP Product Schedule. Such testing is conducted both for toxicity and effectiveness. Protocols currently exist for bioremediation agents and dispersants, but not SWAs. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a laboratory testing protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of SWAs in removing crude oil from a solid substrate. This paper summarizes some of the defining research supporting this new protocol. Multiple variables were tested to determine their effect on SWA performance. The protocol was most sensitive to SWA-to-oil ratio and rotational speed of mixing. Less sensitive variables were contact time, mixing time, and SWA concentration when total applied mass of active product was constant. EPA recommendations for the testing protocol will be made following round robin testing.

  16. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  17. Using the "Knowledge Quartet" to Quantify Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching: The Development of a Protocol for Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trainee teachers' mathematical knowledge in teaching (MKiT) over their final year in a US Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme. This paper reports on an exploratory methodological approach taken to use the "Knowledge Quartet" to quantify MKiT through the development of a new protocol to code trainees' teaching of…

  18. Therapeutic hypothermia in the postresuscitation patient: the development and implementation of an evidence-based protocol for the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Koran, Zeb

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves outcomes in patients who have experienced a cardiac arrest (; ). This article discusses TH and the process used by one emergency department to develop and implement an evidence-based protocol on TH for the postresuscitation patient.

  19. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  20. Organic and Isotope Measurement Protocols under Development for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is under development by NASA with several international partners for launch in 2009. MSL is designed to quantitatively explore a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl). The goals of MSL are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize its geology and geochemistry, (3) to study planetary processes that influence habitability, and (4) to characterize the surface radiation. The last substantial search for organic molecules on the surface of Mars was with the Viking Landers in 1976 [Biemann, et al., 19771. In that mission, no organics were detected in near surface fines and presently a more comprehensive search is required to understand the potential of that planet to support life. While the Mars Exploration Rovers are able to identify mineralogical signatures of aqueous alteration, they are not equipped to search for organics. The planned capabilities of the MSL rover payload will enable a search for a wide range of organic molecules in both solid samples of rocks and fines and atmospheric samples. MSL will also provide a determination of definitive mineralogy of the solid samples and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. Contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for Analytical Laboratory measurements and will facilitate sample selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. SAM includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and test for SAM and the relationship of our planned measurements to outstanding issues of martian habitability.

  1. The development of a protocol to manage the potential of groundwater contamination from on-site sanitation.

    PubMed

    Hartley, S

    2000-01-01

    The provision of water supply and sanitation services to the developing and water scarce areas of South Africa is one of the goals of the Reconstruction and Development Programme. One of the principles of the South African National Sanitation Policy stipulates that sanitation systems which have unacceptable impacts on the environment cannot be considered to be an adequate form of sanitation. The greatest contamination concern with respect to ventilated improved pit toilets is in relation to groundwater resources. To this end the National Sanitation Co-ordination Office (NaSCO) and the Directorate of Geohydrology of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry have developed "A Protocol to Manage the Potential of Groundwater Contamination from On-Site Sanitation". The aim of the protocol is to ensure that reasonable measures are taken to guard against contamination of valuable groundwater resources by inappropriately located or designed sanitation systems. The protocol focuses on dry on-site sanitation systems and provides a brief background to the current understanding of groundwater contamination by on-site sanitation systems. It also presents a procedure to be followed by those involved in implementing new, or upgrading old systems--the procedure allows the field worker to assess whether groundwater resources may be at risk of pollution. The protocol is specifically aimed at engineering and technical staff who are not groundwater specialists.

  2. Evaluation of the anthelmintic effects of artesunate against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice using different treatment protocols.

    PubMed

    Shaohong, Lu; Kumagai, Takashi; Qinghua, Ai; Xiaolan, Yan; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Yabu, Yoshisada; Siwen, Li; Liyong, Wen; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Ohta, Nobuo

    2006-03-01

    The therapeutic effects of artesunate against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice were analyzed. Previous studies showed that artesunate is highly effective against S. japonicum infection, but the action of this drug against S. mansoni remained uncovered. The present study examines the optical conditions for artesunate against S. mansoni and evaluates the effects of inhibiting the sexual maturation of adult worms. Mice infected with S. mansoni were orally administered with artesunate according to different schedules. Four consecutive administrations of 300 mg/kg of artesunate at 2-week intervals conferred almost total protection without the development of pathological lesions in the liver. The significant reduction in the number of eggs produced by surviving worms and the status of egg maturation suggested that artesunate inhibits sexual maturation. Electron microscopy revealed that artesunate caused morphological damage, especially on the worm tegument. Artesunate was also very effective in iron-deficient mice. Furthermore, the efficacy of artesunate was equal to or better than that of artemether against S. japonicum infection. Considering that artemether is more toxic, artesunate is currently one of the most efficient drugs against immature S. mansoni.

  3. In situ patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in rat whisker hair follicles, an experimental protocol for studying tactile transduction in tactile-end organs.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Cha, Myeounghoon; Gu, Jianguo G

    2015-01-01

    Mammals use tactile end-organs to perform sensory tasks such as environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs remain poorly understood. The patch-clamp recording technique may be the most valuable approach for detecting and studying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs, but it is technically challenging because tactile transduction elements in an end-organ are normally inaccessible by patch-clamp recording electrodes. Here we describe an in situ patch-clamp recording protocol for the study of tactile transduction in Merkel cells of rat whisker hair follicles, one of the most sensitive tactile end-organs in mammals. This technique offers an opportunity to explore the identities and properties of ion channels that are involved in tactile transduction in whisker hair follicles, and it may also lend a useful tool for researchers to study other tactile end-organs. The experimental protocol describes procedures for 1) tissue dissection and whisker hair follicle preparation, 2) device setup and steps for performing patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in a whisker hair follicle, 3) methods of delivering mechanical stimuli, and 4) intra-follicle microinjection for receptor knockdown in whisker hair follicles. The main procedures in this protocol, from tissue preparation to whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, can be completed in a few hours. PMID:25907165

  4. Theoretical and experimental design of site-specific applicators and heating protocols for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyreus, Per Daniel; Nau, William H.; Wu, Alex; Diederich, Chris J.

    2003-06-01

    Theoretical and experimental approaches were used to develop and evaluate site-specific designs of internally cooled direct coupled (ICDC) and catheter-cooled (CC) ultrasound applicators for thermal coagulation of disease in the prostate, liver, brain, and uterus. The diameter of an interstitial applicator can influence its clinical practicality and effectiveness as well as application site. One purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of larger ultrasound transducers and the inherent increase in applicator size could be justified by potentially producing larger lesion diameters. A second purpose was to explore how the response of tissue acoustic attenuation to heating effects lesion size and preferred applicator configuration. Four applicator configurations and sizes were studied using ex vivo tissue experiments in liver and beef and using acoustic and biothermal simulations. Transmission attenuation measurements showed a 6 to 8 fold increase in baseline tissue attenution inside interstitial ultrasound lesions. Formation of these high attenuation zones in lesions reduced potential lesion size. Larger applicators produced lesions with radial penetration depths superior to their smaller counterparts at power levels in the 20-40W /cm range. The higher cooling rates along the outer surface of the larger diameter applicators due to their greater surface area was a dominant factor in increasing lesion size. The higher cooling rates pushed the maximum temperature farther from the applicator surface and reduced the formation of high acoustic attenuation tissue zones. Acoustic and biothermal simulations matched the experimental data well and were applied to model these applicators within sites of clinical interest such as prostate, uterine fibroid, brain, and normal liver. Lesions of 3.9 to 4.7cm diameter were predicted for moderately perfused tissues such as prostate and fibroid and 2.8 to 3.2cm for highly perfused tissues such as normal liver. Feedback

  5. Developing of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol for Public Hospitals in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Anvar; Ravaghi, Hamid; Seyedin, Hesam; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employment of utilization review instruments is a method for managing costs and efficiency in the healthcare systems. Objectives: This study developed an instrument for measuring the level of inappropriate acute hospital admissions and days of care in Iran. Patients and Methods: The American version of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) was modified, using the agreement method, by a multidisciplinary group of physicians. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 273 randomly selected patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. For the reliability study, two nurses were asked to review patients’ medical records using the instrument. Validity was appraised by pairs of clinicians, including two general surgeons, two internists and two gynecologists. The degree of consensus between the three pairs of clinicians was compared with that of the nurses. Results: Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability testing revealed an excellent level of consensus between the two nurses employing the AEP in all the studied departments. Overall agreement was > 92%, while the specific appropriate agreement and specific inappropriate agreement were > 88% and > 83%, respectively. External validity testing of the instrument yielded a sensitivity > 0.785, specificity > 0.55, and positive and negative predictive values > 0.775 and > 0.555, respectively. The kappa statistic for the nurses who applied the AEP and clinicians using personal judgment were perfect (k > 0.85) and substantial (k > 0.68), respectively. Conclusions: The results illustrate that the Iranian version of the AEP (IR-AEP) could be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the level of inappropriate acute hospital admissions and days of care in the Iranian context. PMID:26019898

  6. Evolution and development of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Radvinsky, David S; Yoon, Richard S; Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Swan, Kenneth G; Liporace, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol is a successful course offered by the American College of Surgeons. Once based on didactic lectures and seminars taught by experts in the field, trauma training has evolved to become a set of standardized assessment and treatment protocols based on evidence rather than expert opinion. As the ATLS expands, indices to predict outcome, morbidity, and mortality have evolved to guide management and treatment based on retrospective data. This historical, perspective article attempts to tell the story of ATLS from its inception to its evolution as an international standard for the initial assessment and management of trauma patients.

  7. Animal experimentation: a rational approach towards drug development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Singh, P N; Mishra, B

    2000-06-01

    Man's observation of animals as objects of study undoubtedly began in prehistoric times. The first recorded attempt involving the use of live animals for research was by Ersistratis in Alexandria in 300 B.C. Animal investigation has clearly made possible the enormous advances in drug development in this century. A cursory review of any modern text book of pharmacology or medicine will attest the many drugs currently available to benefit mankind in the struggle to eradicate and control diseases. The main purpose of this article is to describe some of the experimental work on animals which contributed to the discovery and development of drugs benefiting human beings and other animal species. Since animal experimentation has occupied a focal position in all the research leading to useful drugs, one will appreciate that it will be necessary to limit the discussion to certain aspects of this broad and interesting topic. With this in mind, an attempt is made to relate briefly the nature of animal investigations which were instrumental in the development of major classes of drugs. Some attention has also been focused on legislation's on animal experimentation of some developed countries with emphasis on India and to views on animal experimentation. We hope this article will stimulate the minds of the scientists for a rational debate on the future of animal experimentation.

  8. Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Preoperative Briefing Protocol for Cardiovascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Sarah E.; Wadhera, Rishi K.; ElBardissi, Andrew W.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Sundt, Thoralf M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-procedural briefings have been adopted in many high consequence environments, but have not been widely accepted in medicine. We sought to develop, implement and evaluate a preoperative briefing for cardiovascular surgery. Study Design The preoperative briefing was developed by employing a combined questionnaire and semi-structured focus group approach involving five subspecialties of surgical staff (n = 55). The results from these focus groups were used to design and implement a preoperative briefing protocol. The impact of the preoperative briefing was evaluated by monitoring surgical flow disruptions, circulating nurse trips to the core, time spent in the core, and cost-waste reports before and after implementation of the briefing across 16 cardiac surgery cases. Results Focus group data indicated consensus among surgical staff concerning briefing benefits, duration (5-10 min), location (in the OR), content (procedure, patient, and equipment issues) and potential barriers (e.g.: staff availability). Disagreement arose concerning timing of the brief (before vs. after patient enters) and the role of key participants. Following implementation of the briefing, there was a reduction in total surgical flow disruptions per case (5.4 pre-implementation vs. 2.8 post-implementation, p=.004). Specifically, there was a reduction in per case average of procedural knowledge disruptions (4.1 vs. 2.17, p=.004) and miscommunication events (2.5 vs. 1.17, p=.03), but there was no reduction in disruptions due to equipment preparation (1.19 vs. 1.17, p=.12) nor disruptions due to patient related issues (1.0 vs. 0.5, p=.10). On average, teams that conducted the briefing experienced fewer trips to the core (10 vs. 4.7, p=.004) and spent less time in the core (397.4 seconds vs. 172.3 seconds, p=.006). There was a trend towards decreased waste in teams that were briefed (30% vs. 17%, p=0.15). Conclusion Assessment of the preoperative briefings impact on cardiac surgical

  9. Development of an efficient real-time quantitative PCR protocol for detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M; López, María M

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 10(2) CFU ml(-1), thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material.

  10. Gold nanomolecules: Developing synthetic protocols, characterization and investigating the ligand effects on structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy

    The term "Nano" in chemistry refers to particles/molecules in the size range 1 to 100 nm. Gold nanoparticles were used in ancient times in making decorative glass as they produce vibrant, size dependent, colors upon interaction with light. Gold is a preferred choice of metal for the synthesis of nanoparticles mainly due to its inertness to atmospheric conditions and most chemicals. Gold thiolate nanomolecules, which is the primary focus of this dissertation research, are chemical molecules with a fixed number of gold atoms and organo-thiolate ligands. They are of the form Aux(SR)y and possess molecule-like properties as a result of distinctive quantum confinement effects occurring at the nanoscale size. The optical and electronic properties of these molecules change as a function of "x" and "y" in the formulation Aux(SR) y. The stability of these nanomolecules can be attributed due in part to their symmetrical geometry as evidenced by the X-ray crystallography. Recent research in the field has focused on exploiting the size-dependent properties of gold nanomolecules in applications like nano-electronics, biological sensing and catalysis. But much of the hindrance to these advances come from the lack of established protocols to synthesize monodisperse nanomolecules in high yields. Brust-schiffrin protocol for the synthesis of nanomolecules yields stable products in a two-phase system which can be dried and re-dispersed without affecting the stability. But the protocol has a major drawback of producing a polydisperse mixture of different sizes of nanomolecules. A major portion of my dissertation focuses on addressing this issue of polydispersity of products. In this regard, I have investigated the one-phase synthesis protocol for synthesis of gold-thiolate nanomolecules wherein the gold salt and the capping ligands are essentially dissolved in a single solvent system. This protocol is peculiar in that it yields various sizes which are otherwise not observed.

  11. Development of an exercise testing protocol for patients with a lower limb amputation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vestering, Myrthe M; Schoppen, Tanneke; Dekker, Rienk; Wempe, Johan; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2005-09-01

    Due to a decrease in physical activity, lower limb amputees experience a decline in physical fitness. This causes problems in walking with a prosthesis because energy expenditure in walking with a prosthesis is much higher than in walking with two sound legs. Exercise training may therefore increase the functional walking ability of these patients. To generate a safe and effective aerobic training program, exercise testing of amputees is recommended. The objectives of this study were to develop a maximal exercise testing protocol for lower limb amputees and to compare two different testing methods: combined arm-leg ergometry and arm ergometry. The protocols were tested in five amputee patients. Combined ergometry elicited a higher oxygen uptake and heart rate than arm ergometry. Electrocardiography during combined ergometry was easier to read. Combined ergometry was judged most comfortable by the amputees. The exercise testing protocol was useful in lower limb amputees to determine their maximal aerobic capacity and their main exercise limitation. Future exercise training programs may be based on this testing protocol. Combined arm-leg ergometry is appropriate for unilateral amputees without significant claudication of the remaining leg. Continuous arm ergometry is suitable for unilateral amputees with significant claudication of the remaining limb or bilateral amputees. PMID:16046917

  12. Developing the protocol for the evaluation of the health foundation's 'engaging with quality initiative' – an emergent approach

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Bryony; Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Stephen; Oortwijn, Wija; Scoggins, Amanda; Steel, Nick; Ling, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 a UK charity, The Health Foundation, established the 'Engaging with Quality Initiative' to explore and evaluate the benefits of engaging clinicians in quality improvement in healthcare. Eight projects run by professional bodies or specialist societies were commissioned in various areas of acute care. A developmental approach to the initiative was adopted, accompanied by a two level evaluation: eight project self-evaluations and a related external evaluation. This paper describes how the protocol for the external evaluation was developed. The challenges faced included large variation between and within the projects (in approach, scope and context, and in understanding of quality improvement), the need to support the project teams in their self-evaluations while retaining a necessary objectivity, and the difficulty of evaluating the moving target created by the developmental approach adopted in the initiative. An initial period to develop the evaluation protocol proved invaluable in helping us to explore these issues. PMID:18973650

  13. Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish Tamara Tal, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA Background: There are tens of thousands of chemicals that have yet to be fully evaluated for their toxicity by validated in vivo testing ...

  14. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  15. [Epidemiology of caring problems and drug surveillance in the elderly: a cooperative development of research protocol].

    PubMed

    Saiani, Luisa

    2004-01-01

    Nurses care for elderly patients at home and in nursing homes but there is lack of data on the caring problems encountered, their causes and the solutions adopted. The aim of the study is to produce the epidemiology of such problems and, at the same time, focus nurses' attention on their causes and avoidability. The process of definition of caring problems (the focus of the study) and the discussion that brought to the draft protocol are described. The final protocol (presented with the data collection forms) is articulated in two phases: a prevalence survey through a random sampling of points estimates in index days over 6 months; a prospective registry over the same period of time of all causes perceived as clinically relevant by the nursing personnel, who will document the suspected risk factors and causes (including specifically drug therapy), and the interventions and measures which are activated.

  16. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  17. Development and application of an assessment protocol for monitoring watery quality using benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.H.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Waller, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    The inability to accurately assess water quality using benthic macroinvertebrate communities, due to invalid sampling regimes and tenuous assessment endpoints, has led to confusion among the scientific community and the public as to the condition of the nation`s surface waters. Identifying a suite of reliable indicators (metrics) and a statistically valid sampling strategy should be a priority. In 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP) to provide guidance in this area. However, several of these metrics have come under scrutiny of late. Excessive variability and redundancy of information have been the major criticisms. This study statistically evaluates the RBP metrics for their overall usefulness as indicators of water quality, using previously compiled data from a reference stream in the ecoregion in which the study site is contained. Endpoints with a high degree of variability and/or an inability to generate unique and pertinent information were not included in the assessment protocol. In addition, power analysis was conducted on these metrics to determine the number of samples necessary to detect differences at ecologically relevant values. The metrics which met the criteria of low variability and the ability to provide unique and pertinent information were then applied to three small urban streams to assess the condition of these systems. It is the contention that only when a proven assessment protocol is employed, like the one presented here, can benthic macroinvertebrates reliably be used to evaluate water quality.

  18. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    PubMed Central

    Beirn, Lisa A.; Wang, Ruying; Clarke, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli), although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen. PMID:26339538

  19. Recent Developments in the CONRAD Code regarding Experimental Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Kopecky, S.; Litaize, O.; Noguère, G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Volev, K.

    2013-03-01

    The CONRAD code is an object-oriented software tool developed at CEA Cadarache since 2005 to deal with problems arising during the evaluation process (data assimilation and analysis, physical modelling, propagation of uncertainties…). This paper will present recent developments concerning the experimental corrections, which are required when a neutron resonance shape analysis is performed. Several experimental aspects are detailed in this work: the possibility to use spectra in energy as well as in time, the implementation of both analytical (Chi-Square) and Monte-Carlo resolution functions, the sample homogeneity corrections using log-normal distributions. Each development aspect is illustrated with several examples and comparisons with other resonance analysis codes (SAMMY, REFIT).

  20. Hypnosis and Guided Imagery Treatment for Gastrointestinal Disorders: Experience With Scripted Protocols Developed at the University of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S; van Tilburg, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Completely scripted treatment courses for verbatim interventions are uncommon in the field of clinical hypnosis. This approach was adopted for by a North Carolina research team for treating gastrointestinal disorders 20 years ago and has been used in hypnosis treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, as well as in guided imagery treatment for functional abdominal pain. Treatment with these scripted protocols is delivered in a fixed series of sessions over a 2- or 3-month period. They have been found efficacious for improving bowel symptoms in several clinical trials, even in patients who have been entirely unresponsive to medical treatment. Response rates in clinical trials have ranged from 53% to 94%, and the therapeutic benefits have been shown to be well maintained at 6-, 10-, or 12-month follow-ups in different studies. This article describes the development and research on these protocols and summarizes the advantages and limitations of this fully scripted treatment approach.

  1. Hypnosis and Guided Imagery Treatment for Gastrointestinal Disorders: Experience With Scripted Protocols Developed at the University of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S; van Tilburg, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Completely scripted treatment courses for verbatim interventions are uncommon in the field of clinical hypnosis. This approach was adopted for by a North Carolina research team for treating gastrointestinal disorders 20 years ago and has been used in hypnosis treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, as well as in guided imagery treatment for functional abdominal pain. Treatment with these scripted protocols is delivered in a fixed series of sessions over a 2- or 3-month period. They have been found efficacious for improving bowel symptoms in several clinical trials, even in patients who have been entirely unresponsive to medical treatment. Response rates in clinical trials have ranged from 53% to 94%, and the therapeutic benefits have been shown to be well maintained at 6-, 10-, or 12-month follow-ups in different studies. This article describes the development and research on these protocols and summarizes the advantages and limitations of this fully scripted treatment approach. PMID:26046714

  2. C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, Chris D.; Arora, Vivek; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Dunne, John; Graven, Heather; Hoffman, Forrest; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; et al

    2016-08-25

    Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities. The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks aremore » potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate–carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate–carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments known as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK). C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to project how the Earth system will

  3. C4MIP - The Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: experimental protocol for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chris D.; Arora, Vivek; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Dunne, John; Graven, Heather; Hoffman, Forrest; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Jung, Martin; Kawamiya, Michio; Koven, Charlie; Pongratz, Julia; Raddatz, Thomas; Randerson, James T.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-08-01

    Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities. The Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks are potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate-carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate-carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments known as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK). C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to project how the Earth system will respond to

  4. Development of a Protocol to Test Proprioceptive Utilization as a Predictor for Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show significant inter-subject variations in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment because of their innate sensory weighting. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We hypothesize participant's ability to utilize individual sensory information (vision, proprioception and vestibular) influences adaptation in sensorimotor performance after space flight. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable protocol to test proprioceptive utilization in a functional postural control task. Subjects "stand" in a supine position while strapped to a backpack frame holding a friction-free device using air-bearings that allow the subject to move freely in the frontal plane, similar to when in upright standing. The frame is attached to a pneumatic cylinder, which can provide different levels of a gravity-like force that the subject must balance against to remain "upright". The supine posture with eyes closed ensures reduced vestibular and visual contribution to postural control suggesting somatosensory and/or non-otolith vestibular inputs will provide relevant information for maintaining balance control in this task. This setup is called the gravity bed. Fourteen healthy subjects carried out three trials each with eyes open alternated with eyes closed, "standing" on their dominant leg in the gravity bed environment while loaded with 60 percent of their body weight. Subjects were instructed to: "use your sense of sway about the ankle and pressure changes under the foot to maintain balance." Maximum length of a trial was 45 seconds. A force plate underneath the foot recorded forces and moments during the trial and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached on the backpack's frame near the center of mass of the subject recorded upper body postural

  5. The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the UP drawing from theory and research that underlies current transdiagnostic approaches to treatment and consistent with recent dimensional classification proposals (Brown & Barlow, in press). Treatment is illustrated module-by-module describing how the principles of the UP were applied in the presented case. PMID:23997572

  6. Systematic development and validation of sanitization protocols for a chromatographic system designed for biotherapeutics purification.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, R F; Priest, M C; Roche, K L; Vella, G

    1993-01-01

    Production of protein therapeutics through the application of genetic engineering and biotechnology techniques requires comprehensive attention to good manufacturing practice and good laboratory practice (GMP/GLP) guidelines for product recovery and purification. Validated clean-in-place procedures are part of the master method and require analysis of microbial bioburden to assess the efficacy of cleaning protocols. This article describes the extensive microbial challenge of a chromatography system, the use of membrane filtration methods for high sensitivity microbial contamination measurement, and the effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and ethanol solutions in achieving multilog reduction of microbial contamination. PMID:8123748

  7. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the 16O(d,p1)17O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  8. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  9. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  10. Large-scale hydrological simulations using the soil water assessment tool, protocol development, and application in the danube basin.

    PubMed

    Pagliero, Liliana; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Willems, Patrick; Diels, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive of the European Union requires member states to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. A harmonized pan-European assessment of water resources availability and quality, as affected by various management options, is necessary for a successful implementation of European environmental legislation. In this context, we developed a methodology to predict surface water flow at the pan-European scale using available datasets. Among the hydrological models available, the Soil Water Assessment Tool was selected because its characteristics make it suitable for large-scale applications with limited data requirements. This paper presents the results for the Danube pilot basin. The Danube Basin is one of the largest European watersheds, covering approximately 803,000 km and portions of 14 countries. The modeling data used included land use and management information, a detailed soil parameters map, and high-resolution climate data. The Danube Basin was divided into 4663 subwatersheds of an average size of 179 km. A modeling protocol is proposed to cope with the problems of hydrological regionalization from gauged to ungauged watersheds and overparameterization and identifiability, which are usually present during calibration. The protocol involves a cluster analysis for the determination of hydrological regions and multiobjective calibration using a combination of manual and automated calibration. The proposed protocol was successfully implemented, with the modeled discharges capturing well the overall hydrological behavior of the basin.

  11. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    PubMed

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  12. Development of an acquisition protocol and a segmentation algortihm for wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Kristians; Castañeda, Benjamín; Miranda, César; Lavarello, Roberto; Llanos, Alejandro

    2010-03-01

    We developed a protocol for the acquisition of digital images and an algorithm for a color-based automatic segmentation of cutaneous lesions of Leishmaniasis. The protocol for image acquisition provides control over the working environment to manipulate brightness, lighting and undesirable shadows on the injury using indirect lighting. Also, this protocol was used to accurately calculate the area of the lesion expressed in mm2 even in curved surfaces by combining the information from two consecutive images. Different color spaces were analyzed and compared using ROC curves in order to determine the color layer with the highest contrast between the background and the wound. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: (1) Location of the wound determined by threshold and mathematical morphology techniques to the H layer of the HSV color space, (2) Determination of the boundaries of the wound by analyzing the color characteristics in the YIQ space based on masks (for the wound and the background) estimated from the first stage, and (3) Refinement of the calculations obtained on the previous stages by using the discrete dynamic contours algorithm. The segmented regions obtained with the algorithm were compared with manual segmentations made by a medical specialist. Broadly speaking, our results support that color provides useful information during segmentation and measurement of wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Results from ten images showed 99% specificity, 89% sensitivity, and 98% accuracy.

  13. Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, J.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Adrian, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  15. Development of a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to visualize encapsulated contrast agent markers in prostate brachytherapy recipients: initial patient experience

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tze Yee; Wang, Jihong; Bathala, Tharakeswara; Szklaruk, Janio; Pugh, Thomas J.; Mahmood, Usama; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Frank, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computed tomography (CT)-based prostate post-implant dosimetry allows for definitive seed localization but is associated with high interobserver variation in prostate contouring. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based post-implant dosimetry allows for accurate anatomical delineation but is limited due to inconsistent seed localization. Encapsulated contrast agent markers were previously proposed to overcome the seed localization limitation on MRI images by placing hyperintense markers adjacent to hypointense seeds. The aim of this study was to assess the appearance of these markers in prostatic tissue, and develop an MRI protocol to enable marker visualization. Material and methods We acquired MRI scans in prostate implant patients (n = 10) on day 0 (day of implant) and day 30 (month after implant). Before implantation of the markers, the routine post-implant MRI protocol included a 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with which markers and seeds could not be clearly visualized. To visualize the MRI markers, a 3D fast radiofrequency-spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence was evaluated for marker and seed visibility, as well as prostate boundary definitions. Results The 3D FSPGR sequence allowed for the visualization of markers in the prostate, enabling the distinction of signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks. The updated post-implant MRI protocol consists of this 3D FSPGR scan and an optional 3D T2-weighted FSE scan. The optional 3D T2-weighted FSE sequence may be employed to better visualize intraprostatic detail. We also described the observed image artifacts, including seed susceptibility, marker chemical shift, partial volume averaging, motion, and wraparound artifacts. Conclusions We have demonstrated an MRI protocol for use with hyperintense encapsulated contrast agent markers to assist in the identification of hypointense seeds. PMID:27504133

  16. Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Chronic Pain in At-Risk Patients: Development and Pilot Test of a Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Strain, Eric C; Cleland, Charles M.; Joseph, Herman; Magura, Stephen; Marsch, Lisa A; McNicholas, Laura F; Savage, Seddon R; Sundaram, Arun; Portenoy, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) is approved for addiction treatment and may be useful for pain management, particularly in opioid-treated pain patients with nonadherence behaviors. The transition of opioid-treated pain patients to buprenorphine carries the risk of precipitated withdrawal and increased pain. This study convened pain and addiction specialists to develop and pilot a clinical protocol for safe transitioning to Bup/Nx. Design The protocol was revised three times based on outside expert review and pilot study observations. The pilot was conducted with a prospective cohort of 12 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain, who were receiving long-term opioid therapy with any full μ-agonist drug, and had exhibited one or more aberrant drug-related behaviors. Patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months with the expectation that they would experience few adverse events and report lower pain severity. Results The three patients on the highest baseline opioid dose (equivalent to 303–450 mg of oral morphine) and the three on the lowest doses (≤20 mg) had early adverse events (AEs) when switched to Bup/Nx and did not complete the trial. Of the remaining six, one withdrew due to AEs; one responded well, then withdrew; and four completed a three-month trial. A mixed effects model controlling for dropouts found that average and worst pain significantly decreased after the switch to Bup/Nx (both p < .01). Conclusion Based on this experience, the protocol recommends Bup/Nx for pain only when baseline opioid doses are within bounds that reduce AEs at transition and incorporates dose flexibility to further reduce risks. This protocol warrants further testing. PMID:23264315

  17. Electrical modulation of the sympathetic nervous system in order to augment cerebral blood flow: a protocol for an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J Marc C; Staal, Michiel J; Elting, Jan-Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by several mechanisms. Neurogenic control has been a matter of debate, even though several publications reported the effects of changes in sympathetic tone on CBF. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal-cord stimulation have been shown to influence peripheral and cerebral blood flow through a sympathetic pathway. The authors hypothesise that certain pathological conditions result in a relative increase in the neurogenic regulation of CBF and that this regulation can be modulated electrically. Methods and analysis Patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage will be included. The experimental set-up measures several parameters that are involved in cerebral blood flow regulation in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Measurements are taken at baseline and with stimulation in several frequencies. An ad hoc statistical analysis is used to evaluate different settings of the electrical stimulation. Autoregulation is evaluated with transfer function analysis and autoregulatory index calculations. Ethics and dissemination Ethical registration was granted by Medical Review Ethics Committee Groningen (ID METc 2010.123). All participants provide written informed consent on participation. Upon finishing a pilot study to investigate feasibility and effect, either future prospective (randomised) studies will be designed, or other modalities of electrical stimulation will be explored using the same set-up. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Registry: NTR2358.

  18. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma: developments and evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Tang, Zhao-You; Li, Yan

    2009-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The biological mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and progression are poorly understood. Experimental models of HCC provide valuable tools to evaluate the risk factors, new treatment modalities and biologic characteristics. Under the constant evolution in model design and technology development, new experimental models continue to emerge, including spontaneous models, induced models, viral models, transplantable models, and genetically engineered models. These models are used as tools to investigate basic biological mechanisms of growth and differentiation, oncogene function, and as systems to test new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Each model has its own advantages and disadvantages. The progress in HCC model construction and studies are summarized in this review. PMID:19399516

  19. Experimental Study of Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner v, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study of an array of up to 100 model wind turbines with 0.25 m diameter, conducted in the turbulent boundary layer of the 6.0 m wide × 2.7 m tall × 72.0 m long test section of the UNH Flow Physics Facility, are reported. The study aims to address two questions. First, for a given configuration (turbine spacing, initial conditions, etc.), when will the model wind farm reach a ``fully developed'' condition, in which turbulence statistics remain the same from one row to the next within and above the wind turbine array. Second, how is kinetic energy transported in the wind turbine array boundary layer (WTABL). Measurements in the fully developed WTABL can provide valuable insight to the optimization of wind farm energy production. Previous experimental studies with smaller model wind farms were unable to reach the fully developed condition. Due to the size of the UNH facility and the current model array, the fully developed WTABL condition can be achieved. The wind turbine array was simulated by a combination of drag-matched porous disks, used in the upstream part of the array, and by a smaller array of realistic, scaled 3-bladed wind turbines immediately upstream of the measurement location.

  20. NOTE: Development of a quality assurance protocol for peripheral subtraction imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, C.; Murphy, D.; O'Hare, N.

    2002-04-01

    Peripheral subtraction scanning is used to trace the blood vessels of upper and lower extremities. In some modern C-arm fluoroscopy systems this function is performed automatically. In this mode the system is programmed to advance and stop in a series of steps taking a mask image at each point. The system then repeats each step after the contrast agent has been injected, and produces a DSA image at each point. Current radiographic quality assurance protocols do not address this feature. This note reviews methods of measuring system vibration while images are being acquired in automated peripheral stepping. The effect on image quality pre- and post-image processing is assessed. Results show that peripheral stepping DSA does not provide the same degree of image quality as static DSA. In examining static test objects, the major cause of the reduction in image quality is misregistration due to vibration of the image intensifier during imaging.

  1. Development of a protocol for the semi-synthesis and purification of betaxanthins.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    A method for the analytical and semi-preparative chromatographic purification of betaxanthins is described together with an improved procedure for the semi-synthesis of these compounds from betalamic acid. Standard conditions for obtaining preparative amounts of betaxanthins free of the precursor amino acids are provided. Following this procedure, 14 pure betaxanthins were obtained with yields of up to 100%. A simple reversed-phase HPLC protocol for pigment identification and quantification is also provided. Calibration for betaxanthins is reported for the first time using the synthesised and purified pigments as standards. Structures were confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC retention times and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Betaxanthins can be obtained pure, and in sufficient amounts for further studies, which opens up new perspectives in the research and applications of these pigments.

  2. Developing Quality Indicators and Auditing Protocols from Formal Guideline Models: Knowledge Representation and Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Aneel; Goldstein, Mary; Shahar, Yuval; Musen, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Automated quality assessment of clinician actions and patient outcomes is a central problem in guideline- or standards-based medical care. In this paper we describe a model representation and algorithm for deriving structured quality indicators and auditing protocols from formalized specifications of guidelines used in decision support systems. We apply the model and algorithm to the assessment of physician concordance with a guideline knowledge model for hypertension used in a decision-support system. The properties of our solution include the ability to derive automatically (1) context-specific and (2) case-mix-adjusted quality indicators that (3) can model global or local levels of detail about the guideline (4) parameterized by defining the reliability of each indicator or element of the guideline. PMID:14728124

  3. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  4. A Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention to Increase Healthy Behavior Through General Practice: Protocol and Systematic Development

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Oenema, Anke; Crombez, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An increased consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. An increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may also prevent body weight gain, and therefore indirectly affect type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insufficient physical activity (PA) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Consequently, effective interventions that promote PA and FV intake in a large number of people are required. Objective To describe the systematic development of an eHealth intervention, MyPlan 1.0, for increasing FV intake and PA. Methods The intervention was developed following the six steps of the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. Decisions during steps were based upon available literature, focus group interviews, and pilot studies. Results Based on needs assessment (Step 1), it was decided to focus on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity levels of adults. Based on self-regulation and the health action process approach model, motivational (eg, risk awareness) and volitional (eg, action planning) determinants were selected and crossed with performance objectives into a matrix with change objectives (Step 2). Behavioral change strategies (eg, goal setting, problem solving, and implementation intentions) were selected (Step 3). Tablet computers were chosen for delivery of the eHealth program in general practice (Step 4). To facilitate implementation of the intervention in general practice, GPs were involved in focus group interviews (Step 5). Finally, the planning of the evaluation of the intervention (Step 6) is briefly described. Conclusions Using the IM protocol ensures that a theory- and evidence-based intervention protocol is developed. If the intervention is found to be effective, a dynamic eHealth program for the promotion of healthy lifestyles could be available for use in general

  5. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of

  6. Effective audit in general practice: a method for systematically developing audit protocols containing evidence-based review criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, R C; Khunti, K; Baker, R; Lakhani, M

    1997-01-01

    Though many general practitioners (GPs) now take part in audit, there is still concern about the extent to which participation in audit leads to improvements in practice. Improved methods are needed for the incorporation of research evidence into criteria for use in audit. In this paper, a six-stage systematic method is described for developing audit protocols containing prioritized evidence-based criteria. The stages are: selection of a topic, identification of key elements of care, focused literature reviews, prioritization of the criteria on the strength of the evidence and impact on outcome, preparation of full documentation, and peer review. PMID:9519525

  7. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  8. The effect of enhanced public–private partnerships on Maternal, Newborn and child Health Services and outcomes in Nairobi–Kenya: the PAMANECH quasi-experimental research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Ettarh, Remare; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Kamande, Eva; Ngomi, Nicholas; Osindo, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rapid urbanisation in Kenya has resulted in growth of slums in urban centres, characterised by poverty, inadequate social services and poor health outcomes. The government's initiatives to improve access to quality healthcare for mothers and children are largely limited to public health facilities, which are few and/or inaccessible in underserved areas such as the slums. The ‘Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health’ (PAMANECH) project is being implemented in two Nairobi slums, Viwandani and Korogocho, to assess the impact of strengthening public–private partnerships for the delivery of healthcare on the health of mothers, newborns and young children in two informal settlements in Kenya. Methods and analysis This is a quasi-experimental study; our approach is to support private as well as public health providers and the community to enhance access to and demand for quality healthcare services. Key activities include: infrastructural upgrade of selected Private Not-For-Profit health facilities operating in the two slums, building capacity for healthcare providers as well as the Health Management Teams in Nairobi, facilitating provision of supportive supervision by the local health authorities and forming networks of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) to create demand for health services. To assess the impact of the intervention, the study is utilising multiple data sources using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. A baseline survey was conducted in 2013 and an end-line survey will be conducted at least 1 year after full implementation of the intervention. Systematic monitoring and documentation of the intervention is on-going to strengthen the case for causal inference. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Key messages from the results will be packaged and widely disseminated through workshops, conference presentations, reports, factsheets and

  9. Development and optimization of a biopreparedness protocol for extracting and detecting avian influenza virus in broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Simona; Falcone, Emiliana; Knutsson, Rickard; Vaccari, Gabriele; De Medici, Dario; Di Trani, Livia

    2013-09-01

    Detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry meat is hampered by the lack of an efficient analytical method able to extract and concentrate viral RNA prior to PCR. In this study we developed a method for extracting and detecting AIV from poultry meat by a previously standardized 1-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay. In addition, a new process control, represented by feline calicivirus (FCV), was included in the original protocol, to evaluate all analytical steps from sample preparation to the detection phase. The detection limit was below 1×10(-1) TCID50 of AIV per sample, and the quantification limit corresponded to 1×10(1) TCID50 of AIV per sample. Moreover, the addition of 1×10(2) TCID50/sample of FCV did not affect the quantification and detection limit of the reaction. These results show that the developed assay is suitable for detecting small amounts of AIV in poultry meat. In addition, the developed biopreparedness protocol can be applied to detect AIV in legal or illegal imported broiler chicken meat. The availability of a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method based on molecular identification of AIV in poultry meat provides an important tool in the prevention of AIV circulation.

  10. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    2001-09-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (equal to or greater than) 304.8-millimeter (equal to or greater than 12-inch diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  11. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.; Butcher, A. Garn

    2002-04-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (less than or = 304.8-millimeter (less than or = 12-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  12. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    1998-01-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (greater than or equal 304.8-millimeter (greater than or equal l2-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  13. Development of prilling process for biodegradable microspheres through experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Fabien, Violet; Minh-Quan, Le; Michelle, Sergent; Guillaume, Bastiat; Van-Thanh, Tran; Marie-Claire, Venier-Julienne

    2016-02-10

    The prilling process proposes a microparticle formulation easily transferable to the pharmaceutical production, leading to monodispersed and highly controllable microspheres. PLGA microspheres were used for carrying an encapsulated protein and adhered stem cells on its surface, proposing a tool for regeneration therapy against injured tissue. This work focused on the development of the production of PLGA microspheres by the prilling process without toxic solvent. The required production quality needed a complete optimization of the process. Seventeen parameters were studied through experimental designs and led to an acceptable production. The key parameters and mechanisms of formation were highlighted. PMID:26656302

  14. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Thomas; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the pre- and posttest stage in five courses (total n = 580 students) at a large research university in western Canada. Calculated difficulty and discrimination metrics indicated that BEDCI questions are able to effectively capture learning changes at the undergraduate level. A high correlation (r = 0.84) between responses by students in similar courses and at the same stage of their academic career, also suggests that the test is reliable. Students showed significant positive learning changes by the posttest stage, but some non–expert-like responses were widespread and persistent. BEDCI is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool that can be used in a variety of life sciences disciplines. PMID:25185236

  15. An experimental protocol for the definition of upper limb anatomical frames on children using magneto-inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Ricci, L; Formica, D; Tamilia, E; Taffoni, F; Sparaci, L; Capirci, O; Guglielmelli, E

    2013-01-01

    Motion capture based on magneto-inertial sensors is a technology enabling data collection in unstructured environments, allowing "out of the lab" motion analysis. This technology is a good candidate for motion analysis of children thanks to the reduced weight and size as well as the use of wireless communication that has improved its wearability and reduced its obtrusivity. A key issue in the application of such technology for motion analysis is its calibration, i.e. a process that allows mapping orientation information from each sensor to a physiological reference frame. To date, even if there are several calibration procedures available for adults, no specific calibration procedures have been developed for children. This work addresses this specific issue presenting a calibration procedure for motion capture of thorax and upper limbs on healthy children. Reported results suggest comparable performance with similar studies on adults and emphasize some critical issues, opening the way to further improvements. PMID:24110834

  16. Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Results Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. Conclusions The approach described in this study enables for the first time the

  17. Evaluation of radiation safety in (177)Lu-PSMA therapy and development of outpatient treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Demir, Mustafa; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Uslu-Beşli, Lebriz; Yıldırım, Özlem; Yeyin, Nami; Çavdar, İffet; Vatankulu, Betül; Gündüz, Hüseyin; Kabasakal, Levent

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the outpatient treatment protocol and radiation safety of a new-emerging lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) therapy. This work analyzed the dose rate of 23 patients treated with 7400 MBq (177)Lu-PSMA at different distances (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 m) and variable time marks (0, 1, 2, 4, 18, 24, 48 and 120 h) after the termination of infusion. Blood samples were withdrawn from 17 patients within the same group at 3, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min and 2, 3, 24 h after termination of infusion. Seven different patients were asked to collect urine for 24 h and a gamma well counter was used for counting samples. Family members were invited to wear an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter whenever they were in the proximity of the patients up to 4-5 d. The total dose of the medical team including the radiopharmacist, physicist, physician, nurse, and nuclear medicine technologist was estimated by an electronic personnel dosimeter. The finger dose was determined using a ring thermoluminescent dosimeter for the radiopharmacist and nurse. The mean dose rate at 1 m after 4 h and 6 h was 23  ±  6 μSv h(-1) and 15  ±  4 μSv h(-1) respectively. The mean total dose to 23 caregivers was 202.3  ±  42.7 μSv (range: 120-265 μSv). The radiation dose of the nurse and radiopharmacist was 6 and 4 μSv per patient, respectively, whereas the dose of the physicist and physician was 2 μSv. The effective half life of blood distribution and early elimination was 0.4  ±  0.1 h and 5  ±  1 h, respectively. Seven patients excreted a mean of 45% (range: 32%-65%) from the initial activity in 6 h. Our findings demonstrate that (177)Lu-PSMA is a safe treatment modality to be applied as an outpatient protocol, since the dose rate decreases below the determined threshold of  <30 μSv h(-1) after approximately 5 h and degrades to 20 μSv h(-1) after 6

  18. Glacial ice cores: A model system for developing extraterrestrial decontamination protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Brent C.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Foreman, Christine M.; Denson, Jackie; Priscu, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Evidence gathered from spacecraft orbiting Mars has shown that water ice exists at both poles and may form a large subsurface reservoir at lower latitudes. The recent exploration of the martian surface by unmanned landers and surface rovers, and the planned missions to eventually return samples to Earth have raised concerns regarding both forward and back contamination. Methods to search for life in these icy environments and adequate protocols to prevent contamination can be tested with earthly analogues. Studies of ice cores on Earth have established past climate changes and geological events, both globally and regionally, but only recently have these results been correlated with the biological materials (i.e., plant fragments, seeds, pollen grains, fungal spores, and microorganisms) that are entrapped and preserved within the ice. The inclusion of biology into ice coring research brings with it a whole new approach towards decontamination. Our investigations on ice from the Vostok core (Antarctica) have shown that the outer portion of the cores have up to 3 and 2 orders of magnitude higher bacterial density and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the inner portion of the cores, respectively, as a result of drilling and handling. The extreme gradients that exist between the outer and inner portion of these samples make contamination a very relevant aspect of geomicrobiological investigations with ice cores, particularly when the actual numbers of ambient bacterial cells are low. To address this issue and the inherent concern it raises for the integrity of future investigations with ice core materials from terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, we employed a procedure to monitor the decontamination process in which ice core surfaces are painted with a solution containing a tracer microorganism, plasmid DNA, and fluorescent dye before sampling. Using this approach, a simple and direct method is proposed to verify the authenticity of geomicrobiological

  19. Development of plant regeneration and transformation protocols for the desiccation-sensitive weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula.

    PubMed

    Ncanana, Sandile; Brandt, Wolf; Lindsey, George; Farrant, Jill

    2005-08-01

    A tissue culture protocol, suitable for transformation, was established for the pasture grass Eragrostis curvula. Callus was generated in the dark from leaf and seed tissues on a medium comprising MS salts supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.01 mg/l BAP and 2% sucrose. Plant regeneration occurred via organogenesis on the same medium with 6% and 3% sucrose for shoot and root formation, respectively. Optimal regeneration (50 plantlets per callus) occurred when light of 45 micromol/m2 per s was used. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp12 gene was cloned into the Sac1 of the pCAMBIAUbeeQ vector and callus was transformed by biolistic bombardment. Best transformation (30%) occurred when the target tissue was bombarded twice at a distance of 70 mm using a bombardment pressure of 9,100 kPa. Although successful transformation and transcription of the Hsp12 gene occurred, no Hsp12 protein was found present in tissue extracts of transformed grass.

  20. Development of a Noncontact Kickboxing Circuit Training Protocol That Simulates Elite Male Kickboxing Competition.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Davis, Philip; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the specific kickboxing circuit training protocol (SKCTP) could reproduce kickboxing combat's hormonal, physiological, and physical responses. Twenty athletes of regional and national level volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD, age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; height: 170 ± 0.5 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 13.9 kg). After familiarization, SKCTP was conducted 1 week before a kickboxing competition. Cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as the Wingate upper-body test and countermovement jump (CMJ) performances were measured before and after SKCTP and combat. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured throughout rounds (R) R1, R2, and R3. Testosterone, GH, glucose, [La], HR, RPE, and CMJ did not differ among the 2 conditions (p > 0.05). However, Cortisol was higher for competition (p = 0.038), whereas both peak (p = 0.003) and mean power (p < 0.001) were higher in SKCTP. The study suggests that SKCTP replicates the hormonal, physiological, and physical aspects of competition. It is therefore suggested as a good form of specific kickboxing training, as well as a specific assessment tool to be used by kickboxing coaches to quantify kickboxers' fitness levels, when physiological parameters responses to the test are measured.

  1. Fasciola hepatica: development of redial generations in experimental infections of Pseudosuccinea columella.

    PubMed

    Dar, Y; Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2014-07-01

    Experimental infections of Egyptian Pseudosuccinea columella with one or two miracidia of Fasciola hepatica per snail were carried out to determine the developmental pattern (normal or abnormal) of redial generations and specify the number of free rediae developing in snails according to their generation. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula infected according to the same protocol. Most infected P. columella showed a normal development of redial generations (96.2-98.1 vs 75.5-85.7% for G. truncatula). In each redial category, free rediae were more numerous in P. columella than in G. truncatula, and their number were also greater in the two-miracidia groups than in single-miracidium infections for each lymnaeid considered separately. This increase in redial production was mainly due to the number of first mother (R1a) rediae producing daughter rediae only: 2 per P. columella (vs one redia in G. truncatula) in single-miracidium groups and 3.1 (vs 1.9) in the two-miracidia groups. In P. columella, the mean total number of free rediae developing in single-miracidium and bimiracidial infections was 77.2 and 117.6, respectively (instead of 33.5 and 52.1 rediae in G. truncatula). The number of F. hepatica rediae present in P. columella was related to the number of fully grown sporocysts and the quantity of R1a rediae which developed into the snail body. PMID:24832813

  2. The RTS2 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubánek, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; French, John; Prouza, Michal; Vítek, Stanislav; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Reglero, Victor

    2008-07-01

    Remote Telescope System 2nd version (RTS2) is an open source project aimed at developing a software environment to control a fully robotic observatory. RTS2 consists of various components, which communicate via an ASCII based protocol. As the protocol was from the beginning designed as an observatory control system, it provides some unique features, which are hard to find in the other communication systems. These features include advanced synchronisation mechanisms and strategies for setting variables. This presentation describes the protocol and its unique features. It also assesses protocol performance, and provides examples how the RTS2 library can be used to quickly build an observatory control system.

  3. Experimental investigation of a confined developing axisymmetric wall jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianqi; Rau, Matthew; Vlachos, Pavlos; Garimella, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    The present work reports an experimental study of an axisymmetric, confined wall jet using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the dielectric liquid HFE-7100. The wall jet is formed downstream from a confined and submerged impinging round jet, 3.75 mm in diameter. Both the developing region and self-similar region of the wall jet are investigated. The experiments are conducted for Reynolds numbers (Re = Ud/ υ) ranging from 1500 to 38000 and at a nozzle-to-plate spacing of four jet diameters. Image-preprocessing techniques are used to eliminate background noise and an ensemble correlation scheme is applied to improve the resolution of the measurement of the mean velocity field near the wall. A maximum measurement resolution of 36 μm is achieved. Profiles of the mean velocity, turbulent intensities, decay rate, spread rate and wall shear stress are used to characterize the influence of confinement on the wall jet development and inner layer scaling.

  4. Development of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Oshima, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Katagiri, Takashi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Tashiro, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    Development of the optical biopsy system for experimental small animals is in progress. A prototype of the system which consists of a miniaturized gastro endoscope unit and Raman probes has been completed by now. The system is developed to study a gastric cancer rat model. The endoscope is 2.5 mm in diameter and is equipped an imaging bundle fiber, illumination fibers, a channel and a mechanism to angle the probe head. The head of the Raman probe comes out through the channel and it is possible to aim the probe to the target watching on the monitor. The endoscope was inserted into the anaesthetized healthy rat under the breathing support. It was successfully observed inside of the stomach of the living rat and measured Raman spectra. The spectrum of blood vessels contains the strong contribution from lipids. The present results demonstrate high potential of the system in the in vivo Raman study using the rat model.

  5. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  6. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  7. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  8. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  9. Experimental terrestrial soil-core microcosm test protocol. A method for measuring the potential ecological effects, fate, and transport of chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Tolle, D.A.; Arthur, M.F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to protect the environment properly and have a realistic appraisal of how a chemical will act in the environment, tests of ecological effects and chemical fate must be performed on complex assemblages of biotic and abiotic components (i.e., microcosms) as well as single species. This protocol is one which could be added to a series of tests recently developed as guidelines for Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469; U.S.C., Section 2601-2629). The terrestrial soil-core microcosm is designed to supply site-specific and possibly regional information on the probable chemical fate and ecological effects resulting from release of a chemical substance to a terrestrial ecosystem. The EPA will use the data resulting from this test system to compare the potential hazards of a chemical with others that have been previously evaluated.

  10. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended.

  11. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. PMID:26828161

  12. SU-C-17A-02: Sirius MRI Markers for Prostate Post-Implant Assessment: MR Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Kudchadker, R; Stafford, R; Bathala, T; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Frank, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently, CT is used to visualize prostate brachytherapy sources, at the expense of accurate structure contouring. MRI is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but the sources appear as voids on MRI images. Previously we have developed Sirius MRI markers (C4 Imaging) to replace spacers to assist source localization on MRI images. Here we develop an MRI pulse sequence protocol that enhances the signal of these markers to enable MRI-only post-implant prostate dosimetric analysis. Methods: To simulate a clinical scenario, a CIRS multi-modality prostate phantom was implanted with 66 markers and 86 sources. The implanted phantom was imaged on both 1.5T and 3.0T GE scanners under various conditions, different pulse sequences (2D fast spin echo [FSE], 3D balanced steadystate free precession [bSSFP] and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo [FSPGR]), as well as varying amount of padding to simulate various patient sizes and associated signal fall-off from the surface coil elements. Standard FSE sequences from the current clinical protocols were also evaluated. Marker visibility, marker size, intra-marker distance, total scan time and artifacts were evaluated for various combinations of echo time, repetition time, flip angle, number of excitations, bandwidth, slice thickness and spacing, fieldof- view, frequency/phase encoding steps and frequency direction. Results: We have developed a 3D FSPGR pulse sequence that enhances marker signal and ensures the integrity of the marker shape while maintaining reasonable scan time. For patients contraindicated for 3.0T, we have also developed a similar sequence for 1.5T scanners. Signal fall-off with distance from prostate to coil can be compensated mainly by decreasing bandwidth. The markers are not visible using standard FSE sequences. FSPGR sequences are more robust for consistent marker visualization as compared to bSSFP sequences. Conclusion: The developed MRI pulse sequence protocol for Sirius MRI markers assists source

  13. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  14. Ecological Thresholds in the Savanna Landscape: Developing a Protocol for Monitoring the Change in Composition and Utilisation of Large Trees

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Dave J.; Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R.; Grant, Rina; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure - particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts - is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (≥5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0–6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0–1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. Conclusions/Significance The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to

  15. The relationship between test protocol and the development of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Lama, I L; Wolski, L A; Coutts, K D; McKenzie, D C

    1996-01-01

    Healthy male endurance-trained cyclists [n = 11, age = 27.3 (3.9) years; mass = 73.0 (9.3) kg; height = 180.5 (6.9) cm; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 71.1 (5.8) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean +/- (SD)] were recruited to assess the relationship between test protocol and the development of desaturation of arterial hemoglobin with oxygen, during incremental exercise tests to maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). All subjects demonstrated resting pulmonary function within normal limits [forced vital capacity (FVC) = 6.0 (0.9); forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) = 4.9 (0.6); FEV1.0/FVC = 0.8 (0.1)] and completed three ramped VO2max tests (Mijnhardt KEM-3 electronically braked cycle ergometer) beginning at 0 W with increments of either 20,30 or 40 W.min-1. All periods of testing were separated by a minimum of 72 h. VO2max, peak minute ventilation (VEpeak) (Medical Graphics, CPX-D), peak heart rate (fcpeak), peak power output (Wpeak), and minimum percentage arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (% SaO2min) (Omeda Biox 3740 pulse oximeter) were determined. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in VEpeak [191.5 (26.2), 196.0 (24.4), 194.3 (23.9) l.min-1] fcpeak [191.4 (7.0), 190.3 (5.5), 187.8 (5.9) beats.min-1], VO2max [5.0 (0.5), 5.1 (0.4), 5.1 (0.5) l.min-1] or %SaO2min [89.5 (1.5), 89.6 (1.3), 90.0 (2.3)] between protocols. The 20-W protocol [417 (27) W] demonstrated significantly lower Wpeak (P < 0.05) than the 30-W [434 (36) W] and 40-W [453 (38) W] protocols, indicating that peripheral fatigue may play an important factor in response to these tests. The results of this study demonstrate that arterial desaturation occurs as a result of intense exercise in highly trained athletes independent of the rate of attainment of VO2max.

  16. Murine pattern recognition receptor dectin-1 is essential in the development of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

    PubMed

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Reid, Delyth M; Yeoh, Joyce; Taylor, Julie; McKenzie, Emma J; Brown, Gordon D; Gordon, Siamon; Forrester, John V; Wong, Simon Y C

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) are an essential component of immunization protocols in a number of autoimmune disease animal models including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and uveoretinitis (EAE and EAU, respectively). We determined the role in EAU of two C-type lectin receptors on myeloid cells that recognize and respond to mycobacteria. Using receptor-specific antibodies and knockout mice, we demonstrated for the first time that the macrophage mannose receptor delays disease development but does not affect severity. In contrast, dectin-1 is critically involved in the development of CFA-mediated EAU. Disease severity is reduced in dectin-1 knockout mice and antibody blockade of dectin-1 during the induction, but not the effector phase, prevents EAU development. Significantly, similar blockade of dectin-1 in vivo has no effect in non-CFA-mediated, spontaneously induced or adoptive transfer models of EAU. Thus dectin-1 plays a critical role in the ability of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce EAU in mice.

  17. Experimental Stage Separation Tool Development in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Scallion, William I.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the research effort at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program, proximity testing of a generic bimese wing-body configuration was conducted in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The objective of this work is the development of experimental tools and testing methodologies to apply to hypersonic stage separation problems for future multi-stage launch vehicle systems. Aerodynamic force and moment proximity data were generated at a nominal Mach number of 6 over a small range of angles of attack. The generic bimese configuration was tested in a belly-to-belly and back-to-belly orientation at 86 relative proximity locations. Over 800 aerodynamic proximity data points were taken to serve as a database for code validation. Longitudinal aerodynamic data generated in this test program show very good agreement with viscous computational predictions. Thus a framework has been established to study separation problems in the hypersonic regime using coordinated experimental and computational tools.

  18. Experimental platynosomosis: Characterization of parasite development in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson A; Mati, Vitor L T; Melo, Alan L

    2015-06-30

    equivalent to those reported for parasites from natural hosts (cats, birds and nonhuman primates). The results obtained provide new insights into the biology of P. illiciens, and the kinetics of the parasite development of this species is presented here for the first time. The potential use of mice as an experimental model for P. illiciens is presented and the implications of the results obtained in that model for feline platynosomosis are briefly discussed.

  19. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.

  20. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  1. A protocol for developing a clinical practice guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Chen, Ken; Chen, Yao-Long; Zhai, Suo-di

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of vancomycin. We adopted the new guideline definition from the Institute of Medicine (IOM), adhered closely to the six domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II), and made recommendations based on systematic reviews. We established a Guideline Steering Group and a Guideline Development Group, formulated 12 questions in the form of Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) and completed a literature search. As far as we know, we will develop the first evidenced-based guideline for vancomycin TDM under the framework of the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PMID:27376822

  2. Development of an Optimized Protocol for NMR Metabolomics Studies of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines and First Insight from Testing of the Protocol Using DNA G-Quadruplex Ligands as Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lauri, Ilaria; Savorani, Francesco; Iaccarino, Nunzia; Zizza, Pasquale; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Novellino, Ettore; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Randazzo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The study of cell lines by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics represents a powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways are influenced by external or internal stimuli. In particular, the use of adherent mammalian cells is emerging in the metabolomics field in order to understand the molecular mechanism of disease progression or, for example, the cellular response to drug treatments. Hereto metabolomics investigations for this kind of cells have generally been limited to mass spectrometry studies. This study proposes an optimized protocol for the analysis of the endo-metabolome of human colon cancer cells (HCT116) by NMR. The protocol includes experimental conditions such as washing, quenching and extraction. In order to test the proposed protocol, it was applied to an exploratory study of cancer cells with and without treatment by anti-cancer drugs, such as DNA G-quadruplex binders and Adriamycin (a traditional anti-cancer drug). The exploratory NMR metabolomics analysis resulted in NMR assignment of all endo-metabolites that could be detected and provided preliminary insights about the biological behavior of the drugs tested. PMID:26784246

  3. Experimental Control of Nodality via Equal Presentations of Conditional Discriminations in Different Equivalence Protocols under Speed and No-Speed Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imam, Abdulrazaq A.

    2006-01-01

    A within-participant comparison of simple-to-complex, complex-to-simple, and simultaneous protocols was conducted establishing different sets of three 7-member equivalence classes for 4 undergraduate students. The protocols were implemented under either accuracy-only or accuracy-plus-speed conditions while keeping number of presentations of…

  4. Development of a gas-phase stereochemical protocol. Intrinsic diastereoselectivity in hydride reductions of cyclohexanones

    SciTech Connect

    Yeunghaw Ho; Squires, R.R. )

    1992-12-30

    A common feature of classical, intuitive models and modern molecular orbital-based theories for diastereoselectivity in ketone reduction reactions is an emphasis on the structural and electronic properties of the substrate, despite the fact that the stereochemical outcome of these reactions often displays marked sensitivity to the solvent and the type of counter-ion employed with ionic and polar reducing agents. One way to separate intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the stereochemistry of ketone reduction reactions is to examine them in the gas phase, where solvent and counterion effects are absent. The authors describe here an experimental method for distinguishing the diastereomeric products of gas-phase hydride reduction reactions, and its application in determining the intrinsic diastereoselectivity involved in reductions of alkyl-substituted cyclohexanones. 1 tab.

  5. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-09-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model.

  6. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

  7. TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS: ONE APPROACH TO DEVELOPING WIDELY ACCEPTED PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an approach to developing widely acce ted products for testing indoor air products. [NOTE: Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is a partner in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program with responsibil...

  8. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND STATISTICAL DESIGN SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A MONITORING PROTOCOL FOR RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outputs of the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) Process and discussions about developing a statistical design that will be used to implement the research study of recreational beach waters.

  9. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  10. Accelerating Technology Development through Integrated Computation and Experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Srivastava, Rameshwar D.; Ciferno, Jared; Litynski, John; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2013-08-15

    This special section of Energy & Fuels comprises a selection of papers presented at the topical conference “Accelerating Technology Development through Integrated Computation and Experimentation”, sponsored and organized by the United States Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting held in Pittsburgh, PA, Oct 28-Nov 2, 2012. That topical conference focused on the latest research and development efforts in five main areas related to fossil energy, with each area focusing on the utilization of both experimental and computational approaches: (1) gas separations (membranes, sorbents, and solvents for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} production), (2) CO{sub 2} utilization (enhanced oil recovery, chemical production, mineralization, etc.), (3) carbon sequestration (flow in natural systems), (4) advanced power cycles (oxy-combustion, chemical looping, gasification, etc.), and (5) fuel processing (H{sub 2} production for fuel cells).

  11. Aerodynamic database development of the ESA intermediate experimental vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe; Marino, Giuliano; Rufolo, Giuseppe C.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the aerodynamic database development of the Intermediate Experiment Vehicle. The aerodynamic analysis, carried out for the whole flight scenario, relies on computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel test, and engineering-based design data generated during the project phases, from rarefied flow conditions, to hypersonic continuum flow up to reach subsonic speeds regime. Therefore, the vehicle aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections foreseen for the vehicle nominal re-entry. In particular, the databasing activities are developed in the light of build-up approach. This means that all aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are provided by means of a linear summation over certain number of incremental contributions such as, for example, effect of sideslip angle, aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, etc. Each force and moment coefficient is treated separately and appropriate equation is provided, in which all the pertinent contributions for obtaining the total coefficient for any selected flight conditions appear. To this aim, all the available numerical and experimental aerodynamic data are gathered in order to explicit the functional dependencies from each aerodynamic model addend through polynomial expressions obtained with the least squares method. These polynomials are function of the primary variable that drives the phenomenon whereas secondary dependencies are introduced directly into its unknown coefficients which are determined by means of best-fitting algorithms.

  12. Development of a Land Use Mapping and Monitoring Protocol for the High Plains Region: A Multitemporal Remote Sensing Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.; Nellis, M. Duane

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a practical protocol that employs multitemporal remotely sensed imagery, integrated with environmental parameters to model and monitor agricultural and natural resources in the High Plains Region of the United States. The value of this project would be extended throughout the region via workshops targeted at carefully selected audiences and designed to transfer remote sensing technology and the methods and applications developed. Implementation of such a protocol using remotely sensed satellite imagery is critical for addressing many issues of regional importance, including: (1) Prediction of rural land use/land cover (LULC) categories within a region; (2) Use of rural LULC maps for successive years to monitor change; (3) Crop types derived from LULC maps as important inputs to water consumption models; (4) Early prediction of crop yields; (5) Multi-date maps of crop types to monitor patterns related to crop change; (6) Knowledge of crop types to monitor condition and improve prediction of crop yield; (7) More precise models of crop types and conditions to improve agricultural economic forecasts; (8;) Prediction of biomass for estimating vegetation production, soil protection from erosion forces, nonpoint source pollution, wildlife habitat quality and other related factors; (9) Crop type and condition information to more accurately predict production of biogeochemicals such as CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases that are inputs to global climate models; (10) Provide information regarding limiting factors (i.e., economic constraints of pumping, fertilizing, etc.) used in conjunction with other factors, such as changes in climate for predicting changes in rural LULC; (11) Accurate prediction of rural LULC used to assess the effectiveness of government programs such as the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Conservation Reserve Program; and (12) Prediction of water demand based on rural LULC that can be related to rates of

  13. Development of a Multi-Agent m-Health Application Based on Various Protocols for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sang; Cho, Hune; Kim, Hwa Sun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a mobile health application (Self-Management mobile Personal Health Record: "SmPHR") to ensure the interoperability of various personal health devices (PHDs) and electronic medical record systems (EMRs) for continuous self-management of chronic disease patients. The SmPHR was developed for Android 4.0.3, and implemented according to the optimized standard protocol for each interface of healthcare services adopted by the Continua Health Alliance (CHA). That is, the Personal Area Network (PAN) interface between the application and PHD implements ISO/IEEE 11073-20,601, 10,404, 10,407, 10,415, 10,417, and Bluetooth Health Device Profile (HDP), and EMRs with a wide area network (WAN) interface implement HL7 V2.6; the Health Record Network (HRN) interface implements Continuity of Care Document (CCD) and Continuity of Care Record (CCR). Also, for SmPHR, we evaluated the transmission error rate between the interface using four PHDs and personal health record systems (PHRs) from previous research, with 611 users and elderly people after receiving institutional review board (IRB) approval. In the evaluation, the PAN interface showed 15 (2.4 %) errors, and the WAN and HRN interface showed 13 (2.1 %) errors in a total of 611 transmission attempts. Also, we received opinions regarding SmPHR from 15 healthcare professionals who took part in the clinical trial. Thus, SmPHR can be provided as an interconnected PHR mobile health service to patients, allowing 'plug and play' of PHDs and EMRs through various standard protocols. PMID:26573657

  14. Development of a droplet-vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of Rubia akane (Nakai) hairy roots using a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Popova, E V; Shin, D J; Bae, C H; Baek, H J; Park, S U; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    A systematic approach using a set of 13 treatments was applied to develop a droplet-vitrification protocol for Rubia akane hairy roots, based on their responses to preculture, loading, dehydration and cooling/rewarming steps. The roots were very sensitive to osmotic stress induced by both preculture in liquid sucrose-enriched medium (up to 0.5 M sucrose) and by dehydration with highly concentrated vitrification solutions (VSs). Loading was necessary before dehydration of explants with VS, and the composition of the loading solution (LS) significantly affected their post-cryopreservation regeneration. Due to high sensitivity of roots to both chemical cytotoxicity and osmotic stress produced by VSs, cryoprotection with alternative VSs, i.e. B5-80 percent (40 percent glycerol + 40 percent sucrose, w/v) at room temperature for 15 min or with A3-70 percent (29.2 percent glycerol + 11.7 percent DMSO + 11.7 percent EG + 17.4 percent sucrose, w/v) at 0 degree C for 20 min ensured the highest post-cryopreservation regeneration. However, when using these solutions, endothermic peaks (enthalpies) with -2.9 and -5.8 J per gram fresh weight, respectively, were recorded by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during the rewarming phase. Droplet-vitrification using foil strips showed higher post-cryopreservation regeneration (86 percent) compared with vitrification in cryovials (59 percent), possibly due to the higher cooling and rewarming rates achieved with droplet-vitrification. The developed protocol was applied to hairy roots of five other species with minor modifications in explant type, the duration of the last subculture before explant excision, and the dehydration duration with VS B5-80 percent.

  15. Development of a Multi-Agent m-Health Application Based on Various Protocols for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sang; Cho, Hune; Kim, Hwa Sun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a mobile health application (Self-Management mobile Personal Health Record: "SmPHR") to ensure the interoperability of various personal health devices (PHDs) and electronic medical record systems (EMRs) for continuous self-management of chronic disease patients. The SmPHR was developed for Android 4.0.3, and implemented according to the optimized standard protocol for each interface of healthcare services adopted by the Continua Health Alliance (CHA). That is, the Personal Area Network (PAN) interface between the application and PHD implements ISO/IEEE 11073-20,601, 10,404, 10,407, 10,415, 10,417, and Bluetooth Health Device Profile (HDP), and EMRs with a wide area network (WAN) interface implement HL7 V2.6; the Health Record Network (HRN) interface implements Continuity of Care Document (CCD) and Continuity of Care Record (CCR). Also, for SmPHR, we evaluated the transmission error rate between the interface using four PHDs and personal health record systems (PHRs) from previous research, with 611 users and elderly people after receiving institutional review board (IRB) approval. In the evaluation, the PAN interface showed 15 (2.4 %) errors, and the WAN and HRN interface showed 13 (2.1 %) errors in a total of 611 transmission attempts. Also, we received opinions regarding SmPHR from 15 healthcare professionals who took part in the clinical trial. Thus, SmPHR can be provided as an interconnected PHR mobile health service to patients, allowing 'plug and play' of PHDs and EMRs through various standard protocols.

  16. Study protocol: Imaging brain development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Methods/Design Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. Discussion This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes. PMID:24779869

  17. Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

    1990-03-01

    The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

  18. Method for Developing a Standardized Protocol for Capturing and Storing Brightfield Photomicrographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asson-Batres, Mary Ann; Shneyder, Artyom V.

    2006-01-01

    Photography can be a useful tool for teaching biology at both the macroscopic and the microscopic levels of organization. While more complex, taking photographs of microscopic specimens is a procedure that can be performed with all students. In this article, the authors outline a general approach that can be followed to develop a specific protocol…

  19. Implementation and Outcomes of a Responsibility-Based Continuing Professional Development Protocol in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Templin, Thomas J.; Wright, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in education and physical education has emphasized the need for continuing professional development (CPD) programs that are aligned with best practices. More specifically, scholars interested in teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) have emphasized the need to examine teachers' CPD. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations are underway on Lake Texoma, a Corps of Engineers lake on the Oklahoma/Texas border, to develop decision support tools and information to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecologica...

  1. RESEARCH BRIEFING ON DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion is defined as the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into occupied buildings from contaminated soil or ground water. EPA recently developed guidance to facilitate assessment of vapor intrusion at sites regulated by RCRA and CERCLA. The EPA guidance e...

  2. Development of a Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Goldstein, Clark R.; Wright, Lauren R.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the development and initial trial of a treatment for adolescents that targets negative emotionality and associated psychological difficulties--particularly anxiety and depressive disorders--as a more singular entity by utilizing an approach rooted in both emotion science and theory. The rationale for such an approach is based…

  3. THE NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PILOT PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT OF AN EVALUATION PROTOCOL AND PERFORMANCE BENCHMARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration recently sponsored the New England Forecasting Pilot Program to serve as a "test bed" for chemical forecasting by providing all of the elements of a National Air Quality Forecasting System, including the development and implemen...

  4. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  5. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  6. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  7. A pilot, quasi-experimental, mixed methods investigation into the efficacy of a group psychotherapy intervention for caregivers of outpatients with cancer: the COPE study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Methods and analysis Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the

  8. [Development of telepathology systems between different types of terminals based on the standard for image collaboration command protocol].

    PubMed

    Tofukuji, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Shuji; Suzuki, Akitoshi; Saito, Makoto; Hara, Shigeji; Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Shiraishi, Taizo; Ooshiro, Mariko; Sawai, Takashi; Kaihara, Shigekoto

    2003-01-01

    In Japan telepathology systems have been developed in medical or pathological environment such as a shortage and an uneven distribution of pathologists. More than 100 telepathology terminals are working mainly for intraoperative quick diagnosis. They cannot communicate with different types each other. In March 2000 the Medical Information System Development Center(MEDIS-DC) successfully demonstrated the interconnection between different types of telepathology terminals based on the Standard for Image Collaboration Command Protocol (SICCP). Nikon, NTTdata and Olympus had joined the development. In February 2002 MEDIS-DC examined these systems for pathological consultations in the fields of Okinawa-Kyoto, Kyoto-Mie and Mie-Okinawa. These successful examinations let us know that telepathology systems need new observation methodologies for telecytology and teleconsultation in addition to the flow for intraoperative quick diagnosis, new GUI guidelines for telepathology terminal design and, education and support for users of their smooth operation. Outcomes of MEDIS-DC activities encourageed us to challenge the next generation telepathology. We found some new trends in telepathology or pathology informatics such as virtual slide technologies and the internet applications in US and Europe. In order to keep Japanese priority, MEDIS-DC telepathology comittee has started investigations to construct a strategy for development of Japanese next generation telepathology.

  9. Technology transfer opportunities : new development : new protocol verifies sterility of newly hatched fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey's Biological Resources Disicipline scientists have developed a procedure that could save commercial producers of triploid grass carp between $2000 and $3000 per pond. Since 1983, triploid grass carp have been commercially available for managing aquatic weeds that can cause water quality problems, replace native plants, or impede recreational and commercial use of fisheries and waterways. The carp eat the nuisance vegetation, but because the fish do not reproduce, they do not disturb habitat.

  10. Improving implementation of evidence-based practice in mental health service delivery: protocol for a cluster randomised quasi-experimental investigation of staff-focused values interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing acceptance that optimal service provision for individuals with severe and recurrent mental illness requires a complementary focus on medical recovery (i.e., symptom management and general functioning) and personal recovery (i.e., having a ‘life worth living’). Despite significant research attention and policy-level support, the translation of this vision of healthcare into changed workplace practice continues to elude. Over the past decade, evidence-based training interventions that seek to enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of staff working in the mental health field have been implemented as a primary redress strategy. However, a large body of multi-disciplinary research indicates disappointing rates of training transfer. There is an absence of empirical research that investigates the importance of worker-motivation in the uptake of desired workplace change initiatives. ‘Autonomy’ is acknowledged as important to human effectiveness and as a correlate of workplace variables like productivity, and wellbeing. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that investigate purposeful and structured use of values-based interventions to facilitate increased autonomy as a means of promoting enhanced implementation of workplace change. Methods This study involves 200 mental health workers across 22 worksites within five community-managed organisations in three Australian states. It involves cluster-randomisation of participants within organisation, by work site, to the experimental (values) condition, or the control (implementation). Both conditions receive two days of training focusing on an evidence-based framework of mental health service delivery. The experimental group receives a third day of values-focused intervention and 12 months of values-focused coaching. Well-validated self-report measures are used to explore variables related to values concordance, autonomy, and self-reported implementation success. Audits of work

  11. Translational utility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Laaksonen, Hannes; Flytzani, Sevasti; N’diaye, Marie; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune condition with firmly established genetic and environmental components. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of genetic polymorphisms in the vicinity of, and within, genes that associate to disease. However, the significance of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease and possible mechanisms of action remain, with a few exceptions, to be established. While the animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been instrumental in understanding immunity in general and mechanisms of MS disease in particular, much of the translational information gathered from the model in terms of treatment development (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) has been extensively summarized. In this review, we would thus like to cover the work done in EAE from a GWAS perspective, highlighting the research that has addressed the role of different GWAS genes and their pathways in EAE pathogenesis. Understanding the contribution of these pathways to disease might allow for the stratification of disease subphenotypes in patients and in turn open the possibility for new and individualized treatment approaches in the future. PMID:26622189

  12. Plackett-Burman experimental design to facilitate syntactic foam development

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Zachary D.; Keller, Jennie R.; Bello, Mollie; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Torres, Joseph A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pacheco, Robin M.; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2015-09-14

    The use of an eight-experiment Plackett–Burman method can assess six experimental variables and eight responses in a polysiloxane-glass microsphere syntactic foam. The approach aims to decrease the time required to develop a tunable polymer composite by identifying a reduced set of variables and responses suitable for future predictive modeling. The statistical design assesses the main effects of mixing process parameters, polymer matrix composition, microsphere density and volume loading, and the blending of two grades of microspheres, using a dummy factor in statistical calculations. Responses cover rheological, physical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The cure accelerator content of the polymer matrix andmore » the volume loading of the microspheres have the largest effects on foam properties. These factors are the most suitable for controlling the gel point of the curing foam, and the density of the cured foam. The mixing parameters introduce widespread variability and therefore should be fixed at effective levels during follow-up testing. Some responses may require greater contrast in microsphere-related factors. As a result, compared to other possible statistical approaches, the run economy of the Plackett–Burman method makes it a valuable tool for rapidly characterizing new foams.« less

  13. Plackett-Burman experimental design to facilitate syntactic foam development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Zachary D.; Keller, Jennie R.; Bello, Mollie; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Torres, Joseph A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pacheco, Robin M.; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2015-09-14

    The use of an eight-experiment Plackett–Burman method can assess six experimental variables and eight responses in a polysiloxane-glass microsphere syntactic foam. The approach aims to decrease the time required to develop a tunable polymer composite by identifying a reduced set of variables and responses suitable for future predictive modeling. The statistical design assesses the main effects of mixing process parameters, polymer matrix composition, microsphere density and volume loading, and the blending of two grades of microspheres, using a dummy factor in statistical calculations. Responses cover rheological, physical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The cure accelerator content of the polymer matrix and the volume loading of the microspheres have the largest effects on foam properties. These factors are the most suitable for controlling the gel point of the curing foam, and the density of the cured foam. The mixing parameters introduce widespread variability and therefore should be fixed at effective levels during follow-up testing. Some responses may require greater contrast in microsphere-related factors. As a result, compared to other possible statistical approaches, the run economy of the Plackett–Burman method makes it a valuable tool for rapidly characterizing new foams.

  14. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  15. IL-3 promotes the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Kerstin; Hermann, Fabian; Riedhammer, Christine; Talke, Yvonne; Schiechl, Gabriela; Gomez, Manuel Rodriguez; Kutzi, Simone; Halbritter, Dagmar; Goebel, Nicole; Brühl, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of IL-3 in multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide–induced EAE, we show that CD4+ T cells are the main source of IL-3 and that cerebral IL-3 expression correlates with the influx of T cells into the brain. Blockade of IL-3 with monoclonal antibodies, analysis of IL-3 deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of leukocytes demonstrate that IL-3 plays an important role for development of clinical symptoms of EAE, for migration of leukocytes into the brain, and for cerebral expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines. In contrast, injection of recombinant IL-3 exacerbates EAE symptoms and cerebral inflammation. In patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), IL-3 expression by T cells is markedly upregulated during episodes of relapse. Our data indicate that IL-3 plays an important role in EAE and may represent a new target for treatment of MS. PMID:27734026

  16. Developing a Referral Protocol for Community-Based Occupational Therapy Services in Taiwan: A Logistic Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hui-Fen; Chang, Ling-Hui; Tsai, Athena Yi-Jung; Huang, Wen-Ni; Wang, Jye

    2016-01-01

    Because resources for long-term care services are limited, timely and appropriate referral for rehabilitation services is critical for optimizing clients' functions and successfully integrating them into the community. We investigated which client characteristics are most relevant in predicting Taiwan's community-based occupational therapy (OT) service referral based on experts' beliefs. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using the Multidimensional Assessment Instrument (MDAI). Community-dwelling participants (n = 221) ≥ 18 years old who reported disabilities in the previous National Survey of Long-term Care Needs in Taiwan were enrolled. The standard for referral was the judgment and agreement of two experienced occupational therapists who reviewed the results of the MDAI. Logistic regressions and Generalized Additive Models were used for analysis. Two predictive models were proposed, one using basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and one using instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Dementia, psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, joint range-of-motion limitations, fear of falling, behavioral or emotional problems, expressive deficits (in the BADL-based model), and limitations in IADLs or BADLs were significantly correlated with the need for referral. Both models showed high area under the curve (AUC) values on receiver operating curve testing (AUC = 0.977 and 0.972, respectively). The probability of being referred for community OT services was calculated using the referral algorithm. The referral protocol facilitated communication between healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions for OT referrals. The methods and findings should be useful for developing referral protocols for other long-term care services.

  17. Computer vision and driver distraction: developing a behaviour-flagging protocol for naturalistic driving data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M

    2014-11-01

    Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) allow researchers to discreetly observe everyday, real-world driving to better understand the risk factors that contribute to hazardous situations. In particular, NDS designs provide high ecological validity in the study of driver distraction. With increasing dataset sizes, current best practice of manually reviewing videos to classify the occurrence of driving behaviours, including those that are indicative of distraction, is becoming increasingly impractical. Current statistical solutions underutilise available data and create further epistemic problems. Similarly, technical solutions such as eye-tracking often require dedicated hardware that is not readily accessible or feasible to use. A computer vision solution based on open-source software was developed and tested to improve the accuracy and speed of processing NDS video data for the purpose of quantifying the occurrence of driver distraction. Using classifier cascades, manually-reviewed video data from a previously published NDS was reanalysed and used as a benchmark of current best practice for performance comparison. Two software coding systems were developed - one based on hierarchical clustering (HC), and one based on gender differences (MF). Compared to manual video coding, HC achieved 86 percent concordance, 55 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 69 percent of target behaviour not previously identified through manual review. MF achieved 67 percent concordance, a 75 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 35 percent of target behaviour not identified through manual review. The findings highlight the improvements in processing speed and correctly classifying target behaviours achievable through the use of custom developed computer vision solutions. Suggestions for improved system performance and wider implementation are discussed. PMID:25063935

  18. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  19. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner.

  20. An Examination of the Design, Development, and Implementation of an Internet Protocol Version 6 Network: The ADTRAN Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perigo, Levi

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in regard to replacing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the internetworking technology for Medium-sized Businesses (MBs) in the Information Systems (IS) field. Transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and, thus, organizations are adopting this protocol…

  1. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  2. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  3. Developing and evaluating the GriefLink web site: processes, protocols, dilemmas and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sheila; Burgess, Teresa; Laven, Gillian; Bull, Michael; Marker, Julie; Browne, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Despite a profusion of recommendations regarding the quality of web sites and guidelines related to ethical issues surrounding health-related sites, there is little guidance for the design and evaluation of sites relating to loss and grief. This article, which addresses these deficiencies, results from a community consultation process of designing and evaluating a web site--GriefLink--for bereaved consumers and for the professionals who help them. It presents the literature review that informed the project, the recommendations for design and content, the lessons learned through the process itself, and the difficulties of evaluating the benefits of a grief-related web site. Some ethical and legal dilemmas in developing grief-related web sites are discussed and issues of design, content, process, evaluation, and general features are addressed, which may also be applied to other communication forms for loss and grief matters, such as the print media.

  4. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1) diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2) training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3) providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and (4) using a color

  5. Development of an Online Well-Being Intervention for Young People: An Evaluation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Blake, Victoria; Schrader, Geoffrey; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Quinn, Stephen; Orlowski, Simone; Winsall, Megan; Battersby, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that improving well-being using positive mental health interventions can be useful for predicting and preventing mental illness. Implementing online interventions may be an effective way to reach young people, given their familiarity with technology. Objective This study will assess the effectiveness of a website called the “Online Wellbeing Centre (OWC),” designed for the support and improvement of mental health and well-being in young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years. As the active component of the study, the OWC will introduce a self-guided app recommendation service called “The Toolbox: The best apps for your brain and body” developed by ReachOut.com. The Toolbox is a responsive website that serves as a personalized, ongoing recommendation service for technology-based tools and apps to improve well-being. It allows users to personalize their experience according to their individual needs. Methods This study will be a two-arm, randomized controlled trial following a wait-list control design. The primary outcome will be changes in psychological well-being measured by the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. The secondary outcomes will be drawn from a subsample of participants and will include depression scores measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and quality of life measured by the Assessment of Quality of Life-four dimensions (AQOL-4D) index. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted based on a primary outcome of cost per unique visit to the OWC. Utility-based outcomes will also be incorporated into the analysis allowing a secondary outcome to be cost per quality-adjusted life year gained (based on the AQOL-4D values). Resource use associated with both the intervention and control groups will be collected using a customized questionnaire. Online- and community-based recruitment strategies will be implemented, and the effectiveness of each approach will be analyzed. Participants will

  6. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  7. Performance of Momguard, a new non-invasive prenatal testing protocol developed in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Hwang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Bada; Kim, Jihun; Oh, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of Momguard, non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for detecting trisomy (T) 21, T18, T13, and sex-chromosome abnormalities recently developed in Korea. Methods This preliminary study formed part of a large prospective cohort study conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Only pregnant women who underwent both NIPT and confirmatory karyotyping were included in this study. NIPT results were compared with those of karyotype analyses. Results Among 93 eligible cases, NIPT results could not be obtained in one case due to a low fetal cell-free DNA fraction. Based on NIPT, eight cases of fetal aneuploidies, including T21 (n=5), T18 (n=2), and T13 (n=1), were identified. For T21 and T18, the sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were both 100%, with a false-positive and false-negative rate of 0% and a positive-predictive value of 100%. One patient classified as having intermediate risk for T13 by NIPT was confirmed to have T13 by karyotyping, and there were no false-negative cases. No cases of sex-chromosome anomalies were detected by NIPT or karyotyping during the study period. Conclusion Momguard is a reliable screening tool for detecting T21 and T18. For T13 and sex-chromosome anomalies, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm its utility. PMID:26430657

  8. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today's global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males' longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  9. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Urquidi, Jacob Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-23

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  10. Development of a PCR protocol for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D W; Pieniazek, N J; Griffin, D W; Misener, L; Rose, J B

    1995-01-01

    The development of a reliable method of using PCR for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in environmental samples with oligonucleotide primers which amplify a portion of the sequence encoding the small (18S) subunit of rRNA producing a 435-bp product was demonstrated. The PCR assay was found to provide highly genus-specific detection of Cryptosporidium spp. after release of nucleic acids from oocysts by a simple freeze-thaw procedure. The assay routinely detected 1 to 10 oocysts in purified oocyst preparations, as shown by direct microscopic counts and by an immunofluorescence assay. The sensitivity of the PCR assay in some seeded environmental water samples was up to 1,000-fold lower. However, this interference was eliminated by either flow cytometry or magnetic-antibody capture. Sensitivity was also improved 10- to 1,000-fold by probing of the PCR product on dot blots with an oligonucleotide probe detected by chemiluminescence. Confirmation of the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples from the outbreak in Milwaukee, Wis., was obtained with this technique, and PCR was found to be as sensitive as immunofluorescence for detection of oocysts in wastewater concentrates. PMID:8526496

  11. Developing an Innovative Field Expedient Fracture Toughness Testing Protocol for Concrete Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Liu, Ken C; Naus, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    The Spiral Notch Torsion Fracture Toughness Test (SNTT) was developed recently to determine the intrinsic fracture toughness (KIC) of structural materials. The SNTT system operates by applying pure torsion to uniform cylindrical specimens with a notch line that spirals around the specimen at a 45 pitch. KIC values are obtained with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element computer code, TOR3D-KIC. The SNTT method is uniquely suitable for testing a wide variety of materials used extensively in pressure vessel and piping structural components and weldments. Application of the method to metallic, ceramic, and graphite materials has been demonstrated. One important characteristic of SNTT is that neither a fatigue precrack or a deep notch are required for the evaluation of brittle materials, which significantly reduces the sample size requirement. In this paper we report results for a Portland cement-based mortar to demonstrate applicability of the SNTT method to cementitious materials. The estimated KIC of the tested mortar samples with compressive strength of 34.45 MPa was found to be 0.19 MPa m.

  12. Experimental developments for the study of explosive nucleosynthesis in stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, Luke

    For several years now, the n-SNS collaboration has been working to place a small neutrino detector at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Lab. If successful, the experiment may produce the needed neutrino-nucleus cross sections on solid targets such as iron and aluminum. These reaction probabilities are of great interest for a number of reasons, including: neutrino astronomy, explosive nucleosynthesis, and nuclear structure. However, success for this project requires a very efficient cosmic ray detector to exclude backgrounds. The system would need to be ~99% efficient while remaining affordable in a difficult financial climate for basic science. The first half of this thesis addresses a prototype cosmic ray veto based on extruded scintillator with embedded wave-length-shifting fibers. This approach has been successfully used before, and may provide the performance needed for this project. However, our results suggest some additional research and development would be required to meet the requirements for the n-SNS experiment. The second half of this thesis relates to experimental work to study the resonance strength of the 23 Mg(p,g) 24 Al reaction. For this purpose a radioactive ion beam experiment has been conducted at TRIUMF using the DRAGON experiment. This reaction is thought to play an important role during explosive nucleosynthesis such as novae and X-ray bursts. If so, then accurate knowledge of this break-out reaction would help explain the isotopic abundances around that mass range in the universe. Our results suggest the rate of this reaction at astrophysically relevant energies is lower than predicted and might further exclude explosive binary systems as the production site for such elements as 26 Al.

  13. Development of an improved animal model of experimental autoimmune myositis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Ya; Feng, Guo-Dong; Feng, Dong-Yun; Jia, Hong-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Multiple animal models of experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) have been developed. However, these models vary greatly in the severity of disease and reproducibility. The goal of this study was to test whether vaccination twice with increased dose of rat myosin and pertussis toxin (PT) could induce EAM with severer disease in mice. BALB/c mice were injected with 1 mg rat myosin in 50% complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) weekly for four times and one time of PT (EAM) or twice with 1.5 mg myosin in CFA and PT (M-EAM). In comparison with that in the CFA and PT injected controls, vaccination with rat myosin and injection PT significantly reduced the muscle strength and EMG duration, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, promoted inflammatory infiltration in the muscle tissues, leading to pathological changes in the muscle tissues, demonstrating to induce EAM. Interestingly, we found that vaccination twice with the high dose of myosin and PT prevented EAM-related gain in body weights and caused significantly less muscle strength in mice. More importantly, all of the mice receiving high dose of myosin and PT survived while 3 out of 16 mice with four times of low dose of myosin died. Finally, vaccination with high dose of myosin promoted CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in the muscle tissues and up-regulated MHC-I expression in the muscle tissues of mice. Hence, the new model of EAM is a time-saving, efficient and easily replicable tool for studying autoimmune myositis. PMID:26823763

  14. A Checklist for the Conduct, Reporting, and Appraisal of Microcosting Studies in Health Care: Protocol Development

    PubMed Central

    Reiff, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Background Microcosting is a cost estimation method that requires the collection of detailed data on resources utilized, and the unit costs of those resources in order to identify actual resource use and economic costs. Microcosting findings reflect the true costs to health care systems and to society, and are able to provide transparent and consistent estimates. Many economic evaluations in health and medicine use charges, prices, or payments as a proxy for cost. However, using charges, prices, or payments rather than the true costs of resources can result in inaccurate estimates. There is currently no existing checklist or guideline for the conduct, reporting, or appraisal of microcosting studies in health care interventions. Objective The aim of this study is to create a checklist and guideline for the conduct, reporting, and appraisal of microcosting studies in health care interventions. Methods Appropriate potential domains and items will be identified through (1) a systematic review of all published microcosting studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs; (2) review of published checklists and guidelines for economic evaluations of health interventions, and selection of items relevant for microcosting studies; and (3) theoretical analysis of economic concepts relevant for microcosting. Item selection, formulation, and reduction will be conducted by the research team in order to develop an initial pool of items for evaluation by an expert panel comprising individuals with expertise in microcosting and economic evaluation of health interventions. A modified Delphi process will be conducted to achieve consensus on the checklist. A pilot test will be conducted on a selection of the articles selected for the previous systematic review of published microcosting studies. Results The project is currently in progress. Conclusions Standardization of the methods used to conduct, report or appraise microcosting studies will enhance the

  15. Development of Experimental Methods in Electroseismic Research, with Application to Aquifer Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. S.; Pride, S. R.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2001-12-01

    data show the interface response as a distinct arrival with essentially zero moveout and (depending on electrode geometry) reversed polarity on opposite sides of the shot point. This experimental design permits us to test different acquisition strategies (electrode configurations including measurements relative to a common reference electrode, various seismic sources, etc) in order to maximize the recorded interface response. It provides data with which we can design processing algorithms to remove the coseismic energy from records, a step that is vital for the interpretation of the interface response from subsurface layers. By developing a repeatable reliable protocol for data collection, processing, and interpretation, we will provide the basis for the application of the electroseismic method to site characterization problems.

  16. Long-term seafloor monitoring at an open ocean aquaculture site in the western Gulf of Maine, USA: development of an adaptive protocol.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, R E; Ward, L G; Fredriksson, D W; Irish, J D; Langan, R; Heinig, C S; Greene, J K; Abeels, H A; Peter, C R; Eberhardt, A L

    2014-11-15

    The seafloor at an open ocean finfish aquaculture facility in the western Gulf of Maine, USA was monitored from 1999 to 2008 by sampling sites inside a predicted impact area modeled by oceanographic conditions and fecal and food settling characteristics, and nearby reference sites. Univariate and multivariate analyses of benthic community measures from box core samples indicated minimal or no significant differences between impact and reference areas. These findings resulted in development of an adaptive monitoring protocol involving initial low-cost methods that required more intensive and costly efforts only when negative impacts were initially indicated. The continued growth of marine aquaculture is dependent on further development of farming methods that minimize negative environmental impacts, as well as effective monitoring protocols. Adaptive monitoring protocols, such as the one described herein, coupled with mathematical modeling approaches, have the potential to provide effective protection of the environment while minimize monitoring effort and costs. PMID:25287226

  17. Long-term seafloor monitoring at an open ocean aquaculture site in the western Gulf of Maine, USA: development of an adaptive protocol.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, R E; Ward, L G; Fredriksson, D W; Irish, J D; Langan, R; Heinig, C S; Greene, J K; Abeels, H A; Peter, C R; Eberhardt, A L

    2014-11-15

    The seafloor at an open ocean finfish aquaculture facility in the western Gulf of Maine, USA was monitored from 1999 to 2008 by sampling sites inside a predicted impact area modeled by oceanographic conditions and fecal and food settling characteristics, and nearby reference sites. Univariate and multivariate analyses of benthic community measures from box core samples indicated minimal or no significant differences between impact and reference areas. These findings resulted in development of an adaptive monitoring protocol involving initial low-cost methods that required more intensive and costly efforts only when negative impacts were initially indicated. The continued growth of marine aquaculture is dependent on further development of farming methods that minimize negative environmental impacts, as well as effective monitoring protocols. Adaptive monitoring protocols, such as the one described herein, coupled with mathematical modeling approaches, have the potential to provide effective protection of the environment while minimize monitoring effort and costs.

  18. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Radiometric Validation Protocol for the CERES Earth Radiation Budget Climate Record Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestley, K. J.; Matthews, G.; Thomas, S.

    2006-01-01

    The CERES Flight Models 1 through 4 instruments were launched aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Spacecraft into 705 Km sun-synchronous orbits with 10:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. equatorial crossing times. These instruments supplement measurements made by the CERES Proto Flight Model (PFM) instrument launched aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) into a 350 Km, 38-degree mid-inclined orbit. CERES Climate Data Records consist of geolocated and calibrated instantaneous filtered and unfiltered radiances through temporally and spatially averaged TOA, Surface and Atmospheric fluxes. CERES filtered radiance measurements cover three spectral bands including shortwave (0.3 to 5 microns), total (0.3 to 100 microns) and an atmospheric window channel (8 to 12 microns). The CERES Earth Radiation Budget measurements represent a new era in radiation climate data, realizing a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in calibration accuracy and stability over the previous ERBE climate records, while striving for the next goal of 0.3-percent per decade absolute stability. The current improvement is derived from two sources: the incorporation of lessons learned from the ERBE mission in the design of the CERES instruments and the development of a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric validation protocol consisting of individual studies covering different spatial, spectral and temporal time scales on data collected both pre and post launch. Once this ensemble of individual perspectives is collected and organized, a cohesive and highly rigorous picture of the overall end-to-end performance of the CERES instrument's and data processing algorithms may be clearly established. This approach has resulted in unprecedented levels of accuracy for radiation budget instruments and data products with calibration stability of better than 0.2-percent and calibration traceability from ground to flight of 0.25-percent. The current work summarizes the development, philosophy

  19. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and

  20. Evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus detection by PCR in tissues from experimentally infected cows with the 2308 strain.

    PubMed

    Vejarano, M P; Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Salgado, V R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Telles, E O; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2013-04-01

    This study compared 4 protocols for DNA extraction from homogenates of 6 different organs of cows infected with the Brucella abortus 2308 strain. The extraction protocols compared were as follows: GT (guanidine isothiocyanate lysis), Boom (GT lysis with the carrying suspension diatomaceous earth), PK (proteinase K lysis), and Santos (lysis by boiling and freezing with liquid nitrogen). Positive and negative gold standard reference groups were generated by classical bacteriological methods. All samples were processed with the 4 DNA extraction protocols and amplified with the B4 and B5 primers. The number of positive samples in the placental cotyledons was higher than that in the other organs. The cumulated results showed that the Santos protocol was more sensitive than the Boom (p=0.003) and GT (p=0.0506) methods and was similar to the PK method (p=0.2969). All of the DNA extraction protocols resulted in false-negative results for PCR. In conclusion, despite the disadvantages of classical bacteriological methods, the best approach for direct diagnosis of B. abortus in organs of infected cows includes the isolation associated with PCR of DNA extracted from the cotyledon by the Santos or PK methods.

  1. PRISMA-Children (C) and PRISMA-Protocol for Children (P-C) Extensions: a study protocol for the development of guidelines for the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of newborn and child health research

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Mufiza Z; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric systematic reviews differ from adult systematic reviews in several key aspects such as considerations of child tailored interventions, justifiable comparators, valid outcomes and child sensitive search strategies. Available guidelines, including PRISMA-P (2015) and PRISMA (2009), do not cover all the complexities associated with reporting systematic reviews in the paediatric population. Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary structure, we aim to develop evidence-based and consensus-based PRISMA-P-C (Protocol for Children) and PRISMA-C (Children) Extensions to guide paediatric systematic review protocol and completed review reporting. Methods and analysis This project's methodology follows published recommendations for developing reporting guidelines and involves the following six phases; (1) establishment of a steering committee representing key stakeholder groups; (2) a scoping review to identify potential Extension items; (3) three types of consensus activities including meetings of the steering committee to achieve high-level decisions on the content and methodology of the Extensions, a survey of key stakeholders to generate a list of possible items to include in the Extensions and a formal consensus meeting to select the reporting items to add to, or modify for, the Extension; (4) the preliminary checklist items generated in phase III will be evaluated against the existing evidence and reporting practices in paediatric systematic reviews; (5) extension statements and explanation and elaboration documents will provide detailed advice for each item and examples of good reporting; (6) development and implementation of effective knowledge translation of the extension checklist, and an evaluation of the Extensions by key stakeholders. Ethics and Dissemination This protocol was considered a quality improvement project by the Hospital for Sick Children's Ethics Committee and did not require ethical review. The resultant checklists, jointly

  2. Near-optimal protocols in complex nonequilibrium transformations.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Todd R; Rotskoff, Grant M; Crooks, Gavin E; Geissler, Phillip L

    2016-09-13

    The development of sophisticated experimental means to control nanoscale systems has motivated efforts to design driving protocols that minimize the energy dissipated to the environment. Computational models are a crucial tool in this practical challenge. We describe a general method for sampling an ensemble of finite-time, nonequilibrium protocols biased toward a low average dissipation. We show that this scheme can be carried out very efficiently in several limiting cases. As an application, we sample the ensemble of low-dissipation protocols that invert the magnetization of a 2D Ising model and explore how the diversity of the protocols varies in response to constraints on the average dissipation. In this example, we find that there is a large set of protocols with average dissipation close to the optimal value, which we argue is a general phenomenon. PMID:27573816

  3. Development of an Accelerated Weathering Protocol using Weatherometers for Reliability Study of Mini-Modules and Encapsulation Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the needs, reasoning, approaches, and technical details to establish a practical accelerated weathering test (AWT) protocol for indoor testing of the photothermal stability of encapsulation materials and encapsulated solar cells and minimodules.

  4. Experimental studies on thermodynamic effects of developed cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A method for predicting thermodynamic effects of cavitation (changes in cavity pressure relative to stream vapor pressure) is presented. The prediction method accounts for changes in liquid, liquid temperature, flow velocity, and body scale. Both theoretical and experimental studies used in formulating the method are discussed. The prediction method provided good agreement between predicted and experimental results for geometrically scaled venturis handling four different liquids of widely diverse physical properties. Use of the method requires geometric similarity of the body and cavitated region and a known reference cavity-pressure depression at one operating condition.

  5. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, M.; Keid, L.B.; Rocha, V.C.M.; Vejarano, M.P.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Rodriguez, C.A.R.; Ferreira, F.; Dias, R.A.; Ferreira Neto, J.S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (p< 0.0001) and GT (p=0.0004). There was no difference between the PK and GT protocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol. PMID:24031391

  6. Development of a Monitoring Protocol to Detect Ecological Change in the Intertidal Zone of Sitka National Historical Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Madison, Erica N.

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study to develop and test a probability-based intertidal monitoring protocol for Sitka National Historical Park was conducted from 1999 to 2003. In 1999, the basic design, with a focus on sampling the whole of the designated intertidal was created, and sampling was conducted for sessile species and large mobile invertebrates by point-intercept sampling of vertical transects and band surveys along transects, respectively. In 2002 and 2003, the same types of sampling were conducted, but quadrat sampling for small mobile invertebrates was added and then modified. This project has produced basic data on the presence, abundance, and spatial distribution of substrates and intertidal biota. Additionally, statistical power analyses conducted on the biological data have allowed assessment of the ability of the sampling to detect trends in the abundance of the predominant species. Current sampling has an 80 percent probability to detect +10 percent annual changes in abundance of all targeted species with an a = 0.05; the ability to detect -10 percent trends is not as uniformly high. Various options are discussed for decreasing the spatial variance of the data. The information presented provides a basis for discussion of the major questions being asked, how the sampling design might be reconfigured to be consistent in approach, and how the intertidal monitoring should interface with other potential intertidal monitoring.

  7. Development of a new cell culture-based method and optimized protocol for the detection of enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Kim, Jong Ik; Yi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Chan Hee

    2013-07-01

    The development of rapid and effective methods to detect water- and food-borne enteric viruses is important for the prevention and control of mass infection. This study represents an attempt to develop a reliable cell culture-based detection system and optimize an effective and rapid protocol for the assaying of environmental samples for the presence of infectious enteric viruses. Six enteric viruses were used in this study: poliovirus, Coxsackie virus A9, Coxsackie virus B5, human rotavirus G1, hepatitis A virus, and adenovirus type 41. Among the cell lines from humans (A549, HeLa, HEK293, and HFF) and other primates (Vero, BS-C-1, FRhK-4, BGMK, and MA104), a cytopathic effect (CPE) analysis indicated that the MA104 cell line was the most optimal for use in the detection of infectious enteric viruses. Both the sensitivity and specificity of virus detection in MA104 cells were similar to or higher than those in standard BGMK cells. Next, a method was developed for the determination of the infectiousness of enteric viruses using the colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. This assay utilizes 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to yield % values based on colorimetric results. These results were compared with those from a conventional CPE-based TCID(50) assay, revealing no statistically significant difference between the two methods. The MTT% values in MA104 cells were comparable to those in BGMK cells. This MA104 cell-based MTT assay could substitute for the classical BGMK cell-based CPE assay for infectious enteric viruses.

  8. Recent experimental developments concerning the mechanisms underlying dust emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna Neuman, C. L.; Sanderson, R. S.; O'Brien, P.

    2012-12-01

    Field based studies have been invaluable in elucidating the great variability and complexity in natural surfaces that emit dust. Spanning hours to days, and meters to kilometers, measurements of the regional and global characteristics of dust emission and transport are contributing to a clearer understanding of these phenomena. This work has been complimented by the development of increasingly more sophisticated atmospheric dispersion models. Only very recently, however, has much attention been paid to the physics of dust emission from the bed surface that necessarily require precise, high frequency measurements over fractions of millimeters under carefully manipulated conditions. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of dust emission, as derived from experiments carried out in the Trent boundary layer wind tunnel by a variety of workers. Energy transfer to the bed surface through the impacts of saltating particles has long been recognized as crucial for the ejection of silt and clay sized particles from surfaces where interparticle bonding is significant. Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), we are now able to measure the energy transfer to the surface and the consequent deformation/rupture for both loose and consolidated beds of silt. The coefficient of restitution is found to decrease with particle impact speed, although some compaction may also occur with plowing and displacement of loose bed material (Gordon and McKenna Neuman, 2009). Further consideration is given to wind pumping as an alternate mechanism for dust entrainment from surfaces that are armored; that is, where insufficient sand supply is available to the support the development of a saltation cloud. LDA and pressure tap measurements confirm that turbulent structures measured in the atmospheric boundary layer are able to penetrate into the pores of gravel sized material, and specifically, the smelter waste

  9. Impact of genetic drift on developing access and benefit sharing guidelines under the Nagoya Protocol: The case of Meishan pigs imported into the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity developed the Nagoya Protocol (NP) on access and benefit sharing (ABS) for international exchange of genetic resources across life forms. Concerns are NP will be cumbersome, stifle research, and not accommodate diverse life forms, such as livestock. NP was deve...

  10. A green infrastructure experimental site for developing and evaluating models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in Athens, GA has a 14-acre urban watershed which has become an experimental research site for green infrastructure studies. About half of the watershed is covered by pervious la...

  11. Personalised Hip Therapy: development of a non-operative protocol to treat femoroacetabular impingement syndrome in the FASHIoN randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Peter DH; Dickenson, Edward J; Robinson, David; Hughes, Ivor; Realpe, Alba; Hobson, Rachel; Griffin, Damian R; Foster, Nadine E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is increasingly recognised as a cause of hip pain. As part of the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome, we developed a protocol for non-operative care and evaluated its feasibility. Methods In phase one, we developed a protocol for non-operative care for FAI in the UK National Health Service (NHS), through a process of systematic review and consensus gathering. In phase two, the protocol was tested in an internal pilot RCT for protocol adherence and adverse events. Results The final protocol, called Personalised Hip Therapy (PHT), consists of four core components led by physiotherapists: detailed patient assessment, education and advice, help with pain relief and an exercise-based programme that is individualised, supervised and progressed over time. PHT is delivered over 12–26 weeks in 6–10 physiotherapist-patient contacts, supplemented by a home exercise programme. In the pilot RCT, 42 patients were recruited and 21 randomised to PHT. Review of treatment case report forms, completed by physiotherapists, showed that 13 patients (62%) received treatment that had closely followed the PHT protocol. 13 patients reported some muscle soreness at 6 weeks, but there were no serious adverse events. Conclusion PHT provides a structure for the non-operative care of FAI and offers guidance to clinicians and researchers in an evolving area with limited evidence. PHT was deliverable within the National Health Service, is safe, and now forms the comparator to arthroscopic surgery in the UK FASHIoN trial (ISRCTN64081839). Trial registration number ISRCTN 09754699. PMID:27629405

  12. Cellular localization of debromohymenialdisine and hymenialdisine in the marine sponge Axinella sp. using a newly developed cell purification protocol.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue-Fan; Qu, Yi; Cao, Xu-Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds from sponges is therefore important not only for providing chemotaxonomic information but also for defining the bioactive production strategy in terms of sponge aquaculture, cell culture, or fermentation of associated bacteria. The two alkaloids debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and hymenialdisine (HD), which are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with pharmacological activities for treating osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease, have been isolated from the sponge Axinella sp. In this study, the cellular localization of these two alkaloids was determined through the quantification of these alkaloids in different cell fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, using a differential centrifugation method, the dissociated cells were separated into different groups according to their sizes. The two bioactive alkaloids were mainly found in sponge cells obtained from low-speed centrifugation. Further cell purifications were accomplished by a newly developed multi-step protocol. Four enriched cell fractions (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were obtained and subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining, and HPLC quantification. Compared to the low concentrations in other cell fractions, DBH and HD accounted for 10.9% and 6.1%, respectively, of dry weight in the C1 fraction. Using the morphological characteristics and cytochemical staining results, cells in the C1 fraction were speculated to be spherulous cells. This result shows that DBH and HD in Axinella sp. are located in sponge cells and mostly stored in spherulous cells.

  13. Development of rearing and testing protocols for a new freshwater sediment test species: the gastropod Valvata piscinalis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Virginie; Cognat, Claudine; Mons, Raphaël; Mouthon, Jacques; Garric, Jeanne

    2006-03-01

    This paper aimed at proposing rearing and testing protocols for Valvata piscinalis, a new potential species for sediment toxicity testing. Such tests were developed since this species reliably represents the bio/ecological characteristics of other gastropods. It may thus be representative of their sensitivity to chemicals. V. piscinalis was successfully cultured in our laboratory for six generations. Cultures provided a high productivity for a low working time and low costs. The tests conditions we proposed seemed to be relevant for the development of reliable tests with this species. Indeed, hatching probability of egg-capsules, as well as embryo, newborn and juvenile survival rates, were close to 100%. Moreover, growth rates and fecundity were significantly higher than in field and in other laboratory studies. Partial life-cycle tests on clean sediments were achieved for various feeding levels to determine survival, growth and reproduction patterns, ad libitum feeding level and life cycle parameters values. Ad libitum feeding levels for newborn, juveniles and adults were 0.1, 0.4 and 0.8 mg Tetramin/individual/working day. Growth tests with zinc-spiked sediments provided a no-effect concentration and a lowest effect concentration of respectively 200 and 624 mg zinc/kg dry sediment. Other growth tests on spiked sediments we ran at our laboratory with second, third and fourth instars larvae of Chironomus riparius pointed out that V. piscinalis was more sensible to zinc than the chironomid, which is a routine test species in ecotoxicology. According to these results, V. piscinalis is a promising candidate species for sediment toxicity testing.

  14. GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. It includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for c...

  15. How Practice and Science Are Balanced and Blended in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network: The Bidirectional Process in the Development of the STAGE-12 Protocol as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Hodgkins, Candace C.; Perl, Harold I.; Floyd, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bidirectional, collaborative partnerships between academic researchers and practitioners have been a fundamental vehicle to achieve the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) goal of improving outcomes of community-based drug treatment. These partnerships blend clinical perspectives of practitioners and methodological expertise of researchers working together to address clinically meaningful issues through randomized clinical trials conducted in community treatment settings. Objectives Bidirectionality is a guiding principle of the CTN, but its operationlization at the practical level in protocol development and implementation has not been articulated. This descriptive article presents the development of one protocol as an example and model of this bidirectional, collaborative, iterative partnership between researchers and practitioners. Methods This article illuminates several specific issues encountered while developing STAGE-12, a behavioral intervention to facilitate 12-step mutual support group involvement, as well as the rationale for decisions taken to resolve each. Results The STAGE-12 protocol was successfully developed through a series of decisions taking into account both design factors and clinical practice needs and realities, thus maintaining a balance between methodological rigor and generalizability. Conclusion The review demonstrates the process by which research and practice have been blended in protocol development, exemplifying the underlying principle of bidirectionality, a key element in the success of the NIDA CTN. Scientific Significance Bidirectional partnerships as derived in the CTN, employing a hybrid model of efficacy-effectiveness research, are capable of designing and implementing protocols that are both methodologically rigorous and clinically meaningful, thus increasing likelihood of adoption and eventual improvement in public health. PMID:21854284

  16. Online Support Program for Parents of Children With a Chronic Kidney Disease Using Intervention Mapping: A Development and Evaluation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    van Gaal, Betsie GI; Knoll, Jacqueline L; Cornelissen, Elisabeth AM; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Background The care for children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex. Parents of these children may experience high levels of stress in managing their child’s disease, potentially leading to negative effects on their child’s health outcomes. Although the experienced problems are well known, adequate (online) support for these parents is lacking. Objective The objective of the study is to describe the systematic development of an online support program for parents of children with CKD, and how this program will be evaluated. Methods Intervention Mapping (IM) was used for the development of the program. After conducting a needs assessment, defining program objectives, searching for theories, and selecting practical applications, the online program e-Powered Parents was developed. e-Powered Parents consist of three parts: (1) an informative part with information about CKD and treatments, (2) an interactive part where parents can communicate with other parents and health care professionals by chat, private messages, and a forum, and (3) a training platform consisting of four modules: Managing stress, Setting limits, Communication, and Coping with emotions. In a feasibility study, the potential effectiveness and effect size of e-Powered Parents will be evaluated using an explorative randomized controlled trial with parents of 120 families. The outcomes will be the child’s quality of life, parental stress and fatigue, self-efficacy in the communication with health care professionals, and family management. A process evaluation will provide insight in parents’ experiences, including their experienced level of support. Results Study results are expected to be published in the summer of 2016. Conclusions Although the development of e-Powered Parents using IM was time-consuming, IM has been a useful protocol. IM provided us with a systematic framework for structuring the development process. The participatory planning group was valuable as well; knowledge

  17. Proposed Requirements-driven User-scenario Development Protocol for the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Car, N.; Percivall, G.; Allen, D.; Fitch, P. G.; Baumann, P.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) is designed to foster a global community to collaborate on e-infrastructure challenges. One of the deliverables is an implementation plan to address global data infrastructure interoperability challenges and align existing domestic and international capabilities. Work package three (WP3) of the CRA focuses on the harmonization of global data infrastructure for sharing environmental data. One of the subtasks under WP3 is the development of user scenarios that guide the development of applicable deliverables. This paper describes the proposed protocol for user scenario development. It enables the solicitation of user scenarios from a broad constituency, and exposes the mechanisms by which those solicitations are evaluated against requirements that map to the Belmont Challenge. The underlying principle of traceability forms the basis for a structured, requirements-driven approach resulting in work products amenable to trade-off analyses and objective prioritization. The protocol adopts the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a top level framework. User scenarios are developed within RM-ODP's "Enterprise Viewpoint". To harmonize with existing frameworks, the protocol utilizes the conceptual constructs of "scenarios", "use cases", "use case categories", and use case templates as adopted by recent GEOSS Architecture Implementation Project (AIP) deliverables and CSIRO's eReefs project. These constructs are encapsulated under the larger construct of "user scenarios". Once user scenarios are ranked by goodness-of-fit to the Belmont Challenge, secondary scoring metrics may be generated, like goodness-of-fit to FutureEarth science themes. The protocol also facilitates an assessment of the ease of implementing given user scenario using existing GEOSS AIP deliverables. In summary, the protocol results in a traceability graph that can be extended to coordinate

  18. Characterization of the Context of Drug Concepts in Research Protocols: An Empiric Study to Guide Ontology Development

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Huser, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    We examined a large body of research study documents (protocols) to identify mentions of drug concepts and established base concepts and roles needed to characterize the semantics of these instances. We found these concepts in three general situations: background knowledge about the drug, study procedures involving the drug, and other roles of the drug in the study. We identified 18 more specific contexts (e.g., adverse event information, administration and dosing of the drug, and interactions between the study drug and other drugs). The ontology was validated against a test set of protocol documents from NIH and ClinicalTrial.gov. The goal is to support the automated extraction of drug information from protocol documents to support functions such as study retrieval, determination of subject eligibility, generation of order sets, and creation of logic for decision support alerts and reminders. Further work is needed to formally extend existing ontologies of clinical research. PMID:26958176

  19. Development and utilization of an ex vivo bromodeoxyuridine local lymph node assay protocol for assessing potential chemical sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Williams, W C; Copeland, C; Boykin, E; Quell, S J; Lehmann, D M

    2015-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [(3) H]methyl thymidine. A more recent non-isotopic variation of the assay utilizes bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in vivo. To further improve the utility of this assay, we developed an ex vivo BrdU labeling procedure eliminating the need for in vivo injections. The results of this assay correctly identified a strong sensitizer (i.e., trimellitic anhydride) as well as weak/moderate sensitizers (i.e., eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and hexylcinnaminic aldehyde). As anticipated, neither non-sensitizers isopropanol and lactic acid nor the false negative chemical nickel II sulfate hexahydrate induced a positive threshold response in the assay. The results of this assay are in close agreement with those of the in vivo LLNA:BrdU-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay labeling procedure. We also used the ex vivo BrdU LLNA procedure to evaluate ammonium hexachloroplatinate, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and the assay correctly identified them as sensitizers based on the calculation of EC2 values. We conclude that this ex vivo BrdU labeling method offers predictive capacity comparable to previously established LLNA protocols while eliminating animal injections and the use of radioisotope. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24532485

  20. Developing a comparative docking protocol for the prediction of peptide selectivity profiles: investigation of potassium channel toxins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Chia; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2012-02-01

    During the development of selective peptides against highly homologous targets, a reliable tool is sought that can predict information on both mechanisms of binding and relative affinities. These tools must first be tested on known profiles before application on novel therapeutic candidates. We therefore present a comparative docking protocol in HADDOCK using critical motifs, and use it to "predict" the various selectivity profiles of several major αKTX scorpion toxin families versus K(v)1.1, K(v)1.2 and K(v)1.3. By correlating results across toxins of similar profiles, a comprehensive set of functional residues can be identified. Reasonable models of channel-toxin interactions can be then drawn that are consistent with known affinity and mutagenesis. Without biological information on the interaction, HADDOCK reproduces mechanisms underlying the universal binding of αKTX-2 toxins, and K(v)1.3 selectivity of αKTX-3 toxins. The addition of constraints encouraging the critical lysine insertion confirms these findings, and gives analogous explanations for other families, including models of partial pore-block in αKTX-6. While qualitatively informative, the HADDOCK scoring function is not yet sufficient for accurate affinity-ranking. False minima in low-affinity complexes often resemble true binding in high-affinity complexes, despite steric/conformational penalties apparent from visual inspection. This contamination significantly complicates energetic analysis, although it is usually possible to obtain correct ranking via careful interpretation of binding-well characteristics and elimination of false positives. Aside from adaptations to the broader potassium channel family, we suggest that this strategy of comparative docking can be extended to other channels of interest with known structure, especially in cases where a critical motif exists to improve docking effectiveness.

  1. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  2. Health and development of ART conceived young adults: a study protocol for the follow-up of a cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) continues to increase, yet little is known of the longer term health of ART conceived offspring. There are some adverse birth outcomes associated with ART conception but the subsequent developmental trajectory is unclear. Undertaking research in this area is challenging due the sensitive nature of the topic and the time elapsed since birth of the ART conceived young adults. The aim of this report is to describe a research protocol, including design and ethical considerations, used to compare the physical and psychosocial health outcomes of ART conceived young adults aged 18-28 years, with their spontaneously conceived peers. Design This is a retrospective cohort study of mothers who conceived with ART in Victoria, Australia and gave birth to a singleton child between 1982 and 1992. A current address for each mother was located and a letter of invitation to participate in the study was sent by registered mail. Participation involved completing a telephone interview about her young adult offspring’s health and development from birth to the present. Mothers were also asked for consent for the researcher to contact their son/daughter to invite them to complete a structured telephone interview about their physical and psychosocial health. A comparison group of women living in Victoria, Australia, who had given birth to a spontaneously conceived singleton child between 1982 and 1992 was recruited from the general population using random digit dialling. Data were collected from them and their young adult offspring in the same way. Regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships between ART exposure and health status, including birth defects, chronic health conditions, hospital admissions, growth and sexual development. Psychosocial wellbeing, parental relationships and educational achievement were also assessed. Factors associated with the age of disclosure of ART conception were explored with the ART

  3. Model development experimental programs as part of the NRC reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.W.; Hsu, Y.Y.

    1982-07-01

    Experimental and model development programs have a key impact on the overall success of code calculational capabilities in addition to supporting regulatory and licensing decisions. The reactor safety research effort undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has as one of several objectives to obtain experimental data for model and code development and code assessment. This article highlights recent research sponsored under the thermal-hydraulic model-development experimental programs at NRC.

  4. Experimental investigation and model development for a harmonic drive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissner, Curt; Shu, Deming; Royston, Thomas J.

    2007-09-01

    Harmonic drive transmissions (HDTs) are compact, low-backlash, high-ratio, high-resolution rotary motion transmissions. One application to benefit from these attributes is the revolute joint robot. Engineers at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are investigating the use of this type of robot for the positioning of an x-ray detector; understanding the properties of the robot components is crucial to modeling positioner behavior. The robot bearing elements had been investigated previously, leaving the transmission as the missing component. While the benefits of HDTs are well known, the disadvantages, including fluctuating dissipation characteristics and nonlinear stiffness, are not understood as well. These characteristics can contribute uncontrolled dynamics to the overall robot performance. A dynamometer has been constructed at the APS to experimentally measure the HDT's response. Empirical torque and position data were recorded for multiple transmission load cases and input conditions. In turn, a computer model of the dynamometer HDT system was constructed to approximate the observed response.

  5. Experimental investigation and model development for a harmonic drive transmission.

    SciTech Connect

    Preissner, C.; Shu, D.; Royston, T. J.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic drive transmissions (HDTs) are compact, low-backlash, high-ratio, high-resolution rotary motion transmissions. One application to benefit from these attributes is the revolute joint robot. Engineers at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are investigating the use of this type of robot for the positioning of an x-ray detector; understanding the properties of the robot components is crucial to modeling positioner behavior. The robot bearing elements had been investigated previously, leaving the transmission as the missing component. While the benefits of HDTs are well known, the disadvantages, including fluctuating dissipation characteristics and nonlinear stiffness, are not understood as well. These characteristics can contribute uncontrolled dynamics to the overall robot performance. A dynamometer has been constructed at the APS to experimentally measure the HDT's response. Empirical torque and position data were recorded for multiple transmission load cases and input conditions. In turn, a computer model of the dynamometer HDT system was constructed to approximate the observed response.

  6. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Subsequent to the design review, a series of tests was conducted on simulated modules to demonstrate that all environmental specifications (wind loading, hailstone impact, thermal cycling, and humidity cycling) are satisfied by the design. All tests, except hailstone impact, were successfully completed. The assembly sequence was simplified by virtue of eliminating the frame components and assembly steps. Performance was improved by reducing the module edge border required to accommodate the frame of the preliminary design module. An ultrasonic rolling spot bonding technique was selected for use in the machine to perform the aluminum interconnect to cell metallization electrical joints required in the MEPSDU module configuration. This selection was based on extensive experimental tests and economic analyses.

  7. Experimental studies on the toxicity of lithographic developer solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the toxicity of a lithographic developer solution which contains hydroquinone is caused by hydroquinone or the alkaline lithographic developer solution. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. In four groups, rats were dosed orally with 3% hydroquinone or 3% hydroquinone in 3% lithographic developer solution. Hydroquinone levels were measured after one and 24 hours. In two groups, rats were dosed orally with 6% hydroquinone or 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution. In the seventh group, rats received the alkaline solution only. Hydroquinone measurement was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hydroquinone was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and subsequently distributed throughout the body. Nearly all hydroquinone was excreted in the urine as either a glucuronide or a sulfate (78-82%) within 24 hours. All rats administered 6% hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle died, but the mortality rate of rats administered 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution was 60%. Tissue hydroquinone was lower at one hour and 24 hours after administration in lithographic developer solution than in equal dose of hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle suggesting decreased absorption in an alkaline pH. Hydroquinone was not associated with gross pathologic changes of the intestine but all animals treated with lithographic developer solution or alkaline solution had congestion, hemorrhagic petechiae and purple-brown discoloration throughout the small intestine. The combination of alkaline/formaldehyde diluent with hydroquinone may delay hydroquinone absorption but increase the risk of intestinal necrosis.

  8. The importance of accurate experimental data to marginal field development

    SciTech Connect

    Overa, S.J.; Lingelem, M.N.

    1997-12-31

    Since exploration started in the Norwegian North Sea in 1965 a total of 196 fields have been discovered. Less than one-third of these fields have been developed. The marginal fields can not be developed economically with current technology even though some of those fields have significant reserves. The total cost to develop one of those large installations is estimated to be 2--5 billion US dollars. Therefore new technology is needed to lower the designed and installed costs of each unit. The need for new physical property data is shown. The value of valid operating data from present units is also pointed out.

  9. Development and validation of a highly efficient protocol of porcine somatic cloning using preovulatory embryo transfer in peripubertal gilts.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Björn; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Oropeza, Marianne; Hornen, Nadine; Lemme, Erika; Hassel, Petra; Queisser, Anna-Lisa; Niemann, Heiner

    2008-09-01

    The efficiency of porcine somatic nuclear transfer (born piglets/transferred embryos) is low. Here, we report a highly efficient protocol using peripubertal gilts as recipients synchronized to ovulate approximately 24 h after transfer of cloned embryos. Retrospectively, we compared the efficiency of two different synchronization protocols: In group 1, recipient animals were synchronized to ovulate approximately 6 h prior to surgical embryo transfer while in group 2 the animals were treated to ovulate 24 h after embryo transfer. In total, 1562 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 recipients in group 1; two of them became pregnant (16.7%). One pregnancy was lost on day 32, the second pregnancy went to term, and led to the birth of one healthy piglet after Cesarean section. In group 2, 1531 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 recipients. Nine recipients (75.0%) became pregnant as determined by ultrasound scanning on day 25. All pregnancies went to term and delivered a total of 47 live-born piglets. The cloning efficiency of both groups differed significantly (group 1: 0.1%, group 2: 3.1%, p < 0.05). This modified protocol was then applied in subsequent experiments using different types of transgenic and nontransgenic donor cells with similar success rates. Results show that this protocol is robust and highly reproducible, and can thus be employed for routine production of cloned pigs.

  10. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mammals, the androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are critical for normal male reproductive development and function. In humans, drugs that act as androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists or inhibit fetal steroidogenesis can cause pseudohermaphrodi...

  11. The Development of Experimental Setups And Experimental Studies of The Process of Energy-Technological Processing of Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerbaev, Nail F.; Safin, Rushan G.; Ziatdinova, Dilyara F.; Fomin, Anatoly A.; Mokhovikov, Alexey A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the experimental setups for the study of the various stages of the process of energy-technological processing of wood waste with the production of synthesis gas. The systems for the study of conjugated processes of drying, pyrolysis and gasification, that are an integral part of energy-technological processing of wood wastes were developed. Experimental studies of the processes have identified their basic properties and optimum operating parameters, allowing to obtain a synthesis gas suitable for the chemical synthesis of various olefins.

  12. Development of an Efficient Real-Time Quantitative PCR Protocol for Detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A.; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M.; López, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 102 CFU ml−1, thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material. PMID:21037298

  13. Treating PTSD in Suicidal and Self-injuring Women with Borderline Personality Disorder: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Harned, Melanie S.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Foa, Edna B.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the development and pilot testing of a protocol based on Prolonged Exposure (PE) that can be added to Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) to treat PTSD in suicidal and self-injuring individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD, PTSD, and recent and/or imminent serious intentional self-injury (n=13) received one year of DBT with the DBT PE Protocol, plus three months of follow up assessment. The treatment was associated with significant reductions in PTSD, with the majority of patients no longer meeting criteria for PTSD at post-treatment (71.4% of DBT PE Protocol completers, 60.0% of the intent-to-treat sample). A minority of patients (27.3%) engaged in intentional self-injury during the study. Improvements were also found for suicidal ideation, dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and social adjustment. There was no evidence that the DBT PE Protocol led to exacerbations of intentional self-injury urges or behaviors, PTSD, treatment dropout, or crisis service use. Overall, the results indicate that this integrated BPD and PTSD treatment is feasible to implement within one year of treatment, highly acceptable to patients and therapists, safe to administer, and shows promise as an effective intervention for PTSD in this complex and high-risk patient population. PMID:22503959

  14. Overview of Experimental Investigations for Ares I Launch Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomek, William G.; Erickson, Gary E.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Hanke, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Another concern for the vehicle during its design trajectory was the separation of the first stage solid rocket booster from the upper stage component after it had depleted its solid fuel propellant. There has been some concern about the interstage of the first stage from clearing the nozzle of the J2-X engine. A detailed separation aerodynamic wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the AEDC VKF Tunnel A to help to investigate the interaction aerodynamic effects5. A comparison of the separation plane details between the Ares I architecture and the Ares I-X demonstration flight architecture is shown in figure 12. The Ares I design requires a more complex separation sequence and requires better control in order to avoid contact with the nozzle of the upper stage engine. The interstage, which houses the J2-X engine for the Ares I vehicle, must be able to separate cleanly to avoid contact of the J2-X engine. There is only about approximately 18 inches of buffer inside the interstage on each size of the nozzle so this is a challenging controlled separation event. This complex experimental investigation required two separate Ares I models (upper stage and first stage with interstage attached) with independent strain gauge balances installed in each model. It also required the Captive Trajectory System (CTS) that was needed to precisely locate the components in space relative to each other to fill out the planned test matrix. The model setup in the AEDC VKF Tunnel A is shown in figure 13. The CTS remotely positioned the first stage at the required x, y, and z positions and was able to provide interactions within 0.2" of the upper stage. A sample of the axial force on the first stage booster is shown in figure 14. These results, as a function of separation distance between the two stages, are compared to pre-test CFD results. Since this is a very challenging, highly unsteady flow field for CFD to correctly model, the experimental results have been utilized by GN

  15. Effect of pre-experimental maintenance care duration on the development of gingivitis in a partial mouth experimental gingivitis model.

    PubMed

    Van der Weijden, G A; Timmerman, M F; Danser, M M; Nijboer, A; Saxton, C A; Van der Velden, U

    1994-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate if different periods of supervised oral hygiene prior to the experimental gingivitis trial have an effect on the amount of inflammation which develops in the 'toothshield' model. Two groups were compared. One group (Group A) was supervised over a 5-month period before experimental gingivitis. Six months later Group A participated in a second trial, this time receiving only a 1-month pretrial. A second group (Group B) which served as a control was supervised over a pre-trial period of 1-month prior to the start of the experimental gingivitis phase. During the pre-trial period all subjects undertook a regime of vigorous oral hygiene which included polishing of the test quadrant in the upper jaw and supervised subgingival brushing, interdental taping or the use of toothpicks. The presence of plaque and bleeding were assessed. Following the pre-trial period all plaque control measures in the experimental area were prevented during oral hygiene periods by the temporary placement of soft, loosely fitting vinyl toothshield guard. During this period they accumulated plaque rapidly and developed a generalized gingivitis. The results of this study indicate that, irrespective of the length of the pretrial period, subjects by group develop a comparable mean level of plaque and gingival bleeding. However, the extent to which gingivitis develops differs among individuals and was for a number of subjects not consistent. Therefore, in designing an experimental gingivitis trial care should be taken to include a sufficient number of subjects to account for individual variation.

  16. Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Paul S.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Bartol, Frank F.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

  17. Experimental Developments for the Lamb Shift Investigation in Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Reuschl, R.; Beyer, H. F.; Hess, S.; Liesen, D.; Spillmann, U.; Stoehlker, Th.; Trotsenko, S.; Weber, G.; Banas, D.; Gumberidze, A.; Indelicato, P.; Protic, D.; Trassinelli, M.

    2009-04-19

    Novel high-resolution spectrometer setups are presently commissioned for X-ray experiments at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI, Darmstadt, aiming at an accurate determination of QED corrections in the critical field limit via an accurate determination of the ground-state binding energy in a high-Z, H-like ion. Until now for H-like uranium, an accuracy of 1% could be reached in an experiment performed at the electron cooler, due to the deceleration capability of the ESR. A further improvement by almost one order of magnitude is envisaged by a transmission x-ray spectrometer setup in the FOcusing Compensated Asymmetric Laue (FOCAL) geometry, as well as by the implementation of high-resolution microcalorimeter devices.Here we report on the latest commissioning experiment of a two-arm transmission X-ray spectrometer, along with high-performance position-sensitive microstrip germanium detectors. Due to a photon efficiency of only 10{sup -8}, the position sensitivity, as well as the energy and time resolution of segmented solid-state germanium detectors, are absolutely essential for the experiment. In combination with the FOCAL spectrometer, these position-sensitive detectors permit the simultaneous measurement of all energies in the regime of interest.

  18. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  19. Experimental Development and Physical Analysis of Jet and Vortex Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Yang, Zhi; Lachowicz, Jason T.

    2000-01-01

    The Vortex generator consists of a cavity with a lightweight actuator plate. The actuator plate acts like a piston pumping air out of the cavity on the down-stroke and sucking air into the cavity on the upstroke. The actuator is placed asymmetrically over the cavity opening, forming narrow and wide slots when viewed from the top. The actuator depending on amplitude, frequency, and slot spacing produces several flow fields (free jet, wall jet, vortex flow). Computational simulation of the actuator-generated flows have been developed and applied to several actuator flow modes. The objectives of this paper are to study the physics of the actuator-induced flow and to develop computational simulations of the actuatorgenerated flows. This work should provide an impetus for designing similar active flow control systems suitable for aircraft applications. The computational simulation uses a time-accurate full Navier-Stokes (NS) solver known as FTNS3D (a full NS version of CFL3D solver). A Multi-block moving grid has been developed and used for the computational study of the flow fields produced by the vortex generator. For three-dimensional computations, ten multi-block grids are used and for two-dimensional computations, six multiblock grids are used. The grid blocks adjacent to the actuator plate move with the plate motion, and second-order interpolation is used along the block interfaces. Periodic response of the flow has been observed to develop after three cycles of the plate sinusoidal motion.

  20. Experimental Development and Evaluation of a Shop Safety Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Mervin Dale

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a shop safety attitude scale that could be administered at the beginning of a shop course to help identify students who may be accident repeaters. A semantic differential scale was adapted from one originated by Osgood and his associates (1964) and administered to a sample of 125 university…

  1. Experimental Intra-Abdominal Abscesses in Rats: Development of an Experimental Model

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, William M.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Bartlett, John G.; Gorbach, Sherwood L.

    1974-01-01

    An animal model has been developed to study the evolution of intra-abdominal abscesses. Gelatin capsules containing pooled colonic contents and barium sulfate were prepared in an anaerobic chamber and implanted into the pelvic region of Wistar rats. The natural course of the ensuing disease was studied in various groups according to the source of the inoculum and sex of the recipient. Colonic contents derived from rats fed a grain diet produced a highly lethal disease with an 80% mortality rate for males and 100% for females. Most deaths occurred within 3 days of implantation, and autopsies showed generalized peritonitis. The addition of blood to the inoculum caused a rapidly fatal peritonitis in all animals. With an inoculum derived from meat-fed rats implanted in male recipients, there was a biphasic disease. Initially, there was peritonitis associated with 43% mortality. All animals that survived this acute period developed discrete intra-abdominal abscesses by the seventh postoperative day. The latter stage was characterized by an indolent course and progressive enlargement of abscesses. PMID:4611922

  2. Development of a finite element human head model partially validated with thirty five experimental cases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haojie; Zhang, Liying; Jiang, Binhui; Genthikatti, Vinay V; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Feng; Makwana, Rahul; Gill, Amandeep; Jandir, Gurdeep; Singh, Amrinder; Yang, King H

    2013-11-01

    This study is aimed to develop a high quality, extensively validated finite element (FE) human head model for enhanced head injury prediction and prevention. The geometry of the model was based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans of an adult male who has the average height and weight of an American. A feature-based multiblock technique was adopted to develop hexahedral brain meshes including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, corpus callosum, ventricles, and thalamus. Conventional meshing methods were used to create the bridging veins, cerebrospinal fluid, skull, facial bones, flesh, skin, and membranes-including falx, tentorium, pia, arachnoid, and dura. The head model has 270,552 elements in total. Thirty five loading cases were selected from a range of experimental head impacts to check the robustness of the model predictions based on responses including the brain pressure, relative skull-brain motion, skull response, and facial response. The brain pressure was validated against intracranial pressure data reported by Nahum et al. (1977, "Intracranial Pressure Dynamics During Head Impact," Proc. 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 770922) and Trosseille et al. (1992, "Development of a F.E.M. of the Human Head According to a Specific Test Protocol," Proc. 36th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 922527). The brain motion was validated against brain displacements under sagittal, coronal, and horizontal blunt impacts performed by Hardy et al. (2001, "Investigation of Head Injury Mechanisms Using Neutral Density Technology and High-Speed Biplanar X-Ray," Stapp Car Crash Journal, 45, pp. 337-368; and 2007, "A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact," Stapp Car Crash Journal, 51, pp. 17-80). The facial bone responses were validated under nasal impact (Nyquist et al. 1986, "Facial Impact Tolerance and Response," Proc. 30th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 861896

  3. Is there a protocol in experimental skin wounds in rats using low-level diode laser therapy (LLDLT) combining or not red and infrared wavelengths? Systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Fernando José Camello; de Oliveira Neto, Olavo Barbosa; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; do Nascimento Galvão, Ailton Mota; Ramos, Fernando Wagner Silva; de Lima, Christiane Calheiros Farias; de Sousa Rodrigues, Célio Fernando

    2016-05-01

    A systematic review addressing experiments with healing of skin wounds in rats using LLDLT with different active means seeking to identify a pattern in adjustments such as laser wavelength, power and fluency and analysing wound healing parameters, such as wound area, presence of fibroblasts, angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration, epithelial coverage and antibacterial effect. It was perceived that a protocol does not exist in view of the wide variation in the use of power (9 to 500 mW) and fluency (1 to 60 J/cm2); however, between the different wavelengths, the highlight was the combined use of red and infrared wavelengths showing better results than when used alone.

  4. Developments in computation, modeling and experimentation: Impacts on R D

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.

    1989-10-01

    The original objective was to document the feasibility of the coordinated research program sponsored by ECUT called Materials-by-Design (MBD).'' The MBD program funds research to develop hierarchical models to predict materials' performance based on microstructural information. This paper was specifically prepared for this meeting to help technical staff and their managers justify and plan for an advanced computer infrastructure within their companies. In order to do this, several additional objectives for this paper are (1) to foster an appreciation of the dramatic increase in computational power that have occurred over the last forty years, (2) to encourage better utilization of supercomputing in current scientific research by identifying current issues and opportunities, and (3) to promote anticipation and enthusiasm for the dramatic changes supercomputers currently being developed will offer scientists in the near future.

  5. Development and experimentation of an eye/brain/task testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Nora; Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    The principal objective is to develop a laboratory testbed that will provide a unique capability to elicit, control, record, and analyze the relationship of operator task loading, operator eye movement, and operator brain wave data in a computer system environment. The ramifications of an integrated eye/brain monitor to the man machine interface are staggering. The success of such a system would benefit users of space and defense, paraplegics, and the monitoring of boring screens (nuclear power plants, air defense, etc.)

  6. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  7. Strain rate influence on fracture development in experimental ductile multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert

    2011-04-01

    The far-field strain rate is a crucial parameter that controls the transition between brittle and ductile deformation. We have used analogue experiments to study the strain rate influence on the development of brittle fractures in a ductile composite material. Plasticine multilayer models were deformed under coaxial boundary conditions at three different strain rates to analyse the transition from non-localised deformation to the development of a brittle fracture network that accommodates part of the deformation. The results show that tension cracks and voids are the first macroscopic structures that nucleate after an early stage of ductile deformation. Coalescence and collapse of these structures lead to the development of brittle shear fractures. The evolution of fracture orientations, lengths and displacements was systematically analysed. The ratio of the accumulated fracture displacement vs. fracture length ( dmax/ L) depends not only on the total deformation, but also on the strain rate at which the system is deformed. The accumulated displacement with respect to fracture length increases with strain rate.

  8. Development of experimental facilities for processing metallic crystals in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bill J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution, current status, and planning for facilities to exploit the microgravity environment of earth orbit in applied metallic materials science. Space-Shuttle based facilities and some precursor flight programs are reviewed. Current facility development programs and planned Space Station furnace capabilities are described. The reduced gravity levels available in earth orbit allow the processing of metallic materials without the disturbing influence of gravitationally induced thermal convection, stratification due to density differences in sample components, or the effects of hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Army ground robotics technology development and experimentation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, Jonathan A.; Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Shoemaker, Chuck M.

    2001-09-01

    In the past year, the U.S. Army has committed to a paradigm shift in the way future ground military operations will be conducted. Increased emphasis upon the deployability of future forces has focused efforts towards reducing the weight, volume, and logistics requirements for proposed tactical systems. Extensive use of unmanned systems offer a potential means to achieve these goals, without reducing the lethality or survivability of this future ground combat force. To support this vision, the U.S. Army has embarked upon a concerted effort to develop required technology and demonstrate its maturity with the goal of incorporating this technology into the Future Combat Systems and the Objective Force.

  10. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. Materials and Methods: We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. Results: The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or “frosties,” show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50–85%). Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol. PMID:27512686

  11. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  12. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  13. Nurse-Driven Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Reduction Process and Protocol: Development Through an Academic-Practice Partnership.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela; Gilman, Anna; Lintner, Alicia; Buckner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Translating evidence-based practices to the bedside can be facilitated by an active academic-practice partnership between nursing faculty and frontline nursing staff. A collaborative effort between the university's academic nurses and the medical center's clinical nurses explored, created, implemented, and evaluated an evidence-based nurse-driven protocol for decreasing the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The nurse-driven protocol was piloted in 4 intensive care units and included nurse-driven orders for catheter discontinuation, utilization of smaller bore urinary catheters, addition of silver-based cleansing products for urinary catheter care, and education of staff on routine catheter care and maintenance. Data were collected for more than 8 months pre- and postimplementation of the nurse-driven protocol. Postimplementation data revealed a 28% reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care units as compared with preimplementation. Secondary benefits of this academic-practice partnership included strengthening the legitimacy of classroom content as lessons learned were integrated into courses in the nursing curriculum. The result of the partnership was a stronger sense of collaboration and collegiality between hospital staff and the university faculty. Transformative leadership engaged numerous stakeholders through collaborative efforts to realize best practices. An academic-practice partnership facilitates transformative change and provides structural stability and sustainability. PMID:27575798

  14. InterGroup Protocols

    2003-04-02

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not in general scale well to a large number of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays andmore » a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered.« less

  15. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the technical readiness of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which met the price goal in 1986 of $.70 or less per watt peak. Program efforts included: preliminary design review, preliminary cell fabrication using the proposed process sequence, verification of sandblasting back cleanup, study of resist parameters, evaluation of pull strength of the proposed metallization, measurement of contact resistance of Electroless Ni contacts, optimization of process parameter, design of the MEPSDU module, identification and testing of insulator tapes, development of a lamination process sequence, identification, discussions, demonstrations and visits with candidate equipment vendors, evaluation of proposals for tabbing and stringing machine.

  16. Development of Simulators for Electrochemical Responses: Experimental and Pedagogical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Feldberg, S W; Goldstein, C I; Rudolph, M

    1997-06-19

    The work carried out in this CRADA addressed the development of computational algorithms to simulate the response for commonly used electrochemical techniques. The goal was the incorporation of these algorithms into DigiSimR, a generalized simulator for cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV, a ubiquitously applied electroanalytical technique used by nonelectrochemists as well as electrochemists, is sometimes referred to as "electrochemical spectroscopy". The latest version, DigiSimR 2.1, is now being sold by the industrial partner, Bioanalytical Systems, Inc. The response of the electrochemical community to this latest program (as well as its predecessors, DigiSimR 2.0 and the DOS version; versions 2.0 and 2.1 are for Windows), has been uniformly positive and numerous publications are now appearing which feature its application.

  17. Development of integrated protocols to track the deposition and impacts of metal contaminants in tidal riverine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Helen M.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Nasser, Nawaf; Edwards, Robin J.; Graham, Conor

    2016-04-01

    Tidally-influenced rivers are particularly vulnerable to the effects of metal contamination, yet are amongst the most complex fluvial environments in terms of their sediment deposition and transport patterns. We present the results of an interdisciplinary study that aims to elucidate the fluxes and deposition of metal contaminants in a tidally-influenced river system in Northern Ireland, with a view to developing protocols that will have wide applicability for the monitoring and assessment of metal contaminants in similar environments in other regions. We employ a novel methodology that combines ICPMS analysis of sediments, ITRAX-based core analysis and the examination a important group of shelled protozoans (foraminifera), which occur widely in tidal riverine environments, and which are highly sensitive to metal contamination. The responses shown by the group vary between species and with different levels of contaminant exposure. Some species, for example, show increased relative abundances in proximity to discharge sources, whilst others develop chamber deformities. Application of our integrated multiproxy approach to the analysis of surface sediment samples and cores provides a framework for assessing both the spatial and temporal patterns of metal deposition and the impact of contaminants on the biota. Modern sediment samples (n=90) were collected at varying distances from a point contamination source (a former industrial site) in different morpho-sedimentary settings. The impact of 25 measured variables on the modern foraminiferal faunas was considered, including 20 metals, pH, conductivity, elevation and particle size. Channel sediments in close proximity to the contamination source and with the highest levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg and As, yielded the sparsest foraminiferal faunas (Shannon Diversity Index values 0-1.5), whilst the highest prevalence of foraminiferids showing chamber deformities were observed in channel edge and levée bank sites. Kernal density

  18. Development and Experimental Evaluation of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Castle, Charles H.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    To provide uniform cooling for a fuel cell stack, a cooling plate concept was evaluated. This concept utilized thin cooling plates to extract heat from the interior of a fuel cell stack and move this heat to a cooling manifold where it can be transferred to an external cooling fluid. The advantages of this cooling approach include a reduced number of ancillary components and the ability to directly utilize an external cooling fluid loop for cooling the fuel cell stack. A number of different types of cooling plates and manifolds were developed. The cooling plates consisted of two main types; a plate based on thermopyrolytic graphite (TPG) and a planar (or flat plate) heat pipe. The plates, along with solid metal control samples, were tested for both thermal and electrical conductivity. To transfer heat from the cooling plates to the cooling fluid, a number of manifold designs utilizing various materials were devised, constructed, and tested. A key aspect of the manifold was that it had to be electrically nonconductive so it would not short out the fuel cell stack during operation. Different manifold and cooling plate configurations were tested in a vacuum chamber to minimize convective heat losses. Cooling plates were placed in the grooves within the manifolds and heated with surface-mounted electric pad heaters. The plate temperature and its thermal distribution were recorded for all tested combinations of manifold cooling flow rates and heater power loads. This testing simulated the performance of the cooling plates and manifold within an operational fuel cell stack. Different types of control valves and control schemes were tested and evaluated based on their ability to maintain a constant temperature of the cooling plates. The control valves regulated the cooling fluid flow through the manifold, thereby controlling the heat flow to the cooling fluid. Through this work, a cooling plate and manifold system was developed that could maintain the cooling plates

  19. New experimental therapies for status epilepticus in preclinical development.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2015-08-01

    Starting with the established antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, we have taken a novel approach to develop new antiseizure drugs that may be effective in status epilepticus. We first identified that valproic acid has a potent effect on a biochemical pathway, the phosphoinositide pathway, in Dictyostelium discoideum, and we demonstrated that this may relate to its mechanism of action against seizures in mammalian systems. Through screening in this pathway, we have identified a large array of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives with antiseizure potential. These were then evaluated in an in vitro mammalian system. One compound that we identified through this process is a major constituent of the ketogenic diet, strongly arguing that it may be the fatty acids that are mediating the antiseizure effect of this diet. We further tested two of the more potent compounds in an in vivo model of status epilepticus and demonstrated that they were more effective than valproic acid in treating the status epilepticus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  20. Computational and Experimental Development of Novel High Temperature Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, M.J.; Ray, P.K.; and Akinc, M.

    2010-06-29

    The work done in this paper is based on our earlier work on developing an extended Miedema model and then using it to downselect potential alloy systems. Our approach is to closely couple the semi-empirical methodologies to more accurate ab initio methods to dentify the best candidates for ternary alloying additions. The architectural framework for our material's design is a refractory base metal with a high temperature intermetallic which provides both high temperature creep strength and a source of oxidatively stable elements. Potential refractory base metals are groups IIIA, IVA and VA. For Fossil applications, Ni-Al appears to be the best choice to provide the source of oxidatively stable elements but this system requires a 'boost' in melting temperatures to be a viable candidate in the ultra-high temperature regime (> 1200C). Some late transition metals and noble elements are known to increase the melting temperature of Ni-Al phases. Such an approach suggested that a Mo-Ni-Al system would be a good base alloy system that could be further improved upon by dding Platinum group metals (PGMs). In this paper, we demonstrate the variety of microstructures that can be synthesized for the base alloy system, its oxidation behavior as well as the oxidation behavior of the PGM substituted oxidation resistant B2 NiAl phase.

  1. Experimental and theoretical developments in the Mochi project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Setthivoine; von der Linden, Jens; Vereen, Keon; Lavine, Eric Sander; Carroll, Evan; Card, Alexander; Azuara-Rosales, Manuel; Quinley, Morgan; Yun, Gunsu

    2015-11-01

    The Mochi project investigates the interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows in cylindrical and toroidal geometries. The configuration is designed to tailor the radial electric field profile with three annular electrodes and allow for shear helical flows in magnetized plasma jets or merging spheromaks. First plasma has been achieved and characterization is in progress with images, magnetic probes, an energy analyzer, an interferometer, a fast ion gauge, and optical and RF spectroscopy. Vector tomography of ion Doppler spectroscopy is progressing with the design of the custom fiber bundle and implementation of the numerical code. The first experiments are investigating the coupling of sausage and kink instabilities, comparing measurements to a new stability criterion and a numerical stability code. A new canonical field theory has been developed to help interpret the dynamics of plasma self-organization. The theory augments the Lagrangian of general dynamical systems to rigourously demonstrate that canonical helicity transport is valid across single particle, kinetic and fluid regimes, that dynamical equations can be re-formulated as a form of Maxwell's equations, and that helicity is conserved only when density gradients are shallow. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  2. Adverse Effects of Induced Hot Flashes on Objectively Recorded and Subjectively Reported Sleep: Results of a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Experimental Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Hadine; White, David P.; Crawford, Sybil L.; McCurnin, Kristin E.; Economou, Nicole; Connors, Stephanie; Hall, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The impact of hot flashes on sleep is of great clinical interest, but results are inconsistent, especially when both hot flashes and sleep are measured objectively. Using objective and subjective measurements, we examined the impact of hot flashes on sleep by inducing hot flashes with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). Methods The GnRHa leuprolide was administered to 20 healthy premenopausal volunteers without hot flashes or sleep disturbances. Induced hot flashes were assessed objectively (skin-conductance monitor) and subjectively (daily diary) during one-month follow-up. Changes from baseline in objective (actigraphy) and subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) were compared between women who did and did not develop objective hot flashes, and, in parallel analyses, subjective hot flashes. Results New-onset hot flashes were recorded in 14 (70%) and reported by 14 (70%) women (80% concordance). Estradiol was universally suppressed. Objective sleep efficiency worsened in women with objective hot flashes and improved in women without objective hot flashes (median decrease 2.6%, increase 4.2%, p=0.005). Subjective sleep quality worsened more in those with than without subjective hot flashes (median increase PSQI 2.5 vs. 1.0, p=0.03). Objective hot flashes were not associated with subjective sleep quality, nor were subjective symptoms linked to objective sleep measures. Conclusions This experimental model of induced hot flashes demonstrates a causal relationship between hot flashes and poor sleep quality. Objective hot flashes result in worse objective sleep efficiency, while subjective hot flashes worsen perceived sleep quality. PMID:23481119

  3. Development of Experimental Myopia in Chicks in a Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Richard A.; Cohen, Yuval; McGlinn, Alice M.; Davison, Sherrill; Casavant, Susan; Shaffer, James; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. Methods Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather. Control chicks were reared indoors with incandescent lighting. Besides ocular refraction and ultrasound, we determined dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content in retina and vitreous and measured mRNA expression levels of selected clock and circadian rhythm-related genes in the retina/RPE. Results Myopia developed in the goggled eyes of all cohorts. Whereas outdoor rearing lessened myopia by 44% at 4 days, a protective effect was no longer evident at 11 days. Outdoor rearing had no consistent effect on retinal or vitreous content of dopamine or DOPAC. Conforming to prior data on form-deprivation myopia, retina and vitreous levels of DOPAC were reduced in goggled eyes. Compared with contralateral eyes, the retinal expression of clock and circadian rhythm-related genes was modestly altered in myopic eyes of chicks reared indoors or outdoors. Conclusions Outdoor rearing of chicks induces only a partial decrease of goggle-induced myopia that is not maintained, without evidence that retinal dopamine metabolism accounts for the partial myopia inhibition under these outdoor conditions. Although modest, alterations in retinal gene expression suggest that studying circadian signals might be informative for understanding refractive mechanisms. PMID:27618415

  4. The Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol (AASAP) study: objectives and methods of a study to develop an acute asthma clinical prediction rule.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Donald H; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Abramo, Thomas J; Sheller, James R; Resha, Donald J; Hartert, Tina V

    2012-06-01

    Acute asthma exacerbations are one of the most common reasons for paediatric emergency department visits and hospitalisations, and a relapse frequently necessitates repeat urgent care. While care plans exist, there are no acute asthma prediction rules (APRs) to assess severity and predict outcome. The primary objective of the Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol study is to develop a multivariable APR for acute asthma exacerbations in paediatric patients. A prospective, convenience sample of paediatric patients aged 5-17 years with acute asthma exacerbations who present to an urban, academic, tertiary paediatric emergency department was enrolled. The study protocol and data analysis plan conform to accepted biostatistical and clinical standards for clinical prediction rule development. Modelling of the APR will be performed once the entire sample size of 1500 has accrued. It is anticipated that the APR will improve resource utilisation in the emergency department, aid in standardisation of disease assessment and allow physician and non-physician providers to participate in earlier objective decision making. The objective of this report is to describe the study objectives and detailed methodology of the Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol study.

  5. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  6. The simulation of communication protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho Viola, F. E.

    1985-12-01

    Simulators for communication protocols specified in the ESTELLE and LC/1 languages are developed. The general principles of protocol simulation are reviewed; ESTELLE and LC/1 are characterized; a prototype LC/1 simulator based on predicate Petri nets is described; and a detailed specification for a driving interface for an ESTELLE simulator is given.

  7. Implementation and evaluation of a protocol management system for automated review of CT protocols.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Joshua; Leng, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-09-08

    Protocol review is important to decrease the risk of patient injury and increase the consistency of CT image quality. A large volume of CT protocols makes manual review labor-intensive, error-prone, and costly. To address these challenges, we have developed a software system for automatically managing and monitoring CT proto-cols on a frequent basis. This article describes our experiences in the implementation and evaluation of this protocol monitoring system. In particular, we discuss various strategies for addressing each of the steps in our protocol-monitoring workflow, which are: maintaining an accurate set of master protocols, retrieving protocols from the scanners, comparing scanner protocols to master protocols, reviewing flagged differences between the scanner and master protocols, and updating the scanner and/or master protocols. In our initial evaluation focusing only on abdo-men and pelvis protocols, we detected 309 modified protocols in a 24-week trial period. About one-quarter of these modified protocols were determined to contain inappropriate (i.e., erroneous) protocol parameter modifications that needed to be corrected on the scanner. The most frequently affected parameter was the series description, which was inappropriately modified 47 times. Two inappropriate modifications were made to the tube current, which is particularly important to flag as this parameter impacts both radiation dose and image quality. The CT protocol changes detected in this work provide strong motivation for the use of an automated CT protocol quality control system to ensure protocol accuracy and consistency.

  8. Implementation and evaluation of a protocol management system for automated review of CT protocols.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Joshua; Leng, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Protocol review is important to decrease the risk of patient injury and increase the consistency of CT image quality. A large volume of CT protocols makes manual review labor-intensive, error-prone, and costly. To address these challenges, we have developed a software system for automatically managing and monitoring CT proto-cols on a frequent basis. This article describes our experiences in the implementation and evaluation of this protocol monitoring system. In particular, we discuss various strategies for addressing each of the steps in our protocol-monitoring workflow, which are: maintaining an accurate set of master protocols, retrieving protocols from the scanners, comparing scanner protocols to master protocols, reviewing flagged differences between the scanner and master protocols, and updating the scanner and/or master protocols. In our initial evaluation focusing only on abdo-men and pelvis protocols, we detected 309 modified protocols in a 24-week trial period. About one-quarter of these modified protocols were determined to contain inappropriate (i.e., erroneous) protocol parameter modifications that needed to be corrected on the scanner. The most frequently affected parameter was the series description, which was inappropriately modified 47 times. Two inappropriate modifications were made to the tube current, which is particularly important to flag as this parameter impacts both radiation dose and image quality. The CT protocol changes detected in this work provide strong motivation for the use of an automated CT protocol quality control system to ensure protocol accuracy and consistency. PMID:27685112

  9. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    Skin chromophore phantoms are widely used for better understanding of the light interaction with tissue and for calibration of skin diagnostic imaging techniques. In this work, different phantoms were examined and compared in order to find biologically equivalent substances that are the most promising for this purpose. For mimicking the skin medium and layered structure, a fibrin matrix with epidermal and dermal cell inclusion was used. Synthesized bilirubin, red blood cells and nigrosin were taken as absorbers. For spectral analysis of the developed phantoms a computer-aided multispectral imaging system Nuance 2.4 (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., USA) was used. In this study, skin phantoms were created using such substances as bilirubin, melanin, haemoglobin and nigrosin Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas), un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas) un šūnu aug

  10. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an experimental short-term inpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a serious psychiatric condition associated with substantial mortality, burden and public health costs. DBT is the treatment model with the largest number of published research articles showing effectiveness. However, some patients are not sufficiently engaged in outpatient treatment while presenting severe parasuicidal behavior, making hospitalization necessary. The Center for Personality Disorders Jelgersma developed an intensive 12-week inpatient DBT program that (i) rapidly reduces core borderline symptoms like suicidal behavior, (ii) minimizes the negative effects of an inpatient setting, and (iii) enhances compliance with outpatient treatment. We evaluate the (cost-) effectiveness of this experimental program. Methods/design Seventy patients, aged 18 to 45 years with a primary diagnosis of BPD, showing a chronic pattern of parasuicidal gestures and/or reporting high degrees of severity of other borderline symptoms, are randomly allocated to the control and intervention groups. Subjects in the control group receive standard outpatient DBT, provided in one of three regular mental health settings in GGZ Rivierduinen. Subjects in the intervention group receive 12 weeks of intensified inpatient DBT plus six months of standard DBT, provided in the Center for Personality Disorders Jelgersma. The primary outcome is the number of suicide attempts/self-harming acts. Secondary outcomes are severity of other borderline complaints, quality of life, general psychopathological symptoms and health care utilization and productivity costs. Data are gathered using a prospective, two (group: intervention and control) by five (time of measurement) repeated measures factorial design. Participants will complete three-monthly outcome assessments in the course of therapy: at baseline, and 12, 24, 36 and 52 weeks after the start of the treatment. The period of recruitment started in March 2012 and the study will end in December

  11. Development of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.

  12. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  13. Digital correction of magnification in pelvic x rays for preoperative planning of hip joint replacements: Theoretical development and clinical results of a new protocol

    SciTech Connect

    The, B.; Diercks, R.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2005-08-15

    The introduction of digital radiological facilities leads to the necessity of digital preoperative planning, which is an essential part of joint replacement surgery. To avoid errors in the preparation and execution of hip surgery, reliable correction of the magnification of the projected hip is a prerequisite. So far, no validated method exists to accomplish this. We present validated geometrical models of the x-ray projection of spheres, relevant for the calibration procedure to correct for the radiographic magnification. With help of these models a new calibration protocol was developed. The validity and precision of this procedure was determined in clinical practice. Magnification factors could be predicted with a maximal margin of error of 1.5%. The new calibration protocol is valid and reliable. The clinical tests revealed that correction of magnification has a 95% margin of error of -3% to +3%. Future research might clarify if a strict calibration protocol, as presented in this study, results in more accurate preoperative planning of hip joint replacements.

  14. Structural determination of complex natural products by quantum mechanical calculations of (13)C NMR chemical shifts: development of a parameterized protocol for terpenes.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Joras; de Amorim, Mauro Barbosa

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most important tools for determining the structures of organic molecules. Despite the advances made in this technique, revisions of erroneously established structures for natural products are still commonly published in the literature. In this context, the prediction of chemical shifts through ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations has become a very powerful tool for assisting with the structural determination of complex organic molecules. In this work, we present the development of a protocol for (13)C chemical shift calculations of terpenes, a class of natural products that are widely distributed among plant species and are very important due to their biological and pharmacological activities. This protocol consists of GIAO-DFT calculations of chemical shifts and the application of a parameterized scaling factor in order to ensure accurate structural determination of this class of natural products. The application of this protocol to a set of five terpenes yielded accurate calculated chemical shifts, showing that this is a very attractive tool for the calculation of complex organic structures such as terpenes. PMID:27424297

  15. Developments in the field of allergy mechanisms in 2015 through the eyes of Clinical & Experimental Allergy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G; Boyle, R; Bryce, P J; Crane, J; Hogan, S P; Saglani, S; Wickman, M; Woodfolk, J A

    2016-10-01

    In the first of two papers we described the development in the field of allergy mechanisms as described by Clinical and Experimental Allergy in 2015. Experimental models of allergic disease, basic mechanisms, clinical mechanisms and allergens are all covered. A second paper will cover clinical aspects. PMID:27682977

  16. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9–11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the ‘Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)’ GMC tests, and the ‘Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).’ Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting. PMID:26844172

  17. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition-A study protocol.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9-11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the 'Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)' GMC tests, and the 'Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).' Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting.

  18. A stepwise protocol to coat aAPC beads prevents out-competition of anti-CD3 mAb and consequent experimental artefacts.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Baumgaertner, Petra; Legat, Amandine; Rufer, Nathalie; Speiser, Daniel E

    2012-11-30

    Artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC) are widely used for both clinical and basic research applications, as cell-based or bead-based scaffolds, combining immune synapse components of interest. Adequate and controlled preparation of aAPCs is crucial for subsequent immunoassays. We reveal that certain proteins such as activatory anti-CD3 antibody can be out-competed by other proteins (e.g. inhibitory receptor ligands such as PDL1:Fc) during the coating of aAPC beads, under the usually performed coating procedures. This may be misleading, as we found that decreased CD8 T cell activity was not due to inhibitory receptor triggering but rather because of unexpectedly low anti-CD3 antibody density on the beads upon co-incubation with inhibitory receptor ligands. We propose an optimized protocol, and emphasize the need to quality-control the coating of proteins on aAPC beads prior to their use in immunoassays. PMID:22867742

  19. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  20. Determination of hydrazine in drinking water: Development and multivariate optimization of a rapid and simple solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry protocol.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Naccarato, Attilio; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the capabilities of solid phase microextraction were exploited in a fully optimized SPME-GC-QqQ-MS analytical approach for hydrazine assay. A rapid and easy method was obtained by a simple derivatization reaction with propyl chloroformate and pyridine carried out directly in water samples, followed by automated SPME analysis in the same vial without further sample handling. The affinity of the different derivatized compounds obtained towards five commercially available SPME coatings was evaluated, in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. GC analyses were carried out using a GC-QqQ-MS instrument in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode which has allowed the achievement of high specificity by selecting appropriate precursor-product ion couples improving the capability in analyte identification. The multivariate approach of experimental design was crucial in order to optimize derivatization reaction, SPME process and tandem mass spectrometry parameters. Accuracy of the proposed protocol, tested at 60, 200 and 800 ng L(-1), provided satisfactory values (114.2%, 83.6% and 98.6%, respectively), whereas precision (RSD%) at the same concentration levels were of 10.9%, 7.9% and 7.7% respectively. Limit of detection and quantification of 4.4 and 8.3 ng L(-1) were obtained. The reliable application of the proposed protocol to real drinking water samples confirmed its capability to be used as analytical tool for routine analyses.

  1. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students’ Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  2. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  3. Development of a PCR protocol for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish by amplification of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene.

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Magi, Gian Enrico; Balboa, Sabela; Barja, Juan L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2008-04-30

    The aims of the study were to evaluate a new PCR protocol designed to detect Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues and to develop a non-destructive method for the diagnosis of furunculosis. A set of primers (Fer3, Fer4), flanking a fragment of the fstA gene (coding for the ferric-siderophore receptor) was designed, showing to be sensitive and specific. When compared to PCR methods previously reported, the new protocol recognized all the 69 A. salmonicida strains evaluated, with no cross-reactions with the other bacterial species analysed. Sensitivity assays were performed in fish tissues seeded with serial dilutions of pure cultures of A. salmonicida and mixed cultures of this bacterium with Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila. Detection limits obtained were of 60 and 450 bacterial cells 100 mg(-1) of tissue, respectively. Mucus and blood were evaluated in order to develop a non-destructive tool to detect the pathogen. The detection limits in seeded mucus and blood samples were 2.5 x 10(2) and 1 x 10(5) bacterial cells mL(-1), respectively. When the method was used to detect A. salmonicida in asymptomatic wild salmon, four samples of mucus and six of blood were positive, corresponding to 6 out of the 31 fish examined, whereas only one of the samples resulted positive by culture methods. It is concluded that the PCR protocol evaluated is fast, specific and sensitive to detect A. salmonicida in infected and asymptomatic fish, and will be helpful for the control of the disease through the prompt detection of carriers within fish populations. PMID:18035507

  4. Development of the Draft Clinical Guideline on How to Resuscitate Dying Patients in the Iranian Context: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The guidelines can be used as a model to guide the implementation of the best options and a suitable framework for clinical decisions. Even a guideline can largely help in challenging problems such as not to resuscitate with high cultural and value load. The guidelines try to improve the health care quality through reducing the treatment costs and variety of care measures. This study aimed to prepare a draft of clinical guidelines with the main aim of designing and drafting the clinical guideline on resuscitation in dying patients. Methodology: After selecting the subject of this guideline, in the first meeting of the team members of drafting the guideline, the guideline scope was determined. Then, the literature review done without time limitation, through searching electronic bibliographic information and internet databases and sites such as Medline, EMBASE, Springer, Blackwell Synergy, Elsevier, Scopus, Cochran Library and also databases including SID, Iran Medex, and Magiran. The experts will be the interviewed, and the interviews are directed content analysis. Conclusion: Finally, recommendations will be formed by nominal group technique. This study protocol includes informative information for designing and conducting of health professionals intending to create a direct on qualitative, theoretical, philosophical, spiritual, and moral health aspects. PMID:27559265

  5. [Controlled clinical trial of the effect of aspirin and aspirin + dipyridamole on the development of diabetic retinopathy. II. Ophthalmologic protocol].

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    A description is given of the ophthalmological protocol of the DAMAD (aspirin and dipyridamole + Aspirin) controlled clinical trial in diabetic retinopathy. The 450 patients included in this trial were insulin or noninsulin treated diabetics with an early diabetic retinopathy (i.e. at least five microaneurysms in the posterior pole and/or one zone of capillary non-perfusion). They were randomized in a double blind fashion to treatment with either placebo or aspirin 330 mg or aspirin 330 mg + dipyridamole 75 mg three times daily. A full ophthalmologic examination was performed annually on both eyes of each patient and followed at least three years. Data were recorded on a special form. The main assessment criteria were orientated toward the quantification of the retinal vascular micro-abnormalities, counting of microaneurysm and measurement of the central and peripheral avascular zones. Angiofluorographic photographs were standardized. The two eyes were photographed but only one reference eye was kept for the whole length of this study. A standard reading technique is now used by a technician in charge of coding the quality of the films, the dotting and numbering of the lesions.

  6. Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a "quasi-experimental" mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project.

    PubMed

    Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis, Priscila Brandão Dos; Dias, Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a "quasi-experimental", multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents' health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the "formal city", increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts.

  7. Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a "quasi-experimental" mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project.

    PubMed

    Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis, Priscila Brandão Dos; Dias, Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a "quasi-experimental", multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents' health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the "formal city", increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts. PMID:26648363

  8. [Effect of components and some protocols of anti-ulcer therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system enzymes of the stomach mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iakubov, A V; Pattakhova, M Kh

    2009-01-01

    The influence of components and some schemata of antiulcerous therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system's enzymes in mucous membrane of stomach are studied on the model of experimental stomach ulcer in rats. It is established, that among components of antiulcerous therapy such as omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole inhibit content and activity of MOS enzymes. Tinidazol, amoxicillin and azithromycin do not affect the function of MOS. Rifampicin and pantoprazole induce enzyme system of monooxigenase. In triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole the inhibit effect of preparations to system of MOS is exponentiated and it leads to suppression of mucous cytoprotaction of gastro duodenal zone. Triple therapy of ulcerous disease with pantoprazole, rifampicin and azithromycin is effective planning to stimulate defense mechanisms of the organism.

  9. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-01-01

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results. PMID:26610495

  10. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-01-01

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results. PMID:26610495

  11. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not…

  12. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation.…

  13. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  14. Taenia crassiceps infection does not influence the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juárez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I

    2013-01-01

    It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.

  15. Experimental observation of dynamic ductile damage development under various triaxiality conditions - description of the principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillon, L.

    2012-08-01

    The Gurson model has been extended by Perrin to describe damage evolution in ductile viscoplastic materials. The so-called Gurson-Perrin model allows representing damage development with respect to strain-rate conditions. In order to fill a lack in current experimental procedures, we propose an experimental project able to test and validate the Gurson-Perrin model under various dynamic conditions and for different stress triaxiality levels.

  16. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    PubMed

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid) PMID:11860118

  17. Detecting In Situ Copepod Diet Diversity Using Molecular Technique: Development of a Copepod/Symbiotic Ciliate-Excluding Eukaryote-Inclusive PCR Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J.; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  18. Detecting in situ copepod diet diversity using molecular technique: development of a copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-inclusive PCR protocol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Simin; Guo, Zhiling; Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  19. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  20. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  1. Development of a biaxial compression device for biological samples: preliminary experimental results for a closed cell foam.

    PubMed

    Little, J P; Tevelen, G; Adam, C J; Evans, J H; Pearcy, M J

    2009-07-01

    Biological tissues are subjected to complex loading states in vivo and in order to define constitutive equations that effectively simulate their mechanical behaviour under these loads, it is necessary to obtain data on the tissue's response to multiaxial loading. Single axis and shear testing of biological tissues is often carried out, but biaxial testing is less common. We sought to design and commission a biaxial compression testing device, capable of obtaining repeatable data for biological samples. The apparatus comprised a sealed stainless steel pressure vessel specifically designed such that a state of hydrostatic compression could be created on the test specimen while simultaneously unloading the sample along one axis with an equilibrating tensile pressure. Thus a state of equibiaxial compression was created perpendicular to the long axis of a rectangular sample. For the purpose of calibration and commissioning of the vessel, rectangular samples of closed cell ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam were tested. Each sample was subjected to repeated loading, and nine separate biaxial experiments were carried out to a maximum pressure of 204 kPa (30 psi), with a relaxation time of two hours between them. Calibration testing demonstrated the force applied to the samples had a maximum error of 0.026 N (0.423% of maximum applied force). Under repeated loading, the foam sample demonstrated lower stiffness during the first load cycle. Following this cycle, an increased stiffness, repeatable response was observed with successive loading. While the experimental protocol was developed for EVA foam, preliminary results on this material suggest that this device may be capable of providing test data for biological tissue samples. The load response of the foam was characteristic of closed cell foams, with consolidation during the early loading cycles, then a repeatable load-displacement response upon repeated loading. The repeatability of the test results demonstrated the

  2. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  3. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new "experimentation assessments," 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  4. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  5. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  6. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  7. FOCAL: an experimental design tool for systematizing metabolic discoveries and model development.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Christopher J; Reed, Jennifer L

    2012-12-13

    Current computational tools can generate and improve genome-scale models based on existing data; however, for many organisms, the data needed to test and refine such models are not available. To facilitate model development, we created the forced coupling algorithm, FOCAL, to identify genetic and environmental conditions such that a reaction becomes essential for an experimentally measurable phenotype. This reaction's conditional essentiality can then be tested experimentally to evaluate whether network connections occur or to create strains with desirable phenotypes. FOCAL allows network connections to be queried, which improves our understanding of metabolism and accuracy of developed models.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of care integration strategies in different healthcare systems in Latin America: the EQUITY-LA II quasi-experimental study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Samico, Isabella; Albuquerque, Paulette; Eguiguren, Pamela; Cisneros, Angelica Ivonne; Rovere, Mario; Bertolotto, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although fragmentation in the provision of healthcare is considered an important obstacle to effective care, there is scant evidence on best practices in care coordination in Latin America. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory shared care strategy in improving coordination across care levels and related care quality, in health services networks in six different healthcare systems of Latin America. Methods and analysis A controlled before and after quasi-experimental study taking a participatory action research approach. In each country, two comparable healthcare networks were selected—intervention and control. The study contains four phases: (1) A baseline study to establish network performance in care coordination and continuity across care levels, using (A) qualitative methods: semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a criterion sample of health managers, professionals and users; and (B) quantitative methods: two questionnaire surveys with samples of 174 primary and secondary care physicians and 392 users with chronic conditions per network. Sample size was calculated to detect a proportion difference of 15% and 10%, before and after intervention (α=0.05; β=0.2 in a two-sided test); (2) a bottom-up participatory design and implementation of shared care strategies involving micro-level care coordination interventions to improve the adequacy of patient referral and information transfer. Strategies are selected through a participatory process by the local steering committee (local policymakers, health care network professionals, managers, users and researchers), supported by appropriate training; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions by measuring changes in levels of care coordination and continuity 18 months after implementation, applying the same design as in the baseline study; (4) Cross-country comparative analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study complies with international and national legal

  9. From experimental zoology to big data: Observation and integration in the study of animal development.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    The founding of the Journal of Experimental Zoology in 1904 was inspired by a widespread turn toward experimental biology in the 19th century. The founding editors sought to promote experimental, laboratory-based approaches, particularly in developmental biology. This agenda raised key practical and epistemological questions about how and where to study development: Does the environment matter? How do we know that a cell or embryo isolated to facilitate observation reveals normal developmental processes? How can we integrate descriptive and experimental data? R.G. Harrison, the journal's first editor, grappled with these questions in justifying his use of cell culture to study neural patterning. Others confronted them in different contexts: for example, F.B. Sumner insisted on the primacy of fieldwork in his studies on adaptation, but also performed breeding experiments using wild-collected animals. The work of Harrison, Sumner, and other early contributors exemplified both the power of new techniques, and the meticulous explanation of practice and epistemology that was marshaled to promote experimental approaches. A century later, experimentation is widely viewed as the standard way to study development; yet at the same time, cutting-edge "big data" projects are essentially descriptive, closer to natural history than to the approaches championed by Harrison et al. Thus, the original questions about how and where we can best learn about development are still with us. Examining their history can inform current efforts to incorporate data from experiment and description, lab and field, and a broad range of organisms and disciplines, into an integrated understanding of animal development.

  10. From experimental zoology to big data: Observation and integration in the study of animal development.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    The founding of the Journal of Experimental Zoology in 1904 was inspired by a widespread turn toward experimental biology in the 19th century. The founding editors sought to promote experimental, laboratory-based approaches, particularly in developmental biology. This agenda raised key practical and epistemological questions about how and where to study development: Does the environment matter? How do we know that a cell or embryo isolated to facilitate observation reveals normal developmental processes? How can we integrate descriptive and experimental data? R.G. Harrison, the journal's first editor, grappled with these questions in justifying his use of cell culture to study neural patterning. Others confronted them in different contexts: for example, F.B. Sumner insisted on the primacy of fieldwork in his studies on adaptation, but also performed breeding experiments using wild-collected animals. The work of Harrison, Sumner, and other early contributors exemplified both the power of new techniques, and the meticulous explanation of practice and epistemology that was marshaled to promote experimental approaches. A century later, experimentation is widely viewed as the standard way to study development; yet at the same time, cutting-edge "big data" projects are essentially descriptive, closer to natural history than to the approaches championed by Harrison et al. Thus, the original questions about how and where we can best learn about development are still with us. Examining their history can inform current efforts to incorporate data from experiment and description, lab and field, and a broad range of organisms and disciplines, into an integrated understanding of animal development. PMID:25757656

  11. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthcare interventions. Objectives The objectives of this study are to: develop a set of NPT-based measures and formatively evaluate their use for identifying implementation problems and monitoring progress; conduct preliminary evaluation of these measures across a range of interventions and contexts, and identify factors that affect this process; explore the utility of these measures for predicting outcomes; and develop an online users’ manual for the measures. Methods A combination of qualitative (workshops, item development, user feedback, cognitive interviews) and quantitative (survey) methods will be used to develop NPT measures, and test the utility of the measures in six healthcare intervention settings. Discussion The measures developed in the study will be available for use by those involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating complex interventions in healthcare and have the potential to enhance the chances of their implementation, leading to sustained changes in working practices. PMID:23578304

  12. Combining ontologies and workflows to design formal protocols for biological laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Laboratory protocols in life sciences tend to be written in natural language, with negative consequences on repeatability, distribution and automation of scientific experiments. Formalization of knowledge is becoming popular in science. In the case of laboratory protocols two levels of formalization are needed: one for the entities and individuals operations involved in protocols and another one for the procedures, which can be manually or automatically executed. This study aims to combine ontologies and workflows for protocol formalization. Results A laboratory domain specific ontology and the COW (Combining Ontologies with Workflows) software tool were developed to formalize workflows built on ontologies. A method was specifically set up to support the design of structured protocols for biological laboratory experiments. The workflows were enhanced with ontological concepts taken from the developed domain specific ontology. The experimental protocols represented as workflows are saved in two linked files using two standard interchange languages (i.e. XPDL for workflows and OWL for ontologies). A distribution package of COW including installation procedure, ontology and workflow examples, is freely available from http://www.bmr-genomics.it/farm/cow. Conclusions Using COW, a laboratory protocol may be directly defined by wet-lab scientists without writing code, which will keep the resulting protocol's specifications clear and easy to read and maintain. PMID:20416048

  13. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  14. Encapsulation of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of oregano, with β-cyclodextrin, improves the pharmacological response on cancer pain experimental protocols.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Oliveira, Marlange Almeida; Alves, Rafael dos Santos; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2015-02-01

    Cancer pain is a major public health problem worldwide due to the strong impact on the quality of life of patients and side effects of the existing therapeutic options. Monoterpenes, as carvacrol (CARV), have been extensively studied about their therapeutic properties, especially their importance in the control of painful conditions and inflammation, which can be improved through the use of inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). We evaluated the effect of encapsulation of CARV in β-CD (CARV/β-CD) on the nociception induced by tumor cells (Sarcoma 180) in rodents. Inclusion complexes were prepared in two different procedures and characterized through thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. CARV/β-CD complex was administered (50 mg/kg, p.o.) in mice with tumor on the hind paw and was able to reduce the hyperalgesia (von Frey) during 24 h, unlike the free CARV (100 mg/kg, p.o.), which promoted effects until 9 h. Administration on alternate days of complex of CARV/β-CD (12.5-50 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced hyperalgesia, as well as spontaneous and palpation-induced nociception. However, pure CARV (50 mg/kg) did not cause significant changes in nociceptive responses. Together, these results produced evidence that the encapsulation of carvacrol in β-cyclodextrin can be useful for the development of new options for pain management. PMID:25557507

  15. Encapsulation of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of oregano, with β-cyclodextrin, improves the pharmacological response on cancer pain experimental protocols.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Oliveira, Marlange Almeida; Alves, Rafael dos Santos; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2015-02-01

    Cancer pain is a major public health problem worldwide due to the strong impact on the quality of life of patients and side effects of the existing therapeutic options. Monoterpenes, as carvacrol (CARV), have been extensively studied about their therapeutic properties, especially their importance in the control of painful conditions and inflammation, which can be improved through the use of inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). We evaluated the effect of encapsulation of CARV in β-CD (CARV/β-CD) on the nociception induced by tumor cells (Sarcoma 180) in rodents. Inclusion complexes were prepared in two different procedures and characterized through thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. CARV/β-CD complex was administered (50 mg/kg, p.o.) in mice with tumor on the hind paw and was able to reduce the hyperalgesia (von Frey) during 24 h, unlike the free CARV (100 mg/kg, p.o.), which promoted effects until 9 h. Administration on alternate days of complex of CARV/β-CD (12.5-50 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced hyperalgesia, as well as spontaneous and palpation-induced nociception. However, pure CARV (50 mg/kg) did not cause significant changes in nociceptive responses. Together, these results produced evidence that the encapsulation of carvacrol in β-cyclodextrin can be useful for the development of new options for pain management.

  16. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  17. 3-D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Levander, Alan R.

    2004-12-01

    Under ER63662, 3-D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface, we have completed a number of subprojects associated with the Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) high resolution 3-D reflection/tomography dataset.

  18. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten; Dekker, Joost; Steultjens, Martijn; Lund, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and around a synovial joint. Although a number of studies and systematic reviews have been performed to assess the association of various factors with the development of KOA, a comprehensive overview focusing on biomechanical factors that are associated with the development of KOA is not available. The aim of this review is (1) to identify biomechanical factors that are associated with (the development of) KOA and (2) to identify the impact of other relevant risk factors on this association. Methods and analysis Cohort, cross-sectional and case–control studies investigating the association of a biomechanical factor with (the development of) KOA will be included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus will be searched from their inception until August 2015. 2 reviewers will independently screen articles obtained by the search for eligibility, extract data and score risk of bias. Quality of evidence will be evaluated. Meta-analysis using random effects model will be applied in each of the biomechanical factors, if possible. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis does not require ethical approval. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at (inter)national conferences. Trial registration number CRD42015025092. PMID:27311908

  19. Feasability Study and Protocol Development for Manufacturing of a Veterinarian Drug Using Local Plant Sources as Raw Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B. H.; Kuritz, T.

    2006-08-28

    This CRADA was a collaborative effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sass & Sass, Inc. It also had involvement with the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK) The CRADA focused on the development and commercialization in the U.S. of the substance developed in Russia with potential veterinary applications. The project addressed validation and further characterization of the lead substance necessary for its commercialization in the U.S. market as a veterinarian biologic and at the commercialization of the product for the Russian market, by the Russian group establishing of sustainability of the Russian research groups.

  20. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  1. Measuring the Impact of Professional Development on Science Teaching: A Review of Survey, Observation and Interview Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Barbara; Lakshmanan, Aruna; Perlmutter, Aaron; Davis, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Instrument choice is a crucial part of evaluation of professional development programmes. The use of multiple evaluation methods helps in triangulation, and offers insight into the developmental sequence involved in the changes in teacher beliefs and practice. Most current instruments are self-contained and not designed for use in conjunction with…

  2. SAMPLING PROTOCOLS TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL SITE MODELS AND CLEANUP DECISIONS FOR CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to make reliable decisions about the extent of subsurface contamination and approaches to restoration of contaminated ground water is dependent on the development of an accurate conceptual site model (CSM). The accuracy of the CSM is dependent on the quality of site ...

  3. Protocol for development of the guideline for reporting evidence based practice educational interventions and teaching (GREET) statement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of studies reporting the efficacy of educational strategies to facilitate the development of knowledge and skills underpinning evidence based practice (EBP). To date there is no standardised guideline for describing the teaching, evaluation, context or content of EBP educational strategies. The heterogeneity in the reporting of EBP educational interventions makes comparisons between studies difficult. The aim of this program of research is to develop the Guideline for Reporting EBP Educational interventions and Teaching (GREET) statement and an accompanying explanation and elaboration (E&E) paper. Methods/design Three stages are planned for the development process. Stage one will comprise a systematic review to identify features commonly reported in descriptions of EBP educational interventions. In stage two, corresponding authors of articles included in the systematic review and the editors of the journals in which these studies were published will be invited to participate in a Delphi process to reach consensus on items to be considered when reporting EBP educational interventions. The final stage of the project will include the development and pilot testing of the GREET statement and E&E paper. Outcome The final outcome will be the creation of a Guideline for Reporting EBP Educational interventions and Teaching (GREET) statement and E&E paper. Discussion The reporting of health research including EBP educational research interventions, have been criticised for a lack of transparency and completeness. The development of the GREET statement will enable the standardised reporting of EBP educational research. This will provide a guide for researchers, reviewers and publishers for reporting EBP educational interventions. PMID:23347417

  4. Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems

  5. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing a Mobile Cancer Prevention App: The mCPA Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid growth of mobile technologies has resulted in a proliferation of lifestyle-oriented mobile phone apps. However, most do not have a theoretical framework and few have been developed using a community-based participatory research approach. A community academic team will develop a theory-based, culturally tailored, mobile-enabled, Web-based app—the Mobile Cancer Prevention App (mCPA)—to promote adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines. Objective The aim of this study is to develop mCPA content with input from breast cancer survivors. Methods Members of SISTAAH (Survivors Involving Supporters to Take Action in Advancing Health) Talk (N=12), treated for Stages I-IIIc breast cancer for less than 1 year, 75 years of age or younger, and English-speaking and writing, will be recruited to participate in the study. To develop the app content, breast cancer survivors will engage with researchers in videotaped and audiotaped sessions, including (1) didactic instructions with goals for, benefits of, and strategies to enhance dietary intake and physical activity, (2) guided discussions for setting individualized goals, monitoring progress, and providing or receiving feedback, (3) experiential nutrition education through cooking demonstrations, and (4) interactive physical activity focused on walking, yoga, and strength training. Qualitative (focus group discussions and key informant interviews) and quantitative (sensory evaluation) methods will be used to evaluate the participatory process and outcomes. Results Investigators and participants anticipate development of an acceptable (frequency and duration of usage) feasible (structure, ease of use, features), and accessible mobile app available for intervention testing in early 2017. Conclusions Depending on the availability of research funding, mCPA testing, which will be initiated in Miami, will be extended to Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. PMID:26935995

  6. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended.

  7. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended. PMID:25647488

  8. Development of high throughput 96-blade solid phase microextraction-liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry protocol for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Bojko, Barbara; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-09-10

    In metabolomics, the workflow for quantitative and comprehensive metabolic mapping of cellular metabolites can be a very challenging undertaking. Sampling and sample preparation play a significant role in untargeted analysis, as they may affect the composition of the analyzed metabolome. In the current work, different solid phase microextraction (SPME) coating chemistries were developed and applied to provide simultaneous extraction of a wide range of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cellular metabolites produced by a model organism, Escherichia coli. Three different LC-MS methods were also evaluated for analysis of extracted metabolites. Finally, over 200 cellular metabolites were separated and detected with widely varying hydrophobicities ranging within -7 < log P < 15, including amino acids, peptides, nucleotides, carbohydrates, polycarboxylic acids, vitamins, phosphorylated compounds, and lipids such as hydrophobic phospholipids, prenol lipids, and fatty acids at the stationary phase of the E. coli life cycle using the developed 96-blade SPME-LC-MS method.

  9. Development of a stochastic dynamical model for hermetic compressor's components with experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanela, F.; Silva, O. M.; Lenzi, A.; Ritto, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of household compressor's components is typically evaluated by using mathematical-mechanical models, and many decisions are taken based on simulations. However, such an investigation is usually performed in a deterministic framework, which cannot consider manufacturing variabilities and epistemic uncertainties. In this paper, a stochastic structural model that considers data and model uncertainties is developed for a discharge pipe connected to a hermetic compressor's shell. An experimental test rig is constructed to test each part separately, and an identification strategy is proposed to fit the stochastic model to experimental results. Finally, the impact of the uncertainties in each structural component on the dynamical responses of the whole system is investigated. It turns out that: (1) the proposed stochastic dynamical model presented very good results when compared to the experimental responses, and (2) uncertainties in the discharge pipe model play an important role in the coupled system dynamics.

  10. Development and evaluation of a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in a colony of group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Meriam N; Gilley, Alexandra D; Byrnes, Meghan K; Zajac, Anne M

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in naturally infected group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college. DESIGN Prospective evaluation study. ANIMALS 34 dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were tested for evidence of G duodenalis infection. Dogs were treated with fenbendazole on study days 1 through 10. On day 5, dogs were bathed and moved into clean, disinfected kennels in a different room to allow for disinfection and drying of their assigned kennels at 26.7°C (80°F) for 24 hours on day 6. After treatment, dogs were returned to their original housing; fecal samples were collected weekly from days 8 through 41 and then every 3 weeks until day 209. Samples were fixed in formalin and examined by direct immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, 1 pretreatment sample underwent PCR assay and DNA sequencing to determine the assemblage (genotype) of the organism. Normal handling routines for the dogs and their use in teaching activities were not changed. RESULTS Initially, all dogs in the colony shed G duodenalis cysts. During and immediately after treatment (days 8 and 13), no cysts were detected in any dogs. On day 20, 1 cyst was observed in the fecal sample from 1 dog; results for all subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The G duodenalis cysts collected from the pretreatment sample had an assemblage C genotype. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The integrated protocol was successful in controlling G duodenalis infection in this dog colony, despite exposure of dogs to a variety of environments and frequent handling by multiple individuals. Sequence analysis identified an assemblage typically found in dogs but not in people, indicating that zoonotic transmission would be unlikely. PMID:27585102

  11. Kinetic modeling of light limitation and sulfur deprivation effects in the induction of hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Part II: Definition of model-based protocols and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Degrenne, B; Pruvost, J; Titica, M; Takache, H; Legrand, J

    2011-10-01

    Photosynthetic hydrogen production under light by the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated in a torus-shaped PBR in sulfur-deprived conditions. Culture conditions, represented by the dry biomass concentration of the inoculum, sulfate concentration, and incident photon flux density (PFD), were optimized based on a previously published model (Fouchard et al., 2009. Biotechnol Bioeng 102:232-245). This allowed a strictly autotrophic production, whereas the sulfur-deprived protocol is usually applied in photoheterotrophic conditions. Experimental results combined with additional information from kinetic simulations emphasize effects of sulfur deprivation and light attenuation in the PBR in inducing anoxia and hydrogen production. A broad range of PFD was tested (up to 500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). Maximum hydrogen productivities were 1.0 ± 0.2 mL H₂ /h/L (or 25 ± 5 mL H₂ /m(2) h) and 3.1 mL ± 0.4 H₂ /h L (or 77.5 ± 10 mL H₂ /m(2) h), at 110 and 500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) , respectively. These values approached a maximum specific productivity of approximately 1.9 mL ± 0.4 H₂ /h/g of biomass dry weight, clearly indicative of a limitation in cell capacity to produce hydrogen. The efficiency of the process and further optimizations are discussed.

  12. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Acoustic treatment development and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, A.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic treatment designs for the quiet clean short-haul experimental engines are defined. The procedures used in the development of each noise-source suppressor device are presented and discussed in detail. A complete description of all treatment concepts considered and the test facilities utilized in obtaining background data used in treatment development are also described. Additional supporting investigations that are complementary to the treatment development work are presented. The expected suppression results for each treatment configuration are given in terms of delta SPL versus frequency and in terms of delta PNdB.

  13. Development and validation of a screening tool to predict the risk of chronic low back pain in patients presenting with acute low back pain: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Adrian; Henschke, Nicholas; Hübscher, Markus; Williams, Christopher M; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Moseley, G Lorimer; McAuley, James H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Around 40% of people presenting to primary care with an episode of acute low back pain develop chronic low back pain. In order to reduce the risk of developing chronic low back pain, effective secondary prevention strategies are needed. Early identification of at-risk patients allows clinicians to make informed decisions based on prognostic profile, and researchers to select appropriate participants for secondary prevention trials. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a prognostic screening tool that identifies patients with acute low back pain in primary care who are at risk of developing chronic low back pain. This paper describes the methods and analysis plan for the development and validation of the tool. Methods/analysis The prognostic screening tool will be developed using methods recommended by the Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) Group and reported using the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement. In the development stage, we will use data from 1248 patients recruited for a prospective cohort study of acute low back pain in primary care. We will construct 3 logistic regression models to predict chronic low back pain according to 3 definitions: any pain, high pain and disability at 3 months. In the validation stage, we will use data from a separate sample of 1643 patients with acute low back pain to assess the performance of each prognostic model. We will produce validation plots showing Nagelkerke R2 and Brier score (overall performance), area under the curve statistic (discrimination) and the calibration slope and intercept (calibration). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval from the University of Sydney Ethics Committee was obtained for both of the original studies that we plan to analyse using the methods outlined in this protocol (Henschke et al, ref 11-2002/3/3144; Williams et al, ref 11638). PMID:26179647

  14. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. Methods/design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will

  15. Development of a patient decision aid for people with refractory angina: protocol for a three-phase pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Refractory angina is a severe chronic disease, defined as angina which cannot be controlled by usual treatments for heart disease. This disease is frightening, debilitating, and difficult to manage. Many people suffering refractory have inadequate pain relief, continually revisit emergency departments for help, undergo repeated cardiac investigations, and struggle with obtaining appropriate care. There is no clear framework to help people understand the risks and benefits of available treatment options in Canada. Some treatments for refractory angina are invasive, while others are not covered by provincial health insurance plans. Effective care for refractory angina sufferers in Canada is critically underdeveloped; it is important that healthcare professionals and refractory angina sufferers alike understand the treatment options and their implications. This proposal builds on the recent Canadian practice guidelines for the management of refractory angina. We propose to develop a decision support tool in order to help people suffering from refractory angina make well-informed decisions about their healthcare and reduce their uncertainty about treatment options. Methods This project will be conducted in three phases: a) development of the support tool with input from clinical experts, the Canadian refractory angina guidelines, and people living with refractory angina, b) pilot testing of the usability of the tool, and c) formal preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the support tool to help people make informed decisions about treatment options. Discussion A decision support tool for refractory angina is needed and the available data suggest that by developing such a tool, we may be able to help refractory angina sufferers better understand their condition and the effectiveness of available treatment options (in their respective clinical settings) as well as their implications (e.g. risks vs. benefits). By virtue of this tool, we may also be able

  16. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Ladd, Thaddeus D.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network.

  17. Prebreathe Protocol for Extravehicular Activity Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerry; Duncan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the performance of EVA by that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts, there exists a risk of DCS as the suit pressure is reduced to 4.3 pounds per square inch, absolute (psia) from the International Space Station (ISS) pressure of 14.7 psia. Several DCS-preventive procedures have been developed and implemented. Each of these procedures involve the use of oxygen (O2) prebreathe to effectively washout tissue nitrogen (N2).The management of the ISS Programs convened an expert independent peer review Team to conduct a review of the Decompression Sickness (DCS) risks associated with the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Campout Prebreathe (PB) protocol for its consideration for use on future missions. The major findings and recommendations of the expert panel are: There is no direct experimental data to confirm the potential DCS risks of the Campout PB protocol. However, based on model data, statistical probability, physiology, and information derived from similar PB protocols, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that the Campout PB protocol is less safe than the other NASA approved PB protocols.

  18. CareTrack Kids—part 1. Assessing the appropriateness of healthcare delivered to Australian children: study protocol for clinical indicator development

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Louise K; Hooper, Tamara D; Hibbert, Peter D; White, Les; Mealing, Nicole; Jaffe, Adam; Cowell, Christopher T; Runciman, William B; Goldstein, Stan; Hallahan, Andrew R; Wakefield, John G; Murphy, Elisabeth; Lau, Annie; Wheaton, Gavin; Williams, Helena M; Hughes, Clifford; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of clinical guidelines, considerable gaps remain between the care that is recommended (appropriate care) and the care provided. This protocol describes a research methodology to develop clinical indicators for appropriate care for common paediatric conditions. Methods and analysis We will identify conditions amenable to population-level appropriateness of care research and develop clinical indicators for each condition. Candidate conditions have been identified from published research; burden of disease, prevalence and frequency of presentation data; and quality of care priority lists. Clinical indicators will be developed through searches of national and international guidelines, and formatted with explicit criteria for inclusion, exclusion, time frame and setting. Experts will review the indicators using a wiki-based approach and modified Delphi process. A formative evaluation of the wiki process will be undertaken. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, and the Women's and Children's Health Network (South Australia). Applications are under review with Macquarie University and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. PMID:25854976

  19. Optimization protocols and improved strategies of cross-linked enzyme aggregates technology: current development and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian Dong; Jia, Shi Ru

    2015-03-01

    Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) technology has been regarded as an effective carrier-free immobilization method. This method is very attractive due to its simplicity and robustness, as well as for the possibility of using the crude enzyme extract and the opportunity to co-immobilize multiple different enzymes. The resulting CLEAs generally exhibit high catalyst productivities, improved storage and operational stability and are easy to recycle. Nowadays, although the technology has been applied to various enzymes, some undesirable properties have limited its further application. To overcome these limitations, novel strategies have been developing in recent years. This mini-review focuses on process optimization, new improved strategies and the latest advances on CLEAs technology.

  20. A complex breastfeeding promotion and support intervention in a developing country: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. Methods/Design A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Study population: 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. Intervention: A “prenatal/postnatal” professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. Outcome measures: Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. Discussion Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is

  1. Measuring Life Events and Their Association With Clinical Disorder: A Protocol for Development of an Online Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Amanda; Nunn, Stephen; Hosang, Georgina M; Kagan, Lisa; Fisher, Helen L; Taylor, Matthew; Bifulco, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe life events are acknowledged as important etiological factors in the development of clinical disorders, including major depression. Interview methods capable of assessing context and meaning of events have demonstrated superior validity compared with checklist questionnaire methods and arguments for interview approaches have resurfaced because choosing the appropriate assessment tool provides clarity of information about gene-environment interactions in depression. Such approaches also have greater potential for understanding and treating clinical cases or for use in interventions. Objective (1) To argue that life events need sophisticated measurement not satisfactorily captured in checklist approaches. (2) To review life-events measures and key findings related to disorder, exemplifying depression. (3) To describe an ongoing study with a new online measure and to assess its psychometric properties and the association of life events in relation to disorder and educational outcomes. Methods The Computerised Life Events Assessment Record (CLEAR) is under development as a tool for online assessment of adult life events. Based on the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule interview, CLEAR seeks to assess life events to self and close others, link these to other events and difficulties, and utilize calendar-based timing, to improve upon checklist approaches. Results The CLEAR study is in the preliminary stages and its results are expected to be made available by the end of 2015. Conclusions There is currently no sophisticated technological application of social risk factor assessment, such as life events and difficulties. CLEAR is designed to gather reliable and valid life-event data while combating the limitations of interviews (eg, time consuming and costly) and life-event checklists (eg, inability to accurately measure severity and independence of life events). The advantages of using such innovative methodology for research, clinical practice, and

  2. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation. Data providing insights into when exactly in the preschool years significant gains in these abilities occur are scarce. Drawing on a sample of 138 preschool children, this longitudinal study therefore examined how children's ability to evaluate evidence and their understanding of experimentation develop between the ages of four and six. Findings showed that the ability to evaluate evidence was already well developed at age four and increased steadily and significantly over time as long as the pattern of covariation was perfect. In the case of imperfect covariation, the proportion of correct answers was low over the period of observation, but showed a significant increase between the ages of four and five. If the data did not allow relationship between variables to be inferred, the proportion of correct answers was low, with a significant increase between the ages of five and six. The children's understanding of experimentation increased significantly between the ages of five and six. The implications of these findings for age-appropriate science programs in preschool are discussed.

  3. Experimental observation of dynamic ductile damage development under various triaxiality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillon, Laurianne; Adolf, Lise-Marie

    2015-06-01

    Fracture in ductile materials finds its origin in microscopic mechanisms: the nucleation of voids that grow and coalesce in order to form a crack. The most popular of these models, proposed by Gurson, aims at describing the damage development with respect to the plastic behavior of porous material. The Gurson model has been extended by Perrin to describe damage evolution in ductile viscoplastic porous materials. The Gurson-Perrin model (GPm) allows representing damage development with respect to the stress triaxiality and strain-rate conditions. We propose a new experimental design able to test and validate the GPm under various dynamic conditions and for different triaxiality levels. The experimental project will be detailed. A notch is drawn in the Cu cylindrical target where damage develops and the local failure occurs. A variation of the notch radius enables a variation in the triaxiality level. Three notch radii have been tested. Observations with numerical cameras allow following the shape of the notch, a characteristic of damage development. Several PDV measurements have been performed around the target. A first analysis of this experimental process will be shown and comparisons with numerical simulations will be presented.

  4. Developing a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise to teach theories of visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Shoko; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a flexible motor ability to adapt their movements to changes in the internal/external environment. For example, using arm-reaching tasks, a number of studies experimentally showed that participants adapt to a novel visuomotor environment. These results helped develop computational models of motor learning implemented in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of such experimental paradigms for exploring the mechanisms of motor learning, because of the cost and preparation time, most students are unable to participate in such experiments. Therefore, in the current study, to help students better understand motor learning theories, we developed a simple finger-reaching experimental system using commonly used laptop PC components with an open-source programming language (Processing Motor Learning Toolkit: PMLT). We found that compared to a commercially available robotic arm-reaching device, our PMLT accomplished similar learning goals (difference in the error reduction between the devices, P = 0.10). In addition, consistent with previous reports from visuomotor learning studies, the participants showed after-effects indicating an adaptation of the motor learning system. The results suggest that PMLT can serve as a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise of motor learning theories with minimal time and cost for instructors. PMID:25565915

  5. Developing a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise to teach theories of visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Shoko; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a flexible motor ability to adapt their movements to changes in the internal/external environment. For example, using arm-reaching tasks, a number of studies experimentally showed that participants adapt to a novel visuomotor environment. These results helped develop computational models of motor learning implemented in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of such experimental paradigms for exploring the mechanisms of motor learning, because of the cost and preparation time, most students are unable to participate in such experiments. Therefore, in the current study, to help students better understand motor learning theories, we developed a simple finger-reaching experimental system using commonly used laptop PC components with an open-source programming language (Processing Motor Learning Toolkit: PMLT). We found that compared to a commercially available robotic arm-reaching device, our PMLT accomplished similar learning goals (difference in the error reduction between the devices, P = 0.10). In addition, consistent with previous reports from visuomotor learning studies, the participants showed after-effects indicating an adaptation of the motor learning system. The results suggest that PMLT can serve as a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise of motor learning theories with minimal time and cost for instructors.

  6. Development of SRS.php, a Simple Object Access Protocol-based library for data acquisition from integrated biological databases.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Silva, A; Pafilis, E; Ortega, J M; Schneider, R

    2007-12-11

    Data integration has become an important task for biological database providers. The current model for data exchange among different sources simplifies the manner that distinct information is accessed by users. The evolution of data representation from HTML to XML enabled programs, instead of humans, to interact with biological databases. We present here SRS.php, a PHP library that can interact with the data integration Sequence Retrieval System (SRS). The library has been written using SOAP definitions, and permits the programmatic communication through webservices with the SRS. The interactions are possible by invoking the methods described in WSDL by exchanging XML messages. The current functions available in the library have been built to access specific data stored in any of the 90 different databases (such as UNIPROT, KEGG and GO) using the same query syntax format. The inclusion of the described functions in the source of scripts written in PHP enables them as webservice clients to the SRS server. The functions permit one to query the whole content of any SRS database, to list specifi