Science.gov

Sample records for experimental protocol development

  1. iLAP: a workflow-driven software for experimental protocol development, data acquisition and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, the genome biology community has expended considerable effort to confront the challenges of managing heterogeneous data in a structured and organized way and developed laboratory information management systems (LIMS) for both raw and processed data. On the other hand, electronic notebooks were developed to record and manage scientific data, and facilitate data-sharing. Software which enables both, management of large datasets and digital recording of laboratory procedures would serve a real need in laboratories using medium and high-throughput techniques. Results We have developed iLAP (Laboratory data management, Analysis, and Protocol development), a workflow-driven information management system specifically designed to create and manage experimental protocols, and to analyze and share laboratory data. The system combines experimental protocol development, wizard-based data acquisition, and high-throughput data analysis into a single, integrated system. We demonstrate the power and the flexibility of the platform using a microscopy case study based on a combinatorial multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (m-FISH) protocol and 3D-image reconstruction. iLAP is freely available under the open source license AGPL from http://genome.tugraz.at/iLAP/. Conclusion iLAP is a flexible and versatile information management system, which has the potential to close the gap between electronic notebooks and LIMS and can therefore be of great value for a broad scientific community. PMID:19941647

  2. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  3. Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.

  4. Development and Validation of Experimental Protocols for Use of Cardinal Models for Prediction of Microorganism Growth in Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Pinon, Anthony; Zwietering, Marcel; Perrier, Louise; Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Leporq, Benoît; Mettler, Eric; Thuault, Dominique; Coroller, Louis; Stahl, Valérie; Vialette, Michèle

    2004-01-01

    An experimental protocol to validate secondary-model application to foods was suggested. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella were observed in various food categories, such as meat, dairy, egg, or seafood products. The secondary model validated in this study was based on the gamma concept, in which the environmental factors temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) were introduced as individual terms with microbe-dependent parameters, and the effect of foodstuffs on the growth rates of these species was described with a food- and microbe-dependent parameter. This food-oriented approach was carried out by challenge testing, generally at 15 and 10°C for L. monocytogenes, E. coli, B. cereus, and Salmonella and at 25 and 20°C for C. perfringens. About 222 kinetics in foods were generated. The results were compared to simulations generated by existing software, such as PMP. The bias factor was also calculated. The methodology to obtain a food-dependent parameter (fitting step) and therefore to compare results given by models with new independent data (validation step) is discussed in regard to its food safety application. The proposed methods were used within the French national program of predictive microbiology, Sym′Previus, to include challenge test results in the database and to obtain predictive models designed for microbial growth in food products. PMID:14766591

  5. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  6. Magnetic susceptibility measurements as proxy method to monitor soil pollution: development of experimental protocols for field surveys.

    PubMed

    D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Chianese, Domenico; Coppola, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria

    2007-02-01

    In the framework of the development of new methods for measuring and monitoring soil pollution, this paper deals with the use of magnetic methodologies to monitor the heavy metals presence in soils. In particular it shows a procedure for collecting magnetic susceptibility measurements in order to interpret them as proxy variable for monitoring heavy metals in soils. Magnetic measurements are carried out using a magnetic susceptibility meter with two different probes for in situ field surveys. The experimental procedure is divided in two parts. In the first part we carry out laboratory tests aimed to evaluate, for both the probes, the effective investigation depth for soil, the measurement reproducibility under different conditions, and the influence of water content. We complete this part comparing in situ measurements obtained by means of two probes with different characteristics. In the second part we carry out tests to evaluate the relationships between heavy metal levels and magnetic susceptibility values of soil samples. We investigate the variability of the magnetic susceptibility measurements contaminating different soil samples with well known concentration of heavy metals. Moreover we study the correlation between magnetic susceptibility values and metal concentrations, determined by means of AAS, in soil samples collected during a field survey. Results suggest that a careful check of the experimental procedure play a crucial role for using magnetic susceptibility measurements for heavy metals in situ monitoring. This is very helpful both for improving the quality of data and for making simpler data interpretation.

  7. Treatment protocol development

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, C.; Gavin, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue.

  8. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  9. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  10. Development of small scale experimental protocol and a multi-physics model to predict the complex hygro-mechanical behavior of wood under varying climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagana, Rastislav

    The reliability of wood structures is strongly affected by duration of loading and environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to develop a simple method for measuring the mechano-sorptive character of the hygro-mechanical behavior of wood and to develop a model capable of predicting long term beam behavior under changing climates. The model predictions were compared with experimental results. Red spruce was the species selected for investigation. The mechano-sorptive properties were measured in tension and compression on thin specimens where moisture content variation within the material was minimal when exposed to a varying environment. The measured mechano-sorptive deformation in compression was significantly greater than that measured in tension (4 times higher at cumulative MC 60% than in tension). However, the developed compression protocol was less accurate, with a tendency to overestimate the magnitude of subsequent experimental creep behavior. A multi-physics model of hygro-mechanical uniaxial beam behavior was developed that rigorously couples spatially varying time-dependent moisture content with the uniaxial stress-strain relations. To verify the model and accuracy of the measured uniaxial mechano-sorptive characteristic of red spruce, the behavior of beams loaded by four point bending was measured in cyclically varying climate over 2.5 months. Although the model did not properly account for the immediate effect of moisture content change on mid-span deflection, as was observed in real beams, the overall trend of the predicted deflection was in good agreement with experimental results. An additional part of the thesis dealt with development of an analytical model to predict the hygro-mechanical behavior of multi-directional polymer matrix composite laminates which incorporate the mechano-sorptive effects of a phenol resorcinol formal-dehyde resin. E-glass/phenol resorcinol formaldehyde resin composite material parameters were used in the model

  11. Using the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Haugen, Tommy; Berntsen, Sveinung; Guttormsen, Vigdis; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haraldstad, Kristin; Meland, Eivind; Abildsnes, Eirik

    2016-10-18

    In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6-10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction. A subsidiary aim of the intervention study is to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among those participating in the intervention study. The Intervention Mapping protocol was used to develop a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children. In order to gather information on local opportunities and barriers, interviews with key stakeholders and a 1-year pilot study was conducted. The main study has used a quasi-experimental controlled design. Locally based Healthy Life Centers and Public Health Clinics are responsible for recruiting families and conducting the intervention. The effect of the study will be measured both at completion of the 6 months intervention study and 6 and 18 months after the intervention period. An ecological approach was used as a basis for developing the intervention. The behavioral models and educational strategies include individual family counselling meetings, workshops focusing on regulation of family life, nutrition courses, and physical activity groups providing tailored information and practical learning sessions. Parents will be educated on how to use these strategies at home, to further support their children in improving their behaviors. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for development of this family-based intervention study targeting overweight and obese children, 6-10 years old. This program, if feasible and effective, may be adjusted to local contexts and

  12. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  13. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  14. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  15. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  16. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing practice protocols for advanced practice nursing.

    PubMed

    Paul, S

    1999-08-01

    In most states, the role of an advanced practice nurse is dependent on practice protocols that provide an organized method for analyzing and managing a disease or major symptom. They are also used to control the process of medical care and to specify steps in the delivery of that care. Creating appropriate practice protocols is one of the most important precursors to implementing the advanced practice role, because they virtually drive the clinician's ability to treat or manage clinical situations or disease states. This article outlines the steps involved in developing practice protocols and discusses the content that should be included in a protocol, providing an example of narrative and algorithm format protocols. Pros and cons, as well as legal issues related to practice protocols, are also presented.

  18. Development of new bioassay protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, K.M.; Merrill, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The chapter explains the philosophy and usefulness of a phased approach in assessing potential environmental hazards of stationary source emissions, and gives examples of the experience and success of the approach to date. Recognition of the problems associated with the environmental release of wastes has resulted in environmental legislation, including the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts and their various amendments, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The U.S. EPA has developed an environmental-assessment program for obtaining such information for waste streams. The wastes from industrial and energy-conversion processes constitute a major source of exposure for humans and other organisms. Large quantities of such wastes are released annually to the environment in gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. Exposure by organisms is by direct inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through food-web transfer.

  19. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Treesearch

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  20. The Vocational Assessment Protocol: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dale F.; Menz, Fredrick E.

    This report describes a 48-month project which developed, field tested, and evaluated the utility of the Vocational Assessment Protocol (VAP) for use with persons with traumatic brain injury resulting in a severe and persistent disability. The VAP is intended to assist in the community-based vocational rehabilitation of these individuals. The VAP…

  1. Development of Quantitative CT Lung Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Newell, John D; Sieren, Jered; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the process of developing optimal CT protocols for quantitative lung CT. This will include discussions of the following important topics; QCT derived metrics of lung disease, QCT scanning protocols and quality control and QCT image processing software. We will briefly discuss several QCT derived metrics of lung disease that have been developed for the assessment of emphysema, small airway disease and large airway disease. The CT scanning protocol is one of the most important elements of successfully performing QCT. We will provide a detailed description of the current thinking on optimizing the QCT protocol for the assessment of COPD and Asthma. Quality control of the CT images is also a very important part of the QCT process and we will discuss why it is necessary to use CT scanner test objects (phantoms) to provide frequent periodic checks on the CT scanner calibration to assure precise and accurate CT numbers are obtained. We will discuss the use of quantitative CT image processing software to segment the lung and extract the desired QCT metrics of lung disease. We will discuss the practical issues of using this software. The data obtained from the image processing software is then combined with other clinical information, health status questionnaires, pulmonary physiology and genomic data to increase our understanding of obstructive lung disease and to improve our ability to design new therapies for these diseases. PMID:23934142

  2. Advanced Crystallographic Data Collection Protocols for Experimental Phasing.

    PubMed

    Finke, Aaron D; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Vonrhein, Clemens; Wang, Meitian; Bricogne, Gérard; Oliéric, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Experimental phasing by single- or multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD or MAD) has become the most popular method of de novo macromolecular structure determination. Continuous advances at third-generation synchrotron sources have enabled the deployment of rapid data collection protocols that are capable of recording SAD or MAD data sets. However, procedural simplifications driven by the pursuit of high throughput have led to a loss of sophistication in data collection strategies, adversely affecting measurement accuracy from the viewpoint of anomalous phasing. In this chapter, we detail optimized strategies for collecting high-quality data for experimental phasing, with particular emphasis on minimizing errors from radiation damage as well as from the instrument. This chapter also emphasizes data processing for "on-the-fly" decision-making during data collection, a critical process when data quality depends directly on information gathered while at the synchrotron.

  3. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  4. BASALT Project Helps Develop Mars Science Protocols

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-18

    Researchers from NASA Ames and the University of Hawaii - Hilo spent 18 days simulating science activities on the surface of Mars. Although no spacesuits were used, scientist hiked around Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the Island of Hawaii and collected rock samples like they would on the Red Planet. One goal of the Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains project is to develop rules and protocols that could be used on an actual Mars mission to identify and protect geologic samples that could contain life. Communications with a mission control room were delayed, to simulate actual transmission times between Earth and Mars.

  5. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  6. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  7. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  8. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  9. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA under...

  10. Collaborative lymphoedema management: developing a clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mary; Walker, Jackie

    2011-05-01

    Lymphoedema is a very distressing chronic condition prevalent in some metastatic cancers. Conservative treatment of lymphoedema in palliative care involves complete/complex decongestive therapy (CDT) using manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), compression therapy (bandaging and/or garments), skincare, and remedial exercises, adapted to the needs of the patient. The aim of this service development project was to identify current practice in a hospice palliative care service, develop new assessment tools, and implement a collaborative clinical protocol to improve access to lymphoedema management for patients in the hospice. Two audits provided new evidence about patient profiles, patient assessment, and treatment outcomes for cancer- and non-cancer-related lymphoedema. This project had a quality-improvement effect on service delivery and developed an effective partnership approach to lymphoedema management between local district nursing services and the specialist lymphoedema physiotherapist.

  11. [Laboratory animal anaesthesia: influence of anaesthetic protocols on experimental models].

    PubMed

    Bazin, J-E; Constantin, J-M; Gindre, G

    2004-08-01

    The use of experimental animals requires anaesthesia to provide immobility and analgesia. Animals require anaesthesia not only for ethical reasons but also because pain and stress can alter the quality of research results. Recognition of pain, and its treatment is important throughout the procedure. Before anaesthesia, animals are acclimated and rehydrated. Except in small rodents and in ruminants, in order to avoid vomiting, a fast of 8 to 12 hours before anaesthesia is recommended. In order to protect animals against suffering and distress during transfer, restraint and management, a premedication is administered. Most human anaesthetic products can be used in animals. There are some specific veterinary anaesthetics. Moreover, the anaesthetic effects could be different from specie to an other. In most big animals, induction is realized by intravenous administration. In small rodents, venous puncture and contention could be difficult, and anaesthetic agents may be injected via intraperitoneal or intramuscular way. The principal inconvenient of these administration routes is the impossibility to adjust dose to animal response. In large animals, human anaesthesia material can be used. Some technical adaptations could be necessary in smaller animals. In rodents or in neonatology, specific devices are recommended. ECG, arterial pressure, tidal volume, expired CO(2) and oxygen saturation monitoring assess quality of, and tolerance to anaesthesia. If animals are awaked after anaesthesia, postoperative management is closed to human clinical problems. During animal experimentations, anaesthesia may interact with results. All anaesthetic drugs alter normal physiology in some way and may confound physiologic results. In the literature, most publications do not mention this possible interaction. Investigators need to understand how animals are affected by anaesthetic drugs in order to formulate anaesthetic protocols with minimal effects on data. Extrapolation between

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  13. A Design Protocol to Develop Radiology Dashboards

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The main objective of this descriptive and development research was to introduce a design protocol to develop radiology dashboards. Material and methods: The first step was to determine key performance indicators for radiology department. The second step was to determine required infrastructure for implementation of radiology dashboards. Infrastructure was extracted from both data and technology perspectives. The third step was to determine main features of the radiology dashboards. The fourth step was to determine the key criteria for evaluating the dashboards. In all these steps, non-probability sampling methods including convenience and purposive were employed and sample size determined based on a persuasion model. Results: Results showed that there are 92 KPIs, 10 main features for designing dashboards and 53 key criteria for dashboards evaluation. As well as, a Prototype of radiology management dashboards in four aspects including services, clients, personnel and cost-income were implemented and evaluated. Applying such dashboards could help managers to enhance performance, productivity and quality of services in radiology department. PMID:25568585

  14. Experimental Protocol to Investigate Particle Aerosolization of a Product Under Abrasion and Under Environmental Weathering.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Neeraj; Le Bihan, Olivier Louis; Bressot, Christophe; Morgeneyer, Martin

    2016-09-16

    The present article presents an experimental protocol to investigate particle aerosolization of a product under abrasion and under environmental weathering, which is a fundamental element to the approach of nanosafety-by-design of nanostructured products for their durable development. This approach is basically a preemptive one in which the focus is put on minimizing the emission of engineered nanomaterials' aerosols during the usage phase of the product's life cycle. This can be attained by altering its material properties during its design phase without compromising with any of its added benefits. In this article, an experimental protocol is presented to investigate the nanosafety-by-design of three commercial nanostructured products with respect to their mechanical solicitation and environmental weathering. The means chosen for applying the mechanical solicitation is an abrasion process and for the environmental weathering, it is an accelerated UV exposure in the presence of humidity and heat. The eventual emission of engineered nanomaterials is studied in terms of their number concentration, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition. The purpose of the protocol is to study the emission for test samples and experimental conditions which are corresponding to real life situations. It was found that the application of the mechanical stresses alone emits the engineered nanomaterials' aerosols in which the engineered nanomaterial is always embedded inside the product matrix, thus, a representative product element. In such a case, the emitted aerosols comprise of both nanoparticles as well as microparticles. But if the mechanical stresses are coupled with the environmental weathering, the experimental protocol reveals then the eventual deterioration of the product, after a certain weathering duration, may lead to the emission of the free engineered nanomaterial aerosols too.

  15. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from investigators who want to conduct clinical trials with specific agents. |

  16. Obtaining single cells: analysis and evaluation of an experimental protocol by means of a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Standaert, A R; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Francois, K; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J F

    2005-04-15

    The research presented in this paper analyses a newly developed experimental protocol for isolating single cells by constructing a simulation model of the process. The protocol involves sequential 50% dilutions of a cell suspension in a microtiter plate, so that eventually, wells are obtained containing exactly one cell. The aim of this modelling study is (i) to gain insight in the governing mechanisms of the dilution process, (ii) to confirm experimental findings and (iii) to enable the prediction of an average outcome for future experiments. The model construction process is presented chronologically. The initial basic model simulates the experiment as a sequence of binomial processes, using Monte Carlo techniques. Statistical analysis of the results shows that aggregational factors need to be taken into account in the form of a lognormal distribution. Several issues involved in this adaptation are discussed. To fully account for cell aggregation in the dilution process, a cell clumping algorithm is built into the simulation model. Simulation data from the resulting model show similar statistical characteristics as the experimental data and yield reliable prediction intervals for the available experimental data. The simulation model is a useful tool to support experimental findings and predict the outcome of future experiments. Even more importantly, this study emphasises the importance of careful statistical analysis in single cell research. The impact of stochastic effects is considerably amplified at the low cell concentrations involved and needs to be taken into account in any modelling effort.

  17. Extended Theories of Gravitation. Observation Protocols and Experimental Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, Lorenzo; Ferraris, Marco; Francaviglia, Mauro; Magnano, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Within the framework of extended theories of gravitation we shall discuss physical equivalences among different formalisms and classical tests. As suggested by the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild framework, the conformal invariance will be preserved and its effect on observational protocols discussed. Accordingly, we shall review standard tests showing how Palatini f(R)-theories naturally passes solar system tests. Observation protocols will be discussed in this wider framework.

  18. Of taps and toilets: quasi-experimental protocol for evaluating community-demand-driven projects.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Wendland, Kelly J

    2009-09-01

    Sustainable and equitable access to safe water and adequate sanitation are widely acknowledged as vital, yet neglected, development goals. Water supply and sanitation (WSS) policies are justified because of the usual efficiency criteria, but also major equity concerns. Yet, to date there are few scientific impact evaluations showing that WSS policies are effective in delivering social welfare outcomes. This lack of an evaluation culture is partly because WSS policies are characterized by diverse mechanisms, broad goals and the increasing importance of decentralized delivery, and partly because programme administrators are unaware of appropriate methods. We describe a protocol for a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-demand-driven programme for water and sanitation in rural India, which addresses several evaluation challenges. After briefly reviewing policy and implementation issues in the sector, we describe key features of our protocol, including control group identification, pre-post measurement, programme theory, sample sufficiency and robust indicators. At its core, our protocol proposes to combine propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimation. We conclude by briefly summarizing how quasi-experimental impact evaluations can address key issues in WSS policy design and when such evaluations are needed.

  19. Ball-on-DiscTribometers Protocol Development: Loss of Lubrication Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    unlimited. 13 Fig. 11 LC traction-coefficient experimental data There is a clear disparity between the 2 different relative surface-velocity...ARL-TR-7588 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Ball-on-Disc Tribometer’s Protocol Development: Loss of Lubrication... Laboratory Ball-on-Disc Tribometer’s Protocol Development: Loss of Lubrication Evaluation by Mark R Riggs and Stephen P Berkebile Vehicle

  20. Experimentation and Evaluation of IPV6 Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    entries in the Neighbor Cache is to limit potential for abuse by overpopulating the table with bogus requests, creating resource exhaustion. This very...attempts, it would be a trivial exploit to generate random entries faking a ‘new’ host on the network, and eventually overpopulate the internal...WWW: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry/course/images/arp-eg.gif. [8] R. Hinden and S. Deering , IETF RFC 4291: Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6

  1. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  2. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  3. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  4. Experimental protocol for packaging and encrypting multiple data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredy Barrera, John; Trejos, Sorayda; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel single optical packaging and encryption (SOPE) procedure for multiple inputs. This procedure is based on a merging of a 2f scheme with a digital holographic technique to achieve efficient handling of multiple data. Through the 2f system with a random phase mask attached in its input plane, and the holographic technique, we obtain each processed input. A posteriori filtering and repositioning protocol on each hologram followed by an addition of all processed data, allows storing these data to form a single package. The final package is digitally multiplied by a second random phase mask acting as an encryption mask. In this way, the final user receives only one encrypted information unit and a single key, instead of a conventional multiple-image collecting method and several keys. Processing of individual images is cast into an optimization problem. The proposed optimization aims to simplify the handling and recovery of images while packing all of them into a single unit. The decoding process does not have the usual cross-talk or noise problems involved in other methods, as filtering and repositioning precedes the encryption step. All data are recovered in just one step at the same time by applying a simple Fourier transform operation and the decoding key. The proposed protocol takes advantage of optical processing and the versatility of the digital format. Experiments have been conducted using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. An application is subsequently demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of the SOPE procedure.

  5. Delayed luminescence: an experimental protocol for Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Roeland; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have not been established. Delayed luminescence (DL) refers to a decaying long-term ultraweak photon emission after exposure to light. Its decay kinetics under certain conditions may be a sensitive indicator reflecting the internal structural and chemical/physiological state of a biological system. DL measurements have been used in many applications for quality control. However, relatively little research has been reported on dried plant material such as Chinese herbs. The objective of the present study is to establish a protocol for direct and rapid DL measurements of dried Chinese herbal materials, including the determination of the dependence on: (a) the optimal excitation time utilizing a white light source; (b) the optimal size of the grinded herbal particle; and (c) the humidity conditions before and during measurement. Results indicate that stable and reproducible curves of DL photon emission depend mainly on the water content of herbal materials. To investigate the application of the established DL measurement protocol, non-processed and processed Aconitum (Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.), wild and cultivated rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) and ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Mey) of different ages were measured using DL. The results suggest that DL technology is a potential tool for assessment of dried Chinese herb qualities. The results warrant a further exploration of this technique in relation to therapeutic properties of the herbs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Skill Development in Experimental Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagán, Héctor; Sayós, Rosa; García, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general…

  8. Sampling and measurement protocols for long-term silvicultural studies on the Penobscot Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Justin D. Waskiewicz; Laura S. Kenefic; Nicole S. Rogers; Joshua J. Puhlick; John C. Brissette; Richard J. Dionne

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station has been conducting research on the silviculture of northern conifers on the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in Maine since 1950. Formal study plans provide guidance and specifications for the experimental treatments, but documentation is also needed to ensure consistency in data collection and sampling protocols....

  9. Experimental Protocol for Manipulating Plant-induced Soil Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Angela J.; del Pino, Gaston A.; Burns, Jean H.

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence theory has often treated environmental heterogeneity as being independent of the community composition; however biotic feedbacks such as plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) have large effects on plant performance, and create environmental heterogeneity that depends on the community composition. Understanding the importance of PSF for plant community assembly necessitates understanding of the role of heterogeneity in PSF, in addition to mean PSF effects. Here, we describe a protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity. Two example experiments are presented: (1) a field experiment with a 6-patch grid of soils to measure plant population responses and (2) a greenhouse experiment with 2-patch soils to measure individual plant responses. Soils can be collected from the zone of root influence (soils from the rhizosphere and directly adjacent to the rhizosphere) of plants in the field from conspecific and heterospecific plant species. Replicate collections are used to avoid pseudoreplicating soil samples. These soils are then placed into separate patches for heterogeneous treatments or mixed for a homogenized treatment. Care should be taken to ensure that heterogeneous and homogenized treatments experience the same degree of soil disturbance. Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant performance. We demonstrate that plant-induced heterogeneity results in different outcomes than predicted by traditional coexistence models, perhaps because of the dynamic nature of these feedbacks. Theory that incorporates environmental heterogeneity influenced by the assembling community and additional empirical work is needed to determine when heterogeneity intrinsic to the assembling community will result in different assembly outcomes compared with heterogeneity extrinsic to the community composition. PMID:24686854

  10. Experimental protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; del Pino, Gaston A; Burns, Jean H

    2014-03-13

    Coexistence theory has often treated environmental heterogeneity as being independent of the community composition; however biotic feedbacks such as plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) have large effects on plant performance, and create environmental heterogeneity that depends on the community composition. Understanding the importance of PSF for plant community assembly necessitates understanding of the role of heterogeneity in PSF, in addition to mean PSF effects. Here, we describe a protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity. Two example experiments are presented: (1) a field experiment with a 6-patch grid of soils to measure plant population responses and (2) a greenhouse experiment with 2-patch soils to measure individual plant responses. Soils can be collected from the zone of root influence (soils from the rhizosphere and directly adjacent to the rhizosphere) of plants in the field from conspecific and heterospecific plant species. Replicate collections are used to avoid pseudoreplicating soil samples. These soils are then placed into separate patches for heterogeneous treatments or mixed for a homogenized treatment. Care should be taken to ensure that heterogeneous and homogenized treatments experience the same degree of soil disturbance. Plants can then be placed in these soil treatments to determine the effect of plant-induced soil heterogeneity on plant performance. We demonstrate that plant-induced heterogeneity results in different outcomes than predicted by traditional coexistence models, perhaps because of the dynamic nature of these feedbacks. Theory that incorporates environmental heterogeneity influenced by the assembling community and additional empirical work is needed to determine when heterogeneity intrinsic to the assembling community will result in different assembly outcomes compared with heterogeneity extrinsic to the community composition.

  11. Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Protocol Development and Initial Outcome Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellard, Kristen K.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment developed to be applicable across the emotional disorders. The UP consists of 4 core modules: increasing emotional awareness, facilitating flexibility in appraisals, identifying and preventing behavioral and emotional avoidance, and situational and…

  12. Experimental models for contamination of titanium surfaces and disinfection protocols.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vanessa; Mardas, Nikos; Spratt, David; Boniface, David; Dard, Michel; Donos, Nikolaos

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to describe an in vitro model of peri-implantitis microcosm for contamination of titanium surfaces and an in vivo model for evaluating different disinfection strategies of titanium surfaces. Biofilms were grown in vitro for 30 days on sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) Ti discs (n = 69) in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) associated with peri-implantitis conditions. Four Swedish loop rabbits were randomly allocated in three test groups (T1 , T2 , T3 ) and one control group (C). In group C, two sterile SLA Ti discs were implanted/fixed in each tibia. In the test groups (to evaluate the potential of different surface disinfection techniques), one sterile and three previously disinfected SLA Ti discs were placed following different disinfection protocols: group T1 : the discs were treated with a titanium brush - TiB; group T2 : the discs were treated with the combination of TiB and photodynamic therapy; and group T3 : the discs were treated with TiB and 1%NaOCl plus 0.2%CHX. Tensile strength test and qualitative histological analysis were performed on all 16 discs after 4 weeks of healing. Thirty days following CDFF emulating peri-implantitis microcosm, all SLA Ti discs had a mean total viable aerobes and facultative anaerobes count of 8.06 log10  CFU/biofilm and anaerobes 8.32 log10  CFU/biofilm. Before implantation/fixation on the tibia, differences of log10  CFU/biofilm counts between control and test groups after post hoc adjustment were highly significant (P < 0.001). In the in vivo analysis, group C exhibited the highest tensile strength (67.60 N [25.64-127.02]) and the histological sections revealed the presence of dense mature bone in direct contact with the disc surface. The analysis at the test groups showed that T2 presented with the highest tensile strength in comparison with the other two test groups. The in vitro model used in this study provides a valuable and reproducible tool for evaluating

  13. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  14. Development and validation of a remote home safety protocol.

    PubMed

    Romero, Sergio; Lee, Mi Jung; Simic, Ivana; Levy, Charles; Sanford, Jon

    2017-03-22

    Environmental assessments and subsequent modifications conducted by healthcare professionals can enhance home safety and promote independent living. However, travel time, expense and the availability of qualified professionals can limit the broad application of this intervention. Remote technology has the potential to increase access to home safety evaluations. This study describes the development and validation of a remote home safety protocol that can be used by a caregiver of an elderly person to video-record their home environment for later viewing and evaluation by a trained professional. The protocol was developed based on literature reviews and evaluations from clinical and content experts. Cognitive interviews were conducted with a group of six caregivers to validate the protocol. The final protocol included step-by-step directions to record indoor and outdoor areas of the home. The validation process resulted in modifications related to safety, clarity of the protocol, readability, visual appearance, technical descriptions and usability. Our final protocol includes detailed instructions that a caregiver should be able to follow to record a home environment for subsequent evaluation by a home safety professional. Implications for Rehabilitation    The results of this study have several implications for rehabilitation practice   1. The remote home safety evaluation protocol can potentially improve access to rehabilitation services for clients in remote areas and prevent unnecessary delays for needed care.   2. Using our protocol, a patient's caregiver can partner with therapists to quickly and efficiently evaluate a patient's home before they are released from the hospital. Caregiver narration, which reflects a caregiver's own perspective, is critical to evaluating home safety.   3. In-home safety evaluations, currently not available to all who need them due to access barriers, can enhance a patient's independence and provide a safer

  15. Effect of Iranian Ministry of Health protocols on cesarean section rate: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Yavangi, Mahnaz; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Alishahi Tabriz, Amir

    2013-05-29

    High Cesarean section rate is a major health problem in developing countries. This study was established to evaluate the effectiveness of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education protocols on Cesarean section rate trend. Through a non-concurrent controlled quasi-experimental study, Cesarean section rate in Shohada-e-Tajrish and Taleghani hospitals in Tehran was compared during 2008-2009. Intervention group included 578 participants hospitalized because of premature rupture of membranes, prolonged pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation, vaginal bleeding and premature labor in first and second trimester underwent interventions based on MOHME new protocol. On the other hand 594 cases as control group were selected during the same time before the intervention and underwent routine treatments. Descriptive statics, t-test, chi square and univariate analysis were used when appropriate. Basic characteristics in two groups had no statistically significant difference. Cesarean section applied for 360 (67.8%) women in case group and on the other hand, 270 (48.8%) Cesarean sections were done for control group (P<0.001). There was 19 % difference between intervention and control groups. Complication of pregnancies had increased by 6% in intervention group (P<0.001). Mortality rate in the study was zero in both groups. Applying clinical practice guidelines does not guarantee decreasing Cesarean section rate. Providing appropriate service may increase the ability of service providers to find more indications for Cesarean section.

  16. Meaningful workplace protection factor measurement: experimental protocols and data treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, N; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, B

    2005-10-01

    Workplace performance measurement of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is fundamental to the understanding of how well wearers are protected. It forms the basis for guidance on which the selection of appropriate equipment is based. However, the measurement of this performance is open to many sources of interference and inaccuracy, reducing the value and relevance of the results, and is most difficult for devices providing the highest levels of protection. In this paper, a method for critically assessing collected workplace protection factor (WPF) data is validated. This method rejects unreliable data, using criteria based on the detection limits of the analytical measurement system. An iterative approach is also described which arrives at a supportable estimate of given non-parametric percentiles of the distribution of measured WPFs [such as the fifth percentile, conventionally taken to be the assigned protection factor (APF)]. Further pragmatic criteria, based on a combination of experimental experience and consideration from first principles, are suggested as the basis for any future studies of RPE performance. These will maximize the chances of valid measurements being made, and also provide insight into the level of confidence which can be placed on any of the results. A consequence of these criteria is that typical working environments and measurement methods are incapable of generating WPF data which can be considered reliable.

  17. Engineering platform and experimental protocol for design and evaluation of a neurally-controlled powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Harper, Stephen; Lee, Michael; Huang, He

    2014-07-22

    To enable intuitive operation of powered artificial legs, an interface between user and prosthesis that can recognize the user's movement intent is desired. A novel neural-machine interface (NMI) based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion developed in our previous study has demonstrated a great potential to accurately identify the intended movement of transfemoral amputees. However, this interface has not yet been integrated with a powered prosthetic leg for true neural control. This study aimed to report (1) a flexible platform to implement and optimize neural control of powered lower limb prosthesis and (2) an experimental setup and protocol to evaluate neural prosthesis control on patients with lower limb amputations. First a platform based on a PC and a visual programming environment were developed to implement the prosthesis control algorithms, including NMI training algorithm, NMI online testing algorithm, and intrinsic control algorithm. To demonstrate the function of this platform, in this study the NMI based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion was hierarchically integrated with intrinsic control of a prototypical transfemoral prosthesis. One patient with a unilateral transfemoral amputation was recruited to evaluate our implemented neural controller when performing activities, such as standing, level-ground walking, ramp ascent, and ramp descent continuously in the laboratory. A novel experimental setup and protocol were developed in order to test the new prosthesis control safely and efficiently. The presented proof-of-concept platform and experimental setup and protocol could aid the future development and application of neurally-controlled powered artificial legs.

  18. Engineering Platform and Experimental Protocol for Design and Evaluation of a Neurally-controlled Powered Transfemoral Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Harper, Stephen; Lee, Michael; Huang, He

    2014-01-01

    To enable intuitive operation of powered artificial legs, an interface between user and prosthesis that can recognize the user's movement intent is desired. A novel neural-machine interface (NMI) based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion developed in our previous study has demonstrated a great potential to accurately identify the intended movement of transfemoral amputees. However, this interface has not yet been integrated with a powered prosthetic leg for true neural control. This study aimed to report (1) a flexible platform to implement and optimize neural control of powered lower limb prosthesis and (2) an experimental setup and protocol to evaluate neural prosthesis control on patients with lower limb amputations. First a platform based on a PC and a visual programming environment were developed to implement the prosthesis control algorithms, including NMI training algorithm, NMI online testing algorithm, and intrinsic control algorithm. To demonstrate the function of this platform, in this study the NMI based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion was hierarchically integrated with intrinsic control of a prototypical transfemoral prosthesis. One patient with a unilateral transfemoral amputation was recruited to evaluate our implemented neural controller when performing activities, such as standing, level-ground walking, ramp ascent, and ramp descent continuously in the laboratory. A novel experimental setup and protocol were developed in order to test the new prosthesis control safely and efficiently. The presented proof-of-concept platform and experimental setup and protocol could aid the future development and application of neurally-controlled powered artificial legs. PMID:25079449

  19. Methods and Protocols for Developing Prion Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marciniuk, Kristen; Taschuk, Ryan; Napper, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases denote a distinct form of infectivity that is based in the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into a pathological, infectious conformation (PrP(Sc)). Efforts to develop vaccines for prion diseases have been complicated by the potential dangers that are associated with induction of immune responses against a self-protein. As a consequence, there is considerable appeal for vaccines that specifically target the misfolded prion conformation. Such conformation-specific immunotherapy is made possible through the identification of vaccine targets (epitopes) that are exclusively presented as a consequence of misfolding. An immune response directed against these targets, termed disease-specific epitopes (DSEs), has the potential to spare the function of the native form of the protein while clearing, or neutralizing, the infectious isomer. Although identification of DSEs represents a critical first step in the induction of conformation-specific immune responses, substantial efforts are required to translate these targets into functional vaccines. Due to the poor immunogenicity that is inherent to self-proteins, and that is often associated with short peptides, substantial efforts are required to overcome tolerance-to-self and maximize the resultant immune response following DSE-based immunization. This often includes optimization of target sequences in terms of immunogenicity and development of effective formulation and delivery strategies for the associated peptides. Further, these vaccines must satisfy additional criteria from perspectives of specificity (PrP(C) vs. PrP(Sc)) and safety (antibody-induced template-driven misfolding of PrP(C)). The emphasis of this report is on the steps required to translate DSEs into prion vaccines and subsequent evaluation of the resulting immune responses.

  20. Development of the Intercontrol Center Communications Protocol (ICCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.T.; Saxton, T.; Vojdani, A.; Ambrose, D.; Schimmel, G.; Blaesing, R.R.; Larson, R.

    1995-12-31

    After a three-year research and development project that included a collaborative effort by EPRI and 20 utilities and vendors, two electric utilities conducted full-scale demonstrations of a proposed international standard, UCA{trademark} compliant protocol for communicating between control centers. The recently developed Intercontrol Center Communications Protocol (ICCP) was implemented and tested at Western Area Power Administration`s (WAPA) Loveland Area Office and at Ohio Edison (OE) Company. A third node at the vendor, Harris Controls, allowed demonstration of routing and networking capabilities.

  1. RGB and Spectral Root Imaging for Plant Phenotyping and Physiological Research: Experimental Setup and Imaging Protocols.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Alsalem, Mouhannad; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Arnold, Thomas; Leitner, Daniel

    2017-08-08

    Better understanding of plant root dynamics is essential to improve resource use efficiency of agricultural systems and increase the resistance of crop cultivars against environmental stresses. An experimental protocol is presented for RGB and hyperspectral imaging of root systems. The approach uses rhizoboxes where plants grow in natural soil over a longer time to observe fully developed root systems. Experimental settings are exemplified for assessing rhizobox plants under water stress and studying the role of roots. An RGB imaging setup is described for cheap and quick quantification of root development over time. Hyperspectral imaging improves root segmentation from the soil background compared to RGB color based thresholding. The particular strength of hyperspectral imaging is the acquisition of chemometric information on the root-soil system for functional understanding. This is demonstrated with high resolution water content mapping. Spectral imaging however is more complex in image acquisition, processing and analysis compared to the RGB approach. A combination of both methods can optimize a comprehensive assessment of the root system. Application examples integrating root and aboveground traits are given for the context of plant phenotyping and plant physiological research. Further improvement of root imaging can be obtained by optimizing RGB image quality with better illumination using different light sources and by extension of image analysis methods to infer on root zone properties from spectral data.

  2. Fiber Laser Component Testing for Space Qualification Protocol Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, S.; Buelow, M.; Nelson, B.; Starcher, Y.; Thienel, L.; Rhodes, C.; Tull, Jackson; Drape, T.; Westfall, C.

    A test protocol for the space qualifying of Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser (DPFL) components was developed under the Bright Light effort, sponsored by AFRL/VSE. A literature search was performed and summarized in an AMOS 2005 conference paper that formed the building blocks for the development of the test protocol. The test protocol was developed from the experience of the Bright Light team, the information in the literature search, and the results of a study of the Telcordia standards. Based on this protocol developed, test procedures and acceptance criteria for a series of vibration, thermal/vacuum, and radiation exposure tests were developed for selected fiber laser components. Northrop Grumman led the effort in vibration and thermal testing of these components at the Aerospace Engineering Facility on Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. The results of the tests conducted have been evaluated. This paper discusses the vibration and thermal testing that was executed to validate the test protocol. The lessons learned will aid in future assessments and definition of space qualification protocols. Components representative of major items within a Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser were selected for testing; including fibers, isolators, combiners, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes. Selection of the components was based on guidelines to test multiple models of typical fiber laser components. A goal of the effort was to test two models (i.e. different manufacturers) of each type of article selected, representing different technologies for the same type of device. The test articles did not include subsystems or systems. These components and parts may not be available commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), and, in fact, many are custom articles, or newly developed by the manufacturer. The primary goal for this effort is a completed taxonomy that lists all relevant laser components, modules, subsystems, and interfaces, and cites the documentation for space

  3. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-01

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as `problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  4. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  5. Uncertainties in sediment erodibility estimates due to a lack of standards for experimental protocols and data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Lawrence P

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of the erodibility of muds and mud-sand mixtures is, at present, seldom possible without resorting to direct measurements, preferably in situ. A variety of devices and protocols have been developed for erosion testing, but a considerable degree of uncertainty remains with regard to the accuracy and comparability of the resulting data. This paper argues that differences in experimental protocols and data analysis procedures are a major contributing factor to uncertainty in estimates of sediment erodibility. In particular, the likelihood of a time-dependent erosion rate response under typical erosion testing conditions means that the time history of applied forcing and the chosen protocols for analyzing and interpreting data directly affect derived erosion parameters. Several straightforward ways to address this problem are suggested, including standardization of experimental design and data analysis protocols, explicit recognition and adoption of appropriate erosion model(s), and allowing for potential time/depth changes in erodibility. Experimentalists should also archive and share erosion-test time series, not just derived parameters, so that data sets may be reanalyzed within a different framework if necessary. An example is presented from an intercomparison experiment between the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences Sea Carousel and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Microcosm System, carried out in the upper Chesapeake Bay (Maryland, USA) in May 2002. Derived parameters appear to be incompatible when the data are analyzed using different procedures, but real similarities and differences are readily apparent when the data are analyzed using the same procedures.

  6. Developing a neonatal unit ventilation protocol for the preterm baby.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, G M; Keszler, M

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a resource-intensive complex medical intervention associated with high morbidity. Considerable practice style variation exists in most hospitals and is not only confusing for parents, but the lack of consistently high standard of optimal ventilation deprives some infants of the benefits of state-of-the-art care. Developing a unit protocol for mechanical ventilation requires exhaustive research, inclusion of all stake-holders, thoughtful protocol development and careful implementation after a thorough educational process, followed by monitoring. A protocol for respiratory support should be comprehensive, addressing respiratory support in the delivery room, the use of non-invasive support, intubation criteria, surfactant administration, specific ventilation modes and settings, criteria for escalating therapy, weaning protocols, extubation criteria, and post-extubation management. Evidence favors the use of non-invasive support as first line treatment, progressing to assist/control or pressure support ventilation combined with volume guarantee, if needed, and high-frequency ventilation only for specific indications. The open lung strategy is crucial to lung-protective ventilation.

  7. Immunosuppression for in vivo research: state-of-the-art protocols and experimental approaches

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Rita; Ferrara, Fabienne; Müller, Claudia; Dreyer, Antje Y; McLeod, Damian D; Fricke, Stephan; Boltze, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Almost every experimental treatment strategy using non-autologous cell, tissue or organ transplantation is tested in small and large animal models before clinical translation. Because these strategies require immunosuppression in most cases, immunosuppressive protocols are a key element in transplantation experiments. However, standard immunosuppressive protocols are often applied without detailed knowledge regarding their efficacy within the particular experimental setting and in the chosen model species. Optimization of such protocols is pertinent to the translation of experimental results to human patients and thus warrants further investigation. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding immunosuppressive drug classes as well as their dosages and application regimens with consideration of species-specific drug metabolization and side effects. It also summarizes contemporary knowledge of novel immunomodulatory strategies, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells or antibodies. Thus, this review is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art compendium for researchers to refine applied experimental immunosuppression and immunomodulation strategies to enhance the predictive value of preclinical transplantation studies. PMID:27721455

  8. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  9. An Experimental Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Ramalli, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Quaglia, Fabio; Castellazzi, Gloria; Morbini, Patrizia; Piastra, Marco

    2017-09-24

    The possibility to perform an early and repeatable assessment of imaging performance is fundamental in the design and development process of new ultrasound (US) probes. Particularly, a more realistic analysis with application-specific imaging targets can be extremely valuable to assess the expected performance of US probes in their potential clinical field of application. The experimental protocol presented in this work was purposely designed to provide an application-specific assessment procedure for newly-developed US probe prototypes based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) technology in relation to brain imaging. The protocol combines the use of a bovine brain fixed in formalin as the imaging target, which ensures both realism and repeatability of the described procedures, and of neuronavigation techniques borrowed from neurosurgery. The US probe is in fact connected to a motion tracking system which acquires position data and enables the superposition of US images to reference Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brain. This provides a means for human experts to perform a visual qualitative assessment of the US probe imaging performance and to compare acquisitions made with different probes. Moreover, the protocol relies on the use of a complete and open research and development system for US image acquisition, i.e. the Ultrasound Advanced Open Platform (ULA-OP) scanner. The manuscript describes in detail the instruments and procedures involved in the protocol, in particular for the calibration, image acquisition and registration of US and MR images. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the overall protocol presented, which is entirely open (within the limits of the instrumentation involved), repeatable, and covers the entire set of acquisition and processing activities for US images.

  10. SIMULATING THE GROWTH OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE EXPLANTS IN A PERMEATION BIOREACTOR TO AID IN EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL DESIGN

    PubMed Central

    Ficklin, Timothy P.; Davol, Andrew; Klisch, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a cartilage growth finite element model (CGFEM) was developed to solve non-homogeneous and time-dependent growth boundary value problems [1, 2]. The CGFEM allows distinct stress constitutive equations and growth laws for the major components of the solid matrix, collagens and proteoglycans. The objective of the current work was to simulate in vitro growth of articular cartilage explants in a steady-state permeation bioreactor in order to obtain results that aid experimental design. The steady-state permeation protocol induces different types of mechanical stimuli: when the specimen is initially homogeneous it directly induces homogeneous permeation velocities and indirectly induces non-homogeneous solid matrix shear stresses; consequently, the steady-state permeation protocol is a good candidate for exploring two competing hypotheses for the growth laws. The analysis protocols were implemented through the alternating interaction of the two CGFEM components: poroelastic FEA using ABAQUS and a finite element growth routine using MATLAB. The CGFEM simulated 12 days of growth for immature bovine articular cartilage explants subjected to two competing hypotheses for the growth laws: one that is triggered by permeation velocity and the other by maximum shear stress. The results provide predictions for geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters of grown tissue specimens that may be experimentally measured and, consequently, suggest key biomechanical measures to analyze as pilot experiments are performed. The combined approach of CGFEM analysis and pilot experiments may lead to the refinement of actual experimental protocols and a better understanding of in vitro growth of articular cartilage. PMID:19275437

  11. Cheating and Anti-Cheating in Gossip-Based Protocol: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanchun; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Nan

    During recent years, there has been a rapid growth in deployment of gossip-based protocol in many multicast applications. In a typical gossip-based protocol, each node acts as dual roles of receiver and sender, independently exchanging data with its neighbors to facilitate scalability and resilience. However, most of previous work in this literature seldom considered cheating issue of end users, which is also very important in face of the fact that the mutual cooperation inherently determines overall system performance. In this paper, we investigate the dishonest behaviors in decentralized gossip-based protocol through extensive experimental study. Our original contributions come in two-fold: In the first part of cheating study, we analytically discuss two typical cheating strategies, that is, intentionally increasing subscription requests and untruthfully calculating forwarding probability, and further evaluate their negative impacts. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to defending cheating behaviors in gossip-based protocol. In the second part of anti-cheating study, we propose a receiver-driven measurement mechanism, which evaluates individual forwarding traffic from the perspective of receivers and thus identifies cheating nodes with high incoming/outgoing ratio. Furthermore, we extend our mechanism by introducing reliable factor to further improve its accuracy. The experiments under various conditions show that it performs quite well in case of serious cheating and achieves considerable performance in other cases.

  12. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges.

  13. Driving Position Field Study, Differences with the Whiplash Protocol and Biomechanics Experimental Responses

    PubMed Central

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Pozo, Eduardo Del; Lessley, David; Barrios, Jose Manuel; Nombela, Mario; Cisneros, Oscar; de Miguel, Juan Luis; Seguí-Gómez, María

    2011-01-01

    Rear-impact collisions at low speed are a leading cause of economic costs among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, EuroNCAP has incorporated in its protocol the whiplash test, to reproduce a low-speed rear impact. This paper presents a field driving study to assess the potential differences between the EuroNCAP dummy tests and actual drivers in the field, focusing on occupant position and biomechanics experimental results. A total of 182 drivers were randomly selected in two geographical areas in Spain. The driving position of each driver was recorded with a focus on the most relevant measurements for rear impact. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain means, standard deviations and density functions to compare observational seating position with that of the EuroNCAP testing protocol. The observational data showed a similar seatback angle to that used in the EuroNCAP protocol (24° in front of 25° for the protocol), a greater distance between the head vertex and the top of the head restraint (53mm compared to 39.5mm), and less distance between the occipital bone of the head and the headrest (67.9 compared to 89.3mm). Based on these data, 4 dummy tests were conducted using the dummy BioRID IIg. The baseline test was designed to reproduce the dummy position according to EuroNCAP 3.0 whiplash protocol. Three different additional tests were defined to reproduce the actual observed driving position as well as to assess a “worst case” scenario in terms of reduced seatback angle. These variations in initial driver position, comparing the EuroNCAP protocol to the observational study results, were not observed to cause significant differences in the biomechanical values measured in the BioRID IIg, The T1 acceleration was reduced less than 8%, the NIC was increased about 8%, and the NKm presented a reduction of 20%. Reducing the seat angle was observed to be more harmful in terms of NIC. PMID:22105385

  14. Driving position field study, differences with the whiplash protocol and biomechanics experimental responses.

    PubMed

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Pozo, Eduardo Del; Lessley, David; Barrios, Jose Manuel; Nombela, Mario; Cisneros, Oscar; De Miguel, Juan Luis; Seguí-Gómez, María

    2011-01-01

    Rear-impact collisions at low speed are a leading cause of economic costs among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, EuroNCAP has incorporated in its protocol the whiplash test, to reproduce a low-speed rear impact. This paper presents a field driving study to assess the potential differences between the EuroNCAP dummy tests and actual drivers in the field, focusing on occupant position and biomechanics experimental results. A total of 182 drivers were randomly selected in two geographical areas in Spain. The driving position of each driver was recorded with a focus on the most relevant measurements for rear impact. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain means, standard deviations and density functions to compare observational seating position with that of the EuroNCAP testing protocol. The observational data showed a similar seatback angle to that used in the EuroNCAP protocol (24° in front of 25° for the protocol), a greater distance between the head vertex and the top of the head restraint (53mm compared to 39.5mm), and less distance between the occipital bone of the head and the headrest (67.9 compared to 89.3mm). Based on these data, 4 dummy tests were conducted using the dummy BioRID IIg. The baseline test was designed to reproduce the dummy position according to EuroNCAP 3.0 whiplash protocol. Three different additional tests were defined to reproduce the actual observed driving position as well as to assess a "worst case" scenario in terms of reduced seatback angle. These variations in initial driver position, comparing the EuroNCAP protocol to the observational study results, were not observed to cause significant differences in the biomechanical values measured in the BioRID IIg, The T1 acceleration was reduced less than 8%, the NIC was increased about 8%, and the NKm presented a reduction of 20%. Reducing the seat angle was observed to be more harmful in terms of NIC.

  15. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  16. Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements

    DOE PAGES

    Faye, Sherry A.; Richards, Jason M.; Gallardo, Athena M.; ...

    2017-02-07

    Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible. This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of 232Th, 238U, 239,240Pu and 241Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials. Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species.

  17. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Willeboordse, M; Jansen, M W; van den Heijkant, S N; Simons, A; Winkens, B; de Groot, R H M; Bartelink, N; Kremers, S P; van Assema, P; Savelberg, H H; de Neubourg, E; Borghans, L; Schils, T; Coppens, K M; Dietvorst, R; Ten Hoopen, R; Coomans, F; Klosse, S; Conjaerts, M H J; Oosterhoff, M; Joore, M A; Ferreira, I; Muris, P; Bosma, H; Toppenberg, H L; van Schayck, C P

    2016-07-26

    Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children's body mass index (BMI). In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200) in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200) in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named 'The Healthy Primary School of the Future', is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called 'The Physical Activity School', is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted nature and sound scientific foundation, these integrated programmes

  18. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  19. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  20. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  1. Development of a Protocol for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Laura; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  2. Development of a protocol for predicting bacterial resistance to microbicides.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Laura; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo; Yu, Qingzhong; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-03-01

    While there is typically 100% survivability in birds challenged with vNDV under experimental conditions, either with vaccines formulated with a strain homologous or heterologous (different genotype) to the challenge virus, vaccine deficiencies are often noted in the field. We have developed an improved and more stringent protocol to experimentally evaluate live NDV vaccines, and showed for the first time under experimental conditions that a statistically significant reduction in mortality can be detected with genotype matched vaccines. Using both vaccine evaluation protocols (traditional and improved), birds were challenged with a vNDV of genotype XIII and the efficacy of live heterologous (genotype II) and homologous (genotype XIII) NDV vaccines was compared. Under traditional vaccination conditions there were no differences in survival upon challenge, but the homologous vaccine induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific to the challenge virus. With the more stringent challenge system (multiple vaccine doses and early challenge with high titers of vNDV), the birds administered the homologous vaccine had superior humoral responses, reduced clinical signs, and reduced mortality levels than those vaccinated with the heterologous vaccine. These results provide basis for the implementation of more sensitive methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Development of Standardized Material Testing Protocols for Prosthetic Liners.

    PubMed

    Cagle, John C; Reinhall, Per G; Hafner, Brian J; Sanders, Joan E

    2017-04-01

    A set of protocols was created to characterize prosthetic liners across six clinically relevant material properties. Properties included compressive elasticity, shear elasticity, tensile elasticity, volumetric elasticity, coefficient of friction (CoF), and thermal conductivity. Eighteen prosthetic liners representing the diverse range of commercial products were evaluated to create test procedures that maximized repeatability, minimized error, and provided clinically meaningful results. Shear and tensile elasticity test designs were augmented with finite element analysis (FEA) to optimize specimen geometries. Results showed that because of the wide range of available liner products, the compressive elasticity and tensile elasticity tests required two test maxima; samples were tested until they met either a strain-based or a stress-based maximum, whichever was reached first. The shear and tensile elasticity tests required that no cyclic conditioning be conducted because of limited endurance of the mounting adhesive with some liner materials. The coefficient of friction test was based on dynamic coefficient of friction, as it proved to be a more reliable measurement than static coefficient of friction. The volumetric elasticity test required that air be released beneath samples in the test chamber before testing. The thermal conductivity test best reflected the clinical environment when thermal grease was omitted and when liner samples were placed under pressure consistent with load bearing conditions. The developed procedures provide a standardized approach for evaluating liner products in the prosthetics industry. Test results can be used to improve clinical selection of liners for individual patients and guide development of new liner products.

  5. Developing an evidence-based practice protocol: implications for midwifery practice.

    PubMed

    Carr, K C

    2000-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is defined and its importance to midwifery practice is presented. Guidelines are provided for the development of an evidence-based practice protocol. These include: identifying the clinical question, obtaining the evidence, evaluating the validity and importance of the evidence, synthesizing the evidence and applying it to the development of a protocol or clinical algorithm, and, finally, developing an evaluation plan or measurement strategy to see if the new protocol is effective.

  6. Developing a notebook protocol for the high school chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Roselyn I.

    The focus of this project is to increase science literacy in high school students using a protocol that emphasizes writing. A protocol or lesson sequence comprises a code of behavior to encourage learning through reflection, writing, and self-assessment. A basic protocol may have a sequence of writing elements or tasks which checks for prior knowledge, looks at lesson standards, studies content, and summarizes learning. Using the protocol, students will demonstrate evidence of their learning through writing. The project will identify a progression of tasks which enable students to master content and express mastery through writing. The student's interactive notebook will record evidence of their learning. Several styles of writing and reporting tasks will be explored using the notebook. Students will help implement and identify tasks that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of science content.

  7. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  8. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  9. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H

    2000-03-07

    Humans have only a limited ability to incorporate information in decision making. In certain situations, the mismatch between this limitation and the availability of extensive information contributes to the varying performance and high error rate of clinical decision makers. Variation in clinical practice is due in part to clinicians' poor compliance with guidelines and recommended therapies. The use of decision-support tools is a response to both the information revolution and poor compliance. Computerized protocols used to deliver decision support can be configured to contain much more detail than textual guidelines or paper-based flow diagrams. Such protocols can generate patient-specific instructions for therapy that can be carried out with little interclinician variability; however, clinicians must be willing to modify personal styles of clinical management. Protocols need not be perfect. Several defensible and reasonable approaches are available for clinical problems. However, one of these reasonable approaches must be chosen and incorporated into the protocol to promote consistent clinical decisions. This reasoning is the basis of an explicit method of decision support that allows the rigorous evaluation of interventions, including use of the protocols themselves. Computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation and management of intravenous fluid and hemodynamic factors in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome provide case studies for this discussion.

  10. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  11. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR PROTOCOLS AND OTHER TECHNICAL PRODUCTS.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III - Capes. The 2013 area documents of all the 48 Capes areas were read. From the analysis of the criteria used by the areas at the 2013's Triennal Assessment, a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products was developed to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III. This proposal was based on the criteria of Biological Sciences I and Interdisciplinary areas. Only seven areas have described a scoring system for technical products. The products considered and the scoring varied widely. Due to the wide range of different technical products which could be considered relevant, and that would not be punctuated if they were not previously specified, it was developed, for the Medicine III, a proposal for metrics in which five specific criteria to be analyzed: Demand, Relevance/Impact, Scope, Complexity and Adherence to the Program. Based on these criteria, each product can receive 10 to 100 points. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection "Technical production, patents and other relevant production". The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches mean ≥150 points/permanent professor/quadrennium; Good, mean between 100 and 149 points; Regular, mean between 60 and 99 points; Weak mean between 30 and 59 points; Insufficient, up to 29 points/permanent professor/quadrennium. Desenvolver proposta de métricas para protocolos e outras produções técnicas a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III da Capes. Foram lidos os documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes. A partir da análise dos critérios utilizados por elas na avaliação trienal 2013, foi desenvolvida uma proposta de métricas para protocolos e outras produções técnicas. Esta proposta foi baseada

  13. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  14. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Weng, C.K.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  15. Continued Development and Implementation of the Protocols for the Digital Engineering Laboratory Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    located at Griffis AFB, NY. under AFIT’s post doctorial reseach program . A tremendous concentration of research has been spawned by industry to place...of the protocol and structured programming which comprise the software for developing this protocol. This development is analogous to the...the hierarchial structure of the protocol levels and that of the top down design of structured programming . This comparison is not subtle, however

  16. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  17. Status and trends monitoring of riparian and aquatic habitat in the Olympic Experimental State Forest: Monitoring protocols

    Treesearch

    Teodora Minkova; Alex D. Foster

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the monitoring protocols for the Status and Trends Monitoring of Riparian and Aquatic Habitats project in the Olympic Experimental State Forest (OESF). The procedures yield the empirical data needed to address key uncertainties regarding the integration of timber production and habitat conservation across landscapes and assess progress toward...

  18. Development of a Protocol to Measure Team Behavior in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephanie G.; Zafft, Carmen R.; Molano, Maria Carolina; Rao, Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In this project, the researchers set out to develop a protocol to measure team behaviors in engineering education. The objective of this paper is the result of the attempt by the researchers to observe teams in the engineering classroom. The focus is the development of the protocol to measure team behavior and lessons learned from implementing…

  19. MANEMO Routing in Practice: Protocol Selection, Expected Performance, and Experimental Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Hajime; van Meter, Rodney; Wakikawa, Ryuji; Wongsaardsakul, Thirapon; Kanchanasut, Kanchana; Dias de Amorim, Marcelo; Murai, Jun

    Motivated by the deployment of post-disaster MANEMO (MANET for NEMO) composed of mobile routers and stations, we evaluate two candidate routing protocols through network simulation, theoretical performance analysis, and field experiments. The first protocol is the widely adopted Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR) and the second is the combination of the Tree Discovery Protocol (TDP) with Network In Node Advertisement (NINA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these two protocols are compared in both theoretical and practical terms. We focus on the control overhead generated when mobile routers perform a handover. Our results confirm the correctness and operational robustness of both protocols. More interestingly, although in the general case OLSR leads to better results, TDP/NINA outperforms OLSR both in the case of sparse networks and in highly mobile networks, which correspond to the operation point of a large set of post-disaster scenarios.

  20. Multicenter Evaluation of Geometric Accuracy of MRI Protocols Used in Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Milidonis, Xenios; Lennen, Ross J.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Mueller, Susanne; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Holmes, William M.; Sena, Emily S.; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multicenter preclinical stroke studies should be carried out to improve translation from bench to bedside, but the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners routinely used in experimental stroke has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to assess and compare geometric accuracy of preclinical scanners and examine the longitudinal stability of one scanner using a simple quality assurance (QA) protocol. Six 7 Tesla animal scanners across six different preclinical imaging centers throughout Europe were used to scan a small structural phantom and estimate linear scaling errors in all orthogonal directions and volumetric errors. Between-scanner imaging consisted of a standard sequence and each center’s preferred sequence for the assessment of infarct size in rat models of stroke. The standard sequence was also used to evaluate the drift in accuracy of the worst performing scanner over a period of six months following basic gradient calibration. Scaling and volumetric errors using the standard sequence were less variable than corresponding errors using different stroke sequences. The errors for one scanner, estimated using the standard sequence, were very high (above 4% scaling errors for each orthogonal direction, 18.73% volumetric error). Calibration of the gradient coils in this system reduced scaling errors to within ±1.0%; these remained stable during the subsequent 6-month assessment. In conclusion, despite decades of use in experimental studies, preclinical MRI still suffers from poor and variable geometric accuracy, influenced by the use of miscalibrated systems and various types of sequences for the same purpose. For effective pooling of data in multicenter studies, centers should adopt standardized procedures for system QA and in vivo imaging. PMID:27603704

  1. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

  2. Absolute Paleointensity Estimates using Combined Shaw and Pseudo-Thellier Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, M. S.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Data on the long-term evolution of Earth's magnetic field intensity have a great potential to advance our understanding of many aspects of the Earth's evolution. However, paleointensity determination is one of the most challenging aspects of paleomagnetic research so the quantity and quality of existing paleointensity data remain limited, especially for older epochs. While the Thellier double-heating method remains to be the most commonly used paleointensity technique, its applicability is limited for many rocks that undergo magneto-mineralogical alteration during the successive heating steps required by the method. In order to reduce the probability of alteration, several alternative methods that involve a limited number of or no heating steps have been proposed. However, continued efforts are needed to better understand the physical foundations and relative efficiency of reduced/non-heating methods in recovering the true paleofield strength and to better constrain their calibration factors. We will present the results of our investigation of synthetic and natural magnetite-bearing samples using a combination of the LTD-DHT Shaw and pseudo-Thellier experimental protocols for absolute paleointensity estimation.

  3. Mathematical modeling on experimental protocol of glucose adjustment for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Min, Xiaolin; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Currently, blood glucose concentration levels from OGTT(Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) results are used to build PLS model in noninvasive blood glucose sensing by Near-Infrared(NIR) Spectroscopy. However, the univocal dynamic change trend of blood glucose concentration based on OGTT results is not various enough to provide comprehensive data to make PLS model robust and accurate. In this talk, with the final purpose of improving the stability and accuracy of the PLS model, we introduced an integrated minimal model(IMM) of glucose metabolism system. First, by adjusting parameters, which represent different metabolism characteristics and individual differences, comparatively ideal mediation programs to different groups of people, even individuals were customized. Second, with different glucose input types(oral method, intravenous injection, or intravenous drip), we got various changes of blood glucose concentration. And by studying the adjustment methods of blood glucose concentration, we would thus customize corresponding experimental protocols of glucose adjustment to different people for noninvasive blood glucose concentration and supply comprehensive data for PLS model.

  4. Protocols development for security and privacy of radio frequency identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagha, Fatin

    There are benefits to adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, although there are methods of attack that can compromise the system. This research determined how that may happen and what possible solutions can keep that from happening. Protocols were developed to implement better security. In addition, new topologies were developed to handle the problems of the key management. Previously proposed protocols focused on providing mutual authentication and privacy between readers and tags. However, those protocols are still vulnerable to be attacked. These protocols were analyzed and the disadvantages shown for each one. Previous works assumed that the channels between readers and the servers were secure. In the proposed protocols, a compromised reader is considered along with how to prevent tags from being read by that reader. The new protocols provide mutual authentication between readers and tags and, at the same time, remove the compromised reader from the system. Three protocols are proposed. In the first protocol, a mutual authentication is achieved and a compromised reader is not allowed in the network. In the second protocol, the number of times a reader contacts the server is reduced. The third protocol provides authentication and privacy between tags and readers using a trusted third party. The developed topology is implemented using python language and simulates work to check the efficiency regarding the processing time. The three protocols are implemented by writing codes in C language and then compiling them in MSP430. IAR Embedded workbench is used, which is an integrated development environment with the C/C++ compiler to generate a faster code and to debug the microcontroller. In summary, the goal of this research is to find solutions for the problems on previously proposed protocols, handle a compromised reader, and solve key management problems.

  5. Development of a neuro early mobilisation protocol for use in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Brissie, Megan A; Zomorodi, Meg; Soares-Sardinha, Sharmila; Jordan, J Dedrick

    2017-10-01

    Through evaluation of the literature and working with a team of multidisciplinary healthcare providers, our objective was to refine an interprofessional Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol for complex patients in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Using the literature as a guide, key stakeholders, from multiple professions, designed and refined a Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol. This project took place at a large academic medical center in the southeast United States classified as both a Level I Trauma Center and Comprehensive Stroke Center. Goals for protocol development were to: (1) simplify the protocol to allow for ease of use, (2) make the protocol more generalizable to the patient population cared for in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit, (3) receive feedback from those using the original protocol on ways to improve the protocol and (4) ensure patients were properly screened for inclusion and exclusion in the protocol. Using expert feedback and the evidence, an evidence-based Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol was created for use with all patients in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Future work will consist of protocol implementation and evaluation in order to increase patient mobilisation in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Groundwater Transport Models: Protocol and Model Development in a Simulative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K.; Urteaga, I.; Han, Q.; Porta, L.; Jayasumana, A.; Illangasekare, T.

    2007-12-01

    , and protocols necessary for a closed-loop simulation online, combining work across multiple disciplines. This simulation environment will expedite software development and a large-scale experimental aquifer will be used for further validation of the techniques. The results presented here address: setup of a WSN simulator which cooperates with transport models, development of fault detection techniques into the WSN routing protocol which are particular to this application, and planned steps in building a transport model capable of working in the WSN context.

  7. Symposium on Recent Developments in Experimental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine

    An overview of some of the recent developments in experimental research on early infantile autism considers related issues such as language impairments, cognitive and affective deficits, nonverbal communication, social behavior, and therapeutic interventions. Research indicates that difficulty with abstract use of language and with pragmatic…

  8. Development of protocol for the management of cervical cancer symptoms in resource-constrained developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2015-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of women in economically emerging countries. Patients have distressing symptoms from presentation through follow-up or end of life. Cervical cancer imposes significant burden on health care system due to distressing symptoms and associated loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Multitude of drugs and surgical measures in various combinations can relieve these distressing symptoms and various clinical conditions. The protocols and guidelines for alleviation or relief of symptoms by general pharmacological and surgical measures form an important policy subject in planning cervical cancer management program. These protocol and guidelines are based on the mechanism of action of drugs, extrapolation from management of similar symptoms, and clinical situations arising out of other non-cancerous conditions and experience of health care professionals. Therefore, rigorous evaluation of effectiveness of supportive health care services in developing countries is the need of hour. However, evaluation of such protocol and guidelines are not feasible in emerging economies due to resource constraint. Industrialized affluent nations are also not able to implement and further support care guidelines despite its recognition as an integral part of multidisciplinary management of cancer. Aforementioned factors have created blind spot zone of management purview of cervical cancer. Hence, we attempt to develop protocol for management of adverse events of cervical cancer. Symptoms' and medical conditions' management guidelines evolved on the basis of empirical clinical practice in community and premier oncology centers in resource-constrained developing countries has been presented in this short report. This report should not be an end in itself but has to attract attention of policy-makers, academicians, researchers, and practitioners toward advancing supportive care needs of cancer patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

  9. Experimental protocols for behavioral imaging: seeing animal models of drug abuse in a new light.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Alexandra R; Talan, Amanda; Schiffer, Wynne K

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral neuroimaging is a rapidly evolving discipline that represents a marriage between the fields of behavioral neuroscience and preclinical molecular imaging. This union highlights the changing role of imaging in translational research. Techniques developed for humans are now widely applied in the study of animal models of brain disorders such as drug addiction. Small animal or preclinical imaging allows us to interrogate core features of addiction from both behavioral and biological endpoints. Snapshots of brain activity allow us to better understand changes in brain function and behavior associated with initial drug exposure, the emergence of drug escalation, and repeated bouts of drug withdrawal and relapse. Here we review the development and validation of new behavioral imaging paradigms and several clinically relevant radiotracers used to capture dynamic molecular events in behaving animals. We will discuss ways in which behavioral imaging protocols can be optimized to increase throughput and quantitative methods. Finally, we discuss our experience with the practical aspects of behavioral neuroimaging, so investigators can utilize effective animal models to better understand the addicted brain and behavior.

  10. Experimental Protocol for Detecting Cyanobacteria in Liquid and Solid Samples with an Antibody Microarray Chip.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Yolanda; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Victor

    2017-02-07

    Global warming and eutrophication make some aquatic ecosystems behave as true bioreactors that trigger rapid and massive cyanobacterial growth; this has relevant health and economic consequences. Many cyanobacterial strains are toxin producers, and only a few cells are necessary to induce irreparable damage to the environment. Therefore, water-body authorities and administrations require rapid and efficient early-warning systems providing reliable data to support their preventive or curative decisions. This manuscript reports an experimental protocol for the in-field detection of toxin-producing cyanobacterial strains by using an antibody microarray chip with 17 antibodies (Abs) with taxonomic resolution (CYANOCHIP). Here, a multiplex fluorescent sandwich microarray immunoassay (FSMI) for the simultaneous monitoring of 17 cyanobacterial strains frequently found blooming in freshwater ecosystems, some of them toxin producers, is described. A microarray with multiple identical replicates (up to 24) of the CYANOCHIP was printed onto a single microscope slide to simultaneously test a similar number of samples. Liquid samples can be tested either by direct incubation with the antibodies (Abs) or after cell concentration by filtration through a 1- to 3-μm filter. Solid samples, such as sediments and ground rocks, are first homogenized and dispersed by a hand-held ultrasonicator in an incubation buffer. They are then filtered (5 - 20 μm) to remove the coarse material, and the filtrate is incubated with Abs. Immunoreactions are revealed by a final incubation with a mixture of the 17 fluorescence-labeled Abs and are read by a portable fluorescence detector. The whole process takes around 3 h, most of it corresponding to two 1-h periods of incubation. The output is an image, where bright spots correspond to the positive detection of cyanobacterial markers.

  11. "Aristotle's Pharmacy": The Medical Rhetoric of a Clinical Protocol in the Drug Development Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Heather D.; Walch, Kathleen A.; Katz, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the clinical protocol within the rhetorical framework of the drug development and approval process, identifying the constraints under which the protocol is written and the rhetorical form, argumentative strategies, and style needed to improve and teach the writing of this document. (SC)

  12. Development of protocols to inventory or monitor wildlife, fish, or rare plants

    Treesearch

    David Vesely; Brenda C. McComb; Christina D. Vojta; Lowell H. Suring; Jurai Halaj; Richard S. Holthausen; Benjamin Zuckerberg; Patricia M. Manley

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this technical guide (hereafter referred to as the Species Protocol Technical Guide) is to provide guidelines for developing inventory and monitoring (I&M) protocols for wildlife, fish, and rare plants (WFRP) using the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service technical guide format.

  13. Development of a protocol for the ecological assessment of a special species

    Treesearch

    David Burton

    2004-01-01

    Developing consistent inventory and assessment protocols is important to people working on aspen issues in California and Nevada. Efforts have focused on identifying key indicators of ecological condition within aspen stands. The protocols have incorporated a range of factors that create or affect those indicators. Resulting ecological assessments conducted through the...

  14. Guidelines for experimental design protocol and validation procedure for the measurement of heat resistance of microorganisms in milk.

    PubMed

    Condron, Robin; Farrokh, Choreh; Jordan, Kieran; McClure, Peter; Ross, Tom; Cerf, Olivier

    2015-01-02

    Studies on the heat resistance of dairy pathogens are a vital part of assessing the safety of dairy products. However, harmonized methodology for the study of heat resistance of food pathogens is lacking, even though there is a need for such harmonized experimental design protocols and for harmonized validation procedures for heat treatment studies. Such an approach is of particular importance to allow international agreement on appropriate risk management of emerging potential hazards for human and animal health. This paper is working toward establishment of a harmonized protocol for the study of the heat resistance of pathogens, identifying critical issues for establishment of internationally agreed protocols, including a harmonized framework for reporting and interpretation of heat inactivation studies of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  15. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  16. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  17. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; BRITO, Gerly Anne de Castro; PESSOA, Rosana Maria Andrade; STUDART-SOARES, Eduardo Costa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. Material and Methods The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. Results The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 μm and 2087.094 μm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 μm and 12046.426 μm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. Conclusions The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies. PMID:22230994

  18. Development and evaluation of multispecies test protocols for assessing chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Suter, G.W. II; Blaylock, B.G.

    1985-06-01

    Toxicity testing is a well-recognized tool to assist in evaluating the hazards of chemicals to individual biological species. Multispecies toxicity tests, however, are now well developed. Three test systems were examined: the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for N-fixation, soil microbial populations, and algal multispecies interactions. Test protocols were to be developed and tested using several different chemicals. Test protocols for the legume-Rhizobium and soil microorganisms systems were developed and are presented. The algal multispecies system will require more research, and thus no protocol was recommended at this time. Separate abstracts were prepared for each test system. (ACR)

  19. A numerical-experimental protocol to characterize corneal tissue with an application to predict astigmatic keratotomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Gracia, M Á; Ortillés, Á; Cristóbal, J Á; Rodríguez Matas, J F; Calvo, B

    2017-10-01

    Tonometers are intended to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the quality of corneal tissue. In contrast to the physiological state of stress of the cornea, tonometers induce non-physiological bending stress. Recently, the use of a single experiment to calibrate a set of corneal mechanical properties was suggested to be an ill-posed problem. Thus, we propose a numerical-experimental protocol that uses inflation and indentation experiments simultaneously, restricting the optimization space to circumvent the ambiguity of the fitting. For the first time, both corneal behaviors, i.e., biaxial tension (physiological) and bending (non-physiological), are taken into account. The experimental protocol was performed using an animal model (New Zealand rabbit's cornea). The patient-specific geometry and IOP were registered using a MODI topographer (CSO, Italy) and an applanation tonometer, respectively. The mechanical response was evaluated using inflation and indentation experiments. Subsequently, the optimal set of material properties is identified via an inverse finite element method. To validate the methodology, an in vivo incisional refractive surgery (astigmatic keratotomy, AK) is performed on four animals. The optical outcomes showed a good agreement between the real and simulated surgeries, indicating that the protocol can provide a reliable set of mechanical properties that enables further applications and simulations. After a reliable ex vivo database of inflation experiments is built, our protocol could be extended to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Avezaat, Ellis; Häkkinen, Arja; Klaver, Rob; Maas, Tjieu; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities. Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Method Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Results Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent comorbidities in OA. Field testing showed that the protocols provided guidance in clinical decision making in both the diagnostic and the treatment phase. Because of overlap, the number of exercise protocols could be reduced to three: one for physiological adaptations (coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes type 2, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, obesity), one for behavioral adaptations (chronic a-specific pain, nonspecific low back pain, depression), and one for environmental adaptations (visual or hearing impairments). Evaluation of patient outcome after treatment showed significant (P<0.05) and clinically relevant improvements in activity limitations and pain. Conclusion Comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA were developed, providing guidance in clinical reasoning with regard to diagnostics and treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in line

  1. Development of comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Avezaat, Ellis; Häkkinen, Arja; Klaver, Rob; Maas, Tjieu; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost

    2014-01-01

    Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent comorbidities in OA. Field testing showed that the protocols provided guidance in clinical decision making in both the diagnostic and the treatment phase. Because of overlap, the number of exercise protocols could be reduced to three: one for physiological adaptations (coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes type 2, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, obesity), one for behavioral adaptations (chronic a-specific pain, nonspecific low back pain, depression), and one for environmental adaptations (visual or hearing impairments). Evaluation of patient outcome after treatment showed significant (P<0.05) and clinically relevant improvements in activity limitations and pain. Comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA were developed, providing guidance in clinical reasoning with regard to diagnostics and treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in line with our protocols, a randomized clinical

  2. Development of Experimental Vaccines Against Liver Flukes.

    PubMed

    Yap, Huan Yong; Smooker, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of experimental vaccines have been developed against liver flukes in the past. However, there has yet to be the development of a commercial livestock vaccine. Reasons for this may be multiple, and include the lack of identification of the best antigen(s), or the immune response induced by those antigens not being appropriate in either magnitude or polarity (and therefore not protective). Cathepsin proteases are the major component of the excretory/secretory (ES) material of liver flukes in all stages of their life cycle in the definitive host and are the primary antigens of interest for the vaccine development in many studies. Hence, this chapter presents the methodologies of using cathepsin proteases as targeted antigens in recombinant protein and DNA vaccine development to engender protective immune responses against fasciolosis.First, the experimental vaccines developed in the past and the criteria of an effective vaccine for fasciolosis are briefly reviewed. Then flowcharts for recombinant protein vaccine and DNA vaccine development are presented, followed by the detailed materials and methodologies.

  3. An Experimental and Finite Element Protocol to Investigate the Transport of Neutral and Charged Solutes across Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2017-04-23

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that is associated with degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Degeneration of articular cartilage impairs its load-bearing function substantially as it experiences tremendous chemical degradation, i.e. proteoglycan loss and collagen fibril disruption. One promising way to investigate chemical damage mechanisms during OA is to expose the cartilage specimens to an external solute and monitor the diffusion of the molecules. The degree of cartilage damage (i.e. concentration and configuration of essential macromolecules) is associated with collisional energy loss of external solutes while moving across articular cartilage creates different diffusion characteristics compared to healthy cartilage. In this study, we introduce a protocol, which consists of several steps and is based on previously developed experimental micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) and finite element modeling. The transport of charged and uncharged iodinated molecules is first recorded using micro-CT, which is followed by applying biphasic-solute and multiphasic finite element models to obtain diffusion coefficients and fixed charge densities across cartilage zones.

  4. Draft Plan to Develop Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Test Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-09-29

    This document presents a Draft Plan proposed to develop a common test protocol that can be used to evaluate the performance requirements of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Development on the test protocol will be focused on providing a consistent method that can be used to quantify and compare the performance characteristics of NILM products. Elements of the protocols include specifications for appliances to be used, metrics, instrumentation, and a procedure to simulate appliance behavior during tests. In addition, three priority use cases for NILM will be identified and their performance requirements will specified.

  5. Developing a guideline for clinical trial protocol content: Delphi consensus survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has highlighted deficiencies in clinical trial protocols, having implications for many groups. Existing guidelines for randomized clinical trial (RCT) protocol content vary substantially and most do not describe systematic methodology for their development. As one of three prespecified steps for the systematic development of a guideline for trial protocol content, the objective of this study was to conduct a three-round Delphi consensus survey to develop and refine minimum content for RCT protocols. Methods Panellists were identified using a multistep iterative approach, met prespecified minimum criteria and represented key stakeholders who develop or use clinical trial protocols. They were asked to rate concepts for importance in a minimum set of items for RCT protocols. The main outcome measures were degree of importance (scale of 1 to 10; higher scores indicating higher importance) and level of consensus for items. Results were presented as medians, interquartile ranges, counts and percentages. Results Ninety-six expert panellists participated in the Delphi consensus survey including trial investigators, methodologists, research ethics board members, funders, industry, regulators and journal editors. Response rates were between 88 and 93% per round. Overall, panellists rated 63 of 88 concepts of high importance (of which 50 had a 25th percentile rating of 8 or greater), 13 of moderate importance (median 6 or 7) and 12 of low importance (median less than or equal to 5) for minimum trial protocol content. General and item-specific comments and subgroup results provided valuable insight for further discussions. Conclusions This Delphi process achieved consensus from a large panel of experts from diverse stakeholder groups on essential content for RCT protocols. It also highlights areas of divergence. These results, complemented by other empirical research and consensus meetings, are helping guide the development of a guideline for

  6. Development of the Digital Engineering Laboratory Computer Network: Host-to-Node/Host-to-Host Protocols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    HOST-TO-HOST PROTOCOLS THESIS AFIT,’GCS/EE/8lD-8 John W. Geist Capt USAF Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. AFIT/GCS/EE/81D-8...DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIGITAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY COMPUTER NETWORK: HOST-TO-NODE/HOST-TO-HOST PROTOCOLS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of...development and operational implementation. I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. Gary B. Lamont, my thesis advisor, for his valued support and

  7. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  8. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

    PubMed

    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods.

  9. Development of a standard documentation protocol for communicating exposure models.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Altenpohl, A; Fait, G; Fransman, W; Paini, A; Radovnikovic, A; Simon-Cornu, M; Suciu, N; Verdonck, F

    2016-10-15

    An important step in building a computational model is its documentation; a comprehensive and structured documentation can improve the model applicability and transparency in science/research and for regulatory purposes. This is particularly crucial and challenging for environmental and/or human exposure models that aim to establish quantitative relationships between personal exposure levels and their determinants. Exposure models simulate the transport and fate of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and may involve a large set of entities (e.g. all the media the contaminants may pass though). Such complex models are difficult to be described in a comprehensive, unambiguous and accessible way. Bad communication of assumptions, theory, structure and/or parameterization can lead to lack of confidence by the user and it may be source of errors. The goal of this paper is to propose a standard documentation protocol (SDP) for exposure models, i.e. a generic format and a standard structure by which all exposure models could be documented. For this purpose, a CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) workshop was set up with objective to agree on minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be provided on exposure models documentation along with guidelines for the structure and presentation of the information. The resulting CEN workshop agreement (CWA) was expected to facilitate a more rigorous formulation of exposure models description and the understanding by users. This paper intends to describe the process followed for defining the SDP, the standardisation approach, as well as the main components of the SDP resulting from a wide consultation of interested stakeholders. The main outcome is a CEN CWA which establishes terms and definitions for exposure models and their elements, specifies minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be documented, and proposes a structure for communicating the documentation to different

  10. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armeli Minicante, S.; Ambrosi, E.; Back, M.; Barichello, J.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Trave, E.

    2016-07-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a, b and c), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts.

  11. Development of a hockey-specific, skate-treadmill VO2 max protocol.

    PubMed

    Dreger, R W; Quinney, H A

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a protocol for the determination of VO2 max utilizing a motor-driven skate treadmill (ST). On separate days, 6 male hockey players completed a ST and a cycle ergometer (BK) VO2 max protocol. The results showed no significant difference between the ST and BK protocols for relative (60.4 +/- 5.09 vs. 59.0 +/- 8.31 ml.kg-1.min-1) and absolute VO2 max values (4.51 +/- 0.50 vs. 4.39 +/- 0.59 L.min-1), respectively. Significantly higher HR max was recorded during the ST protocol (202.3 +/- 4.27 vs. 200.7 +/- 4.55 b.min-1) (p < 0.05). Peak VE and VT were nonsignificant between the two conditions. However, peak f was higher for the ST protocol (63.0 +/- 7.56 vs. 60.2 +/- 7.76 breath.min-1) (p < 0.05). Although the physiological response to both protocols was similar, the ST protocol replicates a hockey stride, which may provide more applicable information for the development of training programs.

  12. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    PubMed

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. OMIP contribution to CMIP6: experimental and diagnostic protocol for the physical component of the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffies, Stephen M.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Durack, Paul J.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Balaji, V.; Böning, Claus W.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Curchitser, Enrique; Deshayes, Julie; Drange, Helge; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Gleckler, Peter J.; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hallberg, Robert W.; Heimbach, Patrick; Hewitt, Helene T.; Holland, David M.; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jungclaus, Johann H.; Komuro, Yoshiki; Krasting, John P.; Large, William G.; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; McDougall, Trevor J.; Nurser, A. J. George; Orr, James C.; Pirani, Anna; Qiao, Fangli; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Taylor, Karl E.; Treguier, Anne Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valdivieso, Maria; Wang, Qiang; Winton, Michael; Yeager, Stephen G.

    2016-09-01

    The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is an endorsed project in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). OMIP addresses CMIP6 science questions, investigating the origins and consequences of systematic model biases. It does so by providing a framework for evaluating (including assessment of systematic biases), understanding, and improving ocean, sea-ice, tracer, and biogeochemical components of climate and earth system models contributing to CMIP6. Among the WCRP Grand Challenges in climate science (GCs), OMIP primarily contributes to the regional sea level change and near-term (climate/decadal) prediction GCs.OMIP provides (a) an experimental protocol for global ocean/sea-ice models run with a prescribed atmospheric forcing; and (b) a protocol for ocean diagnostics to be saved as part of CMIP6. We focus here on the physical component of OMIP, with a companion paper (Orr et al., 2016) detailing methods for the inert chemistry and interactive biogeochemistry. The physical portion of the OMIP experimental protocol follows the interannual Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). Since 2009, CORE-I (Normal Year Forcing) and CORE-II (Interannual Forcing) have become the standard methods to evaluate global ocean/sea-ice simulations and to examine mechanisms for forced ocean climate variability. The OMIP diagnostic protocol is relevant for any ocean model component of CMIP6, including the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments), historical simulations, FAFMIP (Flux Anomaly Forced MIP), C4MIP (Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate MIP), DAMIP (Detection and Attribution MIP), DCPP (Decadal Climate Prediction Project), ScenarioMIP, HighResMIP (High Resolution MIP), as well as the ocean/sea-ice OMIP simulations.

  14. Development of protocol for determination of natural stone bioreceptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Mesojedec, Mojca; Zalar Serjun, Vesna; Mladenovič, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Biodeterioration of stone surfaces in modern structures and cultural heritage is a problem that does not only affect the aesthetic appearance of stone elements but also changes their functionality due to material degradation and has indirectly a significant influence on the economy. The term bioreceptivity describes a material's susceptibility for the population of living organisms (Guiliette, 1995). Methods for bioreceptivity determination are usually based on a quantification of a grown microbiological mass on an exposed stone surface which was artificially inoculated with a pioneer organism (Guillitte and Dreesen, 1995; Miller et al, 2012). In our study a protocol for bioreceptivity determination was implemented based on an image analysis of autofluorescing pioneer organisms on sample surfaces exposed in growth chamber under specific laboratory conditions. The method is primarily meant for assessing the direct influence of intrinsic features of a rock on the rock's sensitivity for organism growth. Bioreceptivity has been determined on fifteen frequently used commercial types of natural stone for construction purposes in Slovenia. Mineral composition was determined with the help of microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Inoculated were three autotrophic organisms: Chlorella vulgaris, Chroococcus minutus and Pseudococcomyxa sp. Due to the fastest growth and insensitivity, the most appropriate microorganism for the laboratory experiment of bioreceptivity proved to be Chlorella vulgaris. It was established that different natural stones have a different bioreceptivity which depends on their mineral composition, roughness and physical features, e.g. type of porosity. In case of dry surface samples, the soaking of the surface and the capillary-type pores have the greatest influence. On the other hand, results of biorecepivity analysis examinations of water saturated samples show the prevalence of other mechanisms where the influence of mineral composition of a rock and

  15. Comparison of Experimental Protocols of Physical Exercise for mdx Mice and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hyzewicz, Janek; Ruegg, Urs T.; Takeda, Shin’ichi

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the gene coding for dystrophin and leads to muscle degeneration, wheelchair dependence and death by cardiac or respiratory failure. Physical exercise has been proposed as a palliative therapy for DMD to maintain muscle strength and prevent contractures for as long as possible. However, its practice remains controversial because the benefits of training may be counteracted by muscle overuse and damage. The effects of physical exercise have been investigated in muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and in patients with DMD. However, a lack of uniformity among protocols limits comparability between studies and translatability of results from animals to humans. In the present review, we summarize and discuss published protocols used to investigate the effects of physical exercise on mdx mice and DMD patients, with the objectives of improving comparability between studies and identifying future research directions. PMID:27858750

  16. Influence of experimental protocol on response rate and repeatability of mechanical threshold testing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harris, L K; Murrell, J C; van Klink, E G M; Whay, H R

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical threshold (MT) testing is widely used to measure nociceptive thresholds. However, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the response rate and repeatability (collectively termed 'efficacy') of MT testing protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the efficacy of a protocol using a hand-held algometer to measure MTs (N) in healthy dogs (n = 12) was affected by varying (1) the area over which force was applied (tip diameter), (2) rate of force application, (3) position of dog during testing, and (4) anatomical site of testing. The effect of these factors on MT and the impact of individual dog effects on both efficacy and MT were also investigated. Overall, 3175/3888 tests (82%) resulted in a measurable response. The response rate was reduced by using wider tip diameters, testing at the tibia, and testing when the dog was lying down (compared to sitting upright). Wider tips were associated with higher, more variable MTs (mean ± standard deviation) with values of 4.18 ± 2.55 N for 2 mm diameter tips, 5.54 ± 3.33 for those of 4 mm, and 7.59 ± 4.73 for 8 mm tips. Individual dog effects had the most significant impact on efficacy and MT. The findings indicate that tip diameter, dog position, and anatomical site may affect both protocol efficacy and MTs, and should be taken into account when comparing different studies and in designing protocols to measure MTs in dogs. The predominant effect of the individual dog over other factors indicates that between-subject differences should always be accounted for in future studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of experimental protocol on response rate and repeatability of mechanical threshold testing in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L.K.; Murrell, J.C.; van Klink, E.G.M.; Whay, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical threshold (MT) testing is widely used to measure nociceptive thresholds. However, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the response rate and repeatability (collectively termed ‘efficacy’) of MT testing protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the efficacy of a protocol using a hand-held algometer to measure MTs (N) in healthy dogs (n = 12) was affected by varying (1) the area over which force was applied (tip diameter), (2) rate of force application, (3) position of dog during testing, and (4) anatomical site of testing. The effect of these factors on MT and the impact of individual dog effects on both efficacy and MT were also investigated. Overall, 3175/3888 tests (82%) resulted in a measurable response. The response rate was reduced by using wider tip diameters, testing at the tibia, and testing when the dog was lying down (compared to sitting upright). Wider tips were associated with higher, more variable MTs (mean ± standard deviation) with values of 4.18 ± 2.55 N for 2 mm diameter tips, 5.54 ± 3.33 for those of 4 mm, and 7.59 ± 4.73 for 8 mm tips. Individual dog effects had the most significant impact on efficacy and MT. The findings indicate that tip diameter, dog position, and anatomical site may affect both protocol efficacy and MTs, and should be taken into account when comparing different studies and in designing protocols to measure MTs in dogs. The predominant effect of the individual dog over other factors indicates that between-subject differences should always be accounted for in future studies. PMID:25744801

  18. Different experimental protocols for decontamination affect the cleaning of medical devices. A preliminary electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Tessarolo, F; Caola, I; Fedel, M; Stacchiotti, A; Caciagli, P; Guarrera, G M; Motta, A; Nollo, G

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of different decontamination-cleaning protocols on blood-soiled catheters used for interventional cardiology. Electrophysiology and cardiac ablation disposable devices were contaminated with bacteria-spiked human blood and underwent four different pre-sterilization protocols, including a chlorine-releasing agent, a polyphenolic emulsion, and an enzymatic detergent. Treated samples were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to identify and characterize biological and inorganic residuals. The use of chlorine as a first treatment caused denaturation of serum proteins and adherence of blood components to the surface of the device, thus hindering the cleaning efficiency of subsequent treatments with enzymatic detergents. An enzymatic/chlorine protocol was more efficient, but was considered to be a greater risk to healthcare staff. Polyphenolic-based treatments had the highest level of efficiency in bioburden removal, but interaction and adsorption of this class of chemicals onto biopolymers might lead to serious concerns about toxicity on subsequent reuse. Adequate pre-sterilization cleaning is fundamental for sterilization success and high-resolution electron microscopy can provide significant and detailed information about the efficiency of chemicals used for cleaning a blood-soiled device.

  19. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  20. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  1. Field validation of protocols developed to evaluate in-line mastitis detection systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, C; Dela Rue, B T; Eastwood, C R

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a field validation of previously developed protocols for evaluating the performance of in-line mastitis-detection systems. The protocols outlined 2 requirements of these systems: (1) to detect cows with clinical mastitis (CM) promptly and accurately to enable timely and appropriate treatment and (2) to identify cows with high somatic cell count (SCC) to manage bulk milk SCC levels. Gold standard measures, evaluation tests, performance measures, and performance targets were proposed. The current study validated the protocols on commercial dairy farms with automated in-line mastitis-detection systems using both electrical conductivity (EC) and SCC sensor systems that both monitor at whole-udder level. The protocol for requirement 1 was applied on 3 commercial farms. For requirement 2, the protocol was applied on 6 farms; 3 of them had low bulk milk SCC (128×10(3) cells/mL) and were the same farms as used for field evaluation of requirement 1. Three farms with high bulk milk SCC (270×10(3) cells/mL) were additionally enrolled. The field evaluation methodology and results were presented at a workshop including representation from 7 international suppliers of in-line mastitis-detection systems. Feedback was sought on the acceptance of standardized performance evaluation protocols and recommended refinements to the protocols. Although the methodology for requirement 1 was relatively labor intensive and required organizational skills over an extended period, no major issues were encountered during the field validation of both protocols. The validation, thus, proved the protocols to be practical. Also, no changes to the data collection process were recommended by the technology supplier representatives. However, 4 recommendations were made to refine the protocols: inclusion of an additional analysis that ignores small (low-density) clot observations in the definition of CM, extension of the time window from 4 to 5 milkings for timely alerts for CM

  2. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  3. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate.

    PubMed

    Conte, Nicolau; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2016-08-22

    The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6) or saline solution (CTL; n = 6). After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  4. Development of USPS Laboratory and pilot-scale testing protocols

    Treesearch

    Carl Houtman; Nancy Ross Sutherland; David Bormett; Donald Donermeyer

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp adhesives that can be removed by unit operations found in recycling mills. The maintenance of final product quality specifications for a recycling mill while loading the feedstock with a significant quantity of adhesive is the criterion for success of this program...

  5. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from Food and Water: Official and Experimental Protocols.

    PubMed

    Azizoglu, Reha O; Gorski, Lisa; Kathariou, Sophia

    2014-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is frequently encountered in foods but often at low concentrations and typically in the presence of other microbiota, including nonpathogenic Listeria spp. The potential of L. monocytogenes to cause severe human disease mandates sensitive, accurate, and rapid detection in foods. Isolation of L. monocytogenes from foods is critical, not only for routine surveillance, but also for epidemiologic investigations. Isolation of the pathogen from water (especially surface water used for irrigation) is similarly important, as produce has been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks and contaminated water can be involved in contamination of produce. This unit provides basic protocols for the isolation of L. monocytogenes from foods and water.

  6. Experimentally Manipulated Bias in School Psychologists' Scoring of WISC-III Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Taylor, Amy N.

    Experimenter bias effects were experimentally manipulated in a sample of 97 school psychologists scoring 3 subscales (Similarity, Vocabulary, and Comprehension) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III). First year (n=29), interns (n=42), and experienced (n=26) psychologists were randomly assigned to either a bias or…

  7. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest. PMID:28448606

  8. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Shirk, Paul D; Teal, Peter E A

    2017-01-01

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  9. Hemophilia treatment in developing countries: products and protocols.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Alok; You, Steve K; Ayob, Yasmin; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; de Bosch, Norma; Perez Bianco, Raul; Ala, Fereydoun

    2005-11-01

    The most important aspect of management of hemophilia is to provide adequate replacement of safe clotting factor concentrates to prevent or treat bleeding episodes. There has been considerable progress in many countries in the developing world with regard to this aspect of care. However, very little data are available in the literature on the types of products being used for factor replacement and the doses being administered for control or treatment of bleeding in different countries. These data are important to document because only then can data from different centers be compared. This article provides data from seven countries: Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Venezuela, Argentina, Iran, and India. It shows that there is wide variability not only in the types of products used (plasma to recombinant factor concentrates) but also in the doses administered (minimal to very high) for similar indications. Prospective documentation of data on musculoskeletal outcome at these centers and correlation with dose of factor replacement could help identify different models of care. Comparing such data and collating the experience in different countries could be useful for optimizing care and establishing cost-effective models. The combined experience in the developing world in providing hemophilia services should be used to define standards of care that are practical and to set achievable goals.

  10. Experimental investigation into Quaternary badland geomorphic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanin-Grubin, Milica; Kuhn, Nikolaus; Yair, Aaron; Bryan, Rorke; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    to the flood planes of the Red Deer River system. Only a very pronounced contrast between winter weathering and drier summers would generate a colluvium and thus change slope hydrology. In the Zin Valley the development of a thick colluvium at the foot of the slopes has increased infiltration capacity, reducing runoff and sediment yield into the floodplain. Here, only an increase in rainfall magnitude would improve runoff continuity and induce the erosion of the colluvium. This would in turn reduce infiltration capacity and thus initiate a positive feedback on runoff and sediment yield into the Zin River. Overall, Holocene climate change appears to be insufficient to change the geomorphic development in both badlands. However, this stability is achieved not despite of climate, but because of the specific history of geomorphic development. In addition, the combination of erosion and weathering experiments with numerical modeling demonstrates the versatility of Experimental Geomorphology in landscape evolution studies.

  11. EVA Human Health and Performance Benchmarking Study Overview and Development of a Microgravity Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Jarvis, Sarah; Bekdash, Omar; Cupples, Scott; Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various EVA suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. Expected results and methodologies developed during this study will provide the baseline benchmarking data and protocols with which future EVA suits and suit configurations (e.g., varied pressure, mass, center of gravity [CG]) and different test subject populations (e.g., deconditioned crewmembers) may be reliably assessed and compared. Results may also be used, in conjunction with subsequent testing, to inform fitness-for-duty standards, as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  12. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  13. Chapter 5: Methods and protocols in peripheral nerve regeneration experimental research: part II-morphological techniques.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Stefania; Fornaro, Michele; Di Scipio, Federica; Ronchi, Giulia; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G; Geuna, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically overviews the main procedures used for carrying out morphological analysis of peripheral nerve fibers in light, confocal, and electron microscopy. In particular, this paper emphasizes the importance of osmium tetroxide post-fixation as a useful procedure to be adopted independently from the embedding medium. In order to facilitate the use of any described techniques, all protocols are presented in full details. The pros and cons for each method are critically addressed and practical indications on the different imaging approaches are reported. Moreover, the basic rules of morpho-quantitative stereological analysis of nerve fibers are described addressing the important concepts of design-based sampling and the disector. Finally, a comparison of stereological analysis on myelinated nerve fibers between paraffin- and resin-embedded rat radial nerves is reported showing that different embedding procedures might influence the distribution of size parameters.

  14. EMG analysis of trapezius and masticatory muscles: experimental protocol and data reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Rosati, R; De Menezes, M; Musto, F; Toma, M

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to define a standardised protocol for the electromyographic evaluation of trapezius muscle in dentistry and to assess its within- and between-session repeatability. Surface electromyography of trapezius, masseter and temporal muscles was performed in 40 healthy subjects aged 20-35 years during shoulder elevation, and maximum teeth clenching with and without cotton rolls. Two repetitions were made both within (same electrodes) and between sessions (different electrodes). Maximum voluntary clench on cotton rolls was used to standardise the potentials of the six analysed muscles with tooth contact; shoulder elevation was used to standardise the upper trapezius potentials. From the standardised electromyographic potentials, several indices (muscle symmetry; masticatory muscle torque and relative activity; total masticatory muscle activity; trapezius cervical load, percentage co-contraction of trapezius during teeth clenching) were computed; random (technical error of measurement) and systematic (Student's t-test, Analysis of Variance) errors were assessed. For all indices, no systematic errors were found between the two separate data collection sessions. Within session, limited (lower than 8%) technical errors of measurement were found for temporalis and masseter symmetry, torque and activity indices, and the trapezius cervical load. Larger random errors were obtained for trapezius symmetry and total masticatory muscle activity (up to 20%). Between sessions, no significant differences were found for trapezius co-contraction. In conclusion, a protocol for the standardisation of trapezius muscle that may be used within dental clinical applications was defined, and the repeatability of masseter, temporalis and trapezius electromyographic recordings for serial assessments was assessed in healthy subjects.

  15. Developing hospital-based domestic violence programs, protocols, policies, and procedures.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, D J; Taylor, W K

    1993-01-01

    Interest in developing hospital-based domestic violence programs, protocols, policies, and procedures is growing secondary to efforts by national nursing, medical, and hospital accreditation organizations. Creating specialized health services for domestic violence survivors can be expedited by reviewing existing protocols, policies, and procedures. A reference list of sample domestic violence protocols and a sample domestic violence policy and procedure are provided. The authors share their experiences in developing two of the nation's eight hospital-based domestic violence programs. Domestic violence is a nursing concern, and nurses have been the leaders in providing perinatal and women's health services to battered women. Implementing the suggestions contained in this article will enhance hospitals' successful compliance with the 1992 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations guidelines for emergency and ambulatory services departments. The need for preprogram data collection, multidisciplinary support, patient and staff safety, specific program services, and staff supervision is addressed.

  16. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  17. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  18. Bacterial Community Development in Experimental Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, James O.; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J.; Wade, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344 267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  19. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Latrach, R; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A

    2012-08-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  20. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.

    Treesearch

    M.J. Wisdom; J.G. Cook; M.M. Rowland; J.H. Noyes

    1993-01-01

    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsomi V. Bailey and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling most of these animals each...

  1. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Mary M. Rowland; James H. Noyes

    1993-01-01

    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling...

  2. Development and evaluation of a new paediatric blood transfusion protocol for Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheema, B; Molyneux, E M; Emmanuel, J C; M'baya, B; Esan, M; Kamwendo, H; Kalilani-Phiri, L; Boele van Hensbroek, M

    2010-06-01

    Severe anaemia is a common childhood emergency in developing countries. Practical evidence-based guidance on when to transfuse, volume of transfusion and ideal duration of transfusion is lacking. The aim of this study is to develop a paediatric transfusion protocol for use in under-resourced environments and evaluate its usability in a busy African hospital setting. A paediatric transfusion protocol based on the WHO Guidelines was developed for the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi. On the basis of simple bedside clinical features of respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological compromise, the protocol allocates children with severe anaemia (haemoglobin protocol adherence, delays to transfusion, post-transfusion haemoglobin and need for repeat transfusion. Two-hundred and fifteen severely anaemic children were enrolled: 180 complicated, 25 uncomplicated and 10 severely malnourished. With respect to protocol adherence, all children were allocated to the correct transfusion group; correct volume (+/-10%) was given in 89.3%; correct duration (+/-30 min) in 86.2% and correct overall rate (+/-10%) in 78.6%. Comparing old and new transfusion guidelines, a potential avoidable transfusion rate of 29% was found. This study demonstrates that clear and detailed transfusion guidelines based on simple bedside clinical features can be used in a very busy children's hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. With minimal additional equipment, volume and duration of transfusion can be well controlled. Furthermore, having a protocol in place results in a significant reduction of avoidable transfusions.

  3. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: a structured multidisciplinary protocol development and educational program to advance translational research.

    PubMed

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G; Dowd, Kathleen A; Hurley, Arlene M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality.

  4. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: A Structured Multidisciplinary Protocol Development and Educational Program to Advance Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Dowd, Kathleen A.; Hurley, Arlene M.; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality. PMID:24405608

  5. [The Development of a Care Protocol for Postoperative Pressure Sore Prevention].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hui-Ling; Wang, Fang; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2015-12-01

    Pressure sores are a common complication caused by long periods of bed rest following major surgery. These sores may increase patient postoperative pain, increase the risk of infections, lengthen the pe-riod of hospitalization, and increase the duration and costs of nursing care. Therefore, maintaining the skin integrity of surgical patients is an important responsibility for operating room nurses and an indicator of nursing care quality. While pressure-sore risk assessment tools and interoperative strategies are available and used in foreign countries, there has been little related research conducted in Taiwan. After examining the relevant literature and considering the current postoperative pressure sore situation in Taiwan, the author developed a postoperative pressure sore care protocol as a reference for clinical staff. Protocol procedures include major breakthrough developments in areas such as post-survey risk assessment for pressure ulcers, pressure ulcer prevention strategies that take surgery-related risk factors into consideration, extra care and protection measures for surgical supine patients, and post-pressure sores. The developed postoperative pressure sore protocol may be incorporated into surgical care procedures during the post-surgical care period in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of post-surgery pressure ulcers. Furthermore, the developed protocol offers the potential to improve and strengthen the quality of surgical care in terms of both healthcare and post-surgical care.

  6. Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice: Development of a Standardized Clinical Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempster, Gail B.; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Hillman, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the development of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) following a consensus conference on perceptual voice quality measurement sponsored by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Special Interest Division 3, Voice and Voice Disorders. The CAPE-V protocol and recording form were…

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  8. Development and Use of Fluorescent Antibody and qPCR Protocols for the Electrostatic Spore Trap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fluorescent antibody (FA) and qPCR protocols were evaluated for the newly developed aerobiological sampler (Ionic Spore Trap), which depends upon electrostatic deposition of particulates onto a 25 mm aluminum disk (stub). This device was originally designed for assessment of captured particulates by...

  9. Development and Use of an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lois A.; Weitzman, Lauren M.; Mountain, Lisa M.; Nelson, Kris L.; Oakley, Danielle R.; Smith, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling centers have been challenged to effectively treat the growing number of college students who struggle with disordered eating. In response to this critical issue, an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol (EDATP) was developed to assist clinical disposition in the counseling center setting and identify treatment guidelines…

  10. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a FAP Protocol: Brief Relationship Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Gareth; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Tsai, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a brief Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) protocol that will facilitate reliable implementation of FAP interventions, thus supporting research on FAP process and outcome. The treatment was a four-session individual therapy for clients who were interested in improving their relationship with their…

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  12. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials suspended delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to...

  13. 76 FR 60503 - Guidance for Industry on Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and Submission; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  14. Development and Use of an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lois A.; Weitzman, Lauren M.; Mountain, Lisa M.; Nelson, Kris L.; Oakley, Danielle R.; Smith, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling centers have been challenged to effectively treat the growing number of college students who struggle with disordered eating. In response to this critical issue, an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol (EDATP) was developed to assist clinical disposition in the counseling center setting and identify treatment guidelines…

  15. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.

    PubMed

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika Ia; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. The developed protocol can be

  16. Experimental protocol for the kinematic analysis of the hand: definition and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Carpinella, I; Mazzoleni, P; Rabuffetti, M; Thorsen, R; Ferrarin, M

    2006-06-01

    A quantitative and objective method based on the optoelectronic kinematic analysis of hand segments and on the calculation of global and partial parameters, which provide measures of the degree of long finger and thumb extension is proposed for the evaluation of the hand's voluntary range of motion and maximal opening of the fingers and thumb. To test the precision and repeatability of the method, the protocol was applied on 14 healthy subjects (28 hands). The proposed parameters are repeatable and show a precision between 5.5 degrees and 10.4 degrees (mean value: 7.3 degrees), comparable to values obtained with other methods. Advantages of the present approach include simultaneous analysis of all fingers, absence of cumbersome connecting cables and no need for individually customized devices. The method, also applied to the paretic hands of two hemiplegic stroke patients before and after electrical stimulation of the wrist and finger extensor muscles, has shown encouraging results for its clinical feasibility and utility in addition to functional tests.

  17. Isolating the Unique Effects of the Unified Protocol Treatment Modules Using Single Case Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kennedy, Katherine A

    2017-03-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to treat the range of anxiety, depressive, and related disorders. Thus far, the UP treatment modules have only been studied when they are delivered in their entirety and presented in a standard sequence. To personalize the presentation of the UP modules for a given patient's presentation (e.g., providing the modules in a varied order, dropping irrelevant modules), it is first necessary to establish that each module leads to change in the skill it is designed to promote, and that these changes can occur in the absence of the other modules. Using a multiple baseline design in accordance with the single-case reporting guidelines in behavioral interventions (SCRIBE), eight patients with heterogeneous emotional disorders were randomly assigned to a 1- or 3-week baseline assessment phase followed by four sessions of one of four UP modules (psychoeducation, emotional awareness, cognitive flexibility, and countering emotional behaviors). Results provide preliminary support for the notion that each UP module under study leads to change in its associated skill in the absence of the other modules (five of eight patients demonstrated reliable change in the module-specific skill). In addition, exploratory analyses suggest that the emotion awareness training and cognitive flexibility modules appeared to exhibit change specific to their associated skills, psychoeducation, and countering emotional behaviors demonstrated somewhat more broad-based change across skills.

  18. Development for Thermophoresis Experimental Under Microgravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suardi, Mirnah Binti; Razali, Mohd Azahari bin; Khalid, Amir bin; Salleh, Hamidon bin; Sapit, Azwan; Mohammed, Akmal Nizam bin; Hushim, Mohd Faisal bin

    2016-11-01

    In the temperature field, a small particle will move towards the lower temperature side. This phenomenon is called thermophoresis, which influences the movement of soot particles in exhaust gas from combustors. It is important to understand the behavior of soot particles in the combustion field for emission control. The main problem for measuring the thermophoretic velocity is the natural convection. The velocity of such natural convection is usually comparable to the thermophoretic velocity and cannot be measured directly. To avoid this problem, experiments should be conducted under microgravity conditions. . In the present work, device has been developed for conducting experiments repeatedly under a microgravity environment in a very short period time, i.e. 0.3 s, by means of the free-fall method, to accumulate data of the thermophoretic velocity. Experiments have been conducted to measure the movement of particles in the microgravity environment with and without temperature gradient. For the former experiment, it is seen that the particles has almost no movement in the horizontal and the vertical directions. Results confirmed that there is negligible effect of blowing and gravitational on the particles movement. For the later one, experiments have been done in a surrounding of a pure gas of argon. The thermophoretic velocity is measured at 313±2 K for various pressure conditions from 20 kPa to 100 kPa. The thermophoretic velocity for each particle is individually measured, and the mean value and its 95% confidence interval for each experimental condition are statistically obtained. Result from experiments are compared with the theory and satisfactorily agreement is found for tested gas.

  19. Development of a dynamic quality assurance testing protocol for multisite clinical trial DCE-CT accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, B.; Keller, H.; Jaffray, D.; Coolens, C.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Credentialing can have an impact on whether or not a clinical trial produces useful quality data that is comparable between various institutions and scanners. With the recent increase of dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) usage as a companion biomarker in clinical trials, effective quality assurance, and control methods are required to ensure there is minimal deviation in the results between different scanners and protocols at various institutions. This paper attempts to address this problem by utilizing a dynamic flow imaging phantom to develop and evaluate a DCE-CT quality assurance (QA) protocol.Methods: A previously designed flow phantom, capable of producing predictable and reproducible time concentration curves from contrast injection was fully validated and then utilized to design a DCE-CT QA protocol. The QA protocol involved a set of quantitative metrics including injected and total mass error, as well as goodness of fit comparison to the known truth concentration curves. An additional region of interest (ROI) sensitivity analysis was also developed to provide additional details on intrascanner variability and determine appropriate ROI sizes for quantitative analysis. Both the QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis were utilized to test variations in DCE-CT results using different imaging parameters (tube voltage and current) as well as alternate reconstruction methods and imaging techniques. The developed QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis was then applied at three institutions that were part of clinical trial involving DCE-CT and results were compared.Results: The inherent specificity of robustness of the phantom was determined through calculation of the total intraday variability and determined to be less than 2.2 ± 1.1% (total calculated output contrast mass error) with a goodness of fit (R{sup 2}) of greater than 0.99 ± 0.0035 (n= 10). The DCE-CT QA protocol was capable of detecting significant deviations from

  20. NICU procedures are getting sweeter: development of a sucrose protocol for neonatal procedural pain.

    PubMed

    Mokhnach, Larisa; Anderson, Marilyn; Glorioso, Rachelle; Loeffler, Katie; Shinabarger, Kelly; Thorngate, Lauren; Yates, Marna; Diercks, Kristi; Berkan, Maureen; Hou, Shwu-Shin; Millar, April; Thomas, Karen A; Walker, Wendy; Zbirun, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Neonates in the neonatal intensive care nursery experience multiple, painful, tissue-damaging procedures daily. Pain among neonates is often underestimated and untreated, producing untoward consequences. A literature review established strong evidence supporting the use of sucrose as an analgesic for minor procedural pain among neonates. A review of unit practices and nurses' experiential evidence initiated the production of a standardized protocol in our unit at the University of Washington Medical Center NICU in Seattle.Nursing practices surrounding sucrose use differed widely in dose, timing, and patient application. We carefully evaluated evidence documenting the effectiveness as well as the safety of sucrose administration and wrote a protocol and practice standards for our primarily premature patient population. This article describes the development and execution of a standardized, nurse-implemented, sucrose protocol to reduce procedural pain.

  1. DeepSAGE: higher sensitivity and multiplexing of samples using a simpler experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2008-01-01

    Combining serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) with pyrophosphatase-based ultra-high-throughput DNA sequencing provides increased sensitivity and cost-effective gene expression profiling. The combined techniques obviate the formation and cloning of concatemers and the tedious picking and preparation of sequence templates from bacterial clones that are necessary with SAGE alone. Furthermore, multiplexing of samples or replicates of analysis is included in the experimental design.

  2. Development of our TAVI protocol for emergency initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Bainbridge, D; Jones, P M; Chu, M W A; Kiaii, B

    2015-01-01

    All transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) cases are done in our hybrid operating room with a multidisciplinary team and a primed cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit on pump stand-by. We decided that we would resuscitate all patients undergoing a TAVI procedure via a transfemoral, transapical or transaortic approach, if required. Perfusion plays an essential role in providing rescue CPB for patient salvage when catastrophic complications occur. To coordinate the multidisciplinary effort, we have developed a written safety checklist that assigns a pre-determined role for team members for the rapid sequence initiation of CPB. Although many TAVI patients are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacements, we feel strongly that rescue CPB should be offered to all TAVI patients to allow the correction of potentially reversible complications. This protocol is included in every surgical "Time Out" involving a TAVI procedure (Figure 1). The protocol has led to rapid and safe CPB initiation in less than five minutes of cardiac arrest. It has also led to a coordinated and consistent team, with pre-specified roles and improved communication. We discuss a case series of four TAVI patients who required emergent use of CPB. The first few cases did not have a written protocol. The experience from these cases led to the development of our protocol. We identified a lack of coordination, wasted movements, unnecessary delayed resuscitation and overall chaos, each of which was targeted for correction with the protocol. We will discuss the merits of the protocol in two recent TAVI cases which required emergent CPB.

  3. iMPACT3: Internet-based development and administration of utility elicitation protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenert, L A; Sturley, A; Watson, M E

    2002-01-01

    iMPACT3 (Internet Multimedia Preference Assessment Instrument Construction Tool, version 3) is a software development environment that helps researchers build Internet-capable multimedia utility elicitation software programs. The program is a free, openly accessible Web site (http.// preferences.ucsd.edu/impact3/asp). To develop a utility elicitation software program using iMPACT3, a researcher selects modular protocol components from a library and custom tailors the components to the details of his or her research protocol. iMPACT3 builds a Web site implementing the protocol and downloads it to the researcher's computer. In a study of 75 HIV-infected patients, an iMPACT3-generated protocol showed substantial evidence of construct validity and good internal consistency (logic error rates of 4% to 10% and procedural invariance error rates of 10% to 28%, depending on the elicitation method) but only fair 3- to 6-week test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient= 0.42 to 0.55). Further work may be needed on specific utility assessment procedures, but this study's results confirm iMPACT3's feasibility in facilitating the collection of health state utility data.

  4. Development of a 3D remote dosimetry protocol compatible with MRgIMRT.

    PubMed

    Mein, Stewart; Rankine, Leith; Adamovics, John; Li, Harold; Oldham, Mark

    2017-09-06

    To develop a novel remote 3D dosimetry protocol to verify Magnetic Resonance-guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) treatments. The protocol was applied to investigate the accuracy of TG-119 IMRT irradiations delivered by the MRIdian(®) system (ViewRay(®) , Oakwood Village, Ohio) allowing for a 48 hour delay between irradiation at a field institution and subsequent readout at a base institution. The 3D dosimetry protocol utilizes a novel formulation of PRESAGE(®) radiochromic dosimeters developed for high post-irradiation stability and compatibility with optical-CT readout. Optical-CT readout was performed with an in-house system utilizing telecentric lenses affording high-resolution scanning. The protocol was developed from preparatory experiments to characterize PRESAGE(®) response in relevant conditions. First, linearity and sensitivity of PRESAGE(®) dose-response in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated in a small volume study (4 ml cuvettes) conducted under MRgRT conditions and irradiated with doses 0-15 Gy. Temporal and spatial stability of the dose-response were investigated in large volume studies utilizing large field-of-view (FOV) 2 kg cylindrical PRESAGE(®) dosimeters. Dosimeters were imaged at t=1hr and t=48hrs enabling the development of correction terms to model any observed spatial and temporal changes post-irradiation. Polynomial correction factors for temporal and spatial changes in PRESAGE(®) dosimeters (CT and CR respectively) were obtained by numerical fitting to time-point data acquired in six irradiated dosimeters. A remote dosimetry protocol was developed where PRESAGE(®) change in optical-density (ΔOD) readings at time t=X (the irradiation to return shipment time interval) were corrected back to a convenient standard time t=1hr using the CT and CR corrections. This refined protocol was then applied to TG-119 (American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Task Group 119) plan deliveries on the MRIdian(®) system to evaluate the

  5. Communicating the Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Its Influence on Moral Behavior: Protocol of Two Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, Robert; Askelund, Adrian D.; Boccanera, Matilde; Immonen, Johanna; Plohl, Nejc; Popham, Cassandra; Sorger, Clarissa; Stuhlreyer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies. An online study will provide participants with false feedback about their psychopathic traits supposedly based on their digital footprint (i.e., Facebook likes), thus classifying them as having either above-average or below-average psychopathic traits and describing psychopathy in cognitive or neurobiological terms. This particular study will assess the extent to which lay people are influenced by feedback regarding their psychopathic traits, and how this might affect their moral behavior in online tasks. Public recognition of these potential negative consequences of neuroscience communication will also be assessed. A field study using the lost letter technique will be conducted to examine lay people’s endorsement of neurobiological, as compared to cognitive, explanations of criminal behavior. This field and online experimental research could inform the future communication of neuroscience to the public in a way that is sensitive to the potential negative consequences of communicating such science. In particular, this research may have implications for the future means by which neurobiological predictors of offending can be safely communicated to offenders. PMID:28352238

  6. Improvement of the experimental setup to assess cutaneous bioavailability on human skin models: dynamic protocol.

    PubMed

    Dreher, F; Patouillet, C; Fouchard, F; Zanini, M; Messager, A; Roguet, R; Cottin, M; Leclaire, J; Benech-Kieffer, F

    2002-01-01

    Human skin models, such as EpiDerm and Episkin, are not easily mounted into static or dynamic diffusion cells that are commonly used to perform bioavailability studies with human skin ex vivo. For various reasons, such as fragility, small sample size, and other morphological constraints, skin absorption studies with human skin models are often carried out on the delimited skin surface obtained by gluing a ring onto the reconstituted epidermis and manually exchanging the receptor solution. However, such an experimental setup is prone to artifacts. Discontinuous removal of the receptor fluid leads to alternating sink conditions, and an area of application smaller than the area in contact with the receptor fluid, as well as imperfect seal of the glued ring, may result in inaccurate penetration rates. Human skin models were shown to be relatively easily mounted into In-Line cells (PermeGear Inc.), vertical diffusion cells which appear to be appropriately designed for such a purpose. In-Line cells allowed accurate determination of solute penetration as well as automated sampling of receptor fluid. Excised human skin can be mounted into these cells as well, making it possible to compare penetration rates through different types of skin samples under identical conditions. Using mannitol as a reference compound, penetration profiles and epidermal distribution similar to those obtained with human skin ex vivo were obtained both with EpiDerm and Episkin. Under the present conditions, human skin models were more permeable to mannitol than excised human skin, which was only slightly permeable to mannitol. Due to these experimental innovations and to the good agreement with the absorption characteristics through human skin ex vivo, EpiDerm and Episkin seem to be promising human skin models for testing the cutaneous bioavailability of topical products in vitro.

  7. Returning Individual Research Results: Development of a Cancer Genetics Education and Risk Communication Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott; Shalowitz, David I.; Christensen, Kurt D.; Everett, Jessica N.; Kim, Scott Y. H.; Raskin, Leon; Gruber, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    The obligations of researchers to disclose clinically and/or personally significant individual research results are highly debated, but few empirical studies have addressed this topic. We describe the development of a protocol for returning research results to participants at one site of a multicenter study of the genetic epidemiology of melanoma. Protocol development involved numerous challenges: (1) deciding whether genotype results merited disclosure; (2) achieving an appropriate format for communicating results; (3) developing education materials; (4) deciding whether to retest samples for additional laboratory validation; (5) identifying and notifying selected participants; and (6) assessing the impact of disclosure. Our experience suggests potential obstacles depending on researcher resources and the design of the parent study, but offers a process by which researchers can responsibly return individual study results and evaluate the impact of disclosure. PMID:20831418

  8. Development of a whole body magnetic resonance imaging protocol in normal dogs and canine cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Susan; Randall, Elissa; Wilhelm, Melinda; Lana, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whole body magnetic resonance imaging (whole body MR imaging) could potentially provide accurate cancer staging as a single imaging modality. This study was done to develop a whole body MR imaging protocol for a 1.5T MR instrument using four normal Beagle dogs (Phase 1) and then to assess the protocol's feasibility in cancer-bearing dogs (Phase II). In Phase I, anesthetized dogs were placed in dorsal recumbency with limbs flexed along the torso. T1, T2, and short tau inversion recovery sequences were acquired by spin echo or fast spin echo, and also using the more rapid single shot fast spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Three large overlapping fields of view (FOV) were used to visualize the entire body and the sagittal and dorsal imaging planes were compared. Relative examination time, image quality, organ visibility and signal intensity were evaluated. Phase I results were used to establish a protocol that balanced image quality with examination time. In Phase II, whole body MR imaging was done on 10 dogs with cancer. Examination times were 60-75 min. Image quality was sufficient for all known lesions to be visualized, including mass lesions, pulmonary infiltrate, and lymphadenomegaly. Skeletal detail was sufficient to visualize known neoplastic lesions of the appendicular skeleton, yet it was suboptimal because of the large FOV and use of the body coil. Additional modifications of a whole body MR imaging protocol and continued technological improvements in MR imaging will further increase its potential for veterinary cancer staging.

  9. Development of a decision support system to predict physicians' rehabilitation protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alshraideh, Mohammad A; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M; Salah, Imad K; Holm, Margo B; Otom, Ali H

    2012-09-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee OA were entered into the MDSS. Demographic variables in the model were age and sex. Clinical variables entered into the model were height, weight, BMI, affected side, severity of knee OA, and severity of pain. All patients in the study received one of three treatment protocols for patients with knee OA: (a) hot packs, followed by electrotherapy and exercise, (b) ice packs, followed by ultrasound and exercise and (c) exercise alone. The resilient back propagation artificial neural network algorithm was used, with a ten-fold cross-validation. It was estimated that the MDSS is able to accurately predict the treatment prescribed by the physician for 87% of the patients. We developed an artificial neural network-based decision support system that can viably aid physicians in determining which treatment protocol would best match the anthropometric and clinical characteristics of patients with knee OA.

  10. The development of a protocol for post-mortem management of Ebola virus disease in the setting of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Leditschke, Jodie; Rose, Toby; Cordner, Stephen; Woodford, Noel; Pollanen, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The management of the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic continues to pose currently insuperable challenges to health care providers in the resource-deprived countries of West Africa. In an age where air travel facilitates rapid movement of people between countries and continents, there is an urgent requirement for health systems around the globe to develop management strategies and protocols in the event that EVD cases are suspected or confirmed. Departments of forensic pathology play an important, and underestimated, role in public health service delivery, particularly at times of novel infectious disease emergence. This role can include disease identification, characterization, and notification, as well as close engagement with agencies responsible for disease surveillance and treatment provision. A mass outbreak of EVD in the Western world is considered highly unlikely; however, there is clear responsibility on departments of forensic pathology to develop protocols for rapid assessment of sporadic or suspected cases while ensuring the health and safety of mortuary and pathology personnel. The Ontario Forensic Pathology Service and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine have collaborated on the development of a protocol for management of EVD cases presenting at a scene or in the mortuary. It is hoped that this trans-national, inter-departmental exercise will serve as a model for future co-operative endeavors. The protocol has been distributed to forensic pathology departments around Australia and may be modified to accommodate local resource capabilities.

  11. Ultrasound and electric pulses for transdermal drug delivery enhancement: Ex vivo assessment of methods with in vivo oriented experimental protocols.

    PubMed

    Zorec, Barbara; Jelenc, Jure; Miklavčič, Damijan; Pavšelj, Nataša

    2015-07-25

    In our present study we focus on two physical enhancement methods for transdermal drug delivery: ultrasound and electric pulses either alone or in combination. Great emphasis has been given on the design of the experimental system and protocols, so the results and the conclusions drawn from them would have greater relevance for in vivo use and later translation into clinical practice. Our results show a statistically significant enhancement of calcein delivery (after one hour of passive diffusion following treatment) already after 5 minutes of ultrasound application, or only 6 × 100 short high voltage electrical pulses. We also experimented with combinations of the two enhancement methods hoping for synergistic effects, however, the results showed no evident drastic improvement over single method. Looking closer at physics of both methods, this absence of synergy in our in vivo oriented experimental setting is not surprising. The mechanism of action of both methods is the creation of aqueous pathways in the stratum corneum leading to increased skin permeability. However, when used in combination (regardless of the order of methods), the second method was unsuccessful in adding many new aqueous pathways in the stratum corneum, as it acted preferentially near the sites of the existing ones.

  12. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy.

  13. New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.

    PubMed

    Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation.

  14. A protocol to develop clinical guidelines for inclusion-body myositis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katherine L; Sejersen, Thomas; Amato, Anthony A; Hilton-Jones, David; Schmidt, Jens; Wallace, Amanda C; Badrising, Umesh A; Rose, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Inclusion-body myositis (IBM) is a late-onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy associated with selective and progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Current clinical management of IBM is largely supportive due to its uncertain etiology and lack of effective treatment. Establishing a consensus of opinion on questions relating to diagnosis and management of IBM is expected to help reduce inconsistencies in the care and resources allocated to those living with this condition. A protocol has been developed to produce best practice clinical guidelines for IBM based on a combination of published research and expert consensus. In this study we describe the proposed protocol for developing methods for producing robust and transparent clinical guidance on aspects of diagnosis, drug treatment, physical and practical management, respiration, nutrition and cardiac management, psychosocial management, and multidisciplinary care. © 2016 The Authors. Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized protocol for subtyping isolates of Cronobacter species.

    PubMed

    Brengi, Silvina P; O'Brien, Stephen B; Pichel, Mariana; Iversen, Carol; Arduino, Matthew; Binsztein, Norma; Jensen, Bette; Pagotto, Franco; Ribot, Efrain M; Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Cooper, Kara; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-09-01

    Cronobacter (formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a genus comprising seven species regarded as opportunistic pathogens that can be found in a wide variety of environments and foods, including powdered infant formula (PIF). Cronobacter sakazakii, the major species of this genus, has been epidemiologically linked to cases of bacteremia, meningitis in neonates, and necrotizing enterocolitis, and contaminated PIF has been identified as an important source of infection. Robust and reproducible subtyping methods are required to aid in the detection and investigation, of foodborne outbreaks. In this study, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and validated for subtyping Cronobacter species. It was derived from an existing modified PulseNet protocol, wherein XbaI and SpeI were the primary and secondary restriction enzymes used, generating an average of 14.7 and 20.3 bands, respectively. The PFGE method developed was both reproducible and discriminatory for subtyping Cronobacter species.

  16. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-06-06

    Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to

  17. "Teamwork in hospitals": a quasi-experimental study protocol applying a human factors approach.

    PubMed

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Aase, Karina; Aaberg, Oddveig Reiersdal; Vifladt, Anne; Berg, Geir Vegard; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork and sufficient communication are critical components essential to patient safety in today's specialized and complex healthcare services. Team training is important for an improved efficiency in inter-professional teamwork within hospitals, however the scientific rigor of studies must be strengthen and more research is required to compare studies across samples, settings and countries. The aims of the study are to translate and validate teamwork questionnaires and investigate healthcare personnel's perception of teamwork in hospitals (Part 1). Further to explore the impact of an inter-professional teamwork intervention in a surgical ward on structure, process and outcome (Part 2). To address the aims, a descriptive, and explorative design (Part 1), and a quasi-experimental interventional design will be applied (Part 2). The study will be carried out in five different hospitals (A-E) in three hospital trusts in Norway. Frontline healthcare personnel in Hospitals A and B, from both acute and non-acute departments, will be invited to respond to three Norwegian translated teamwork questionnaires (Part 1). An inter-professional teamwork intervention in line with the TeamSTEPPS recommend Model of Change will be implemented in a surgical ward at Hospital C. All physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses in the intervention ward and two control wards (Hospitals D and E) will be invited to to survey their perception of teamwork, team decision making, safety culture and attitude towards teamwork before intervention and after six and 12 months. Adult patients admitted to the intervention surgical unit will be invited to survey their perception of quality of care during their hospital stay before intervention and after six and 12 month. Moreover, anonymous patient registry data from local registers and data from patients' medical records will be collected (Part 2). This study will help to understand the impact of an inter-professional teamwork

  18. The Development of an Evacuation Protocol for Patients with Ventricular Assist Devices During a Disaster.

    PubMed

    Davis, Katherine J; Suyama, Joseph; Lingler, Jennifer; Beach, Michael

    2017-03-16

    Introduction Health care providers are on the forefront of delivering care and allocating resources during a disaster; however, very few are adequately trained to respond in these situations. Furthermore, there is a void in the literature regarding the specific care needs of patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs) in a disaster setting. This project aimed to develop an evidenced-based protocol to aid health care providers during the evacuation of patients with VADs during a disaster.

  19. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Williams, Ann

    2017-03-01

    Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of "in silico" and "ex vivo" models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  1. The Controlled Cortical Impact Model of Experimental Brain Trauma: Overview, Research Applications, and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Osier, Nicole; Dixon, C. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly used and highly regarded model of brain trauma that uses a pneumatically or electromagnetically controlled piston to induce reproducible and well-controlled injury. The CCI model was originally used in ferrets and it has since been scaled for use in many other species. This chapter will describe the historical development of the CCI model, compare and contrast the pneumatic and electromagnetic models, and summarize key short- and long-term consequences of TBI that have been gleaned using this model. In accordance with the recent efforts to promote high-quality evidence through the reporting of common data elements (CDEs), relevant study details—that should be reported in CCI studies—will be noted. PMID:27604719

  2. RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXPERIMENTAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-07-01

    A temporary installation of Transtek's in-mine communications system in the Lake Lynn mine was used in the mine rescue training programs offered by NIOSH in April and May 2002. We developed and implemented a software program that permits point-to-point data transmission through our in-mine system. We also developed a wireless data transceiver for use in a PLC (programmed logic controller) to remotely control long-wall mining equipment.

  3. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Pincus, Robert; Forster, Piers M.; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-09-27

    The phrasing of the first of three questions motivating CMIP6 – “How does the Earth system respond to forcing?” – suggests that forcing is always well-known, yet the radiative forcing to which this question refers has historically been uncertain in coordinated experiments even as understanding of how best to infer radiative forcing has evolved. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) endorsed by CMIP6 seeks to provide a foundation for answering the question through three related activities: (i) accurate characterization of the effective radiative forcing relative to a near-preindustrial baseline and careful diagnosis of the components of this forcing; (ii) assessment of the absolute accuracy of clear-sky radiative transfer parameterizations against reference models on the global scales relevant for climate modeling; and (iii) identification of robust model responses to tightly specified aerosol radiative forcing from 1850 to present.

    Complete characterization of effective radiative forcing can be accomplished with 180 years (Tier 1) of atmosphere-only simulation using a sea-surface temperature and sea ice concentration climatology derived from the host model's preindustrial control simulation. Assessment of parameterization error requires trivial amounts of computation but the development of small amounts of infrastructure: new, spectrally detailed diagnostic output requested as two snapshots at present-day and preindustrial conditions, and results from the model's radiation code applied to specified atmospheric conditions. In conclusion, the search for robust responses to aerosol changes relies on the CMIP6 specification of anthropogenic aerosol properties; models using this specification can contribute to RFMIP with no additional simulation, while those using a full aerosol model are requested to perform at least one and up to four 165-year coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations at Tier 1.

  4. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    DOE PAGES

    Pincus, Robert; Forster, Piers M.; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-09-27

    The phrasing of the first of three questions motivating CMIP6 – “How does the Earth system respond to forcing?” – suggests that forcing is always well-known, yet the radiative forcing to which this question refers has historically been uncertain in coordinated experiments even as understanding of how best to infer radiative forcing has evolved. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) endorsed by CMIP6 seeks to provide a foundation for answering the question through three related activities: (i) accurate characterization of the effective radiative forcing relative to a near-preindustrial baseline and careful diagnosis of the components of this forcing; (ii) assessment ofmore » the absolute accuracy of clear-sky radiative transfer parameterizations against reference models on the global scales relevant for climate modeling; and (iii) identification of robust model responses to tightly specified aerosol radiative forcing from 1850 to present. Complete characterization of effective radiative forcing can be accomplished with 180 years (Tier 1) of atmosphere-only simulation using a sea-surface temperature and sea ice concentration climatology derived from the host model's preindustrial control simulation. Assessment of parameterization error requires trivial amounts of computation but the development of small amounts of infrastructure: new, spectrally detailed diagnostic output requested as two snapshots at present-day and preindustrial conditions, and results from the model's radiation code applied to specified atmospheric conditions. In conclusion, the search for robust responses to aerosol changes relies on the CMIP6 specification of anthropogenic aerosol properties; models using this specification can contribute to RFMIP with no additional simulation, while those using a full aerosol model are requested to perform at least one and up to four 165-year coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations at Tier 1.« less

  5. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Gregory W.; Williams, John R.; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  6. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP): experimental protocol for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Robert; Forster, Piers M.; Stevens, Bjorn

    2016-09-01

    The phrasing of the first of three questions motivating CMIP6 - "How does the Earth system respond to forcing?" - suggests that forcing is always well-known, yet the radiative forcing to which this question refers has historically been uncertain in coordinated experiments even as understanding of how best to infer radiative forcing has evolved. The Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (RFMIP) endorsed by CMIP6 seeks to provide a foundation for answering the question through three related activities: (i) accurate characterization of the effective radiative forcing relative to a near-preindustrial baseline and careful diagnosis of the components of this forcing; (ii) assessment of the absolute accuracy of clear-sky radiative transfer parameterizations against reference models on the global scales relevant for climate modeling; and (iii) identification of robust model responses to tightly specified aerosol radiative forcing from 1850 to present. Complete characterization of effective radiative forcing can be accomplished with 180 years (Tier 1) of atmosphere-only simulation using a sea-surface temperature and sea ice concentration climatology derived from the host model's preindustrial control simulation. Assessment of parameterization error requires trivial amounts of computation but the development of small amounts of infrastructure: new, spectrally detailed diagnostic output requested as two snapshots at present-day and preindustrial conditions, and results from the model's radiation code applied to specified atmospheric conditions. The search for robust responses to aerosol changes relies on the CMIP6 specification of anthropogenic aerosol properties; models using this specification can contribute to RFMIP with no additional simulation, while those using a full aerosol model are requested to perform at least one and up to four 165-year coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations at Tier 1.

  7. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-06-24

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  8. Distributional assumptions in food and feed commodities- development of fit-for-purpose sampling protocols.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    Material heterogeneity influences the effectiveness of sampling procedures. Most sampling guidelines used for assessment of food and/or feed commodities are based on classical statistical distribution requirements, the normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions-and almost universally rely on the assumption of randomness. However, this is unrealistic. The scientific food and feed community recognizes a strong preponderance of non random distribution within commodity lots, which should be a more realistic prerequisite for definition of effective sampling protocols. Nevertheless, these heterogeneity issues are overlooked as the prime focus is often placed only on financial, time, equipment, and personnel constraints instead of mandating acquisition of documented representative samples under realistic heterogeneity conditions. This study shows how the principles promulgated in the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and practically tested over 60 years provide an effective framework for dealing with the complete set of adverse aspects of both compositional and distributional heterogeneity (material sampling errors), as well as with the errors incurred by the sampling process itself. The results of an empirical European Union study on genetically modified soybean heterogeneity, Kernel Lot Distribution Assessment are summarized, as they have a strong bearing on the issue of proper sampling protocol development. TOS principles apply universally in the food and feed realm and must therefore be considered the only basis for development of valid sampling protocols free from distributional constraints.

  9. Development of a Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Goldstein, Clark M.; Wright, Lauren R.; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and initial trial of a treatment for adolescents that targets negative emotionality and associated psychological difficulties, particularly anxiety and depressive disorders, as a more singular entity by utilizing an approach rooted in both emotion science and theory. The rationale for such an approach is based upon the perceived need for novel treatment approaches that target commonalities in emotional disorder symptom presentation and their intervention. Utilizing the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders originally developed for adults (Barlow, Allen & Choate, 2004), we conducted a multiple-baseline design study of a slightly modified version of this protocol with three adolescents presenting an array of anxiety and depression symptoms. Adolescent participants in this preliminary investigation evidenced symptom reductions across disorders at post-treatment, with greater improvements noted at a six-month follow-up. Based on these findings and research regarding the association between emotion science and developmental psychopathology, we detail a more extensive set of modifications to the protocol, undertaken in preparation for a subsequent open-trial investigation of the revised treatment. PMID:19617930

  10. Developing a protocol for gastrostomy tube insertion in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Habib, Syed F; Ahmed, Suhail; Skelly, Rachel; Bhatt, Kavita; Patel, Bhaveshree; Lowe, Derek; Tuson, Julian; Rogers, Simon N

    2014-05-01

    Selecting patients with head and neck cancer requiring a pretreatment gastrostomy feeding tube is not straightforward. The nutritional status and functional deficits associated with the cancer, its treatment, and the long-term side effects predicate the need for gastrostomy tube placement. However, gastrostomy tubes are not without morbidity and are an added burden to the patient. The aim of this retrospective case series review was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer treated with curative intent having gastrostomy placement, with the intent of developing a protocol to help with the timely selection of patients for pretreatment gastrostomy insertion. A gastrostomy tube was placed in 32%. A regression model identified 5 independent predictors (P < .001) to predict gastrostomy tube placement: overall clinical stage, tumor site, clinical T stage, patient age, and clinical N stage. A protocol to help the multidisciplinary team to decide whether a pretreatment gastrostomy tube should be placed is suggested.

  11. Continuity of Information for Breast Cancer Patients: The Development, Use and Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Care-Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wersch, A.; Bonnema, J.; Prinsen, B.; Pruyn, J.; Wiggers, Th.; van Geel, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary care protocol was developed to achieve continuity and integration of information. The protocol integrates medical, nursing, and a variety of extramural events and activities into a comprehensive description of 15 "moments" in the care of breast cancer surgery patients. Implementation and evaluation are reported and…

  12. Scenario Development for Information Operations (IO) Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-10

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 OCT 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scenario Development for...country called DYSLEXIA , whose government has been making threats to invade and appropriate a region of its neighbouring country, ABSTEMIA, which is

  13. Development of a Communication Protocol for Telephone Disclosure of Genetic Test Results for Cancer Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Egleston, Brian L; Fetzer, Dominique; Forman, Andrea; Bealin, Lisa; Rybak, Christina; Peterson, Candace; Corbman, Melanie; Albarracin, Julio; Stevens, Evelyn; Daly, Mary B; Bradbury, Angela R

    2014-01-01

    Background Dissemination of genetic testing for disease susceptibility, one application of “personalized medicine”, holds the potential to empower patients and providers through informed risk reduction and prevention recommendations. Genetic testing has become a standard practice in cancer prevention for high-risk populations. Heightened consumer awareness of “cancer genes” and genes for other diseases (eg, cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s disease), as well as the burgeoning availability of increasingly complex genomic tests (ie, multi-gene, whole-exome and -genome sequencing), has escalated interest in and demand for genetic risk assessment and the specialists who provide it. Increasing demand is expected to surpass access to genetic specialists. Thus, there is urgent need to develop effective and efficient models of delivery of genetic information that comparably balance the risks and benefits to the current standard of in-person communication. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate a theoretically grounded and rigorously developed protocol for telephone communication of BRCA1/2 (breast cancer) test results that might be generalizable to genetic testing for other hereditary cancer and noncancer syndromes. Methods Stakeholder data, health communication literature, and our theoretical model grounded in Self-Regulation Theory of Health Behavior were used to develop a telephone communication protocol for the communication of BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Framework analysis of selected audiotapes of disclosure sessions and stakeholders’ feedback were utilized to evaluate the efficacy and inform refinements to this protocol. Results Stakeholder feedback (n=86) and audiotapes (38%, 33/86) of telephone disclosures revealed perceived disadvantages and challenges including environmental factors (eg, non-private environment), patient-related factors (eg, low health literacy), testing-related factors (eg, additional testing needed), and

  14. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  15. Experimental protocol of dental procedures In patients with hereditary angioedema: the role of anxiety and the use of nitrogen oxide

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, A.; MIRANDA, M.; FRANCO, R.; GUARINO, M.G.; BARLATTANI, A.; BOLLERO, P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disease, little known to the medical and dental community, but with a growing rate of hospitalization over the years. HAE is due to a deficit/dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor which leads to an increase in vascular permeability and the appearance of edemas widespread in all body areas. The airways are the most affected and laryngeal swelling, which can occur, it is dangerous for the patient’s life, is also a sensitive spot in our daily practice, therefore, it is also important to be aware of all the signs of this disease. Episodes of HAE have no obvious cause, but it can be triggered by anxiety, invasive procedures and trauma. So this disease is a major problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery, ENT, endoscopy, emergency medicine and anesthesia because even simple procedures can cause laryngeal edema. The recommendations on the management of HAE include long- and short-term prophylaxis and treatment for acute attacks, however, the importance of anxiety control during the operating phases is undervalued. The present work suggests an experimental protocol for the surgery management of HAE patients with the help of nitrous oxide, with a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:28042430

  16. Analysis of simultaneous MEG and intracranial LFP recordings during Deep Brain Stimulation: a protocol and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Ashwini; Jha, Ashwani; Neal, Spencer; Reid, Alphonso; Bradbury, David; Aston, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for several neurological and psychiatric disorders. In order to gain insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS and to advance future therapies a better understanding of the effects of DBS on large-scale brain networks is required. New method In this paper, we describe an experimental protocol and analysis pipeline for simultaneously performing DBS and intracranial local field potential (LFP) recordings at a target brain region during concurrent magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement. Firstly we describe a phantom setup that allowed us to precisely characterise the MEG artefacts that occurred during DBS at clinical settings. Results Using the phantom recordings we demonstrate that with MEG beamforming it is possible to recover oscillatory activity synchronised to a reference channel, despite the presence of high amplitude artefacts evoked by DBS. Finally, we highlight the applicability of these methods by illustrating in a single patient with Parkinson's disease (PD), that changes in cortical-subthalamic nucleus coupling can be induced by DBS. Comparison with existing approaches To our knowledge this paper provides the first technical description of a recording and analysis pipeline for combining simultaneous cortical recordings using MEG, with intracranial LFP recordings of a target brain nucleus during DBS. PMID:26698227

  17. Hydrolysis of triacetin catalyzed by immobilized lipases: effect of the immobilization protocol and experimental conditions on diacetin yield.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Karel; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Porcar, Raul; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2011-05-06

    The effect of the immobilization protocol and some experimental conditions (pH value and presence of acetonitrile) on the regioselective hydrolysis of triacetin to diacetin catalyzed by lipases has been studied. Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) and lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) were immobilized on Sepabeads (commercial available macroporous acrylic supports) activated with glutaraldehyde (covalent immobilization) or octadecyl groups (adsorption via interfacial activation). All the biocatalysts accumulated diacetin. Covalently immobilized RML was more active towards rac-methyl mandelate than the adsorbed RML. However, this covalent RML preparation presented the lowest activity towards triacetin. For this reason, this preparation was discarded as biocatalyst for this reaction. At pH 7, acyl migration occurred giving a mixture of 1,2 and 1,3 diacetin, but at pH 5.5, only 1,2 diacetin was produced. Yields were improved at acidic pH values and in the presence of 20% acetonitrile (to over 95%). RML immobilized on octadecyl Sepabeads was proposed as optimal preparation, mainly due to its higher specific activity. Each enzyme preparation presented very different properties. Moreover, changes in the reaction conditions affected the various immobilized enzymes in a different way.

  18. Development of Design-a-Trial, a knowledge-based critiquing system for authors of clinical trial protocols.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, J C; Altman, D G; Heathfield, H A; Pantin, C F

    1994-06-01

    Many published clinical trials are poorly designed, suggesting that the protocol was incomplete, disorganised or contained errors. This fact, doctors' limited statistical skills and the shortage of medical statisticians, prompted us to develop a knowledge-based aid, Design-a-Trial, for authors of clinical trial protocols. This interviews a physician, prompts them with suitable design options, comments on the statistical rigour and feasibility of their proposed design and generates a 6-page draft protocol document. This paper outlines the process used to develop Design-a-Trial, presents preliminary evaluation results, and discusses lessons we learned which may apply to the developed of other medical decision-aids.

  19. The development of an evidence based assessment protocol for intimate partner violence in the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Krase, Kathryn

    2011-05-01

    The importance of conducting evidence based assessment has been widely acknowledged by many professions, including social work. In this study, the U.S. Army, in partnership with University researchers, developed an evidence based assessment protocol to assist the individual social worker in conducting his/her assessment of intimate partner violence. The protocol development process involved posing answerable research questions about intimate partner violence assessment content and method and then adhering to the steps of evidence based practice to answer those questions. Key to the protocol development process was the partnership created between researchers and practitioners as part of an expert panel.

  20. Development of a PCR protocol to detect aflatoxigenic molds in food products.

    PubMed

    Luque, M Isabel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Andrade, María J; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus species growing in foodstuffs. Because aflatoxins have important health effects, the detection of early contamination of foods by aflatoxigenic molds should be useful. In the present work, a reliable conventional PCR method for detecting aflatoxigenic molds of various species was developed. Fifty-six aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains commonly reported in foodstuffs were tested. Aflatoxin production was first confirmed by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis or/and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the conserved regions of the O-methyltransferase gene (omt-1) involved in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, six primer pairs were designed. With only the designed primer pair AFF1-AFR3, the expected PCR product (381 bp) was obtained in all of the tested aflatoxigenic strains of various species and genera. Amplification products were not obtained with this primer pair for any of the nonaflatoxigenic reference molds. However, an amplicon of 453 bp was obtained for all aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic mold reference strains with a PCR protocol based on the constitutive fungal β-tubulin gene, which was used as a positive fungal control. The PCR protocol based on omt-1 detected as little as 15 pg of DNA from aflatoxigenic molds and 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g in contaminated food samples. This PCR protocol should be used as a routine technique to detect aflatoxigenic molds in foods.

  1. Development and Implementation of Clinical Trial Protocol Templates at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Heather; Smolskis, Mary; Bianchine, Peter; Dixon, Dennis O.; Kelly, Grace; Herpin, Betsey; Tavel, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background: A clinical research protocol document must reflect both sound scientific rationale as well as local, national and, when applicable, international regulatory and human subject protections requirements. These requirements originate from a variety of sources, undergo frequent revision and are subject to interpretation. Tools to assist clinical investigators in the production of clinical protocols could facilitate navigating these requirements and ultimately increase the efficiency of clinical research. Purpose: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) developed templates for investigators to serve as the foundation for protocol development. These protocol templates are designed as tools to support investigators in developing clinical protocols. Methods: NIAID established a series of working groups to determine how to improve its capacity to conduct clinical research more efficiently and effectively. The Protocol Template Working Group was convened to determine what protocol templates currently existed within NIAID and whether standard NIAID protocol templates should be produced. After review and assessment of existing protocol documents and requirements, the group reached consensus about required and optional content, determined the format and identified methods for distribution as well as education of investigators in the use of these templates. Results: The templates were approved by the NIAID Executive Committee in 2006 and posted as part of the NIAID Clinical Research Toolkit[1]website for broad access. These documents require scheduled revisions to stay current with regulatory and policy changes. Limitations: The structure of any clinical protocol template, whether comprehensive or specific to a particular study phase, setting or design, affects how it is used by investigators. Each structure presents its own set of advantages and disadvantages. While useful, protocol templates are not stand-alone tools for creating an optimal

  2. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Methods and analyses Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case–control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. Ethics and dissemination The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since

  3. The Role of Pheromonal Responses in Rodent Behavior: Future Directions for the Development of Laboratory Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones—chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific—are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam–pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094

  4. EXPERIMENTAL VIBRIO INFECTIONS OF DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Armine T.

    1946-01-01

    Developing chick embryos are highly susceptible to infection with strains on V. cholerae representing Gardner and Venkatraman's 6 groups and the types Inaba and Ogawa. There is a moderate decrease in susceptibility with advancing age of the embryo. The influence of dosage on survival rates is not marked, probably because a minimal dose, consisting of a very few organisms, is sufficient to produce death rapidly. Passive protection of a low order is conferred on the embryos by the introduction of inactivated specific immune serum at the time of inoculation of vibrios. This protective influence is enormously enhanced by the previous or simultaneous administration of guinea pig complement. The antigens of group I organisms which give rise to embryo-protective and bacteriolytic antibodies are dual in character. One antigen is shared by all members of the group and is productive of antibodies which will protect against infections with all strains of the group, of whatever type. The other antigen is type-specific, and its antibodies are protective and lytic only for organisms of the homologous type. PMID:19871571

  5. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a “bottom-up” strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.1 We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and *95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.2 In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify *300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases.

  6. Pursuing excellence: development of an oral hygiene protocol for mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jennifer A; Evans, Diana; Christmas, Lauren A; Rodriguez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Oral hygiene in seriously ill patients is a nursing responsibility. Oral hygiene regimens in conjunction with standardized ventilator-associated pneumonia "bundles" reduce the incidence of pneumonia, length of stay, and associated costs in critical care. Following strict adherence to the recommended ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle, the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate at the Northeast Baptist Hospital intensive care units has remained 0% for 36 months. Oral care in this patient population, however, has remained vague based on ritual and nurse preference. This article describes the development of an oral care protocol based on best evidence, providing a rationale for standardization of oral hygiene and the plan for surveillance and updating.

  7. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY TESTING OF SELECTED BENTHIC AND EPIBENTHIC ORGANISMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT QUALITY TEST PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment contamination has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate suite of toxicity tests to assess ecotoxicological impacts on estuarine ecosystems. Existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols recommend a number of test organisms, including amphipods, polych...

  8. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY TESTING OF SELECTED BENTHIC AND EPIBENTHIC ORGANISMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT QUALITY TEST PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment contamination has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate suite of toxicity tests to assess ecotoxicological impacts on estuarine ecosystems. Existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols recommend a number of test organisms, including amphipods, polych...

  9. Metal-silicate Partitioning at High Pressure and Temperature: Experimental Methods and a Protocol to Suppress Highly Siderophile Element Inclusions.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Neil R; Brenan, James M; Fei, Yingwei

    2015-06-13

    Estimates of the primitive upper mantle (PUM) composition reveal a depletion in many of the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, thought to result from their extraction to the core during terrestrial accretion. Experiments to investigate the partitioning of these elements between metal and silicate melts suggest that the PUM composition is best matched if metal-silicate equilibrium occurred at high pressures and temperatures, in a deep magma ocean environment. The behavior of the most highly siderophile elements (HSEs) during this process however, has remained enigmatic. Silicate run-products from HSE solubility experiments are commonly contaminated by dispersed metal inclusions that hinder the measurement of element concentrations in the melt. The resulting uncertainty over the true solubility and metal-silicate partitioning of these elements has made it difficult to predict their expected depletion in PUM. Recently, several studies have employed changes to the experimental design used for high pressure and temperature solubility experiments in order to suppress the formation of metal inclusions. The addition of Au (Re, Os, Ir, Ru experiments) or elemental Si (Pt experiments) to the sample acts to alter either the geometry or rate of sample reduction respectively, in order to avoid transient metal oversaturation of the silicate melt. This contribution outlines procedures for using the piston-cylinder and multi-anvil apparatus to conduct solubility and metal-silicate partitioning experiments respectively. A protocol is also described for the synthesis of uncontaminated run-products from HSE solubility experiments in which the oxygen fugacity is similar to that during terrestrial core-formation. Time-resolved LA-ICP-MS spectra are presented as evidence for the absence of metal-inclusions in run-products from earlier studies, and also confirm that the technique may be extended to investigate Ru. Examples are also given of how these data may be applied.

  10. Towards the development of a bioengineered uterus: comparison of different protocols for rat uterus decellularization.

    PubMed

    Hellström, M; El-Akouri, R R; Sihlbom, C; Olsson, B M; Lengqvist, J; Bäckdahl, H; Johansson, B R; Olausson, M; Sumitran-Holgersson, S; Brännström, M

    2014-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) may be the only possible curative treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility, which affects 1 in every 500 females of fertile age. We recently presented the 6-month results from the first clinical UTx trial, describing nine live-donor procedures. This routine involves complicated surgery and requires potentially harmful immune suppression to prevent rejection. However, tissue engineering applications using biomaterials and stem cells may replace the need for a live donor, and could prevent the required immunosuppressive treatment. To investigate the basic aspects of this, we developed a novel whole-uterus scaffold design for uterus tissue engineering experiments in the rat. Decellularization was achieved by perfusion of detergents and ionic solutions. The remaining matrix and its biochemical and mechanical properties were quantitatively compared from using three different protocols. The constructs were further compared with native uterus tissue composition. Perfusion with Triton X-100/dimethyl sulfoxide/H2O led to a compact, weaker scaffold that showed evidence of a compromised matrix organization. Sodium deoxycholate/dH2O perfusion gave rise to a porous scaffold that structurally and mechanically resembled native uterus better. An innovative combination of two proteomic analyses revealed higher fibronectin and versican content in these porous scaffolds, which may explain the improved scaffold organization. Together with other important protocol-dependent differences, our results can contribute to the development of improved decellularization protocols for assorted organs. Furthermore, our study shows the first available data on decellularized whole uterus, and creates new opportunities for numerous in vitro and in vivo whole-uterus tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K L F; Luey, C K Y; Bird, M; Terajima, J; Nair, G B; Kam, K M; Arakawa, E; Safa, A; Cheung, D T; Law, C P; Watanabe, H; Kubota, K; Swaminathan, B; Ribot, E M

    2006-01-01

    PulseNet is a network that utilizes standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols with the purpose of conducting laboratory-based surveillance of foodborne pathogens. PulseNet standardized PFGE protocols are subject to rigorous testing during the developmental phase and careful evaluation during a validation process assessing its robustness and reproducibility in different laboratories. Here we describe the development and validation of a rapid PFGE protocol for subtyping Vibrio cholerae for use in PulseNet International activities. While the protocol was derived from the existing PulseNet protocol for Escherichia coli O157, various aspects of this protocol were optimized for use with V. cholerae, most notably a change of the primary and secondary restriction enzyme to SfiI and NotI, respectively, and the use of a two-block electrophoresis program. External validation of this protocol was undertaken through a collaboration between three PulseNet Asia Pacific laboratories (Public Health Laboratory Centre, Hong Kong, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, and International Center for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research-Bangladesh) and PulseNet USA. Comparison of PFGE patterns generated by each of the participating laboratories demonstrated that the protocol is robust and reproducible.

  12. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  13. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Eftis, J.; Hones, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental developments in four distinct areas of fracture mechanics research are described. These are as follows: experimental comparisons of different nonlinear fracture toughness measures, including the nonlinear energy, R curve, COD and J integral methods; the singular elastic crack-tip stress and displacement equations and the validity of the proposition of their general adequacy as indicated, for example, by the biaxially loaded infinite sheet with a flat crack; the thermodynamic nature of surface energy induced by propagating cracks in relation to a general continuum thermodynamic description of brittle fracture; and analytical and experimental aspects of Mode II fracture, with experimental data for certain aluminum, steel and titanium alloys.

  14. NASA's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  15. Nasa's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  16. Development of a data entry auditing protocol and quality assurance for a tissue bank database.

    PubMed

    Khushi, Matloob; Carpenter, Jane E; Balleine, Rosemary L; Clarke, Christine L

    2012-03-01

    Human transcription error is an acknowledged risk when extracting information from paper records for entry into a database. For a tissue bank, it is critical that accurate data are provided to researchers with approved access to tissue bank material. The challenges of tissue bank data collection include manual extraction of data from complex medical reports that are accessed from a number of sources and that differ in style and layout. As a quality assurance measure, the Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (http:\\\\www.abctb.org.au) has implemented an auditing protocol and in order to efficiently execute the process, has developed an open source database plug-in tool (eAuditor) to assist in auditing of data held in our tissue bank database. Using eAuditor, we have identified that human entry errors range from 0.01% when entering donor's clinical follow-up details, to 0.53% when entering pathological details, highlighting the importance of an audit protocol tool such as eAuditor in a tissue bank database. eAuditor was developed and tested on the Caisis open source clinical-research database; however, it can be integrated in other databases where similar functionality is required.

  17. Development of surgical protocol for implantation of tracheal prostheses in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Schultz, Philippe; Vrana, Nihal Engin; Lavalle, Philippe; Vautier, Dominique; Debry, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This article documents experiments performed in ewes to design an artificial larynx. The artificial larynx is composed of a hollow, porous tube that elongates the trachea and is capped with a valve that acts as a laryngeal sphincter. Through an industrial collaboration, our team developed a porous biomaterial that can be colonized by cervical tissues. This biomaterial has been used in animals to replace part of the trachea, but it is meant to eventually substitute for laryngeal cartilage. The tracheal prosthesis is a hollow cylindrical tube composed of titanium microbeads. We performed a study in large animals to establish an optimal surgical protocol for tracheal replacement in humans. The study included 11 sheep (n = 11) and compared 5 methods of implantation. We successfully established an optimal three-step surgical protocol to make the porous-titanium tracheal prosthesis functional: (1) large lumen endoprosthetics, (2) colonization by the peripheral tissues, and (3) endoprosthetic epithelialization. This study is the first step in developing an artificial larynx because it successfully identifies a biomaterial capable of extending the trachea to allow it to open at the junction of the upper aerodigestive tracts.

  18. Development of a Feasible Implementation Fidelity Protocol Within a Complex Physical Therapy-Led Self-Management Intervention.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Elaine; Matthews, James; Guerin, Suzanne; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2016-08-01

    Implementation fidelity is poorly addressed within physical therapy interventions, which may be due to limited research on how to develop and implement an implementation fidelity protocol. The purpose of this study was to develop a feasible implementation fidelity protocol within a pilot study of a physical therapy-led intervention to promote self-management for people with chronic low back pain or osteoarthritis. A 2-phase mixed-methods design was used. Phase 1 involved the development of an initial implementation fidelity protocol using qualitative interviews with potential stakeholders to explore the acceptability of proposed strategies to enhance and assess implementation fidelity. Phase 2 involved testing and refining the initial implementation fidelity protocol to develop a finalized implementation fidelity protocol. Specifically, the feasibility of 3 different strategies (physical therapist self-report checklists, independently rated direct observations, and audio-recorded observations) for assessing implementation fidelity of intervention delivery was tested, followed by additional stakeholder interviews that explored the overall feasibility of the implementation fidelity protocol. Phase 1 interviews determined the proposed implementation fidelity strategies to be acceptable to stakeholders. Phase 2 showed that independently rated audio recordings (n=6) and provider self-report checklists (n=12) were easier to implement than independently rated direct observations (n=12) for assessing implementation fidelity of intervention delivery. Good agreement (79.8%-92.8%) was found among all methods. Qualitative stakeholder interviews confirmed the acceptability, practicality, and implementation of the implementation fidelity protocol. The reliability and validity of assessment checklists used in this study have yet to be fully tested, and blinding of independent raters was not possible. A feasible implementation fidelity protocol was developed based on a 2-phase

  19. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging of the heart ex situ: development of technical protocols.

    PubMed

    Bruguier, C; Egger, C; Vallée, J P; Grimm, J; Boulanger, X; Jackowski, C; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2015-05-01

    Postmortem MRI (PMMR) examinations are seldom performed in legal medicine due to long examination times, unfamiliarity with the technique, and high costs. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain access to an MRI device used for patients in clinical settings to image an entire human body. An alternative is available: ex situ organ examination. To our knowledge, there is no standardized protocol that includes ex situ organ preparation and scanning parameters for postmortem MRI. Thus, our objective was to develop a standard procedure for ex situ heart PMMR examinations. We also tested the oily contrast agent Angiofil® commonly used for PMCT angiography, for its applicability in MRI. We worked with a 3 Tesla MRI device and 32-channel head coils. Twelve porcine hearts were used to test different materials to find the best way to prepare and place organs in the device and to test scanning parameters. For coronary MR angiography, we tested different mixtures of Angiofil® and different injection materials. In a second step, 17 human hearts were examined to test the procedure and its applicability to human organs. We established two standardized protocols: one for preparation of the heart and another for scanning parameters based on experience in clinical practice. The established protocols enabled a standardized technical procedure with comparable radiological images, allowing for easy radiological reading. The performance of coronary MR angiography enabled detailed coronary assessment and revealed the utility of Angiofil® as a contrast agent for PMMR. Our simple, reproducible method for performing heart examinations ex situ yields high quality images and visualization of the coronary arteries.

  20. Experimental model of tooth movement in mice: a standardized protocol for studying bone remodeling under compression and tensile strains.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Silvana Rodrigues de Albuquerque; Moura, Adriana Pedrosa; Andrade, Ildeu; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Garlet, Thiago Pompermaier; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2012-11-15

    During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), alveolar bone is resorbed by osteoclasts in compression sites (CS) and is deposited by osteoblasts in tension sites (TS). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized OTM protocol in mice and to investigate the expression of bone resorption and deposition markers in CS and TS. An orthodontic appliance was placed in C57BL6/J mice. To define the ideal orthodontic force, the molars of the mice were subjected to forces of 0.1N, 0.25 N, 0.35 N and 0.5 N. The expression of mediators that are involved in bone remodeling at CS and TS was analyzed using a Real-Time PCR. The data revealed that a force of 0.35 N promoted optimal OTM and osteoclast recruitment without root resorption. The levels of TNF-α, RANKL, MMP13 and OPG were all altered in CS and TS. Whereas TNF-α and Cathepsin K exhibited elevated levels in CS, RUNX2 and OCN levels were higher in TS. Our results suggest that 0.35 N is the ideal force for OTM in mice and has no side effects. Moreover, the expression of bone remodeling markers differed between the compression and the tension areas, potentially explaining the distinct cellular migration and differentiation patterns in each of these sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Fire Modeling Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), phase 1: experimental and analytical protocols with detailed model descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Sam S.; Melton, Joe R.; Lasslop, Gitta; Bachelet, Dominique; Forrest, Matthew; Hantson, Stijn; Kaplan, Jed O.; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stéphane; Ward, Daniel S.; Yue, Chao; Arora, Vivek K.; Hickler, Thomas; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Nieradzik, Lars; Spessa, Allan; Folberth, Gerd A.; Sheehan, Tim; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Sitch, Stephen; Harrison, Sandy; Arneth, Almut

    2017-03-01

    The important role of fire in regulating vegetation community composition and contributions to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols make it a critical component of dynamic global vegetation models and Earth system models. Over 2 decades of development, a wide variety of model structures and mechanisms have been designed and incorporated into global fire models, which have been linked to different vegetation models. However, there has not yet been a systematic examination of how these different strategies contribute to model performance. Here we describe the structure of the first phase of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), which for the first time seeks to systematically compare a number of models. By combining a standardized set of input data and model experiments with a rigorous comparison of model outputs to each other and to observations, we will improve the understanding of what drives vegetation fire, how it can best be simulated, and what new or improved observational data could allow better constraints on model behavior. In this paper, we introduce the fire models used in the first phase of FireMIP, the simulation protocols applied, and the benchmarking system used to evaluate the models. We have also created supplementary tables that describe, in thorough mathematical detail, the structure of each model.

  2. [New integrated care model for older people admitted to Intermediate Care Units in Catalonia: A quasi-experimental study protocol].

    PubMed

    Santaeugènia, Sebastià J; García-Lázaro, Manuela; Alventosa, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Benito, Alícia; Monterde, Albert; Cunill, Joan

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of an intermediate care model based on a system of care focused on integrated care pathways compared to the traditional model of geriatric care (usual care) in Catalonia. The design is a quasi-experimental pre-post non-randomised study with non-synchronous control group. The intervention consists of the development and implementation of integrated care pathways and the creation of specialised interdisciplinary teams in each of the processes. The two groups will be compared for demographic, clinical variables on admission and discharge, geriatric syndromes, and use of resources. This quasi-experimental study, aims to assess the clinical impact of the transformation of a traditional model of geriatric care to an intermediate care model in an integrated healthcare organisation. It is believed that the results of this study may be useful for future randomised controlled studies. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissemination of CBTI to the Non-Sleep Specialist: Protocol Development and Training Issues

    PubMed Central

    Manber, Rachel; Carney, Colleen; Edinger, Jack; Epstein, Dana; Friedman, Leah; Haynes, Patricia L.; Karlin, Bradley E.; Pigeon, Wilfred; Siebern, Allison T.; Trockel, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These “real-life” constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination. Citation: Manber R; Carney C; Edinger J; Epstein D; Friedman L; Haynes PL; Karlin BE; Pigeon W; Siebern AT; Trockel M. Dissemination of CBTI to the non-sleep specialist: protocol development and training issues. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):209-218. PMID:22505869

  4. Protocols for Monitoring the Development of Tau Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Rábano, Alberto; Cuadros, Raquel; Merino-Serráis, Paula; Rodal, Izaskun; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Gómez, Elena; Medina, Miguel; DeFelipe, Javier; Avila, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and several related disorders collectively known as tauopathies. Development of tau pathology is associated with progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. In the brains of AD patients, tau pathology spreads following a predictable, anatomically defined progression pattern that can be followed by immunohistochemistry looking at brain post-mortem samples from Alzheimer patients at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, since it has been proposed that AD may be a synaptopathy and dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are the major targets of cortical synapses, the analysis of dendritic spines is a useful tool to study the correlation between tau phosphorylation at specific sites, synaptopathy and cognitive impairment. Finally, characterization of phosphorylated tau in detergent-insoluble protein aggregates could also be an indication of the neuropathological staging in AD. Here, we describe these three complementary protocols to follow the development of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

  5. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-03-13

    The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the

  6. Development of an optimized random amplified polymorphic DNA protocol for fingerprinting of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ashayeri-Panah, M; Eftekhar, F; Feizabadi, M M

    2012-04-01

    To develop an optimized random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol for fingerprinting clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Employing factorial design of experiments, repeatable amplification patterns were obtained for 54 nosocomial isolates using 1 μmol 1(-1) primer, 4 mmol 1(-1) MgCl(2), 0·4 mmol 1(-1) dNTPs, 2·5 U Taq DNA polymerase and 90 ng DNA template in a total volume of 25 μl. The optimum thermocycling program was: initial denaturation at 94°C for 4 min followed by 50 cycles of 1 min at 94°C, 2 min at 34°C, 2 min at 72°C and a final extension at 72°C for 10 min. The optimized RAPD protocol was highly discriminatory (Simpson's diversity index, 0·982), and all isolates were typable with repeatable patterns (Pearson's similarity coefficient ≈ 100%). Seven main clusters were obtained on a similarity level of 70% and 32 distinct clusters on a similarity level of 85%, reflecting the heterogeneity of the isolates. Systematic optimization of RAPD generated reliable DNA fingerprints for nosocomial isolates of K. pneumoniae. This is the first report on RAPD optimization based on factorial design of experiments for discrimination of K. pneumoniae. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Development of an optimised application protocol for sonophoretic transdermal delivery of a model hydrophilic drug.

    PubMed

    Sarheed, Omar; Rasool, Bazigha K Abdul

    2011-01-01

    It has now been known for over a decade that low frequency ultrasound can be used to effectively enhance transdermal drug penetration - an approach termed sonophoresis. Mechanistically, acoustic cavitation results in the creation of defects in the stratum corneum that allow accelerated absorption of topically applied molecules. The aim of this study was to develop an optimised sonophoresis protocol for studying transdermal drug delivery in vitro. To this end, caffeine was selected as a model hydrophilic drug while porcine skin was used as a model barrier. Following acoustic validation, 20kHz ultrasound was applied for different durations (range: 5 s to 10 min) using three different modes (10%, 33% or 100% duty cycles) and two distinct sonication procedures (either before or concurrent with drug deposition). Each ultrasonic protocol was assessed in terms of its heating and caffeine flux-enhancing effects. It was found that the best regimen was a concurrent 5 min, pulsed (10% duty cycle) beam of SATA intensity 0.37 W/cm(2). A key insight was that in the case of pulsed beams of 10% duty cycle, sonication concurrent with drug deposition was superior to sonication prior to drug deposition and potential mechanisms for this are discussed.

  8. Development of DOE complex wide authorized release protocols for radioactive scrap metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Y.

    1998-11-23

    Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real properties that warrant consideration for reuse or recycle, as permitted and practiced under the current DOE policy. The provisions for supporting this policy are contained in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such property is intended to permit its beneficial use across the entire DOE complex. The objective of this study is to develop readily usable computer-based release protocols to facilitate implementation of the Handbook in evaluating the scrap metals for reuse and recycle. The protocols provide DOE with an effective oversight tool for managing release activities.

  9. Development of novel noninvasive prenatal testing protocol for whole autosomal recessive disease using picodroplet digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mun Young; Kim, Ah Reum; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jinsun; Han, Jae Joon; Ahn, Soyeon; Kang, Changsoo; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We developed a protocol of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), employing a higher-resolution picodroplet digital PCR, to detect genetic imbalance in maternal plasma DNA (mpDNA) caused by cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA). In the present study, this approach was applied to four families with autosomal recessive (AR) congenital sensorineural hearing loss. First, a fraction of the fetal DNA in mpDNA was calculated. Then, we made artificial DNA mixtures (positive and negative controls) to simulate mpDNA containing the fraction of cffDNA with or without mutations. Next, a fraction of mutant cluster signals over the total signals was measured from mpDNA, positive controls, and negative controls. We determined whether fetal DNA carried any paternal or maternal mutations by calculating and comparing the sum of the log-likelihood of the study samples. Of the four families, we made a successful prediction of the complete fetal genotype in two cases where a distinct cluster was identified for each genotype and the fraction of cffDNA in mpDNA was at least 6.4%. Genotyping of only paternal mutation was possible in one of the other two families. This is the first NIPT protocol potentially applicable to any AR monogenic disease with various genotypes, including point mutations. PMID:27924908

  10. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation.

  11. A protocol for stripping and reprobing of Western blots originally developed with colorimetric substrate TMB.

    PubMed

    Kar, Parmita; Agnihotri, Saurabh Kumar; Sharma, Archana; Sachan, Rekha; Lal Bhatt, Madan; Sachdev, Monika

    2012-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used analytical technique for detection of specific protein(s) in a given sample of tissue/cell homogenate or extract. Both chemiluminescence (CL) and colorimetric detections can be used for imaging Western blots. Colorimetric substrates offer background free, sensitive, and clean imaging results directly on the blotted membrane and provides more accurate profile with respect to prestained marker. However, blots stained with colorimetric substrates cannot be reused since no stripping protocols have been reported for such blots, thus limiting their reuse for detection of another protein. In the present study, for the first time, we report a novel method of stripping Western blots developed with the colorimetric substrate TMB for detection of a low-abundant protein and reprobing of these blots after stripping for detection of a more abundant protein through CL procedure. The stripping procedure utilizes a stripping buffer consisting of β-mercaptoethanol, SDS, and Tris-HCl and a washing buffer consisting of PBS added with 0.1% Tween-20 involves a series of steps and facilitates accurate detection of the second protein (i.e., more abundant protein) in the stripped blot through CL. The protocol is reproducible and facilitates saving of precious clinical samples, in addition to saving cost and time as compared to the existing procedures. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    PubMed

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the effectivity of the mixed virtual reality training Into D'mentia for informal caregivers of people with dementia: protocol for a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Jütten, Linda Helena; Mark, Ruth Elaine; Maria Janssen, Ben Wilhelmus Jacobus; Rietsema, Jan; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sitskoorn, Margriet Maria

    2017-08-21

    Informal caregivers for people with dementia (hereafter: caregivers) often feel (over)burdened by the care for a loved one with dementia, and this can have various deleterious effects on both caregivers and patients. Support for caregivers is urgently needed, and for this reason, a dementia simulator (Into D'mentia) was developed in which caregivers experience what it is like to have dementia. The simulator attempts to heighten caregivers' empathy and understanding for the patient and, in turn, diminish their own caregiver burden. The current study evaluates whether the simulator is effective on a number of outcomes. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study is ongoing in the Netherlands. We aim to recruit 142 caregivers in total divided over two groups: 71 caregivers in the intervention group and 71 caregivers in the control group. All participants will complete interviews and questionnaires at four time points: at baseline, 1 week, 2.5 months and 15 months after the training. The primary outcomes include empathy, caregiver burden, caregiver's sense of competence, social reliance, anxiety, depression and caregivers' subjective and objective health. This study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol has been approved by the local ethics committees. This study is registered with The Netherlands National Trial Register (NNTR5856). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  15. Potential Heating Effect in the Gravid Uterus by Using 3-T MR Imaging Protocols: Experimental Study in Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cannie, Mieke M; De Keyzer, Frederik; Van Laere, Sigrid; Leus, Astrid; de Mey, Johan; Fourneau, Catherine; De Ridder, Filip; Van Cauteren, Toon; Willekens, Inneke; Jani, Jacques C

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine the changes in temperature within the gravid miniature pig uterus during magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3 T. Materials and Methods The study received ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Fiber-optic temperature sensors were inserted into the fetal brain, abdomen, bladder, and amniotic fluid of miniature pigs (second trimester, n = 2; third trimester, n = 2). In the first trimester (n = 2), the sensors were inserted only into the amniotic fluid (three sacs per miniature pig, for a total of six sacs). Imaging was performed with a 3-T MR imager by using different imaging protocols in a random order for animal, each lasting approximately 15 minutes. The first regimen consisted of common sequences used for human fetal MR examination, including normal specific absorption rate (SAR). The second regimen consisted of five low-SAR sequences, for which three gradient-echo sequences were interspersed with two diffusion-weighted imaging series. Finally, a high-SAR regimen maximized the radiofrequency energy deposition (constrained by the 2-W per kilogram of body weight SAR limitations) by using five single-shot turbo spin-echo sequences. Differences in temperature increases between the three regimens and between the three trimesters were evaluated by using one-way analysis of variance. The maximum cumulative temperature increase over 1 hour was also evaluated. Results Low-SAR regimens resulted in the lowest temperature increase (mean ± standard deviation, -0.03°C ± 0.20), normal regimens resulted in an intermediate increase (0.31°C ± 0.21), and high-SAR regimens resulted in the highest increase (0.56°C ± 0.20) (P < .0001). Mean temperature increase in the third trimester was 0.38°C ± 0.27, with no significant differences compared with the first (0.23°C ± 0.27) and second (0.25°C ± 0.32) trimesters (P = .07). The cumulative temperature increase over 1-hour imaging time with high SAR can reach 2.5°C. Conclusion In pregnant

  16. Joint Concept Development and Experimentation: A Force Development Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    organizational variables so that they will afford a higher expectation of need satisfaction . Such an approach to developing the individual-organization...official channels of communication; database integration Different role expectations Intensive educational programs; new divisions of labour and...collective training, IT systems Different role expectations Intensive educational programs; new divisions of labour and authority structure PD

  17. Development of a first-contact protocol to guide assessment of adult patients in rehabilitation services networks

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana A. P.; Ferreira, Fabiane R.; César, Cibele C.; Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Coster, Wendy J.; Mancini, Marisa C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the development of the Protocol for Identification of Problems for Rehabilitation (PLPR), a tool to standardize collection of functional information based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Development of the protocol: The PLPR was developed for use during the initial contact with adult patients within a public network of rehabilitation services. Steps to develop the protocol included: survey of the ICF codes most used by clinical professionals; compilation of data from functional instruments; development and pilot testing of a preliminary version in the service settings; discussion with professionals and development of the final version. The final version includes: user identification; social and health information; brief functional description (BFD); summary of the BFD; and PLPR results. Further testing of the final version will be conducted. Conclusions: The protocol standardizes the first contact between the user and the rehabilitation service. Systematic use of the protocol could also help to create a functional database that would allow comparisons between rehabilitation services and countries over time. PMID:26786075

  18. Engineering Tests of Experimental Ammonia Process Printer-Developer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-07-06

    up for an experimental am:tmoa process printer- developer to meet the military characteristics. Thlis machine was Krocurod under development contract ...over the top of the can. A small light on the front panel of the mucl -ine indicates when the level of the ammonia in the storage tank is such that

  19. Development of a monitoring protocol to enhance mentoring in the IRIS REU site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H.

    2013-12-01

    Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) sites pair interns with scientists expected to oversee and guide an intern's scientific research, and assist in the development of skills, knowledge, and connections that will enhance the intern's professional and personal growth. This aspect of REU sites is generally recognized as a powerful, yet complicated, component that has a strong influence on the overall success of the intern's experience. Evaluations indicate that the quality and consistency of mentoring in REU sites can be highly variable. Traditional strategies to influence mentorship generally include reading lists or short trainings at the beginning of the summer. The efficacy of these approaches is questionable. As a result many REU Site facilitators are deeply interested in the question 'How can REU programs challenge scientists to raise their participation to the level of (truly) mentoring?' The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) REU site is developing a 13-item rubric measuring research skills, and a protocol of training and intern-mentor meetings to discuss progress. The goal of the intervention is to both increase the extent to which the mentoring relationship is centered on the intern, and to enable interns and mentors to feel more effective monitoring interns' personal/professional growth. This intervention was piloted in 2011, refined, and fully implemented in 2012. During the initial week of the program, interns assess their skills, complete the rubric independently, and discuss the completed rubric with their mentor. Midway through the summer interns and mentors each review the rubric and assess the intern's skills. The intern-mentor pairs then meet to collaborate and complete the rubric together. Finally, in the last week of the program, interns and mentors independently assess the intern's skills and complete the rubric, and the pairs again meet to discuss and negotiate these independent assessments. Survey data from 2012

  20. Development of an efficient protocol of RNA isolation from recalcitrant tree tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Tian, Weimin; Li, Yinxin

    2008-01-01

    Isolation of RNA from recalcitrant tree tissues has been problematic due to large amounts of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds in their cells. We have developed an efficient RNA extraction method, which yielded high-quality RNA preparations from tissues of the lychee tree. The method reported here utilized EDTA, LSS, and CTAB to successfully inhibit RNase activities. It was found that a high ionic strength brought about by 2 M NaCl was necessary. In addition, secondary metabolites and other interfering compounds were effectively removed using sodium borate and PVPP under a deoxidized condition. The quality of purified RNA was tested by both RACE and Northern blotting analysis, ensuring that the RNA could be used for subsequent gene expression analysis. This method has been successfully applied to purify RNA from 15 other plant species. In conclusion, the protocol reported here is expected to have excellent applications for RNA isolation from recalcitrant plant tissues.

  1. Thoracic dual energy CT: acquisition protocols, current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Ohana, M; Jeung, M Y; Labani, A; El Ghannudi, S; Roy, C

    2014-11-01

    Thanks to a simultaneous acquisition at high and low kilovoltage, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can achieve material-based decomposition (iodine, water, calcium, etc.) and reconstruct images at different energy levels (40 to 140keV). Post-processing uses this potential to maximise iodine detection, which elicits demonstrated added value for chest imaging in acute and chronic embolic diseases (increases the quality of the examination and identifies perfusion defects), follow-up of aortic endografts and detection of contrast uptake in oncology. In CT angiography, these unique features are taken advantage of to reduce the iodine load by more than half. This review article aims to set out the physical basis for the technology, the acquisition and post-processing protocols used, its proven advantages in chest pathologies, and to present future developments.

  2. Efficacy of protocols for cleaning and disinfecting infant feeding bottles in less developed communities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Swaminathan, Balasubr; Doyle, Michael; Bowen, Anna

    2009-07-01

    Although breastfeeding is the best choice for most infants, infant formula is used widely, commonly introduced during the neonatal period, and usually given to infants in bottles that can be difficult to clean. We artificially contaminated infant feeding bottles with low and high inocula of bacterial enteric pathogens and evaluated the efficacy of several cleaning and chlorine disinfection protocols. Rinsing with soapy water followed by tap water was the most effective cleaning method and reduced pathogen load by 3.7 and 3.1 log(10)s at the low and high inoculum levels, respectively. Submersion in 50 ppm hypochlorite solution for 30 minutes produced a 3.7-log(10) reduction in pathogens, resulting in no identifiable pathogens among bottles. This result was comparable to boiling. When combined with handwashing, use of safe water, and appropriate storage of prepared infant formula, these simple, inexpensive practices could improve the microbiological safety of infant formula feeding in less developed settings.

  3. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  4. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  5. Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843 PMID:23941667

  6. Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vreeken, Hilde L; van Rens, Ger H M B; Kramer, Sophia E; Knol, Dirk L; Festen, Joost M; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2013-08-13

    Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843.

  7. The rate of force development scaling factor (RFD-SF): protocol, reliability, and muscle comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bellumori, Maria; Jaric, Slobodan; Knight, Christopher A

    2011-07-01

    Performing a set of isometric muscular contractions to varied amplitudes with instructions to generate force most rapidly reveals a strong linear relationship between peak forces (PF) achieved and corresponding peak rates of force development (RFD). The slope of this relationship, termed the RFD scaling factor (RFD-SF), quantifies the extent to which RFD scales with contraction amplitude. Such scaling allows relative invariance in the time required to reach PF regardless of contraction size. Considering the increasing use of this relationship to study quickness and consequences of slowness in older adults and movement disorders, our purpose was to further develop the protocol to measure RFD-SF. Fifteen adults (19-28 years) performed 125 rapid isometric contractions to a variety of force levels in elbow extensors, index finger abductors, and knee extensors, on 2 days. Data were used to determine (1) how the number of pulses affects computation of the RFD-SF, (2) day-to-day reliability of the RFD-SF, and (3) the nature of RFD-SF differences between diverse muscle groups. While sensitive to the number of pulses used in its computation (P<.05), RFD-SF was reliable when computed with >50 pulses (ICC>.7) and more so with 100-125 pulses (ICC=.8-.92). Despite differences in size and function across muscles, RFD-SF was generally similar (i.e., only 8.5% greater in elbow extensors than in index finger abductors and knee extensors; P=.049). Results support this protocol as a reliable means to assess how RFD scales with PF in rapid isometric contractions as well as a simple, non-invasive probe into neuromuscular health.

  8. Balancing nurses' workload in hospital wards: study protocol of developing a method to manage workload

    PubMed Central

    van den Oetelaar, W F J M; van Stel, H F; van Rhenen, W; Stellato, R K; Grolman, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospitals pursue different goals at the same time: excellent service to their patients, good quality care, operational excellence, retaining employees. This requires a good balance between patient needs and nursing staff. One way to ensure a proper fit between patient needs and nursing staff is to work with a workload management method. In our view, a nursing workload management method needs to have the following characteristics: easy to interpret; limited additional registration; applicable to different types of hospital wards; supported by nurses; covers all activities of nurses and suitable for prospective planning of nursing staff. At present, no such method is available. Methods/analysis The research follows several steps to come to a workload management method for staff nurses. First, a list of patient characteristics relevant to care time will be composed by performing a Delphi study among staff nurses. Next, a time study of nurses’ activities will be carried out. The 2 can be combined to estimate care time per patient group and estimate the time nurses spend on non-patient-related activities. These 2 estimates can be combined and compared with available nursing resources: this gives an estimate of nurses’ workload. The research will take place in an academic hospital in the Netherlands. 6 surgical wards will be included, capacity 15–30 beds. Ethical considerations The study protocol was submitted to the Medical Ethical Review Board of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht and received a positive advice, protocol number 14-165/C. Discussion This method will be developed in close cooperation with staff nurses and ward management. The strong involvement of the end users will contribute to a broader support of the results. The method we will develop may also be useful for planning purposes; this is a strong advantage compared with existing methods, which tend to focus on retrospective analysis. PMID:28186931

  9. Developing effective fumigation protocols to manage strongly phosphine-resistant Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Nayak, Manoj K

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of high levels of resistance in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) in recent years threatens the sustainability of phosphine, a key fumigant used worldwide to disinfest stored grain. We aimed at developing robust fumigation protocols that could be used in a range of practical situations to control this resistant pest. Values of the lethal time to kill 99.9% (LT99 .9 , in days) of mixed-age populations, containing all life stages, of a susceptible and a strongly resistant C. ferrugineus population were established at three phosphine concentrations (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L(-1) ) and three temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that phosphine concentration and temperature both contributed significantly to the LT99 .9 of a population (P < 0.003, R2 = 0.92), with concentration being the dominant variable, accounting for 75.9% of the variation. Across all concentrations, LT99.9 of the strongly resistant C. ferrugineus population was longest at the lowest temperature and shortest at the highest temperature. For example, 1.0 mg L(-1) of phosphine is required for 20, 15 and 15 days, 1.5 mg L(-1) for 12, 11 and 9 days and 2.0 mg L(-1) for 10, 7 and 6 days at 25, 30 and 35 °C, respectively, to achieve 99.9% mortality of the strongly resistant C. ferrugineus population. We also observed that phosphine concentration is inversely proportional to fumigation period in regard to the population extinction of this pest. The fumigation protocols developed in this study will be used in recommending changes to the currently registered rates of phosphine in Australia towards management of strongly resistant C. ferrugineus populations, and can be repeated in any country where this type of resistance appears. © 2014 Commonwealth of Australia. Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature—recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Victoria J.; Catley, Mark J.; Grabherr, Luzia; Mazzola, Francesca; Shohag, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing. Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back. Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure. Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it. PMID:26793428

  11. Development of Next Generation Energy Audit Protocols for the Rapid and Advanced Analysis of Building Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Christopher Ahlvin

    Current building energy auditing techniques are outdated and lack targeted, actionable information. These analyses only use one year's worth of monthly electricity and gas bills to define energy conservation and efficiency measures. These limited data sets cannot provide robust, directed energy reduction recommendations. The need is apparent for an overhaul of existing energy audit protocols to utilize all data that is available from the building's utility provider, installed energy management system (EMS), and sub-metering devices. This thesis analyzed the current state-of-the-art in energy audits, generated a next generation energy audit protocol, and conducted both audits types on four case study buildings to find out what additional information can be obtained from additional data sources and increased data gathering resolutions. Energy data from each case study building were collected using a variety of means including utility meters, whole building energy meters, EMS systems, and sub-metering devices. In addition to conducting an energy analysis for each case study building using the current and next generation energy audit protocols, two building energy models were created using the programs eQuest and EnergyPlus. The current and next generation energy audit protocol results were compared to one another upon completion. The results show that using the current audit protocols, only variations in season are apparent. Results from the developed next generation energy audit protocols show that in addition to seasonal variations, building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) schedules, occupancy schedules, baseline and peak energy demand levels, and malfunctioning equipment can be found. This new protocol may also be used to quickly generate accurate building models because of the increased resolution that yields scheduling information. The developed next generation energy auditing protocol is scalable and can work for many building types across the

  12. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  13. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Larisa N; Nadis, Daniel; King, Ross D; Basu, Piyali S; Haddi, Emma; Baumlé, Véronique; Saunders, Nigel J; Marwan, Wolfgang; Rudkin, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2)protocols. We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically-defined format.

  14. Dissemination of CBTI to the non-sleep specialist: protocol development and training issues.

    PubMed

    Manber, Rachel; Carney, Colleen; Edinger, Jack; Epstein, Dana; Friedman, Leah; Haynes, Patricia L; Karlin, Bradley E; Pigeon, Wilfred; Siebern, Allison T; Trockel, Mickey

    2012-04-15

    Strong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These "real-life" constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination.

  15. Development of Monitoring & Verification Technology (MVT) for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Instrumentation and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2008-09-29

    The objective of this CRADA is to further develop the Multiple Elemental Soil Analysis (MESA) system, based on inelastic neutron scattering technology that was originally developed by Dr. Lucian Wielopolski at BNL. The scope of this CRADA will center on the quantification and monitoring of non-destructive in situ carbon loading in soils to evaluate land application emission reduction activities. To accomplish this objective, the CRADA will center on three main joint activities as described below: A. To further develop and characterize a prototype, field deployable MESA system for static and scanning purposes. B. To develop applicable protocols for agricultural land applications; system validation and field sampling schemes. C. To implement field experiments for independent systems validation, verification, and acceptance by third parties for use in the market segment and commercialization. The technical approach involves a system for monitoring characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei stimulated by inelastic neutron scattering from a carbon nucleus. The system consists of a neutron generator emitting fast, 14 MeV, neutrons, shielding materials, and a detection system with nuclear electronics for data acquisition. Following standard system calibration, the results are produced immediately at the end of the counting period.

  16. Development and validation of the Liverpool infant bronchiolitis severity score: a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Miert, Clare; Abbott, Janice; Verheoff, Francine; Lane, Steven; Carter, Bernie; McNamara, Paul

    2014-10-01

    To develop and validate a bronchiolitis severity scoring instrument for use by nurses and other healthcare professions. Bronchiolitis is a viral lower respiratory tract infection of infancy. In industrialized countries, admission rates have increased over the last decade with up to 3% of all infants born being admitted to hospital. A small number of these hospitalized infants will require admission to critical care for either invasive or non-invasive ventilation. During the seasonal epidemic, the number of unplanned admissions to critical care with bronchiolitis substantially increases. We will use a mixed methods study design. We will use scale development and psychometric methods to develop a scoring instrument and to test the instrument for content, construct and criterion validity and reliability in several different clinical locations. This study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the NHS National Research Ethics Service, January 2011. There is an urgent need to develop a valid and reliable severity scoring instrument sensitive to clinical changes in the infant, to facilitate clinical decision-making and help standardize patient care. Furthermore, a valid and reliable scoring instrument could also be used as a proxy patient-reported outcome measure to evaluate the efficacy of clinical interventions in randomized controlled trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Developing a monitoring protocol for visitor-created informal trails in Yosemite National Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yu-Fai; Newburger, Todd; Jones, Marci; Kuhn, Bill; Woiderski, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    Informal trails created or perpetuated by visitors is a management challenge in many protected natural areas such as Yosemite National Park. This is a significant issue as informal trail networks penetrate and proliferate into protected landscapes and habitats, threatening ecological integrity, aesthetics, and visitor experiences. In order to develop effective strategies for addressing this problem under an adaptive management framework, indicators must be developed and monitoring protocol must be established to gather timely and relevant data about the condition, extent, and distribution of these undesired trail segments. This article illustrates a process of developing and evaluating informal trail indicators for meadows in Yosemite Valley. Indicator measures developed in past research were reviewed to identify their appropriateness for the current application. Information gaps in existing indicator measures were addressed by creating two new indices to quantify the degree of informal trailing based on its land fragmentation effects. The selected indicator measures were applied to monitoring data collected between 2006 and 2008. The selected measures and indices were evaluated for their ability to characterize informal trail impacts at site and landscape scales. Results demonstrate the utility of indicator measures in capturing different characteristics of the informal trail problem, though several metrics are strongly related to each other. The two fragmentation indices were able to depict fragmentation without being too sensitive to changes in one constituent parameter. This study points to the need for a multiparameter approach to informal trail monitoring and integration with other monitoring data. Implications for monitoring programs and research are discussed.

  18. Experimentally feasible quantum-key-distribution scheme using qubit-like qudits and its comparison with existing qubit- and qudit-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, H. F.; Wang, Qinan; Wong, Cardythy

    2017-02-01

    Recently, Chau [Phys. Rev. A 92, 062324 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.062324] introduced an experimentally feasible qudit-based quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme. In that scheme, one bit of information is phase encoded in the prepared state in a 2n-dimensional Hilbert space in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } with n ≥2 . For each qudit prepared and measured in the same two-dimensional Hilbert subspace, one bit of raw secret key is obtained in the absence of transmission error. Here we show that by modifying the basis announcement procedure, the same experimental setup can generate n bits of raw key for each qudit prepared and measured in the same basis in the noiseless situation. The reason is that in addition to the phase information, each qudit also carries information on the Hilbert subspace used. The additional (n -1 ) bits of raw key comes from a clever utilization of this extra piece of information. We prove the unconditional security of this modified protocol and compare its performance with other existing provably secure qubit- and qudit-based protocols on market in the one-way classical communication setting. Interestingly, we find that for the case of n =2 , the secret key rate of this modified protocol using nondegenerate random quantum code to perform one-way entanglement distillation is equal to that of the six-state scheme.

  19. [Development of external quality control protocol for CyberKnife beams dosimetry: preliminary tests multicentre].

    PubMed

    Guinement, L; Marchesi, V; Veres, A; Lacornerie, T; Buchheit, I; Peiffert, D

    2013-01-01

    To develop an external quality control procedure for CyberKnife(®) beams. This work conducted in Nancy, has included a test protocol initially drawn by the medical physicist of Nancy and Lille in collaboration with Equal-Estro Laboratory. A head and neck anthropomorphic phantom and a water-equivalent homogeneous cubic plastic test-object, so-called "MiniCube", have been used. Powder and solid thermoluminescent dosimeters as well as radiochromic films have been used to perform absolute and relative dose studies, respectively. The comparison between doses calculated by Multiplan treatment planning system and measured doses have been studied in absolute dose. The dose distributions measured with films and treatment planning system calculations have been compared via the gamma function, configured with different tolerance criteria. This work allowed, via solid thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements, verifying the beam reliability with a reproducibility of 1.7 %. The absolute dose measured in the phantom irradiated by the seven participating centres has shown an error inferior to the standard tolerance limits (± 5 %), for most of participating centres. The relative dose measurements performed at Nancy and by the Equal-Estro laboratory allowed defining the most adequate parameters for gamma index (5 %/2mm--with at least 95 % of pixels satisfying acceptability criteria: γ<1). These parameters should be independent of the film analysis software. This work allowed defining a dosimetric external quality control for CyberKnife(®) systems, based on a reproducible irradiation plan through measurements performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiochromic films. This protocol should be validated by a new series of measurement and taking into account the lessons of this work. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a protocol to quantify local bone adaptation over space and time: Quantification of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-07-05

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning of small rodents is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring of bone adaptation. However, the life-time bone growth in small rodents makes it a challenge to quantify local bone adaptation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol, which can take into account large bone growth, to quantify local bone adaptations over space and time. The entire right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size of 10.4µm. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration. 80% of tibia length (starting from the endpoint of the proximal growth plate) was selected as the volume of interest and partitioned into 40 regions along the tibial long axis (10 divisions) and in the cross-section (4 sectors). The bone mineral content (BMC) was used to quantify bone adaptation and was calculated in each region. All local BMCs have precision errors (PE%CV) of less than 3.5% (24 out of 40 regions have PE%CV of less than 2%), least significant changes (LSCs) of less than 3.8%, and 38 out of 40 regions have intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of over 0.8. The proposed protocol allows to quantify local bone adaptations over an entire tibia in longitudinal studies, with a high reproducibility, an essential requirement to reduce the number of animals to achieve the necessary statistical power.

  1. Optimizing the multimodal approach to pancreatic cyst fluid diagnosis: developing a volume-based triage protocol.

    PubMed

    Chai, Siaw Ming; Herba, Karl; Kumarasinghe, M Priyanthi; de Boer, W Bastiaan; Amanuel, Benhur; Grieu-Iacopetta, Fabienne; Lim, Ee Mun; Segarajasingam, Dev; Yusoff, Ian; Choo, Chris; Frost, Felicity

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a triage algorithm to optimize diagnostic yield from cytology, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) testing on different components of a single pancreatic cyst fluid specimen. The authors also sought to determine whether cell block supernatant was suitable for CEA and KRAS testing. Fifty-four pancreatic cysts were triaged according to a volume-dependent protocol to generate fluid (neat and supernatant) and cell block specimens for cytology, comparative CEA, and KRAS testing. Follow-up histology, diagnostic cytology, or a combined clinicopathologic interpretation was recorded as the final diagnosis. There were 26 mucinous cystic lesions and 28 nonmucinous cystic lesions with volumes ranging from 0.3 mL to 55 mL. Testing different components of the specimens (cell block, neat, and/or supernatant) enabled all laboratory investigations to be performed on 50 of 54 cyst fluids (92.6%). Interpretive concordance was observed in 17 of 17 cases (100%) and in 35 of 40 cases (87.5%) that had multiple components tested for CEA and KRAS mutations, respectively. An elevated CEA level (>192 ng/mL) was the most sensitive test for the detection of a mucinous cystic lesion (62.5%) versus KRAS mutation (56%) and "positive" cytology (61.5%). KRAS mutations were identified in 2 of 25 mucinous cystic lesions (8%) in which cytology and CEA levels were not contributory. A volume-based protocol using different components of the specimen was able to optimize diagnostic yield in pancreatic cyst fluids. KRAS mutation testing increased diagnostic yield when combined with cytology and CEA analysis. The current results demonstrated that supernatant is comparable to neat fluid and cell block material for CEA and KRAS testing. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  2. Development of a manualized protocol of massage therapy for clinical trials in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trial design of manual therapies may be especially challenging as techniques are often individualized and practitioner-dependent. This paper describes our methods in creating a standardized Swedish massage protocol tailored to subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee while respectful of the individualized nature of massage therapy, as well as implementation of this protocol in two randomized clinical trials. Methods The manualization process involved a collaborative process between methodologic and clinical experts, with the explicit goals of creating a reproducible semi-structured protocol for massage therapy, while allowing some latitude for therapists’ clinical judgment and maintaining consistency with a prior pilot study. Results The manualized protocol addressed identical specified body regions with distinct 30- and 60-min protocols, using standard Swedish strokes. Each protocol specifies the time allocated to each body region. The manualized 30- and 60-min protocols were implemented in a dual-site 24-week randomized dose-finding trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, and is currently being implemented in a three-site 52-week efficacy trial of manualized Swedish massage therapy. In the dose-finding study, therapists adhered to the protocols and significant treatment effects were demonstrated. Conclusions The massage protocol was manualized, using standard techniques, and made flexible for individual practitioner and subject needs. The protocol has been applied in two randomized clinical trials. This manualized Swedish massage protocol has real-world utility and can be readily utilized both in the research and clinical settings. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970008 (18 August 2009) PMID:23035641

  3. A Range Finding Protocol to Support Design for Transcriptomics Experimentation: Examples of In-Vitro and In-Vivo Murine UV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    van Oostrom, Conny T.; Jonker, Martijs J.; de Jong, Mark; Dekker, Rob J.; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A.; de Vries, Annemieke; Breit, Timo M.

    2014-01-01

    In transcriptomics research, design for experimentation by carefully considering biological, technological, practical and statistical aspects is very important, because the experimental design space is essentially limitless. Usually, the ranges of variable biological parameters of the design space are based on common practices and in turn on phenotypic endpoints. However, specific sub-cellular processes might only be partially reflected by phenotypic endpoints or outside the associated parameter range. Here, we provide a generic protocol for range finding in design for transcriptomics experimentation based on small-scale gene-expression experiments to help in the search for the right location in the design space by analyzing the activity of already known genes of relevant molecular mechanisms. Two examples illustrate the applicability: in-vitro UV-C exposure of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in-vivo UV-B exposure of mouse skin. Our pragmatic approach is based on: framing a specific biological question and associated gene-set, performing a wide-ranged experiment without replication, eliminating potentially non-relevant genes, and determining the experimental ‘sweet spot’ by gene-set enrichment plus dose-response correlation analysis. Examination of many cellular processes that are related to UV response, such as DNA repair and cell-cycle arrest, revealed that basically each cellular (sub-) process is active at its own specific spot(s) in the experimental design space. Hence, the use of range finding, based on an affordable protocol like this, enables researchers to conveniently identify the ‘sweet spot’ for their cellular process of interest in an experimental design space and might have far-reaching implications for experimental standardization. PMID:24823911

  4. A range finding protocol to support design for transcriptomics experimentation: examples of in-vitro and in-vivo murine UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Oskar; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Oostrom, Conny T; Jonker, Martijs J; de Jong, Mark; Dekker, Rob J; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A; de Vries, Annemieke; Breit, Timo M

    2014-01-01

    In transcriptomics research, design for experimentation by carefully considering biological, technological, practical and statistical aspects is very important, because the experimental design space is essentially limitless. Usually, the ranges of variable biological parameters of the design space are based on common practices and in turn on phenotypic endpoints. However, specific sub-cellular processes might only be partially reflected by phenotypic endpoints or outside the associated parameter range. Here, we provide a generic protocol for range finding in design for transcriptomics experimentation based on small-scale gene-expression experiments to help in the search for the right location in the design space by analyzing the activity of already known genes of relevant molecular mechanisms. Two examples illustrate the applicability: in-vitro UV-C exposure of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in-vivo UV-B exposure of mouse skin. Our pragmatic approach is based on: framing a specific biological question and associated gene-set, performing a wide-ranged experiment without replication, eliminating potentially non-relevant genes, and determining the experimental 'sweet spot' by gene-set enrichment plus dose-response correlation analysis. Examination of many cellular processes that are related to UV response, such as DNA repair and cell-cycle arrest, revealed that basically each cellular (sub-) process is active at its own specific spot(s) in the experimental design space. Hence, the use of range finding, based on an affordable protocol like this, enables researchers to conveniently identify the 'sweet spot' for their cellular process of interest in an experimental design space and might have far-reaching implications for experimental standardization.

  5. A transdisciplinary approach to protocol development for tobacco control research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melissa A; Rogers, Michelle L; Boergers, Julie; Kahler, Christopher W; Ramsey, Susan; Saadeh, Frances M; Abrams, David B; Buka, Stephen L; Niaura, Raymond; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-12-01

    The increasing complexity of scientific problems related to lifestyle risk factors has prompted substantial investments in transdisciplinary or team science initiatives at the biological, psychosocial, and population levels of analysis. To date, the actual process of conducting team science from the perspectives of investigators engaged in it has not been well documented. We describe the experience of developing and implementing data collection protocols using the principles of transdisciplinary science. The New England Family Study Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center was a 10-year collaboration involving more than 85 investigators and consultants from more than 20 disciplines as well as more than 50 research staff. We used a two-phase process in which all the study personnel participated in the developing and testing of 160 instruments. These instruments were used in 4,378 assessments with 3,501 participants. With substantial effort, it is possible to build a team of scientists from diverse backgrounds that can develop a set of instruments using a shared conceptual approach, despite limited or no experience working together previously.

  6. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Development of EPA Protocol Information Enquiry Service System Based on Embedded ARM Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Daogang; Zhang, Hao; Weng, Jiannian; Li, Hui; Xia, Fei

    Industrial Ethernet is a new technology for industrial network communications developed in recent years. In the field of industrial automation in China, EPA is the first standard accepted and published by ISO, and has been included in the fourth edition IEC61158 Fieldbus of NO.14 type. According to EPA standard, Field devices such as industrial field controller, actuator and other instruments are all able to realize communication based on the Ethernet standard. The Atmel AT91RM9200 embedded development board and open source embedded Linux are used to develop an information inquiry service system of EPA protocol based on embedded ARM Linux in this paper. The system is capable of designing an EPA Server program for EPA data acquisition procedures, the EPA information inquiry service is available for programs in local or remote host through Socket interface. The EPA client can access data and information of other EPA equipments on the EPA network when it establishes connection with the monitoring port of the server.

  8. Developing consistent Landsat data sets for large area applications: the MRLC 2001 protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Huang, C.; Yang, L.; Homer, C.; Larson, C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts in large area land cover mapping over the last two decades was the completion of two U.S. National Land Cover Data sets (NLCD), developed with nominal 1992 and 2001 Landsat imagery under the auspices of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. Following the successful generation of NLCD 1992, a second generation MRLC initiative was launched with two primary goals: (1) to develop a consistent Landsat imagery data set for the U.S. and (2) to develop a second generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). One of the key enhancements was the formulation of an image preprocessing protocol and implementation of a consistent image processing method. The core data set of the NLCD 2001 database consists of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images. This letter details the procedures for processing the original ETM+ images and more recent scenes added to the database. NLCD 2001 products include Anderson Level II land cover classes, percent tree canopy, and percent urban imperviousness at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat imagery. The products are freely available for download to the general public from the MRLC Consortium Web site at http://www.mrlc.gov.

  9. Practical way to develop 10-color flow cytometry protocols for the clinical laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Bocsi, Jozsef

    2010-02-01

    The latest development of commercial routine flow cytometers (FCM) is that they are equipped with three (blue, red, violet) or more lasers and many PMT detectors. Nowadays routine clinical instruments are capable of detecting 10 or more fluorescence colors simultaneously. Thereby, presenting opportunities for getting detailed information on the single cell level for cytomics and systems biology for improve diagnostics and monitoring of patients. The University Leipzig, Germany) recently started a cluster of excellence to study the molecular background of life style and environment associated diseases, enrolling 25000 individuals (LIFE). To this end the most comprehensive FCM protocol has to be developed for this study. We aimed to optimize fluorochrome and antibody combinations to the characteristics of the instrument for successful 10-color FCM. Systematic review of issues related to sampling, preparation, instrument settings, spillover and compensation matrix, reagent performance, and general principles of panel construction was performed. 10-color FCM enables for increased accuracy in cell subpopulation identification, the ability to obtain detailed information from blood specimens, improved laboratory efficiency, and the means to consistently detect major and rare cell populations. Careful attention to details of instrument and reagent performance allows for the development of panels suitable for screening of samples from healthy and diseased donors. The characteristics of this technique are particularly well suited for the analysis of broad human population cohorts and have the potential to reach the everyday practice in a standardized way for the clinical laboratory.

  10. Development of a Decision Support System to Predict Physicians' Rehabilitation Protocols for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…

  11. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  12. Development of a Decision Support System to Predict Physicians' Rehabilitation Protocols for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…

  13. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  14. Biomarkers for Uranium Risk Assessment for the Development of the CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) Molecular Epidemiological Protocol.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Yann; Roy, Laurence; Hornhardt, Sabine; Badie, Christophe; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; Pernot, Eileen; Tomasek, Ladislav; Laurent, Olivier; Ebrahimian, Teni; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Grison, Stephane; Kabacik, Sylwia; Laurier, Dominique; Gomolka, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists. The aims of the biological work package of CURE were: 1. To identify biomarkers and biological specimens relevant to uranium exposure; 2. To define standard operating procedures (SOPs); and 3. To set up a common protocol (logistic, questionnaire, ethical aspects) to perform a large-scale molecular epidemiologic study in uranium-exposed cohorts. An intensive literature review was performed and led to the identification of biomarkers related to: 1. retention organs (lungs, kidneys and bone); 2. other systems/organs with suspected effects (cardiovascular system, central nervous system and lympho-hematopoietic system); 3. target molecules (DNA damage, genomic instability); and 4. high-throughput methods for the identification of new biomarkers. To obtain high-quality biological materials, SOPs were established for the sampling and storage of different biospecimens. A questionnaire was developed to assess potential confounding factors. The proposed strategy can be adapted to other internal exposures and should improve the characterization of the biological and health effects that are relevant for risk assessment.

  15. Using concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis to explore student nurses' social learning information communication technology knowledge and skill development.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, Fern

    2015-06-01

    Observations obtained through concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis offer new understanding about the influence of social learning on student nurses' acquisition of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) knowledge and skills. The software used provides a permanent record of the underpinning study method, events and analyses. The emerging themes reflect the dimensions of social engagement, and the characteristics of positive and negative reactions to ICT. The evidence shows that given the right conditions, stronger learners will support and guide their peers. To explore the use of concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis as a method to examine how student nurses approach ICT. To identify the benefits and challenges of using observational technology to capture learning behaviours. To show the influence of small group arrangement and student interactions on their ICT knowledge and skills development. Previous studies examining social interaction between students show how they work together and respond to interactive problem solving. Social interaction has been shown to enhance skills in both ICT and collaborative decision making. Structured observational analysis using concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis. Students displayed varying degrees of pastoral support and emotional need, leadership, reflection, suggestion and experimentation skills. Encouraging student nurses to work in small mixed ability groups can be conducive for social and ICT skill and knowledge development. Observational software gives a permanent record of the proceedings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  17. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  18. Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish Tamara Tal, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA Background: There are tens of thousands of chemicals that have yet to be fully evaluated for their toxicity by validated in vivo testing ...

  19. Handbook for First Year Experimental Language Development: Book Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Dept. of Education, Brisbane (Australia).

    This publication completes the first year experimental language development program which has been devised for use with young aboriginal children in Queensland. Two sections of suggested activities are included featuring two themes, transport and travel, and the world around us. Suggested activities include oral use of language units, reading,…

  20. Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish Tamara Tal, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA Background: There are tens of thousands of chemicals that have yet to be fully evaluated for their toxicity by validated in vivo testing ...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: developing a protocol suitable for forensic age estimation.

    PubMed

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Bogaert, Stephanie; Deblaere, Karel; Verstraete, Koenraad

    2017-03-01

    Established dental age estimation methods in sub-adults study the development of third molar root apices on radiographs. In living individuals, however, avoiding ionising radiation is expedient. Studying dental development with magnetic resonance imaging complies with this requirement, adding the advantage of imaging in three dimensions. To elaborate the development of an MRI protocol to visualise all third molars for forensic age estimation, with particular attention to the development of the root apex. Ex vivo scans of porcine jaws and in vivo scans of 10 volunteers aged 17-25 years were performed to select adequate sequences. Studied parameters were T1 vs T2 weighting, ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat suppression, in plane resolution, slice thickness, 3D imaging, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition time. A bilateral four-channel flexible surface coil was used. Two observers evaluated the suitability of the images. T2-weighted images were preferred to T1-weighted images. To clearly distinguish root apices in (almost) fully developed third molars an in plane resolution of 0.33 × 0.33 mm(2) was deemed necessary. Taking acquisition time limits into account, only a T2 FSE sequence with slice thickness of 2 mm generated images with sufficient resolution and contrast. UTE, thinner slice T2 FSE and T2 3D FSE sequences could not generate the desired resolution within 6.5 minutes. Three Tesla MRI of the third molars is a feasible technique for forensic age estimation, in which a T2 FSE sequence can provide the desired in plane resolution within a clinically acceptable acquisition time.

  2. Development of Analytical Protocols For Organics and Isotopes Analysis on the 2009 MARS Science Laboratory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory, under development for launch in 2009, is designed explore and quantitatively asses a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Its ambitious goals are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize the geology and geochemistry at the MSL landing site, and (3) to investigate planetary processes that influence habitability. The planned capabilities of the rover payload will enable a comprehensive search for organic molecules, a determination of definitive mineralogy of sampled rocks and fines, chemical and isotopic analysis of both atmospheric and solid samples, and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. A range of contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for these measurements and will facilitate sample identification and selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. It includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. These instruments will be designed to analyze either atmospheric samples or gases extracted from solid phase samples such as rocks and fines. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and study by the SAM engineering and science teams for use on the surface of Mars.

  3. Developing a protocol for creating microfluidic devices with a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Robyn; Novak, Eric; Shirk, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidics research requires the design and fabrication of devices that have the ability to manipulate small volumes of fluid, typically ranging from microliters to picoliters. These devices are used for a wide range of applications including the assembly of materials and testing of biological samples. Many methods have been previously developed to create microfluidic devices, including traditional nanolithography techniques. However, these traditional techniques are cost-prohibitive for many small-scale laboratories. This research explores a relatively low-cost technique using a 3D printed master, which is used as a template for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The masters are designed using computer aided design (CAD) software and can be printed and modified relatively quickly. We have developed a protocol for creating simple microfluidic devices using a 3D printer and PDMS adhered to glass. This relatively simple and lower-cost technique can now be scaled to more complicated device designs and applications. Funding provided by the Undergraduate Research Grant Program at Shippensburg University and the Student/Faculty Research Engagement Grants from the College of Arts and Sciences at Shippensburg University.

  4. Craniosacral therapy for migraine: Protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mann, John D; Faurot, Keturah R; Wilkinson, Laurel; Curtis, Peter; Coeytaux, Remy R; Suchindran, Chirayath; Gaylord, Susan A

    2008-01-01

    study after giving consent. Conclusion This report endorses the feasibility of undertaking a rigorous randomized clinical trial of CST for migraine using a standardized CST protocol and an innovative control protocol developed for the study. Subjects are able and willing to complete detailed headache diaries during an 8-week baseline period, with few dropouts during the study period, indicating the acceptability of both interventions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665236 PMID:18541041

  5. Recent developments in experimental animal models of Henipavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses (genus Henipavirus (HNV; family Paramyxoviridae) are emerging zoonotic agents that can cause severe respiratory distress and acute encephalitis in humans. Given the lack of effective therapeutics and vaccines for human use, these viruses are considered as public health concerns. Several experimental animal models of HNV infection have been developed in recent years. Here, we review the current status of four of the most promising experimental animal models (mice, hamsters, ferrets, and African green monkeys) and their suitability for modeling the clinical disease, transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for HNV infection in humans.

  6. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  7. Protocol software for a packet voice terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, C. K.

    1983-11-01

    A Packet Voice Terminal (PVT) has been developed at Lincoln Laboratory to provide voice access to an experimental wideband internetwork packet system. The PVT employs a modular, microprocessor-based structure to provide voice processing, packet voice protocol, and network interface functions. The packet voice protocols are implemented in software in the Protocol Processor (PP) module, which is the primary controlling module of the PVT and which handles interfaces to a voice processor, a network interface processor, and a user instrument. This report describes the software implemented in the Protocol Processor. The implementation of the Network Voice Protocol (NVP-II) and the Stream (ST) protocol are described. Call set-up functions for both point-to-point calls and conferencing, and the methods used for packetization and reconstitution of speech, are described. Problems encountered and solutions which have been implemented are discussed.

  8. Intervention on whole grain with healthy balanced diet to manage childhood obesity (GReat-Child™trial): study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Koo, H C; Poh, B K; Ruzita, Abd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, and has led to the development of many interventions. However, no intervention has emphasized whole grains as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Therefore, this article describes the protocol of a 12-week multi-component, family-based intervention on whole grain, using a healthy balanced diet for managing childhood obesity. The GReat-Child trial utilize a quasi-experimental method in which two schools in Kuala Lumpur are assigned to intervention and control groups. The eligibility criteria are overweight/obese children, aged 9 through 11 years, who has no serious co-morbidities. The children who report consuming whole-grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during the screening will be excluded. The study sample is characterized by anthropometric measurements (weight, height, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), whole grain and nutrient intakes (3-day 24-h diet recalls), and their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards whole grain. The 12-week intervention is comprised of three components addressing behaviour, personal and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory: (1) individual diet counselling for the parents; (2) six 30-min nutrition education classes and (3) school delivery of whole-grain foods; The control school does not receive any interventions, however, for ethical purposes, a health talk is conducted after the entire GReat-Child Trial is completed. The GReat-Child trial represents a novel approach to examining the effectiveness of the intervention of whole grain in a healthy balanced diet on managing childhood obesity. We anticipate that this trial will reveal not only whether whole grain intervention will be effective in managing childhood obesity, but also provide greater insights into the acceptance of whole grain among Malaysian children.

  9. Development of a bedside viable ultrasound protocol to quantify appendicular lean tissue mass.

    PubMed

    Paris, Michael T; Lafleur, Benoit; Dubin, Joel A; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2017-07-19

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive and readily available tool that can be prospectively applied at the bedside to assess muscle mass in clinical settings. The four-site protocol, which images two anatomical sites on each quadriceps, may be a viable bedside method, but its ability to predict musculature has not been compared against whole-body reference methods. Our primary objectives were to (i) compare the four-site protocol's ability to predict appendicular lean tissue mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; (ii) optimize the predictability of the four-site protocol with additional anatomical muscle thicknesses and easily obtained covariates; and (iii) assess the ability of the optimized protocol to identify individuals with low lean tissue mass. This observational cross-sectional study recruited 96 university and community dwelling adults. Participants underwent ultrasound scans for assessment of muscle thickness and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for assessment of appendicular lean tissue. Ultrasound protocols included (i) the nine-site protocol, which images nine anterior and posterior muscle groups in supine and prone positions, and (ii) the four-site protocol, which images two anterior sites on each quadriceps muscle group in a supine position. The four-site protocol was strongly associated (R(2)  = 0.72) with appendicular lean tissue mass, but Bland-Altman analysis displayed wide limits of agreement (-5.67, 5.67 kg). Incorporating the anterior upper arm muscle thickness, and covariates age and sex, alongside the four-site protocol, improved the association (R(2)  = 0.91) with appendicular lean tissue and displayed narrower limits of agreement (-3.18, 3.18 kg). The optimized protocol demonstrated a strong ability to identify low lean tissue mass (area under the curve = 0.89). The four-site protocol can be improved with the addition of the anterior upper arm muscle thickness, sex, and age when predicting appendicular lean tissue mass

  10. Recent Developments in the CONRAD Code regarding Experimental Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Kopecky, S.; Litaize, O.; Noguère, G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Volev, K.

    2013-03-01

    The CONRAD code is an object-oriented software tool developed at CEA Cadarache since 2005 to deal with problems arising during the evaluation process (data assimilation and analysis, physical modelling, propagation of uncertainties…). This paper will present recent developments concerning the experimental corrections, which are required when a neutron resonance shape analysis is performed. Several experimental aspects are detailed in this work: the possibility to use spectra in energy as well as in time, the implementation of both analytical (Chi-Square) and Monte-Carlo resolution functions, the sample homogeneity corrections using log-normal distributions. Each development aspect is illustrated with several examples and comparisons with other resonance analysis codes (SAMMY, REFIT).

  11. SU-F-R-06: Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury Imaging, Developing a Coherent Clinical Protocol From Literature Review Through Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D; France, E; Lambert, J; Hinkle, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Medical Physics teams can now play a critical role to help plan and provide studied approaches for traumatic brachial plexus MR imaging (tbpMRI). This is especially important for coordination with uncommon applications, since it is challenging to select the right modality, parameters, and train technologists on the essential components. For this work, we started with a review of the medical literature, performed crossover/volunteer studies to bring tbpMRI to practice with greater image QC and protocol management. Methods: To the best of our knowledge, we reviewed the known searchable domain for tbpMRI. We found 69 total articles since 2000. Articles were evaluated with our published protocol for literature management (LIMES3). Two physicists and two radiologists condensed the information from all articles into a knowledgebase. Results: The initial literature demonstrated great heterogeneity, which was a sign that this area needed greater consistency. Despite inconsistency and imprecision, we extracted the most relevant targets using our long-term experience with protocol development in MSK. We ran volunteers on six different magnets of various field strengths with multiple receiver coils, and rebuilt a coherent protocol for tbpMRI. Our radiologists rated LIMES3 work as superior. We have received referrals from the ER and have conducted four patient evaluations. Conclusion: Traumatic brachial plexus MRI has great possible benefits for patients. This work supports the complexity of tbpMRI scanning. As this is rarely performed, it requires a more diligent protocol workflow, coordination of caregivers, and education within multiple clinical departments. Choosing the correct imaging exam can be critical, as patients can have significant neuropathy and/or paralysis. The LIMES3 protocol is well liked at our institution, and forms the cornerstone of understanding for our work. Our literature management led to a better clinical protocol creation despite the diffuse

  12. The offer network protocol: Mathematical foundations and a roadmap for the development of a global brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2017-01-01

    The world is confronted with a variety of interdependent problems, including scarcity, unsustainability, inequality, pollution and poor governance. Tackling such complex challenges requires coordinated action. The present paper proposes the development of a self-organizing system for coordination, called an "offer network", that would use the distributed intelligence of the Internet to match the offers and needs of all human, technological and natural agents on the planet. This would maximize synergy and thus minimize waste and scarcity of resources. Implementing such coordination requires a protocol that formally defines agents, offers, needs, and the network of condition-action rules or reactions that interconnect them. Matching algorithms can then determine self-sustaining subnetworks in which each consumed resource (need) is also produced (offer). After sketching the elements of a mathematical foundation for offer networks, the paper proposes a roadmap for their practical implementation. This includes step-by-step integration with technologies such as the Semantic Web, ontologies, the Internet of Things, reputation and recommendation systems, reinforcement learning, governance through legal constraints and nudging, and ecosystem modeling. The resulting intelligent platform should be able to tackle nearly all practical and theoretical problems in a bottom-up, distributed manner, thus functioning like a Global Brain for humanity.

  13. Development of a program theory for shared decision-making: a realist review protocol.

    PubMed

    Groot, Gary; Waldron, Tamara; Carr, Tracey; McMullen, Linda; Bandura, Lori-Ann; Neufeld, Shelley-May; Duncan, Vicky

    2017-06-17

    The practicality of applying evidence to healthcare systems with the aim of implementing change is an ongoing challenge for practitioners, policy makers, and academics. Shared decision- making (SDM), a method of medical decision-making that allows a balanced relationship between patients, physicians, and other key players in the medical decision process, is purported to improve patient and system outcomes. Despite the oft-mentioned benefits, there are gaps in the current literature between theory and implementation that would benefit from a realist approach given the value of this methodology to analyze complex interventions. In this protocol, we outline a study that will explore: "In which situations, how, why, and for whom does SDM between patients and health care providers contribute to improved decision making?" A seven step iterative process will be described including preliminary theory development, establishment of a search strategy, selection and appraisal of literature, data extraction, analysis and synthesis of extracted results from literature, and formation of a revised program theory with the input of patients, physicians, nurse navigators, and policy makers from a stakeholder session. The goal of the realist review will be to identify and refine a program theory for SDM through the identification of mechanisms which shape the characteristics of when, how, and why SDM will, and will not, work. PROSPERO CRD42017062609.

  14. Electrochemotherapy as First Line Cancer Treatment: Experiences from Veterinary Medicine in Developing Novel Protocols.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, E P; Azzarito, T; Fais, S; Fanciulli, M; Baldi, A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is one of the major obstacles to the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The abnormal blood flow within the tumor results in uneven drug distribution. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a tumor treatment that adopts the systemic or local delivery of anticancer drugs with the application of permeabilizing electric pulses having appropriate amplitude and waveforms. This allows the use of lipophobic drugs that frequently have a narrow therapeutic index maintaining at the same time a reduced patient morbidity and preserving appropriate anticancer efficacy. Its use in humans is addressed to the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms or the palliation of skin tumor metastases, and a standard operating procedure has been devised. On the other hand, in veterinary oncology this approach is gaining popularity, thus becoming a first line treatment for different cancer histotypes, in a variety of clinical conditions due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. This review summarizes the state of the art in veterinary oncology as a preclinical model and reports the new protocols in terms of drugs and therapy combination that have been developed.

  15. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    PubMed

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  16. New developments in the application of optimal control theory to therapeutic protocols.

    PubMed

    Bayón, L; Otero, J A; Suárez, P M; Tasis, C

    2016-02-01

    Optimal control theory is one of the most important tools in the development of new therapeutic protocols for treating infections. In this work, we present an algorithm able to deal with high-dimensional problems with bounded controls. The optimal solution is obtained by minimizing a positive-definite treatment cost function. Our method, based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle and the coordinate cyclic descent method, allows solving problems of varied nature. In this paper, and by way of example, therapeutic enhancement of the immune response to invasion by pathogenic attack is addressed as an optimal control problem. The generic mathematical model used describes the evolution of the disease by means of four non-linear, ordinary differential equations. The model is characterized by the concentration of pathogens, plasma cells, antibodies and a numerical value that indicates the relative characteristic of an organ damaged by disease. From a system theory point of view, drugs can be interpreted as control inputs. Therapies based on separate application of the agents are presented in previous studies. We shall present the more general problem in this paper, considering combined therapies and bounded controls. Finally, we present several numerical simulations.

  17. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Julie, E. Golden; Selvi, S. Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  18. The offer network protocol: Mathematical foundations and a roadmap for the development of a global brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2016-12-01

    The world is confronted with a variety of interdependent problems, including scarcity, unsustainability, inequality, pollution and poor governance. Tackling such complex challenges requires coordinated action. The present paper proposes the development of a self-organizing system for coordination, called an "offer network", that would use the distributed intelligence of the Internet to match the offers and needs of all human, technological and natural agents on the planet. This would maximize synergy and thus minimize waste and scarcity of resources. Implementing such coordination requires a protocol that formally defines agents, offers, needs, and the network of condition-action rules or reactions that interconnect them. Matching algorithms can then determine self-sustaining subnetworks in which each consumed resource (need) is also produced (offer). After sketching the elements of a mathematical foundation for offer networks, the paper proposes a roadmap for their practical implementation. This includes step-by-step integration with technologies such as the Semantic Web, ontologies, the Internet of Things, reputation and recommendation systems, reinforcement learning, governance through legal constraints and nudging, and ecosystem modeling. The resulting intelligent platform should be able to tackle nearly all practical and theoretical problems in a bottom-up, distributed manner, thus functioning like a Global Brain for humanity.

  19. The development of the cell cryopreservation protocol with controlled rate thawing.

    PubMed

    Gurina, Tatyana M; Pakhomov, Alexandr V; Polyakova, Anna L; Legach, Evgeniy I; Bozhok, Galyna A

    2016-06-01

    Thawing in the water bath is often considered as a standard procedure. The thermal history of samples thawed in this way is poorly controlled, but cryopreservation and banking of cell-based products require standardization, automation and safety of all the technological stages including thawing. The programmable freezers allow implementation of the controlled cooling as well as the controlled thawing. As the cell damage occurs during the phase transformation that takes place in the cryoprotectant medium in the process of freezing-thawing, the choice of warming rates within the temperature intervals of transformations is very important. The goal of the study was to investigate the influence of warming rates within the intervals of the phase transformations in the DMSO-based cryoprotectant medium on the cell recovery and to develop a cryopreservation protocol with controlled cooling and warming rates. The temperature intervals of phase transformations such as melting of the eutectic mixture of the cryoprotectant solution (MEMCS), melting of the eutectic salt solution (MESS), melting of the main ice mass (MMIM), recrystallization before MEMCS, recrystallization before MESS and recrystallization before MMIM were determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. The biological experiments were performed on the rat testicular interstitial cells (TIC). The highest levels of the cell recovery and metabolic activity after cryopreservation were obtained using the protocol with the high (20 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of crystallization of the eutectics as well as recrystallizations and the low (1 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of melting of the eutectics as well as MMIM. The total cell recovery was 65.3 ± 2.1 %, the recovery of the 3-beta-HSD-positive (Leydig) cells was 82.9 ± 1.8 %, the MTT staining was 32.5 ± 0.9 % versus 42.1 ± 1.7 %; 57.4 ± 2.1 % and 24.0 ± 1.1 % respectively, when compared to the thawing in

  20. In situ patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in rat whisker hair follicles, an experimental protocol for studying tactile transduction in tactile-end organs.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Cha, Myeounghoon; Gu, Jianguo G

    2015-04-25

    Mammals use tactile end-organs to perform sensory tasks such as environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs remain poorly understood. The patch-clamp recording technique may be the most valuable approach for detecting and studying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs, but it is technically challenging because tactile transduction elements in an end-organ are normally inaccessible by patch-clamp recording electrodes. Here we describe an in situ patch-clamp recording protocol for the study of tactile transduction in Merkel cells of rat whisker hair follicles, one of the most sensitive tactile end-organs in mammals. This technique offers an opportunity to explore the identities and properties of ion channels that are involved in tactile transduction in whisker hair follicles, and it may also lend a useful tool for researchers to study other tactile end-organs. The experimental protocol describes procedures for 1) tissue dissection and whisker hair follicle preparation, 2) device setup and steps for performing patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in a whisker hair follicle, 3) methods of delivering mechanical stimuli, and 4) intra-follicle microinjection for receptor knockdown in whisker hair follicles. The main procedures in this protocol, from tissue preparation to whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, can be completed in a few hours.

  1. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  2. Using the "Knowledge Quartet" to Quantify Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching: The Development of a Protocol for Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trainee teachers' mathematical knowledge in teaching (MKiT) over their final year in a US Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme. This paper reports on an exploratory methodological approach taken to use the "Knowledge Quartet" to quantify MKiT through the development of a new protocol to code trainees' teaching of…

  3. Using the "Knowledge Quartet" to Quantify Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching: The Development of a Protocol for Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trainee teachers' mathematical knowledge in teaching (MKiT) over their final year in a US Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme. This paper reports on an exploratory methodological approach taken to use the "Knowledge Quartet" to quantify MKiT through the development of a new protocol to code trainees' teaching of…

  4. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from

  5. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    PubMed

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  6. Theoretical and experimental design of site-specific applicators and heating protocols for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyreus, Per Daniel; Nau, William H.; Wu, Alex; Diederich, Chris J.

    2003-06-01

    Theoretical and experimental approaches were used to develop and evaluate site-specific designs of internally cooled direct coupled (ICDC) and catheter-cooled (CC) ultrasound applicators for thermal coagulation of disease in the prostate, liver, brain, and uterus. The diameter of an interstitial applicator can influence its clinical practicality and effectiveness as well as application site. One purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of larger ultrasound transducers and the inherent increase in applicator size could be justified by potentially producing larger lesion diameters. A second purpose was to explore how the response of tissue acoustic attenuation to heating effects lesion size and preferred applicator configuration. Four applicator configurations and sizes were studied using ex vivo tissue experiments in liver and beef and using acoustic and biothermal simulations. Transmission attenuation measurements showed a 6 to 8 fold increase in baseline tissue attenution inside interstitial ultrasound lesions. Formation of these high attenuation zones in lesions reduced potential lesion size. Larger applicators produced lesions with radial penetration depths superior to their smaller counterparts at power levels in the 20-40W /cm range. The higher cooling rates along the outer surface of the larger diameter applicators due to their greater surface area was a dominant factor in increasing lesion size. The higher cooling rates pushed the maximum temperature farther from the applicator surface and reduced the formation of high acoustic attenuation tissue zones. Acoustic and biothermal simulations matched the experimental data well and were applied to model these applicators within sites of clinical interest such as prostate, uterine fibroid, brain, and normal liver. Lesions of 3.9 to 4.7cm diameter were predicted for moderately perfused tissues such as prostate and fibroid and 2.8 to 3.2cm for highly perfused tissues such as normal liver. Feedback

  7. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  8. Database/Template Protocol to Automate Development of Complex Environmental Input Models

    SciTech Connect

    COLLARD, LEONARD

    2004-11-10

    At the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, complex environmental models were required to analyze the performance of a suite of radionuclides, including decay chains consisting of multiple radionuclides. To facilitate preparation of the model for each radionuclide a sophisticated protocol was established to link a database containing material information with a template. The protocol consists of data and special commands in the template, control information in the database and key selection information in the database. A preprocessor program reads a template, incorporates the appropriate information from the database and generates the final model. In effect, the database/template protocol forms a command language. That command language typically allows the user to perform multiple independent analyses merely by setting environmental variables to identify the nuclides to be analyzed and having the template reference those environmental variables. The environmental variables ca n be set by a batch or script that serves as a shell to analyze each radionuclide in a separate subdirectory (if desired) and to conduct any preprocessing and postprocessing functions. The user has complete control to generate the database and how it interacts with the template. This protocol was valuable for analyzing multiple radionuclides for a single disposal unit. It can easily be applied for other disposal units, to uncertainty studies, and to sensitivity studies. The protocol can be applied to any type of model input for any computer program. A primary advantage of this protocol is that it does not require any programming or compiling while providing robust applicability.

  9. Proposal for the Development of a Standardized Protocol for Assessing the Economic Costs of HIV Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Eachus, Susan R.; Berg, Karina M.; Grimes, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Maximizing our economic investment in HIV prevention requires balancing the costs of candidate interventions against their effects and selecting the most cost-effective interventions for implementation. However, many HIV prevention intervention trials do not collect cost information, and those that do use a variety of cost data collection methods and analysis techniques. Standardized cost data collection procedures, instrumentation, and analysis techniques are needed to facilitate the task of assessing intervention costs and to ensure comparability across intervention trials. This article describes the basic elements of a standardized cost data collection and analysis protocol and outlines a computer-based approach to implementing this protocol. Ultimately, the development of such a protocol would require contributions and “buy-in” from a diverse range of stakeholders, including HIV prevention researchers, cost-effectiveness analysts, community collaborators, public health decision makers, and funding agencies. PMID:18301128

  10. Analytical Development of an Experimental Paradigm for C(3) Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    According the Lopes model , while nearly everyone is concerned with achieving outcomes that are at least acceptable in risky decisions (i.e., meeting...limited amount of time to perform a task. Both the amount of time and the task were varied. An information theoretic model of the cognitive workload was...INFORMATION AND DECISION SYSTEMS MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA 02139 2 88 11 4009 ANALYTICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL

  11. Organic and Isotope Measurement Protocols under Development for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is under development by NASA with several international partners for launch in 2009. MSL is designed to quantitatively explore a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl). The goals of MSL are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize its geology and geochemistry, (3) to study planetary processes that influence habitability, and (4) to characterize the surface radiation. The last substantial search for organic molecules on the surface of Mars was with the Viking Landers in 1976 [Biemann, et al., 19771. In that mission, no organics were detected in near surface fines and presently a more comprehensive search is required to understand the potential of that planet to support life. While the Mars Exploration Rovers are able to identify mineralogical signatures of aqueous alteration, they are not equipped to search for organics. The planned capabilities of the MSL rover payload will enable a search for a wide range of organic molecules in both solid samples of rocks and fines and atmospheric samples. MSL will also provide a determination of definitive mineralogy of the solid samples and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. Contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for Analytical Laboratory measurements and will facilitate sample selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. SAM includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and test for SAM and the relationship of our planned measurements to outstanding issues of martian habitability.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing protocol development for submerged aquatic vegetation in shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Ghir, Teddy; Bassetti, Luce; Hall, Carlton; Reyeier, E.; Lowers, R.; Holloway-Adkins, K.; Virnstein, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is an important indicator of freshwater and marine water quality in almost all shallow water aquatic environments. Throughout the world the diversity of submerged aquatic vegetation appears to be in decline, although sufficient historical data, of sufficient quantitative quality is lacking. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology, available from low altitude aircraft sensors, may provide a basis to improve upon existing photographic regional assessments and monitoring concerned with the aerial extent and coverage of SAV. In addition, modern low altitude remote sensing may also help in the development of environmental satellite requirements for future satellite payloads. This paper documents several important spectral reflectance signature features which may be useful in developing a protocol for remote sensing of SAV, and which is transferable to other shallow water aquatic habitats around the world. Specifically, we show that the shape or curvature of the spectral reflectance absorption feature centered near the chlorophyll absorption region of ~ 675 nm is strongly influenced not only by the relative backscatter region between 530-560 nm, but by a "submerged vegetation red edge" that appears in the 695 to 700 nm region in extremely high density vegetative areas in very shallow waters (= 0.5m depth). This "aquatic biomass red edge" is also observable in deeper waters where there is a shallow subsurface algal boom as demonstrated in this paper. Use of this submerged aquatic red edge feature will become an important component of SAV remote sensing in shallow aquatic habitats, as well as in phytoplankton-related water quality remote sensing applications of surface phytoplankton blooms.

  13. Organic and Isotope Measurement Protocols under Development for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is under development by NASA with several international partners for launch in 2009. MSL is designed to quantitatively explore a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl). The goals of MSL are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize its geology and geochemistry, (3) to study planetary processes that influence habitability, and (4) to characterize the surface radiation. The last substantial search for organic molecules on the surface of Mars was with the Viking Landers in 1976 [Biemann, et al., 19771. In that mission, no organics were detected in near surface fines and presently a more comprehensive search is required to understand the potential of that planet to support life. While the Mars Exploration Rovers are able to identify mineralogical signatures of aqueous alteration, they are not equipped to search for organics. The planned capabilities of the MSL rover payload will enable a search for a wide range of organic molecules in both solid samples of rocks and fines and atmospheric samples. MSL will also provide a determination of definitive mineralogy of the solid samples and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. Contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for Analytical Laboratory measurements and will facilitate sample selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. SAM includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and test for SAM and the relationship of our planned measurements to outstanding issues of martian habitability.

  14. Experimental Design for Combinatorial and High Throughput Materials Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawse, James N.

    2002-12-01

    In the past decade, combinatorial and high throughput experimental methods have revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, allowing researchers to conduct more experiments in a week than was previously possible in a year. Now high throughput experimentation is rapidly spreading from its origins in the pharmaceutical world to larger industrial research establishments such as GE and DuPont, and even to smaller companies and universities. Consequently, researchers need to know the kinds of problems, desired outcomes, and appropriate patterns for these new strategies. Editor James Cawse's far-reaching study identifies and applies, with specific examples, these important new principles and techniques. Experimental Design for Combinatorial and High Throughput Materials Development progresses from methods that are now standard, such as gradient arrays, to mathematical developments that are breaking new ground. The former will be particularly useful to researchers entering the field, while the latter should inspire and challenge advanced practitioners. The book's contents are contributed by leading researchers in their respective fields. Chapters include: -High Throughput Synthetic Approaches for the Investigation of Inorganic Phase Space -Combinatorial Mapping of Polymer Blends Phase Behavior -Split-Plot Designs -Artificial Neural Networks in Catalyst Development -The Monte Carlo Approach to Library Design and Redesign This book also contains over 200 useful charts and drawings. Industrial chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and physicists working in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry will find James Cawse's study to be an invaluable resource.

  15. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the 16O(d,p1)17O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  16. Development of the University of Delaware Experimental Watershed Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnini, J. L.; Kauffman, G. J.; Corrozi, M.; Bower, J.

    2001-05-01

    In 2000, a team of University of Delaware undergraduate and graduate students developed the University of Delaware Experimental Watershed Project with a grant from the Delaware Water Resources Center. The University of Delaware (UD) is a land- and sea-grant institution in Newark, Delaware and is perched along the Atlantic seaboard's fall line. A critical mass of UD faculty and students in water resources and related disciplines are interested in the development of an experimental watershed on campus to provide (1) interdisciplinary undergraduate, graduate and faculty research opportunities, and (2) an outdoor education laboratory. Using GIS and field reconnaissance techniques, the three students delineated two small experimental watershed regions respectively located in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain provinces of the White Clay Creek Wild and Scenic River Valley on the UD campus. The Piedmont watershed drains 416 acres of the northern area of campus while the Coastal Plain watershed drains 896 acres including the central and southern sections of campus. The students then developed an ArcView GIS atlas integrating geology, soils, topography, land use, and impervious cover layers with a rating system for water quality and habitat characteristics to issue a "report-card" assessing each watershed's overall health. The White Clay Creek Wild and Scenic River Valley is an ideal on campus location for an outdoor education and research laboratory because of its manageable scale, the diversity of its characteristic land uses and physical environment, and above all its accessibility for students, faculty, researchers, and the public.

  17. Development of a protocol to solidify native and artificial oil bodies for long-term storage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Tsung; Chen, Chun-Ren; Liu, Ting-Hang; Lee, Chin-Pei; Tzen, Jason T C

    2013-04-01

    Oil bodies isolated from sesame seeds coalesced to form large oil drops when they were solidified in a drying process commonly used for food products. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to solidify oil bodies for long-term storage at room temperature. On the basis of testing several excipients, the coalescence of oil bodies could be effectively prevented when they were combined with mannitol. Sizes of oil bodies appeared similar under a light microscope before and after powderisation in combination with 70% or more mannitol. Artificial oil bodies were successfully generated with sesame oil, phospholipid and recombinant sesame caleosin. Following the developed protocol, native and artificial oil bodies were stably solidified in tablets. Both native and artificial oil bodies dissolved from the tablets remained stable after an accelerated stress test under a condition of 75% humidity at 40 °C for 4 months. A protocol was successfully developed for the solidification of native and artificial oil bodies in stable powder and tablet forms. This successful protocol is very likely to expedite the utilisation of artificial oil bodies in their potential applications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Development of orbital experimental equipment for JEM exposed facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Masakazu; Morioka, Mikio; Katoh, Toshio; Fusegi, Katsumi; Nakao, Keizou; Ban, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Tomoaki; Amagata, Raita; Arafune, Kuniyuki

    1993-05-01

    The Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU) is an orbital experimental facility to be mounted on the free flyer Space Flyer Unit (SFU). The SFU is scheduled to be launched by an H-11 launch vehicle in early 1995. After several months in orbit, the SFU will be retrieved by the Space Shuttle. The EFFU will provide experience in developing the key technology of the Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which will be attached to the Space Station Freedom in the late 1990's. The EFFU proto-flight model test was concluded. This paper describes the development of the EFFU.

  19. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  20. Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, J.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Adrian, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. TU-G-BRB-04: Digital Phantoms for Developing Protocols in Particle Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.

    2015-06-15

    Proton therapy, in particular, and ion therapy, just beginning, are becoming an increasing focus of attention in clinical radiation oncology and medical physics. Both modalities have been criticized of lacking convincing evidence from randomized trials proving their efficacy, justifying the higher costs involved in these therapies. This session will provide an overview of the current status of clinical trials in proton therapy, including recent developments in ion therapy. As alluded to in the introductory talk by Dr. Schulte, opinions are diverging widely as to the usefulness and need for clinical trials in particle therapy and the challenge of equipoise. The lectures will highlight some of the challenges that surround clinical trials in particle therapy. One, presented by Dr. Choy from UT Southwestern, is that new technology and even different types of particles such as helium and carbon ions are introduced into this environment, increasing the phase space of clinical variables. The other is the issue of medical physics quality assurance with physical phantoms, presented by Mrs. Taylor from IROC Houston, which is more challenging because 3D and 4D image guidance and active delivery techniques are in relatively early stages of development. The role of digital phantoms in developing clinical treatment planning protocols and as a QA tool will also be highlighted by Dr. Lee from NCI. The symposium will be rounded off by a panel discussion among the Symposium speakers, arguing pro or con the need and readiness for clinical trials in proton and ion therapy. Learning Objectives: To get an update on the current status of clinical trials allowing or mandating proton therapy. Learn about the status of planned clinical trials in the U.S. and worldwide involving ion therapy. Discuss the challenges in the design and QA of clinical trials in particle therapy. Learn about existing and future physical and computational anthropomorphic phantoms for charged particle clinical trial

  2. Formative research and development of innovative tools for "Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty" (BOLD): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Bohren, Meghan A; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Tunçalp, Özge; Wendland, Melanie; Vogel, Joshua P; Tikkanen, Mari; Fawole, Bukola; Mugerwa, Kidza; Souza, João Paulo; Bahl, Rajiv; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    Most complications during labour and childbirth could be averted with timely interventions by skilled healthcare providers. Yet, the quality and outcomes of childbirth care remains suboptimal in many health facilities in low-resource settings. To accelerate the reduction of childbirth-related maternal, fetal and newborn mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization has initiated the "Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty" (BOLD) project to address weaknesses in labour care processes and better connect health systems and communities. The project seeks to develop a "Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action" tool (SELMA) to assist healthcare providers to monitor labour and take decisive actions more efficiently; and by developing an innovative set of service prototypes and/or tools termed "Passport to Safer Birth", designed with communities and healthcare providers, to promote access to quality care for women during childbirth. This protocol describes the formative research activities to support the development of these tools. We will employ qualitative research and service design methodologies in eight health facilities and their catchment communities in Nigeria and Uganda. In the health facilities, focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) will be conducted among different cadres of healthcare providers and facility administrators. In the communities, FGDs and IDIs will be conducted among women who have delivered in a health facility. We will use service design methods to explore women's journey to access and receive childbirth care in order to innovate and design services around the needs and expectations of women, within the context of the health system. This formative research will serve several roles. First, it will provide an in-depth understanding of healthcare providers and health system issues to be accounted for in the final design and implementation of SELMA. Second, it will help to identify key moments ("touch points

  3. Developing an Optimum Protocol for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry with GR-200 Chips using Taguchi Method.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Maryam; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2016-11-24

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is a powerful technique with wide applications in personal, environmental and clinical dosimetry. The optimum annealing, storage and reading protocols are very effective in accuracy of TLD response. The purpose of this study is to obtain an optimum protocol for GR-200; LiF: Mg, Cu, P, by optimizing the effective parameters, to increase the reliability of the TLD response using Taguchi method. Taguchi method has been used in this study for optimization of annealing, storage and reading protocols of the TLDs. A number of 108 GR-200 chips were divided into 27 groups, each containing four chips. The TLDs were exposed to three different doses, and stored, annealed and read out by different procedures as suggested by Taguchi Method. By comparing the signal-to-noise ratios the optimum dosimetry procedure was obtained. According to the results, the optimum values for annealing temperature (°C), Annealing Time (s), Annealing to Exposure time (d), Exposure to Readout time (d), Pre-heat Temperature (°C), Pre-heat Time (s), Heating Rate (°C/s), Maximum Temperature of Readout (°C), readout time (s) and Storage Temperature (°C) are 240, 90, 1, 2, 50, 0, 15, 240, 13 and -20, respectively. Using the optimum protocol, an efficient glow curve with low residual signals can be achieved. Using optimum protocol obtained by Taguchi method, the dosimetry can be effectively performed with great accuracy.

  4. Development of a simple and effective silver staining protocol for detection of DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Li, Ronghua; Ayalew, Habtamu; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Yan, Guijun; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Guo, Peiguo

    2017-04-01

    Silver staining is one of the widely used methods for DNA fragment detection in biological research. Silver staining protocols have been steadily optimized to improve detection efficiency. This research reports a continuous effort to simplify the existing silver staining protocols, lower experiment cost, and improve DNA detection sensitivity and image clarity. The new method only requires three reagents (silver nitrate, sodium hydroxide, and formaldehyde) and 6-7 min with high detection sensitivity to visualize as low as 14.6 pg (3.3 pg/mm(2) ) of DNA in a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. In comparison to previous reported protocols, the new one has the highest resolution, is the easiest to operate, takes the shortest time, and uses the fewest chemical reagents. Therefore, the new method can be used for quick generation of high quality molecular marker data in genetic analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Development Of A Consensus Protocol To Quantify Primate Anti-Non-Gal Xenoreactive Antibodies Using Pig Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Byrne, Guerard W.; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Welty, Emily; Braileanu, Gheorghe; Cheng, Xiangfei; Robson, Simon C.; McGregor, Christopher G.A.; Cooper, David K.C.; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of xenotransplantation do not employ a uniform method to measure and report natural and induced antibody responses to non-Galα(1,3)Gal (non-Gal) epitopes. Such humoral responses are thought to be particularly pathogenic after transplantation of vascularized GalTKO pig organs and having a more uniform assay and reporting format would greatly facilitate comparisons between laboratories. Flow cytometry allows examination of antibody reactivity to intact antigens in their natural location and conformation on cell membranes. We have established a simple and reproducible flow cytometric assay to detect antibodies specific for non-Gal pig antigens by using primary porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs) and cell culture adapted pAEC cell lines generated from wild type and α1,3galactosyl transferase knockout (GalTKO) swine. The consensus protocol we propose here is based on procedures routinely used in four xenotransplantation centers, and was independently evaluated at three sites using shared cells and serum samples. Our observation support use of the cell culture adapted GalTKO pAEC KO:15502 cells as a routine method to determine the reactivity of anti-non-Gal antibodies in human and baboon serum. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that allows the detection of natural and induced non-Gal xenoreactive antibodies present in human or baboon serum in a reliable and consistent manner. This consensus assay and format for reporting the data should be accessible to most laboratories and will be useful for assessing experimental results between multiple research centers. Adopting this assay and format for reporting the data should facilitate the detection, monitoring, and detailed characterization of non-Gal antibody responses. PMID:25176173

  6. Development of a consensus protocol to quantify primate anti-non-Gal xenoreactive antibodies using pig aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Byrne, Guerard W; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Welty, Emily; Braileanu, Gheorghe; Cheng, Xiangfei; Robson, Simon C; McGregor, Christopher G A; Cooper, David K C; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of xenotransplantation do not employ a uniform method to measure and report natural and induced antibody responses to non-Galα(1,3)Gal (non-Gal) epitopes. Such humoral responses are thought to be particularly pathogenic after transplantation of vascularized GalTKO pig organs and having a more uniform assay and reporting format would greatly facilitate comparisons between laboratories. Flow cytometry allows examination of antibody reactivity to intact antigens in their natural location and conformation on cell membranes. We have established a simple and reproducible flow cytometric assay to detect antibodies specific for non-Gal pig antigens using primary porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs) and cell culture-adapted pAEC cell lines generated from wild type and α1,3galactosyl transferase knockout (GalTKO) swine. The consensus protocol we propose here is based on procedures routinely used in four xenotransplantation centers and was independently evaluated at three sites using shared cells and serum samples. Our observation support use of the cell culture-adapted GalTKO pAEC KO:15502 cells as a routine method to determine the reactivity of anti-non-Gal antibodies in human and baboon serum. We have developed an assay that allows the detection of natural and induced non-Gal xenoreactive antibodies present in human or baboon serum in a reliable and consistent manner. This consensus assay and format for reporting the data should be accessible to laboratories and will be useful for assessing experimental results between multiple research centers. Adopting this assay and format for reporting the data should facilitate the detection, monitoring, and detailed characterization of non-Gal antibody responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Experimental Results for Titan Aerobot Thermo-Mechanical Subsystem Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Hall, Jeffery L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on a set of 4 thermo-mechanical research tasks aimed at Titan and Venus aerobots: 1. A cryogenic balloon materials development program culminating in the fabrication and testing of a 4.6 m long blimp prototype at 93K. 2. A combined computational and experimental thermal analysis of the effect of radioisotope power system (RPS) waste heat on the behavior of a helium filled blimp hull. 3. Aerial deployment and inflation testing using a blimp 4. A proof of concept experiment with an aerobot-mounted steerable high gain antenna These tasks were supported with JPL internal R&D funds and executed by JPL engineers with substantial industry collaboration for Task #1, the cryogenic balloon materials

  8. Experimental Results for Titan Aerobot Thermo-Mechanical Subsystem Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Hall, Jeffery L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on a set of 4 thermo-mechanical research tasks aimed at Titan and Venus aerobots: 1. A cryogenic balloon materials development program culminating in the fabrication and testing of a 4.6 m long blimp prototype at 93K. 2. A combined computational and experimental thermal analysis of the effect of radioisotope power system (RPS) waste heat on the behavior of a helium filled blimp hull. 3. Aerial deployment and inflation testing using a blimp 4. A proof of concept experiment with an aerobot-mounted steerable high gain antenna These tasks were supported with JPL internal R&D funds and executed by JPL engineers with substantial industry collaboration for Task #1, the cryogenic balloon materials

  9. Surfactant changes during experimental pneumocystosis are related to Pneumocystis development.

    PubMed

    Aliouat, E M; Escamilla, R; Cariven, C; Vieu, C; Mullet, C; Dei-Cas, E; Prévost, M C

    1998-03-01

    Pneumocystosis-related surfactant changes have been reported in both humans and corticosteroid-treated experimental hosts. As corticosteroids induce an increase in pulmonary surfactant, some findings could be considered as controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the surfactant composition changes during experimental pneumocystosis were related to the Pneumocystis development. In this work two corticosteroid-untreated animal models were used: rabbits, which develop spontaneous pneumocystosis at weaning; and severe combined immunodeficiency mice, which were intranasally inoculated with Pneumocystis carinii. Surfactant phospholipid and protein content was explored by bronchoalveolar lavage. The in vitro effect of surfactant on P. carinii growth was also explored. In the two models, the surfactant phospholipid/protein ratio was significantly increased, whereas parasite rates were low. This ratio decreases with the slope increase of the parasite growth curve. These early surfactant changes suggested that Pneumocystis proliferation requires alveolar lining fluid changes, and that normal surfactant is not suitable for parasite development. In this way, in vitro experiments presented here have revealed an inhibitory effect of synthetic or seminatural surfactants on the P. carinii growth. Further studies are needed to determine how Pneumocystis induces the reported early modifications of the surfactant, and why the parasite development is inhibited by pulmonary surfactant.

  10. Experimental Study of Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner v, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study of an array of up to 100 model wind turbines with 0.25 m diameter, conducted in the turbulent boundary layer of the 6.0 m wide × 2.7 m tall × 72.0 m long test section of the UNH Flow Physics Facility, are reported. The study aims to address two questions. First, for a given configuration (turbine spacing, initial conditions, etc.), when will the model wind farm reach a ``fully developed'' condition, in which turbulence statistics remain the same from one row to the next within and above the wind turbine array. Second, how is kinetic energy transported in the wind turbine array boundary layer (WTABL). Measurements in the fully developed WTABL can provide valuable insight to the optimization of wind farm energy production. Previous experimental studies with smaller model wind farms were unable to reach the fully developed condition. Due to the size of the UNH facility and the current model array, the fully developed WTABL condition can be achieved. The wind turbine array was simulated by a combination of drag-matched porous disks, used in the upstream part of the array, and by a smaller array of realistic, scaled 3-bladed wind turbines immediately upstream of the measurement location.

  11. Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development.

    PubMed

    Kinter, Lewis B; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations. While each transformation resulted in more effective and/or safer pharmaceuticals, overall attrition, cycle time, cost, numbers of animals used, and low probability of success for new products remain concerns, and pharmaceutical development remains a very high risk business proposition. In this manuscript we review pharmaceutical development since ancient times, describe its coevolution with animal experimentation, and attempt to predict the characteristics of future transformations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evolution and development of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Radvinsky, David S; Yoon, Richard S; Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Swan, Kenneth G; Liporace, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol is a successful course offered by the American College of Surgeons. Once based on didactic lectures and seminars taught by experts in the field, trauma training has evolved to become a set of standardized assessment and treatment protocols based on evidence rather than expert opinion. As the ATLS expands, indices to predict outcome, morbidity, and mortality have evolved to guide management and treatment based on retrospective data. This historical, perspective article attempts to tell the story of ATLS from its inception to its evolution as an international standard for the initial assessment and management of trauma patients. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments performed at room temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-placed calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  14. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  15. Development of a cross-disciplinary continuous insulin infusion protocol for non-critically ill patients in a French university hospital.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Lise; Roche, Béatrice; Batisse, Marie; Maqdasy, Salwan; Terral, Daniel; Sautou, Valérie; Tauveron, Igor

    2016-10-01

    In non-critically ill patients, the use of an insulin syringe pump allows the management of temporary situations during which other therapies cannot be used (failure of subcutaneous injections, awaiting advice from the diabetes team, emergency situations, prolonged corticosteroid therapy, initiation of an artificial nutrition, need for a fasting status, etc.). To manage the risks related to this «never event», the use of a standard validated protocol for insulin administration and monitoring is an essential prerequisite. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. With the support of our subcommission «Endocrinology-Diabetology», we proceeded with a «step-by-step process» to create such a standardized protocol: (1) review of all existing protocols in our hospital; (2) overview of the literature data concerning insulin infusion protocols developed by multidisciplinary teams in France and abroad; (3) development of a standardized protocol for non-intensive care unit patients, respecting the current recommendations and adapting it to the working habits of health teams; and (4) validation of the protocol Two protocols based on the same structure but adapted to the health status of the patient have been developed. The protocols are divided in to three parts: (1) golden rules to make the use of the protocol appropriate and safe; (2) the algorithm (a double entry table) corresponding to a dynamic adaptation of insulin doses, clearly defining the target and the 'at risk situations'; and (3) practical aspects of the protocol: preparation of the syringe, treatment initiation and traceability. The protocols have been validated by the institution. Our standardized insulin infusion protocol is simple, easy to implement, safe and is likely to be applicable in diverse care units. However, the efficiency, safety and the workability of our protocols have to be clinically evaluated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  17. Development of a Simplified Protocol for Administration of 20% Magnesium Sulphate for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Lynne; Newby, Brandi D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Magnesium sulphate is a high-risk medication that is used extensively for prophylaxis and treatment of eclampsia. To accommodate recommendations related to fluid restrictions and patient safety, a protocol was developed for the administration of 20% magnesium sulphate. Objectives: To determine whether administration of 20% magnesium sulphate increased the risk of phlebitis relative to 2% to 8% magnesium sulphate solutions, to determine if the institution’s protocol for administration of 20% magnesium sulphate reduced errors during administration, and to identify strategies to further reduce potential errors. Methods: A retrospective chart audit was undertaken for patients who had received magnesium sulphate for prophylaxis of eclampsia from December 2004 to December 2007. A failure mode and effect analysis was used to identify additional safety strategies. Results: A total of 47 patients received magnesium sulphate according to the old administration protocol (2% to 8% solution) and 29 according to the new protocol (20% solution). No evidence of phlebitis was documented for any of these 76 patients. A few errors occurred with changes in rates or concentrations and because of failure to reset the pump after the loading dose, but there was no documented harm to any of the patients. Strategies to further reduce errors in the administration of magnesium sulphate included development of preprinted orders, use of 20% magnesium sulphate for all infusion rates, changes to pump settings to enable use of fractional infusion rates, preparation of magnesium sulphate in mini-bags in the pharmacy, double-check of pump settings by nurses, anesthesiology consult, and distribution of protocols to all areas in the hospital (to limit errors associated with patient transfers). Conclusions: There was no documented phlebitis, and fewer errors occurred when 20% magnesium sulphate was used. Several additional strategies were identified to reduce errors in the administration

  18. Variation in Seed Dormancy in Echinochloa and the Development of a Standard Protocol for Germination Testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station maintains more than 300 accessions of Echinochloa representing 15 species from a diverse cross-section of nations and growing conditions from around the world. With such a diverse collection, no single germination-testing protocol was adequate f...

  19. Progress toward developing field protocols for a North American marsh bird monitoring program

    Treesearch

    Courtney J. Conway; Steven T. A. Timmermans

    2005-01-01

    Populations of many marsh-dependent birds appear to be declining, but we currently lack a continental program that provides estimates of population trends for most secretive marshbirds. The survey protocol outlined here is a standardized survey methodology being used on a pilot basis at National Wildlife Refuges and other protected wetland areas across North America...

  20. Protocol Programmability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Michael Maass, Ligia Nistor, Larry Maccherone, Cyrus Omar, Ivan Ruchkin, Jason Tsay, and YoungSeok Yoon. Thank you to former students and post-docs... Baumgartner , and Michal Young. Compiler and tool support for debugging object protocols. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium...ACM. 2.1 Michael Hoppe and Stefan Hanenberg. Do developers benefit from generic types?: An empirical comparison of generic and raw types in java. In

  1. Development of a test of experimental problem-solving skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.

    The emphasis given to experimental problem-solving skills in science curriculum innovation has not been matched by the development of comparable assessment tools. Multiple-choice tests were constructed for seven skills using learning hierarchies based on expert-novice differences. The instruments were refined in three phases of field testing. The reliabilities of the tests are sufficient for making judgments of group performance, but are insufficient in a single administration for individual assessment. Evidence of the validity of the tests is presented and their worth is discussed within the framework of a theory of instruction.

  2. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Thomas; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the pre- and posttest stage in five courses (total n = 580 students) at a large research university in western Canada. Calculated difficulty and discrimination metrics indicated that BEDCI questions are able to effectively capture learning changes at the undergraduate level. A high correlation (r = 0.84) between responses by students in similar courses and at the same stage of their academic career, also suggests that the test is reliable. Students showed significant positive learning changes by the posttest stage, but some non–expert-like responses were widespread and persistent. BEDCI is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool that can be used in a variety of life sciences disciplines. PMID:25185236

  3. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI).

    PubMed

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non-expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the pre- and posttest stage in five courses (total n = 580 students) at a large research university in western Canada. Calculated difficulty and discrimination metrics indicated that BEDCI questions are able to effectively capture learning changes at the undergraduate level. A high correlation (r = 0.84) between responses by students in similar courses and at the same stage of their academic career, also suggests that the test is reliable. Students showed significant positive learning changes by the posttest stage, but some non-expert-like responses were widespread and persistent. BEDCI is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool that can be used in a variety of life sciences disciplines.

  4. Trinity Multiscale Transport Code Development for Experimental Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Highcock, E.; Barnes, M.; Colyer, G.; Citrin, J.; Dickinson, D.; Mandel, N.; van Wyk, F.; Roach, C.; Schekochihin, A.; Dorland, W.

    2014-10-01

    The Trinity multiscale transport code has been extensively upgraded to further its use in experimental comparison. The upgrades to Trinity have extended its capability to work with experimental data, allowed it to evolve the magnetic equilibrium self-consistently (at fixed current) and significantly enhanced the range and performance of its turbulent transport modeling options. To enhance its capability to reproduce experiment, Trinity is now able to take output from the CRONOS integrated modelling suite, which is able to provide high quality reconstructions of experimental equilibria of, for example, JET. Trinity has also been integrated with the CHEASE Grad-Shafranov code. This allows the magnetic equilibrium to be re-computed self consistently as the pressure gradient evolves. Trinity has been given new options for modeling turbulent transport. These include the well-known TGLF framework, and the newly developed GPU-based nonlinear code GRYFX. These will allow rapid initial scans with Trinity before more detailed gyrokinetic modeling. Trinity's performance will benefit from an extensive programme to upgrade one of its primary gyrokinetic turbulence modeling options, GS2. We present a summary of these improvements and preliminary results. This work was supported by STFC and the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. Computing time was provided by IFERC grants MULTEI and GKDELB, The Hartree Centre, and EPSRC Grants EP/H002081/1 and EP/L000237/1.

  5. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding.

  6. Development and validation of a simple protocol to rapidly determine the performance of biofilters for VOC treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Deshusses, M.A.; Johnson, C.T.

    2000-02-01

    A protocol has been developed for the rapid determination of complete elimination characteristics of target pollutants in waste air biofilters. The protocol involves the determination of two pollutant concentration profiles along the height of a three-segment biofilter under carefully chosen conditions. The combination of the data results in 12 points on the elimination capacity vs load curve which is sufficient to fully characterize a system. The protocol conditions were chosen to enable characterization of biofiltration systems with VOC elimination capacities ranging from 20 to 120 g m{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1}. The protocol was then applied to 18 different VOCs, and the results compared well with previously published data, when available. Maximum removal performance of classes of compounds in the biofilter followed the sequence alcohols > esters > ketones >aromatics alkanes. An attempt was made to correlate the pollutant elimination with Henry's coefficient, and the octanol/water partition coefficient and trends were obtained. The results suggest that biodegradation of VOCs in biofilters is influenced both by the pollutant availability and to a lesser extent by the hydrophobicity of the treated compounds.

  7. [Systemic antimicrobial treatment of prosthesis related infections: a comparative study of ornidazole and minocycline. A microbiological evaluation and experimental protocol].

    PubMed

    Stellini, E; Saler, G; Grandesso, S; Pagnacco, P; Mazzoleni, S; Cavaleri, E; Favero, G A

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two chemotherapeutic agents against bacterial forms responsible for prosthesis-related infections. The evaluation was made on the basis of a count using optical microscope 1000x after GRAM staining of the main bacterial forms found in periprosthetic inflammatory exudate both before and after treatment. Two drugs used: ornidazole and minocycline. A group of 20 patients were studied (12 women and 8 men) aged between 42 and 71 years old with an advanced stage of periprosthetic inflammatory pathology. The pharmacological protocol was administered to the two groups of patients for a period of approximately 15 days. At the end of treatment there was a marked reduction in all the bacterial forms involved in periprosthetic pathology in both groups, with a gradual recovery of normal bacterial flora (gram forms) coupled with a clinical improvement in the implant sites examined. Given the specificity of action shown by ornidazole against pathogenic anaerobic, gram-; bacteroides and sporigenic forms, it is recommended for systemic use against prosthesis-related inflammatory disease.

  8. Gold nanomolecules: Developing synthetic protocols, characterization and investigating the ligand effects on structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy

    The term "Nano" in chemistry refers to particles/molecules in the size range 1 to 100 nm. Gold nanoparticles were used in ancient times in making decorative glass as they produce vibrant, size dependent, colors upon interaction with light. Gold is a preferred choice of metal for the synthesis of nanoparticles mainly due to its inertness to atmospheric conditions and most chemicals. Gold thiolate nanomolecules, which is the primary focus of this dissertation research, are chemical molecules with a fixed number of gold atoms and organo-thiolate ligands. They are of the form Aux(SR)y and possess molecule-like properties as a result of distinctive quantum confinement effects occurring at the nanoscale size. The optical and electronic properties of these molecules change as a function of "x" and "y" in the formulation Aux(SR) y. The stability of these nanomolecules can be attributed due in part to their symmetrical geometry as evidenced by the X-ray crystallography. Recent research in the field has focused on exploiting the size-dependent properties of gold nanomolecules in applications like nano-electronics, biological sensing and catalysis. But much of the hindrance to these advances come from the lack of established protocols to synthesize monodisperse nanomolecules in high yields. Brust-schiffrin protocol for the synthesis of nanomolecules yields stable products in a two-phase system which can be dried and re-dispersed without affecting the stability. But the protocol has a major drawback of producing a polydisperse mixture of different sizes of nanomolecules. A major portion of my dissertation focuses on addressing this issue of polydispersity of products. In this regard, I have investigated the one-phase synthesis protocol for synthesis of gold-thiolate nanomolecules wherein the gold salt and the capping ligands are essentially dissolved in a single solvent system. This protocol is peculiar in that it yields various sizes which are otherwise not observed.

  9. Developing the protocol for the evaluation of the health foundation's 'engaging with quality initiative' - an emergent approach.

    PubMed

    Soper, Bryony; Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Stephen; Oortwijn, Wija; Scoggins, Amanda; Steel, Nick; Ling, Tom

    2008-10-30

    In 2004 a UK charity, The Health Foundation, established the 'Engaging with Quality Initiative' to explore and evaluate the benefits of engaging clinicians in quality improvement in healthcare. Eight projects run by professional bodies or specialist societies were commissioned in various areas of acute care. A developmental approach to the initiative was adopted, accompanied by a two level evaluation: eight project self-evaluations and a related external evaluation. This paper describes how the protocol for the external evaluation was developed. The challenges faced included large variation between and within the projects (in approach, scope and context, and in understanding of quality improvement), the need to support the project teams in their self-evaluations while retaining a necessary objectivity, and the difficulty of evaluating the moving target created by the developmental approach adopted in the initiative. An initial period to develop the evaluation protocol proved invaluable in helping us to explore these issues.

  10. Development of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Oshima, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Katagiri, Takashi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Tashiro, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    Development of the optical biopsy system for experimental small animals is in progress. A prototype of the system which consists of a miniaturized gastro endoscope unit and Raman probes has been completed by now. The system is developed to study a gastric cancer rat model. The endoscope is 2.5 mm in diameter and is equipped an imaging bundle fiber, illumination fibers, a channel and a mechanism to angle the probe head. The head of the Raman probe comes out through the channel and it is possible to aim the probe to the target watching on the monitor. The endoscope was inserted into the anaesthetized healthy rat under the breathing support. It was successfully observed inside of the stomach of the living rat and measured Raman spectra. The spectrum of blood vessels contains the strong contribution from lipids. The present results demonstrate high potential of the system in the in vivo Raman study using the rat model.

  11. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  12. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  13. Development of Arterial Blood Supply in Experimental Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dezső, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Papp, Veronika; László, Viktória; Döme, Balázs; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Nagy, Péter; Paku, Sándor

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a mechanism for the development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases. To analyze the arterialization process of experimental liver metastases, we elucidated a few key questions regarding the blood supply of hepatic lobules in mice. The microvasculature of the mouse liver is characterized by numerous arterioportal anastomoses and arterial terminations at the base of the lobules. These terminations supply one hepatic microcirculatory subunit per lobule, which we call an arterial hepatic microcirculatory subunit (aHMS). The process of arterialization can be divided into the following steps: 1) distortion of the aHMS by metastasis; 2) initial fusion of the sinusoids of the aHMS at the tumor parenchyma interface; 3) fusion of the sinusoids located at the base of the aHMSs, which leads to the disruption of the vascular sphincter (burst pipe); 4) incorporation of the dilated artery and the fused sinusoids into the tumor; and 5) further development of the tumor vasculature (arterial tree) by proliferation, remodeling, and continuous incorporation of fused sinusoids at the tumor–parenchyma interface. This process leads to the inevitable arterialization of liver metastases above the 2000- to 2500-μm size, regardless of the origin and growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:19574433

  14. Development of an analytical protocol for a fast, sensitive and specific protein recognition in paintings by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Palmieri, M; Vagnini, Manuela; Pitzurra, L; Rocchi, P; Brunetti, B G; Sgamellotti, A; Cartechini, L

    2011-03-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of proteins offers a particularly promising approach for investigations in cultural heritage on account of its appreciated properties of being highly specific, sensitive, relatively fast, and cost-affordable with respect to other conventional techniques. In spite of that, it has never been fully exploited for routine analyses of painting materials in consideration of several analytical issues that inhibited its diffusion in conservation science: limited sample dimensions, decrease of binder solubility and reduced availability of antibody bonding sites occurring with protein degradation. In this study, an ELISA analytical protocol suited for the identification of aged denatured proteins in ancient painting micro-samples has been developed. We focused on the detection of bovine β-casein and chicken ovalbumin as markers of bovine milk (or casein) and chicken albumen, respectively. A systematic experimentation of the ELISA protocol has been carried out on mock-ups of mural and easel painting prepared with 13 different pigments to assess limits and strengths of the method when applied for the identification of proteins in presence of a predominant inorganic matrix. The analytical procedure has been optimized with respect to protein extraction, antibodies' concentrations, incubation time and temperature; it allows the detection of the investigated proteins with sensitivity down to nanograms. The optimized protocol was then tested on artificially aged painting models. Analytical results were very encouraging and demonstrated that ELISA allows for protein analysis also in degraded painting samples. To address the feasibility of the developed ELISA methodology, we positively investigated real painting samples and results have been cross-validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  15. Study protocol - A systematic review and meta-analysis of hypothermia in experimental traumatic brain injury: Why have promising animal studies not been replicated in pragmatic clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Hirst, Theodore C; Watzlawick, Ralf; Rhodes, Jonathan K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Andrews, Peter J D

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and permanent disability. Systemic hypothermia, a treatment used in TBI for many decades, has recently been found to be associated with neutral or unfavourable clinical outcomes despite apparently promising preclinical research. Systematic review and meta-analysis is a tool to summarize literature and observe trends in experimental design and quality that underpin its general conclusions. Here we aim to use these techniques to describe the use of hypothermia in animal TBI models, collating data relating to outcome and both study design and quality. From here we intend to observe correlations between features and attempt to explain any discrepancies found between animal and clinical data. This protocol describes the relevant methodology in detail.

  16. Development of a soccer simulation protocol to include repeated sprints and agility.

    PubMed

    Stone, Keeron J; Oliver, Jonathan L; Hughes, Michael G; Stembridge, Michael R; Newcombe, Daniel J; Meyers, Robert W

    2011-09-01

    Existing procedures for the simulation of soccer match play fail to incorporate multidirectional and repeated-sprint activities, even though these movements are considered fundamental to match play. In the current study, selected physiological and performance responses were assessed during an adapted version of an existing soccer simulation protocol. Mean heart rates of 163 ± 14 beats·min-1, mean blood lactates of 4.9 ± 2.3 mmol·L-1 and decrements in single-sprint and repeated-sprint performances were observed. The presented adaptations to an existing soccer simulation protocol better reflect the movement characteristics as well as the physiological and performance responses of soccer match play.

  17. C4MIP - The Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: experimental protocol for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chris D.; Arora, Vivek; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Dunne, John; Graven, Heather; Hoffman, Forrest; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Jung, Martin; Kawamiya, Michio; Koven, Charlie; Pongratz, Julia; Raddatz, Thomas; Randerson, James T.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-08-01

    Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities. The Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks are potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate-carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate-carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments known as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK). C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to project how the Earth system will respond to

  18. C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Chris D.; Arora, Vivek; Friedlingstein, Pierre; ...

    2016-08-25

    Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities. The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks aremore » potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate–carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate–carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments known as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK). C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to project how the Earth system will

  19. C4MIP – The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project: Experimental protocol for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Chris D.; Arora, Vivek; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Dunne, John; Hoffman, Forrest; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Kawamiya, Michio; Koven, Charlie; Pongratz, Julia; Raddatz, Thomas; Randerson, James T.; Zaehle, Sonke

    2016-08-25

    Coordinated experimental design and implementation has become a cornerstone of global climate modelling. Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) enable systematic and robust analysis of results across many models, by reducing the influence of ad hoc differences in model set-up or experimental boundary conditions. As it enters its 6th phase, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has grown significantly in scope with the design and documentation of individual simulations delegated to individual climate science communities.

    The Coupled Climate–Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) takes responsibility for design, documentation, and analysis of carbon cycle feedbacks and interactions in climate simulations. These feedbacks are potentially large and play a leading-order contribution in determining the atmospheric composition in response to human emissions of CO2 and in the setting of emissions targets to stabilize climate or avoid dangerous climate change. For over a decade, C4MIP has coordinated coupled climate–carbon cycle simulations, and in this paper we describe the C4MIP simulations that will be formally part of CMIP6. While the climate–carbon cycle community has created this experimental design, the simulations also fit within the wider CMIP activity, conform to some common standards including documentation and diagnostic requests, and are designed to complement the CMIP core experiments known as the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK).

    C4MIP has three key strands of scientific motivation and the requested simulations are designed to satisfy their needs: (1) pre-industrial and historical simulations (formally part of the common set of CMIP6 experiments) to enable model evaluation, (2) idealized coupled and partially coupled simulations with 1 % per year increases in CO2 to enable diagnosis of feedback strength and its components, (3) future scenario simulations to

  20. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    PubMed Central

    Beirn, Lisa A.; Wang, Ruying; Clarke, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli), although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen. PMID:26339538

  1. Photographing Injuries in the Acute Care Setting: Development and Evaluation of a Standardized Protocol for Research, Forensics, and Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bloemen, Elizabeth M.; Rosen, Tony; Schiroo, Justina A. Cline; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R.; Stern, Michael E.; Mysliwiec, Regina; Flomenbaum, Neal E.; Lachs, Mark S.; Hargarten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Photographing injuries in the acute setting allows for improved documentation as well as assessment by clinicians and others who have not personally examined a patient. This tool is important, particularly for telemedicine, tracking of wound healing, the evaluation of potential abuse, and injury research. Despite this, protocols to ensure standardization of photography in clinical practice, forensics, or research have not been published. In preparation for a study of injury patterns in elder abuse and geriatric falls, our goal was to develop and evaluate a protocol for standardized photography of injuries that may be broadly applied. Methods We conducted a literature review for techniques and standards in medical, forensic, and legal photography. We developed a novel protocol describing types of photographs and body positioning for eight body regions, including instructional diagrams. We revised it iteratively in consultation with experts in medical photography; forensics; and elder, child, and domestic abuse. The resulting protocol requires a minimum of four photos of each injury at multiple distances with and without a ruler/color guide. To evaluate the protocol’s efficacy, multiple research assistants without previous photography experience photographed injuries from a convenience sample of elderly patients presenting to a single large, urban, academic emergency department. A selection of these patients’ images were then evaluated in a blinded fashion by four nontreating emergency medicine physicians and the inter-rater reliability between these physicians was calculated. Results Among the 131 injuries, from 53 patients, photographed by 18 photographers using this protocol, photographs of 25 injuries (10 bruises, seven lacerations, and eight abrasions) were used to assess characterization of the injury. Physicians’ characterizations of the injuries were reliable for the size of the injury (κ = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77 to 1

  2. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows I: basis for development of protocols.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, M; Sá Filho, O G; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    Five experiments were conducted on commercial farms in Brazil aiming to develop a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol that achieved pregnancy rates between 40% and 55% in Bos indicus cows. These studies resulted in the development of the following protocol: insertion of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone (CIDR) plus 2.0mg im estradiol benzoate on Day 0; 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine on Day 7 in cycling cows or on Day 9 in anestrous cows; CIDR withdrawal plus 0.5mg im estradiol cypionate plus temporary calf removal on Day 9; TAI (48h after CIDR withdrawal) plus reuniting of calves with their dams on Day 11. Reduced dose of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine) effectively caused luteolysis. In cycling cows, fertility was greater when the treatment with PGF(2alpha) was administered on Day 7 than on Day 9, but in anestrous cows, no effects of time of the PGF(2alpha) treatment were found. Estradiol cypionate effectively replaced estradiol benzoate or gonadotropin-releasing hormone as the ovulatory stimulus, reducing labor and cost. In this protocol, CIDR inserts were successfully used four times (9 d each use) with no detrimental effects on fertility.

  3. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  4. Development of an RNA extraction protocol for detection of waterborne viruses by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, N; Sobsey, M D; Cromeans, T L

    2010-10-01

    RNA extraction from environmental samples yields frequently an RNA preparation containing inhibitors of molecular reactions. Commercial RNA extraction kits commonly permit extraction of only 0.1-0.2 ml sample volume. An RNA extraction buffer (RNAX buffer) was formulated for the extraction of viral RNA from 4.0 ml using a silica column based protocol. To evaluate the RNAX buffer based protocol, we used hepatitis A virus (HAV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) to monitor the RNA extraction efficiency from environmental samples. For evaluation of viral RNA recovery from water concentrates which were prepared from river and pond water by PEG concentration, serial ten fold dilutions of two waterborne viruses were added to the water concentrates for evaluation by quantitative detection. Quantitative recovery of HAV and CVB3 was determined by reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The extracted RNA was compatible with RT-qPCR and sensitivity of detection of 0.8PFU per reaction was found with RNAX buffer and the developed protocol. This level of sensitivity was obtained using viral RNA extracted from 4.0 ml of an inoculated water sample concentrate. The RNAX buffer developed in this study could be applicable to the detection of other pathogens in water and food.

  5. Experimental Stage Separation Tool Development in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Scallion, William I.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the research effort at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program, proximity testing of a generic bimese wing-body configuration was conducted in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The objective of this work is the development of experimental tools and testing methodologies to apply to hypersonic stage separation problems for future multi-stage launch vehicle systems. Aerodynamic force and moment proximity data were generated at a nominal Mach number of 6 over a small range of angles of attack. The generic bimese configuration was tested in a belly-to-belly and back-to-belly orientation at 86 relative proximity locations. Over 800 aerodynamic proximity data points were taken to serve as a database for code validation. Longitudinal aerodynamic data generated in this test program show very good agreement with viscous computational predictions. Thus a framework has been established to study separation problems in the hypersonic regime using coordinated experimental and computational tools.

  6. Hypnosis and Guided Imagery Treatment for Gastrointestinal Disorders: Experience With Scripted Protocols Developed at the University of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S; van Tilburg, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Completely scripted treatment courses for verbatim interventions are uncommon in the field of clinical hypnosis. This approach was adopted for by a North Carolina research team for treating gastrointestinal disorders 20 years ago and has been used in hypnosis treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, as well as in guided imagery treatment for functional abdominal pain. Treatment with these scripted protocols is delivered in a fixed series of sessions over a 2- or 3-month period. They have been found efficacious for improving bowel symptoms in several clinical trials, even in patients who have been entirely unresponsive to medical treatment. Response rates in clinical trials have ranged from 53% to 94%, and the therapeutic benefits have been shown to be well maintained at 6-, 10-, or 12-month follow-ups in different studies. This article describes the development and research on these protocols and summarizes the advantages and limitations of this fully scripted treatment approach.

  7. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol.

  8. Experimental platynosomosis: Characterization of parasite development in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson A; Mati, Vitor L T; Melo, Alan L

    2015-06-30

    equivalent to those reported for parasites from natural hosts (cats, birds and nonhuman primates). The results obtained provide new insights into the biology of P. illiciens, and the kinetics of the parasite development of this species is presented here for the first time. The potential use of mice as an experimental model for P. illiciens is presented and the implications of the results obtained in that model for feline platynosomosis are briefly discussed.

  9. Development of an In Vivo RNAi Protocol to Investigate Gene Function in the Filarial Nematode, Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chuanzhe; Gallup, Jack M.; Day, Tim A.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to control diseases caused by parasitic nematodes is constrained by a limited portfolio of effective drugs and a paucity of robust tools to investigate parasitic nematode biology. RNA interference (RNAi) is a reverse-genetics tool with great potential to identify novel drug targets and interrogate parasite gene function, but present RNAi protocols for parasitic nematodes, which remove the parasite from the host and execute RNAi in vitro, are unreliable and inconsistent. We have established an alternative in vivo RNAi protocol targeting the filarial nematode Brugia malayi as it develops in an intermediate host, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Injection of worm-derived short interfering RNA (siRNA) and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) into parasitized mosquitoes elicits suppression of B. malayi target gene transcript abundance in a concentration-dependent fashion. The suppression of this gene, a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (Bm-cpl-1) is specific and profound, both injection of siRNA and dsRNA reduce transcript abundance by 83%. In vivo Bm-cpl-1 suppression results in multiple aberrant phenotypes; worm motility is inhibited by up to 69% and parasites exhibit slow-moving, kinked and partial-paralysis postures. Bm-cpl-1 suppression also retards worm growth by 48%. Bm-cpl-1 suppression ultimately prevents parasite development within the mosquito and effectively abolishes transmission potential because parasites do not migrate to the head and proboscis. Finally, Bm-cpl-1 suppression decreases parasite burden and increases mosquito survival. This is the first demonstration of in vivo RNAi in animal parasitic nematodes and results indicate this protocol is more effective than existing in vitro RNAi methods. The potential of this new protocol to investigate parasitic nematode biology and to identify and validate novel anthelmintic drug targets is discussed. PMID:21203489

  10. Inhibitors of sex hormones: development of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Gomez, E C

    1972-01-01

    Inhibitors of sex hormones and the development of experimental models are discussed. Compounds that inhibit the action of androgens and estrogens are defined, and the possible mechanisms of action presented are: 1) inhibition of hormone synthesis; 2) inhibition of uptake of hormone into target tissues; 3) inhibition of the retention of hormone in target tissues; 4) inhibition of the binding of hormone to nonenzyme macromolecules; and 5) inhibition of the metabolism of a hormone to a more active form. Effects of antiandrogen on skin such as hirsutism, sebum production, and acne are briefly covered. Methods of study included inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone by human foreskin and the use of the hamster flank organ for the bioassay of antiandrogens.

  11. Experimental Study of Key Issues on Pulse Detonation Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Yuan; Fujiwara, Toshitaka; Miyasaka, Takeshi; Nakayama, Ei-Ichi; Hattori, Tsuyoshi; Azuma, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Satoru; Tamugi, Azusa

    An experimental study on the pulse detonation engine (PDE) is conducted using hydrogen-air mixtures. Several key issues for PDE development, including valve operation, injection, mixing, filling, cycle repetition, ignition timing, DDT distance and propagation of detonation/quasi-detonation, are investigated. The fuel and oxidizer are injected into the PDE from opposite sidewall directions so as to be well mixed by collision of the two jets. A good agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured mixing ratios, indicating the occurrence of nearly instant mixing. Before the detonation velocity has reached the CJ value, it was found that the wave propagation velocity at the PDE exit increases with the increase in diameter, length and blockage ratio of the Shchelkin wire, and initial pressure. The PDE performance acquired was a specific impulse of about 2000 s, which was measured from the pressure history at the head end of the PDE.

  12. Experimental Results for Titan Aerobot Thermo-Mechanical Subsystem Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffrey L.; Jones, J. A.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Lachenmeier, T.; Mahr, P.; Pauken, M.; Plett, G. A.; Smith, L.; VanLuvender, M. L.; Yavrouian, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes experimental results from a development program focused in maturing Titan aerobot technology in the areas of mechanical and thermal subsystems. Results from four key activities are described: first, a cryogenic balloon materials development program involving coupon and cylinder tests and culminating in the fabrication and testing of an inflated 4.6 m long prototype blimp at 93 K; second, a combined lab experiment and numerical simulation effort to assess potential problems resulting from radioisotope thermal generator waste heat generation near an inflated blimp; third, an aerial deployment and inflation development program consisting of laboratory and helicopter drop tests on a near full scale (11 m long) prototype blimp; and fourth, a proof of concept experiment demonstrating the viability of using a mechanically steerable high gain antenna on a floating blimp to perform direct to Earth telecommunications from Titan. The paper provides details on all of these successful activities and discusses their impact on the overall effort to produce mature systems technology for future Titan aerobot missions.

  13. Development of a Protocol to Test Proprioceptive Utilization as a Predictor for Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show significant inter-subject variations in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment because of their innate sensory weighting. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We hypothesize participant's ability to utilize individual sensory information (vision, proprioception and vestibular) influences adaptation in sensorimotor performance after space flight. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable protocol to test proprioceptive utilization in a functional postural control task. Subjects "stand" in a supine position while strapped to a backpack frame holding a friction-free device using air-bearings that allow the subject to move freely in the frontal plane, similar to when in upright standing. The frame is attached to a pneumatic cylinder, which can provide different levels of a gravity-like force that the subject must balance against to remain "upright". The supine posture with eyes closed ensures reduced vestibular and visual contribution to postural control suggesting somatosensory and/or non-otolith vestibular inputs will provide relevant information for maintaining balance control in this task. This setup is called the gravity bed. Fourteen healthy subjects carried out three trials each with eyes open alternated with eyes closed, "standing" on their dominant leg in the gravity bed environment while loaded with 60 percent of their body weight. Subjects were instructed to: "use your sense of sway about the ankle and pressure changes under the foot to maintain balance." Maximum length of a trial was 45 seconds. A force plate underneath the foot recorded forces and moments during the trial and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached on the backpack's frame near the center of mass of the subject recorded upper body postural

  14. New developed urological protocols for the Uro Dyna-CT reduce radiation exposure of endourological patients below the levels of the low dose standard CT scans.

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, M-C; Banckwitz, R; Koehler, C; Mueller-Allissat, B; Michel, M-S; Häcker, A; Ritter, M

    2014-10-01

    Cross-sectional imaging by computed tomography (CT) is associated with higher radiation dose compared to plain X-ray. The Uro Dyna-CT provides CT-like images in the endourological operating room. Our aim was to reduce the radiation exposure of endourological patients with the Uro Dyna-CT and optimize the cross-sectional image quality. For the hard contrast protocol, two artificial stones were placed in a Rando-Alderson phantom's left kidney region. Relevant parameters of the standard abdomen protocol were changed. After each modification, two urologists subjectively evaluated the image quality. We developed two customized protocols (standard, low-dose) for hard contrast imaging. To optimize the examination protocol for soft tissue imaging a standardized cone beam phantom was used. Parameters of the preset high-resolution protocol were changed to develop a protocol with similar objective image quality but lower radiation dose. To evaluate the effective radiation dose we embedded 129 thermoluminescence dosimeters in the kidney and ureter region of the Rando-Alderson phantom and performed each protocol five times (stone, soft tissue) and ten times (low-dose protocol). Mean effective dose values per 3D-examination were calculated. We detected a dose area product (DAP) 776.2 (standard) and 163.5 μGym(2) (low-dose) for the stone protocols with an effective dose of 1.96 and 0.33 mSv, respectively. The soft tissue protocol produced a DAP of 5,070 μGym(2) and an effective dose of 7.76 mSv. Our newly developed examination protocols for the Uro Dyna-CT provide CT-like image quality during urological interventions with low radiation dose.

  15. The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the UP drawing from theory and research that underlies current transdiagnostic approaches to treatment and consistent with recent dimensional classification proposals (Brown & Barlow, in press). Treatment is illustrated module-by-module describing how the principles of the UP were applied in the presented case. PMID:23997572

  16. Counseling adolescents about contraception: towards the development of an evidence-based protocol for contraceptive counselors.

    PubMed

    Jaccard, James; Levitz, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Research on contraceptive counseling of adolescents in clinics and service delivery settings is considered. The provider context as well as the developmental context of adolescence is characterized and their implications for contraceptive counseling are explicated. After reviewing research on the effectiveness of contraceptive counseling, it was concluded there is little empirical evidence to support the efficacy of current practices considered as a totality. Twelve principles for effective contraceptive counseling were then derived as a basis for building an evidence-based contraceptive counseling protocol for adolescents.

  17. Electrical modulation of the sympathetic nervous system in order to augment cerebral blood flow: a protocol for an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J Marc C; Staal, Michiel J; Elting, Jan-Willem J

    2011-07-22

    Introduction Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by several mechanisms. Neurogenic control has been a matter of debate, even though several publications reported the effects of changes in sympathetic tone on CBF. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal-cord stimulation have been shown to influence peripheral and cerebral blood flow through a sympathetic pathway. The authors hypothesise that certain pathological conditions result in a relative increase in the neurogenic regulation of CBF and that this regulation can be modulated electrically. Methods and analysis Patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage will be included. The experimental set-up measures several parameters that are involved in cerebral blood flow regulation in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Measurements are taken at baseline and with stimulation in several frequencies. An ad hoc statistical analysis is used to evaluate different settings of the electrical stimulation. Autoregulation is evaluated with transfer function analysis and autoregulatory index calculations. Ethics and dissemination Ethical registration was granted by Medical Review Ethics Committee Groningen (ID METc 2010.123). All participants provide written informed consent on participation. Upon finishing a pilot study to investigate feasibility and effect, either future prospective (randomised) studies will be designed, or other modalities of electrical stimulation will be explored using the same set-up. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Registry: NTR2358.

  18. Assessing the impacts of mountain biking and hiking on subalpine grassland in Australia using an experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Rossi, Sebastian; Barros, Agustina

    2011-12-01

    Mountain biking is an increasingly popular, but sometimes controversial, activity in protected areas. Limited research on its impacts, including studies comparing biking with hiking, contributes to the challenges for mangers in assessing its appropriateness. The impacts of mountain bike riding off trail were compared to those of hiking on subalpine grassland in Australia using a modification of a common trampling experimental methodology. Vegetation and soil parameters were measured immediately and two weeks after different intensities of mountain biking (none, 25, 75, 200 and 500 passes across slope, 200 pass up and down slope) and hiking (200 and 500 passes across slope). There were reductions in vegetation height, cover and species richness, as well as changes in species composition and increases in litter and soil compaction with riding. Riding up and down a moderate slope had a greater impact than riding across the slope. Hiking also affected vegetation height, cover and composition. Mountain biking caused more damage than hiking but only at high use (500 passes). Further research including other ecosystems, topography, styles of riding, and weather conditions are required, but under the conditions tested here, hiking and mountain biking appear to be similar in their environmental impacts.

  19. Development of an acquisition protocol and a segmentation algortihm for wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Kristians; Castañeda, Benjamín; Miranda, César; Lavarello, Roberto; Llanos, Alejandro

    2010-03-01

    We developed a protocol for the acquisition of digital images and an algorithm for a color-based automatic segmentation of cutaneous lesions of Leishmaniasis. The protocol for image acquisition provides control over the working environment to manipulate brightness, lighting and undesirable shadows on the injury using indirect lighting. Also, this protocol was used to accurately calculate the area of the lesion expressed in mm2 even in curved surfaces by combining the information from two consecutive images. Different color spaces were analyzed and compared using ROC curves in order to determine the color layer with the highest contrast between the background and the wound. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: (1) Location of the wound determined by threshold and mathematical morphology techniques to the H layer of the HSV color space, (2) Determination of the boundaries of the wound by analyzing the color characteristics in the YIQ space based on masks (for the wound and the background) estimated from the first stage, and (3) Refinement of the calculations obtained on the previous stages by using the discrete dynamic contours algorithm. The segmented regions obtained with the algorithm were compared with manual segmentations made by a medical specialist. Broadly speaking, our results support that color provides useful information during segmentation and measurement of wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Results from ten images showed 99% specificity, 89% sensitivity, and 98% accuracy.

  20. Tackling reliability and construct validity: the systematic development of a qualitative protocol for skill and incident analysis.

    PubMed

    Savage, Trevor Nicholas; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2017-03-01

    It is important to understand factors contributing to and directly causing sports injuries to improve the effectiveness and safety of sports skills. The characteristics of injury events must be evaluated and described meaningfully and reliably. However, many complex skills cannot be effectively investigated quantitatively because of ethical, technological and validity considerations. Increasingly, qualitative methods are being used to investigate human movement for research purposes, but there are concerns about reliability and measurement bias of such methods. Using the tackle in Rugby union as an example, we outline a systematic approach for developing a skill analysis protocol with a focus on improving objectivity, validity and reliability. Characteristics for analysis were selected using qualitative analysis and biomechanical theoretical models and epidemiological and coaching literature. An expert panel comprising subject matter experts provided feedback and the inter-rater reliability of the protocol was assessed using ten trained raters. The inter-rater reliability results were reviewed by the expert panel and the protocol was revised and assessed in a second inter-rater reliability study. Mean agreement in the second study improved and was comparable (52-90% agreement and ICC between 0.6 and 0.9) with other studies that have reported inter-rater reliability of qualitative analysis of human movement.

  1. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    PubMed

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  2. Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Chronic Pain in At-Risk Patients: Development and Pilot Test of a Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Strain, Eric C; Cleland, Charles M.; Joseph, Herman; Magura, Stephen; Marsch, Lisa A; McNicholas, Laura F; Savage, Seddon R; Sundaram, Arun; Portenoy, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) is approved for addiction treatment and may be useful for pain management, particularly in opioid-treated pain patients with nonadherence behaviors. The transition of opioid-treated pain patients to buprenorphine carries the risk of precipitated withdrawal and increased pain. This study convened pain and addiction specialists to develop and pilot a clinical protocol for safe transitioning to Bup/Nx. Design The protocol was revised three times based on outside expert review and pilot study observations. The pilot was conducted with a prospective cohort of 12 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain, who were receiving long-term opioid therapy with any full μ-agonist drug, and had exhibited one or more aberrant drug-related behaviors. Patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months with the expectation that they would experience few adverse events and report lower pain severity. Results The three patients on the highest baseline opioid dose (equivalent to 303–450 mg of oral morphine) and the three on the lowest doses (≤20 mg) had early adverse events (AEs) when switched to Bup/Nx and did not complete the trial. Of the remaining six, one withdrew due to AEs; one responded well, then withdrew; and four completed a three-month trial. A mixed effects model controlling for dropouts found that average and worst pain significantly decreased after the switch to Bup/Nx (both p < .01). Conclusion Based on this experience, the protocol recommends Bup/Nx for pain only when baseline opioid doses are within bounds that reduce AEs at transition and incorporates dose flexibility to further reduce risks. This protocol warrants further testing. PMID:23264315

  3. Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone for chronic pain in at-risk patients: development and pilot test of a clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Strain, Eric C; Cleland, Charles M; Joseph, Herman; Magura, Stephen; Marsch, Lisa A; McNicholas, Laura F; Savage, Seddon R; Sundaram, Arun; Portenoy, Russell K

    2012-01-01

    Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) is approved for addiction treatment and may be useful for pain management, particularly in opioid-treated patients with pain with nonadherence behaviors. The transition of opioid-treated patients with pain to buprenorphine carries the risk of precipitated withdrawal and increased pain. This study convened pain and addiction specialists to develop and pilot a clinical protocol for safe transitioning to Bup/Nx. The protocol was revised three times based on outside expert review and pilot study observations. The pilot was conducted with a prospective cohort of 12 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain, who were receiving long-term opioid therapy with any full m-agonist drug, and had exhibited one or more aberrant drug-related behaviors. Patients were followed up for 3-6 months with the expectation that they would experience few adverse events (AEs) and report lower pain severity. The three patients on the highest baseline opioid dose (equivalent to 303-450 mg of oral morphine) and the three on the lowest doses (≤20 mg) had early AEs when switched to Bup/Nx and did not complete the trial. Of the remaining six, one withdrew due to AEs; one responded well, then withdrew; and four completed a 3-month trial. A mixed-effects model controlling for dropouts found that average and worst pain significantly decreased after the switch to Bup/Nx (both p < 0.01). Based on this experience, the protocol recommends Bup/Nx for pain only when baseline opioid doses are within bounds that reduce AEs at transition and incorporates dose flexibility to further reduce risks. This protocol warrants further testing.

  4. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  5. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  6. Development of a vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for the storage of saltcedar (Tamarix boveana Bunge).

    PubMed

    Cano-Castillo, M; Casas, J L

    2012-01-01

    We cryopreserved in vitro shoot tips of saltcedar (Tamarix boveana Bunge) using the vitrification technique. The success of the cryopreservation protocol was strongly affected by preculture, loading duration, dehydration duration in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2), and medium composition during post-warming regrowth. The highest explant regrowth (50 percent) occurred when the following conditions were employed: preculture in 0.4 M glycerol; treatment with a loading solution (LS) consisting of 2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose in culture medium for 40 min at room temperature; and dehydration in PVS2 at 0 degree C for 45 min before rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN). Rewarming was performed in a water-bath at 40 degree C for 2 min. Explants were then immersed in unloading solution for 10 min before plating on recovery medium supplemented with 0.01 mg per liter thidiazuron (TDZ). TDZ was progressively eliminated from the medium over a period of 6 weeks. Plantlets were transferred to a double-layer medium to enhance rooting. This protocol was successfully applied to three individuals of T. boveana harvested from the wild.

  7. Development of extraction protocols for life detection biosensor-based instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Teresa; Brucato, John Robert; Pucci, Amaranta; Branciamore, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Extraction experiments were performed to evaluate suitable sample-extraction and processing protocols that will be used by bioanalytical instruments like Life Marker Chip (LMC). These instruments will focus on the detection of molecules associated with life that will be extracted from the Martian soil. LMC is an antibody microarray biosensor instrument with optical readout, which uses fluorescently labeled antibodies, to detect and quantify the presence of polar and non-polar biomolecules, extracted from the Martian soil. The success of the LMC biomarkers detection experiment is dependent on the sample extraction protocol. The currently recommended extraction procedure, optimized for aliphatic biomarkers, consists in sonicating the samples using as solvent system 20:80 methanol:water with 1.5 mg mL-1 tween 80, which respects all the tight requirements associated with LMC biosensor. Examining this procedure for a particular class of biomarkers, the nucleobases adenine, cytosine, uracil and hypoxanthine adsorbed onto magnesium oxide (MgO), we observed low extraction efficiency, confirming that the selected solvent system is not able to extract with high efficiency aromatic biomarkers.

  8. IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Mark; Allan, Debbie; Xu, Heping; Pei, Cheng; Chen, Mei; Niedbala, Wanda; Fukada, Sandra Y; Besnard, Anne-Galle; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Tong, Xiaoguang; Forrester, John V; Liew, Foo Yew; Jiang, Hui-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is associated with several important immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in uveitis, an important eye inflammatory disease, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2) were expressed in murine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture, and IL-33 increased the expression of Il33 and Mcp1 mRNA in RPE cells. In situ, IL-33 was highly expressed in the inner nuclear cells of the retina of naïve mice, and its expression was elevated in EAU mice. ST2-deficient mice developed exacerbated EAU compared with WT mice, and administration of IL-33 to WT mice significantly reduced EAU severity. The attenuated EAU in IL-33-treated mice was accompanied by decreased frequency of IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 production but with increased frequency of IL-5+ and IL-4+ CD4 T cells and IL-5 production in the draining lymph node and spleen. Macrophages from the IL-33-treated mice show a significantly higher polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Our results therefore demonstrate that the endogenous IL-33/ST2 pathway plays an important role in EAU, and suggest that IL-33 represents a potential option for treatment of uveitis. PMID:25116404

  9. Accelerating Technology Development through Integrated Computation and Experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Srivastava, Rameshwar D.; Ciferno, Jared; Litynski, John; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2013-08-15

    This special section of Energy & Fuels comprises a selection of papers presented at the topical conference “Accelerating Technology Development through Integrated Computation and Experimentation”, sponsored and organized by the United States Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting held in Pittsburgh, PA, Oct 28-Nov 2, 2012. That topical conference focused on the latest research and development efforts in five main areas related to fossil energy, with each area focusing on the utilization of both experimental and computational approaches: (1) gas separations (membranes, sorbents, and solvents for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} production), (2) CO{sub 2} utilization (enhanced oil recovery, chemical production, mineralization, etc.), (3) carbon sequestration (flow in natural systems), (4) advanced power cycles (oxy-combustion, chemical looping, gasification, etc.), and (5) fuel processing (H{sub 2} production for fuel cells).

  10. Development of a standardised human in vitro digestion protocol based on macronutrient digestion using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hollebeeck, Sylvie; Borlon, Florianne; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Rogez, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Bioaccessibility studies should be taken into account when evaluating the physiological effects of ingested compounds at the intestine level. Several in vitro digestion protocols have been described, with a wide range of experimental conditions but no optimised protocol exists. In order to fill in this gap, we evaluated the influence of three continuous factors (pH, incubation time, and enzyme concentrations), in the range of values found in literature, on the digestion of standard macronutrients (starch, albumin, triolein) alone or in mixture. Three central composite designs, using response surface methodology, were employed to model the three abiotic steps of pre-colonic digestion. A validated in vitro digestion was eventually set up for the salivary step (pH 6.9, 5 min, 3.9 units α-amylase/ml), the gastric step (pH 2, 90 min, 71.2 units pepsin/ml), and the abiotic duodenal step (pH 7, 150 min, 9.2mg pancreatin and 55.2mg bile extract/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain Intervention for people with Dementia in nursing homes (PID): study protocol for a quasi-experimental nurse intervention.

    PubMed

    Koppitz, Andrea; Bosshard, Georg; Blanc, Geneviève; Hediger, Hannele; Payne, Sheila; Volken, Thomas

    2017-04-21

    It is estimated that 19 to 83% of people with dementia suffer from pain that is inadequately treated in the last months of life. A large number of healthcare workers who care for these people in nursing homes lack appropriate expertise and may therefore not always recognise, assess and treat pain in those with dementia who have complex problems on time, properly and efficiently. The aim of this intervention trial is to identify care needs of people with dementia suffering from pain living in a nursing home. A quasi-experimental nurse-led intervention trial based on a convenience sample of four nursing homes in the Swiss Canton of Zurich examines the effects on dementia patients (n = 411), the healthcare institution and the qualification level of the healthcare workers compared to historical controls, using an event analysis and a multilevel analysis. Healthcare workers will be individually trained how to assess, intervene and evaluate acute and chronic pain. There are three data-monitoring cycles (T0, T1, T2) and two intervention cycles (I1, I2) with a total study duration of 425 days. There is also a process evaluation based on Dobbins analyses that analyse in particular the potentials for change in clinical practice of change agents. The aim of the intervention trial is to improve pain management strategies in older people with dementia in nursing homes. Clinically significant findings will be expected that will help reduce suffering in the sense of "total pain" for people with dementia. The joint intra- and interdisciplinary collaboration between practice and supply-oriented (nursing) research will have both a lasting effect on the efficiency measurement and provide scientifically sound results. Nursing homes can integrate the findings from the intervention trial into their internal quality control process. The potential for improvements can be directly influenced by the nursing home itself. Registration trial number: DRKS00009726 on DRKS, registered 10

  12. The effect of enhanced public–private partnerships on Maternal, Newborn and child Health Services and outcomes in Nairobi–Kenya: the PAMANECH quasi-experimental research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Ettarh, Remare; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Kamande, Eva; Ngomi, Nicholas; Osindo, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rapid urbanisation in Kenya has resulted in growth of slums in urban centres, characterised by poverty, inadequate social services and poor health outcomes. The government's initiatives to improve access to quality healthcare for mothers and children are largely limited to public health facilities, which are few and/or inaccessible in underserved areas such as the slums. The ‘Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health’ (PAMANECH) project is being implemented in two Nairobi slums, Viwandani and Korogocho, to assess the impact of strengthening public–private partnerships for the delivery of healthcare on the health of mothers, newborns and young children in two informal settlements in Kenya. Methods and analysis This is a quasi-experimental study; our approach is to support private as well as public health providers and the community to enhance access to and demand for quality healthcare services. Key activities include: infrastructural upgrade of selected Private Not-For-Profit health facilities operating in the two slums, building capacity for healthcare providers as well as the Health Management Teams in Nairobi, facilitating provision of supportive supervision by the local health authorities and forming networks of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) to create demand for health services. To assess the impact of the intervention, the study is utilising multiple data sources using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. A baseline survey was conducted in 2013 and an end-line survey will be conducted at least 1 year after full implementation of the intervention. Systematic monitoring and documentation of the intervention is on-going to strengthen the case for causal inference. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Key messages from the results will be packaged and widely disseminated through workshops, conference presentations, reports, factsheets and

  13. Development of a new Emergency Medicine Spinal Immobilization Protocol for trauma patients and a test of applicability by German emergency care providers.

    PubMed

    Kreinest, Michael; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Schüler, Svenja; Grützner, Paul A; Münzberg, Matthias

    2016-05-14

    In order to match the challenges of quickly recognizing and treating any life-threatening injuries, the ABCDE principles were established for the assessment and treatment of trauma patients. The high priority of spine protection is emphasized by the fact that immobilization of the cervical spine is performed at the very first step in the ABCDE principles. Immobilization is typically performed to prevent or minimize secondary damage to the spinal cord if instability of the spinal column is suspected. Due to increasing reports about disadvantages of spinal immobilization, the indications for performing spinal immobilization must be refined. The aim of this study was (i) to develop a protocol that supports decision-making for spinal immobilization in adult trauma patients and (ii) to carry out the first applicability test by emergency medical personnel. A structured literature search considering the literature from 1980 to 2014 was performed. Based on this literature and on the current guidelines, a new protocol that supports on scene decision-making for spinal immobilization has been developed. Parameters found in the literature concerning mechanisms and factors increasing the likelihood of spinal injury have been included in the new protocol. In order to test the applicability of the new protocol two surveys were performed on German emergency care providers by means of a questionnaire focused on correct decision-making if applying the protocol. Based on the current literature and guidelines, the Emergency Medicine Spinal Immobilization Protocol (E.M.S. IMMO Protocol) for adult trauma patients was developed. Following a fist applicability test involving 21 participants, the first version of the E.M.S. IMMO Protocol has to be graphically re-organized. A second applicability test comprised 50 participants with the current version of the protocol confirmed good applicability. Questions regarding immobilization of trauma patients could be answered properly using the E

  14. Development of a practical spatial-spectral analysis protocol for breast histopathology using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pounder, F Nell; Reddy, Rohith K; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-06-23

    Breast cancer screening provides sensitive tumor identification, but low specificity implies that a vast majority of biopsies are not ultimately diagnosed as cancer. Automated techniques to evaluate biopsies can prevent errors, reduce pathologist workload and provide objective analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging provides both molecular signatures and spatial information that may be applicable for pathology. Here, we utilize both the spectral and spatial information to develop a combined classifier that provides rapid tissue assessment. First, we evaluated the potential of IR imaging to provide a diagnosis using spectral data alone. While highly accurate histologic [epithelium, stroma] recognition could be achieved, the same was not possible for disease [cancer, no-cancer] due to the diversity of spectral signals. Hence, we employed spatial data, developing and evaluating increasingly complex models, to detect cancers. Sub-mm tumors could be very confidently predicted as indicated by the quantitative measurement of accuracy via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The developed protocol was validated with a small set and statistical performance used to develop a model that predicts study design for a large scale, definitive validation. The results of evaluation on different instruments, at higher noise levels, under a coarser spectral resolution and two sampling modes [transmission and transflection], indicate that the protocol is highly accurate under a variety of conditions. The study paves the way to validating IR imaging for rapid breast tumor detection, its statistical validation and potential directions for optimization of the speed and sampling for clinical deployment.

  15. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  16. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    PubMed

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  17. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  18. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  19. An experimental protocol for the definition of upper limb anatomical frames on children using magneto-inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Ricci, L; Formica, D; Tamilia, E; Taffoni, F; Sparaci, L; Capirci, O; Guglielmelli, E

    2013-01-01

    Motion capture based on magneto-inertial sensors is a technology enabling data collection in unstructured environments, allowing "out of the lab" motion analysis. This technology is a good candidate for motion analysis of children thanks to the reduced weight and size as well as the use of wireless communication that has improved its wearability and reduced its obtrusivity. A key issue in the application of such technology for motion analysis is its calibration, i.e. a process that allows mapping orientation information from each sensor to a physiological reference frame. To date, even if there are several calibration procedures available for adults, no specific calibration procedures have been developed for children. This work addresses this specific issue presenting a calibration procedure for motion capture of thorax and upper limbs on healthy children. Reported results suggest comparable performance with similar studies on adults and emphasize some critical issues, opening the way to further improvements.

  20. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of

  1. Development of a physical function outcome measure (PFIT) and a pilot exercise training protocol for use in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Berney, Susan; Warrillow, Stephen; Denehy, Linda

    2009-06-01

    To develop an outcome measure as a basis for prescribing and evaluating rehabilitation in the critically ill, and to measure its reliability and responsiveness to change. The study also aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of a pilot exercise training protocol in an intensive care unit. We developed a battery of tests (the Physical Function ICU Test [PFIT]) to measure endurance, strength, cardiovascular capacity and functional level. Patients with a tracheostomy who were mechanically ventilated were recruited from a medical-surgical ICU and respiratory weaning unit at a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Victoria, between 2003 and 2005. Patients underwent a pilot exercise training protocol and performed the PFIT when able to stand, and again after weaning from ventilation. The PFIT demonstrated good reliability and was responsive to change. Twelve patients completed testing and exercise sessions with no adverse events; 50 of 63 possible training sessions (79%) were delivered. Participants increased the marching on the spot result by a mean difference of 86.3 steps and 56 s (P < 0.05), and the shoulder flexion result by 8 repetitions (P < 0.05). Improvement in function and muscle strength was also observed (P < 0.05). Inter-rater reliability for the PFIT was good (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.996-1.00). The PFIT is a reliable and responsive outcome measure, and the pilot training protocol was safe and feasible. As exercise may attenuate weakness and functional impairment, the PFIT can be used to prescribe and evaluate exercise and mobilisation. Future research should aim to develop a PFIT score and investigate the ability of the PFIT to predict ICU readmission risk and functional outcome.

  2. A Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention to Increase Healthy Behavior Through General Practice: Protocol and Systematic Development

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Oenema, Anke; Crombez, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An increased consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. An increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may also prevent body weight gain, and therefore indirectly affect type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insufficient physical activity (PA) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Consequently, effective interventions that promote PA and FV intake in a large number of people are required. Objective To describe the systematic development of an eHealth intervention, MyPlan 1.0, for increasing FV intake and PA. Methods The intervention was developed following the six steps of the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. Decisions during steps were based upon available literature, focus group interviews, and pilot studies. Results Based on needs assessment (Step 1), it was decided to focus on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity levels of adults. Based on self-regulation and the health action process approach model, motivational (eg, risk awareness) and volitional (eg, action planning) determinants were selected and crossed with performance objectives into a matrix with change objectives (Step 2). Behavioral change strategies (eg, goal setting, problem solving, and implementation intentions) were selected (Step 3). Tablet computers were chosen for delivery of the eHealth program in general practice (Step 4). To facilitate implementation of the intervention in general practice, GPs were involved in focus group interviews (Step 5). Finally, the planning of the evaluation of the intervention (Step 6) is briefly described. Conclusions Using the IM protocol ensures that a theory- and evidence-based intervention protocol is developed. If the intervention is found to be effective, a dynamic eHealth program for the promotion of healthy lifestyles could be available for use in general

  3. An improved key agreement protocol based on chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Zhao, Jianfeng

    2010-12-01

    Cryptography based on chaos theory has developed fast in the past few years, but most of the researches focus on secret key cryptography. There are few public key encryption algorithms and cryptographic protocols based on chaos, which are also of great importance for network security. We introduce an enhanced key agreement protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic map. Utilizing the semi-group property of Chebyshev polynomials, the proposed key exchange algorithm works like Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The improved protocol overcomes the drawbacks of several previously proposed chaotic key agreement protocols. Both analytical and experimental results show that it is effective and secure.

  4. [Delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine : Development of a protocol-based management approach].

    PubMed

    Wolf, A; Mörgeli, R; Müller, A; Weiss, B; Spies, C

    2017-02-01

    Intensive care treatment has long-term consequences that are often not immediately apparent to the health care providers. The combination of muscle weakness, cognitive damage, and psychological disorders is comprised under the term post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Analgesia and sedation protocols, as well as nonpharmacological preventive and therapeutic approaches, are effective tools for avoiding complications and improving long-term survival. The principle of "early goal-directed therapy" is fundamental. Here, a treatment target is defined and continuously re-evaluated by validated monitoring methods. Evidence clearly supports a paradigm shift towards patients that are awake, attentive, and able to participate in their therapy. Individualized analgesia and (non)sedation approaches allow a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) target value of 0/-1 for the majority of patients. Should sedation indeed be necessary, there must be a focus on avoiding oversedation, especially an early deep sedation.

  5. Developing a Taxonomy of Dark Triad Triggers at Work – A Grounded Theory Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nübold, Annika; Bader, Josef; Bozin, Nera; Depala, Romil; Eidast, Helena; Johannessen, Elisabeth A.; Prinz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions – personality states – may change due to the characteristics of the situation. The present research protocol describes a qualitative study that aims to identify triggers of dark triad states at work by following a grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews. By building a comprehensive categorization of dark triad triggers at work scholars may study these triggers in a parsimonious and structured way and organizations may derive more effective interventions to buffer or prevent the detrimental effects of dark personality at work. PMID:28326048

  6. Development of the protocol of the interface of data exchange with the GBTX chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkin, O. V.; Normanov, D. D.; Ivanov, P. Ya

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the interface of data exchange with the GBTX chip for the CBM experiment is considered. The interface generates a data package, consisting of the digital codes of signal amplitude, signal superposition in peak detector, signal arrival time and channel number, wherein the event has occurred, all these codes being generated by the readout blocks of IC. The created data package is coded according to the 8b/10b format for transferring to the GBTX chip. The packages register of controlling data (warnings on error and desynchronization) are generated for a correct exchange (correspondence) under the GBTX protocol. The adjustment of the quantity of channels, generating data packages and being connected to the GBTX chip, is possible. The interface has been designed according to the 180 nm CMOS technology of UMC.

  7. Development of an artificial insemination protocol in llamas using cooled semen.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, S M; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M; Neild, D; Director, A; Pinto, M; Miragaya, M H

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to design an AI protocol using cooled semen to obtain pregnancies in the llama. Each raw ejaculate was subdivided into four aliquots which were extended 1:1 with: (1) 11% lactose-egg yolk (L-EY), (2) Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk (T-F-EY), (3) PBS-llama serum (S-PBS) and (4) skim milk-glucose (K). Each sample reached 5°C in 2.5 h and remained at that temperature during 24 h. Percentages of the semen variables (motility, live spermatozoa) in ejaculates and samples cooled with L-EY were significantly greater than those obtained when cooling with the other extenders; therefore this extender was used (1:1) for all inseminations. Females were randomly divided into four groups (A-D) according to insemination protocol. Group A: females were inseminated with a fixed dose of 12 × 10(6) live spermatozoa kept at 37°C. Group B: females were inseminated with a fixed dose of 12 × 10(6) live spermatozoa, cooled to 5°C and kept for 24 h. Group C: females were inseminated with the whole ejaculate (variable doses), cooled to 5°C and kept for 24 h. These groups (A-C) were inseminated between 22 and 24 h after induction of ovulation. Group D: females were inseminated with the whole ejaculate (variable doses), cooled to 5°C, kept for 24 h and AI was carried out within 2 h after ovulation. Pregnancy rates were 75%, 0%, 0% and 23% for groups A, B, C and D respectively. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain llama pregnancies with AI using cooled semen and that the success of the technique would depend on the proximity to ovulation.

  8. Development of a new protocol for rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility testing directly from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Zboromyrska, Y; Rubio, E; Alejo, I; Vergara, A; Mons, A; Campo, I; Bosch, J; Marco, F; Vila, J

    2016-06-01

    The current gold standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the causative microorganisms and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. The aim of this study was to shorten the time of urine sample processing by a combination of flow cytometry for screening and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial identification followed by AST directly from urine. The study was divided into two parts. During the first part, 675 urine samples were processed by a flow cytometry device and a cut-off value of bacterial count was determined to select samples for direct identification by MALDI-TOF-MS at ≥5 × 10(6) bacteria/mL. During the second part, 163 of 1029 processed samples reached the cut-off value. The sample preparation protocol for direct identification included two centrifugation and two washing steps. Direct AST was performed by the disc diffusion method if a reliable direct identification was obtained. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identification was performed in 140 urine samples; 125 of the samples were positive by urine culture, 12 were contaminated and 3 were negative. Reliable direct identification was obtained in 108 (86.4%) of the 125 positive samples. AST was performed in 102 identified samples, and the results were fully concordant with the routine method among 83 monomicrobial infections. In conclusion, the turnaround time of the protocol described to diagnose UTI was about 1 h for microbial identification and 18-24 h for AST.

  9. Effective audit in general practice: a method for systematically developing audit protocols containing evidence-based review criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, R C; Khunti, K; Baker, R; Lakhani, M

    1997-01-01

    Though many general practitioners (GPs) now take part in audit, there is still concern about the extent to which participation in audit leads to improvements in practice. Improved methods are needed for the incorporation of research evidence into criteria for use in audit. In this paper, a six-stage systematic method is described for developing audit protocols containing prioritized evidence-based criteria. The stages are: selection of a topic, identification of key elements of care, focused literature reviews, prioritization of the criteria on the strength of the evidence and impact on outcome, preparation of full documentation, and peer review. PMID:9519525

  10. Plackett-Burman experimental design to facilitate syntactic foam development

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Zachary D.; Keller, Jennie R.; Bello, Mollie; ...

    2015-09-14

    The use of an eight-experiment Plackett–Burman method can assess six experimental variables and eight responses in a polysiloxane-glass microsphere syntactic foam. The approach aims to decrease the time required to develop a tunable polymer composite by identifying a reduced set of variables and responses suitable for future predictive modeling. The statistical design assesses the main effects of mixing process parameters, polymer matrix composition, microsphere density and volume loading, and the blending of two grades of microspheres, using a dummy factor in statistical calculations. Responses cover rheological, physical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The cure accelerator content of the polymer matrix andmore » the volume loading of the microspheres have the largest effects on foam properties. These factors are the most suitable for controlling the gel point of the curing foam, and the density of the cured foam. The mixing parameters introduce widespread variability and therefore should be fixed at effective levels during follow-up testing. Some responses may require greater contrast in microsphere-related factors. As a result, compared to other possible statistical approaches, the run economy of the Plackett–Burman method makes it a valuable tool for rapidly characterizing new foams.« less

  11. Plackett-Burman experimental design to facilitate syntactic foam development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Zachary D.; Keller, Jennie R.; Bello, Mollie; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Torres, Joseph A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pacheco, Robin M.; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2015-09-14

    The use of an eight-experiment Plackett–Burman method can assess six experimental variables and eight responses in a polysiloxane-glass microsphere syntactic foam. The approach aims to decrease the time required to develop a tunable polymer composite by identifying a reduced set of variables and responses suitable for future predictive modeling. The statistical design assesses the main effects of mixing process parameters, polymer matrix composition, microsphere density and volume loading, and the blending of two grades of microspheres, using a dummy factor in statistical calculations. Responses cover rheological, physical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The cure accelerator content of the polymer matrix and the volume loading of the microspheres have the largest effects on foam properties. These factors are the most suitable for controlling the gel point of the curing foam, and the density of the cured foam. The mixing parameters introduce widespread variability and therefore should be fixed at effective levels during follow-up testing. Some responses may require greater contrast in microsphere-related factors. As a result, compared to other possible statistical approaches, the run economy of the Plackett–Burman method makes it a valuable tool for rapidly characterizing new foams.

  12. Development and first experimental tests of Faraday cup array.

    PubMed

    Prokůpek, J; Kaufman, J; Margarone, D; Krůs, M; Velyhan, A; Krása, J; Burris-Mog, T; Busold, S; Deppert, O; Cowan, T E; Korn, G

    2014-01-01

    A new type of Faraday cup, capable of detecting high energy charged particles produced in a high intensity laser-matter interaction environment, has recently been developed and demonstrated as a real-time detector based on the time-of-flight technique. An array of these Faraday cups was designed and constructed to cover different observation angles with respect to the target normal direction. Thus, it allows reconstruction of the spatial distribution of ion current density in the subcritical plasma region and the ability to visualise its time evolution through time-of-flight measurements, which cannot be achieved with standard laser optical interferometry. This is a unique method for two-dimensional visualisation of ion currents from laser-generated plasmas. A technical description of the new type of Faraday cup is introduced along with an ad hoc data analysis procedure. Experimental results obtained during campaigns at the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion Experiments (GSI, Darmstadt) and at the Prague Asterix Laser System (AS CR) are presented. Advantages and limitations of the used diagnostic system are discussed.

  13. Charge transfer plasmons: Recent theoretical and experimental developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Lin, Jingquan

    2017-06-01

    The unique property of a charge transfer plasmon (CTP) that emerges in conductively bridged plasmonic nanoparticles makes linked nanosystems suitable candidates for building artificial molecules, nanomotors, sensors, and other optoelectronic devices. In this focused review, we present recent theoretical and experimental developments in fundamentals and applications of CTPs in conductively coupled metallic nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes. The underlying physics of charge transfer in linked nanoparticles with nanometer- and atomic-scale inter-particle gap is described from both classical and quantum mechanical perspectives. In addition, we present a detailed discussion of mechanisms of controlling charge transfer and tuning the corresponding CTP spectra in bridged nanoparticles as functions of junction conductance and nanoparticle parameters. Furthermore, the active control of reversible switching between capacitive and conductive coupling in plasmonic nanoshell particles and dynamic evolution of related plasmon modes are emphasized. Finally, after highlighting the implication of the CTP resonance shift for surface-based sensing applications, we end up with the current challenges and future outlooks of the topic that need to be addressed.

  14. Translational utility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Laaksonen, Hannes; Flytzani, Sevasti; N’diaye, Marie; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune condition with firmly established genetic and environmental components. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of genetic polymorphisms in the vicinity of, and within, genes that associate to disease. However, the significance of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease and possible mechanisms of action remain, with a few exceptions, to be established. While the animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been instrumental in understanding immunity in general and mechanisms of MS disease in particular, much of the translational information gathered from the model in terms of treatment development (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) has been extensively summarized. In this review, we would thus like to cover the work done in EAE from a GWAS perspective, highlighting the research that has addressed the role of different GWAS genes and their pathways in EAE pathogenesis. Understanding the contribution of these pathways to disease might allow for the stratification of disease subphenotypes in patients and in turn open the possibility for new and individualized treatment approaches in the future. PMID:26622189

  15. [Development of an experimental facility for waste treatment by microorganism].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Hou, W H; Ai, W D; Wang, P X

    2000-10-01

    Objective. To construct an experimental facility for microorganism waste processing, which will be used to recover plant nutrient liquids from plant inedible biomass essential for growth and development of plants. Method. After technical parameters and performance requirements were defined, plan demonstration, drawing design, fabrication, debug and preliminary plant inedible residue-biodegradation tests of microorganisms were conducted. Result. The temperature, stirring speed and gas-supplying flow of bioreactor of the facility were controlled automatically, as well as the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were measured automatically and controlled manually, testifying that its performance reached the requirements of predetermined technical indexes. The 15-d test showed that the facility ran smoothly, its above-mentioned parameters could be measured and controlled precisely, and the biodegradation rate of lettuce's inedible biomass approximately attained 90%. Conclusion. The facility holding reasonable technical indexes, smooth and dependable performances, is capable of being utilized to biodegrade plant inedible biomass. It is expected that if the above-mentioned parameter combinations are optimized further, the results should be better.

  16. Development of Experimental System for Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Shoma; Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Ozawa, Naoya; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    We have been developing a new diagnostics using optical vortex for a linear ECR plasma device named HYPER-I at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. Optical vortex is realized in laboratory as a cylindrically symmetric propagation mode of light beam known as the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode. An atom moving in the LG beam is subjected to an additional azimuthal Doppler shift in contrast to conventionally used Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams in which the atom experiences the axial Doppler shift alone. Therefore, it is promising that laser spectroscopy using LG beams have a sensitivity for traversing motion across the light path. Although there are several methods to produce optical vortex, we have adopted the holographic method due to its controllability. In the holographic method, the LG beams are obtained as the first-order diffracted light from the hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator. The quality of LG beams has been improved to be applied to optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy by optimizing the hologram. The details of experimental system will be reported at the meeting. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  17. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  18. Impact of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, data analysis method and repositioning on PET/CT precision: an experimental evaluation using an oncology and brain phantom.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Syahir; Pfaehler, Elisabeth; Heijtel, Dennis; Lodge, Martin A; Boellaard, Ronald; Yaqub, Maqsood

    2017-10-10

    In longitudinal oncological and brain PET/CT studies it is important to understand the repeatability of quantitative PET metrics in order to assess change in tracer uptake. The present studies were performed in order to assess precision as function of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, analysis method, scan duration (or image noise) and repositioning in the field of view. Multiple (repeated) scans have been performed using a NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom and a 3D Hoffman brain phantom filled with (18) F solutions on two systems. Studies were performed with and without randomly (<2 cm) repositioning the phantom and all scans (12 replicates for IQ phantom and 10 replicates for Hoffman brain phantom) were performed at equal count statistics. For the NEMA IQ phantom, we studied the recovery coefficients (RC) of the maximum (SUVmax ), peak (SUVpeak ) and mean (SUVmean ) uptake in each sphere as a function of experimental conditions (noise level, reconstruction settings and phantom repositioning). For the 3D Hoffman phantom, the mean activity concentration was determined within several volumes of interest and activity recovery and its precision was studied as function of experimental conditions. The impact of phantom repositioning on RC precision was mainly seen on the Philips Ingenuity PET/CT, especially in the case of smaller spheres (<17mm diameter, P<0.05). This effect was much smaller for the Siemens Biograph system. When exploring SUVmax , SUVpeak or SUVmean of the spheres in the NEMA IQ phantom, it was observed that precision depended on phantom repositioning, reconstruction algorithm and scan duration, with SUVmax being most and SUVpeak least sensitive to phantom repositioning. For the brain phantom, regional averaged SUVs were only minimally affected by phantom repositioning (<2 cm). The precision of quantitative PET metrics depends on the combination of reconstruction protocol, data analysis methods and scan duration (scan statistics). Moreover

  19. Space construction: an experimental testbed to develop enabling technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Heidi C.; How, Jonathan P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses a new testbed developed at the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) to address some of the key issues associated with semi-autonomous construction in a hazardous environment like space. The new testbed consists of a large two-link manipulator carrying two smaller two-link arms. This macro/mini combination was developed to be representative of actual space manipulators, such as the SSRMS/SPDM planned for the Space Station. This new testbed will allow us to investigate several key issues associated with space construction, including teleoperation versus supervised autonomy, dexterous control of a robot with flexibility, and construction with multiple robots. A supervised autonomy approach has several advantages over the traditional teleoperation mode, including operation with time delay, smart control of a redundant manipulator, and improved contact control. To mimic the dynamics found in space manipulators, the main arm was designed to include joint flexibility. The arm operates in 2-D, with the end-point floating on air-bearing. This setup allows cooperation with existing free-flying robots in the ARL. This paper reports the first experiments with the arm which explore the advantages of moving from teleoperation or human-in-the-loop control to the human supervisory or task-level control. A simple task, such as capturing a satellite-like object floating on the table, is attempted first with the human directly driving the end-point and second with the human directing the robot at a task-level. Initial experimental results of these two control approaches are presented and compared.

  20. Development of an Experimental Board in the Nanaosatellite CUBESAT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresciucci, Laetitia

    realize a satellite platform designed based on the following requirement: CUBESAT is a cube, its size is 10x10x10 centimeters, its weight must be under 1kg and the power consumption of the whole satellite is limited to 1 Watt. The University of Arizona makes such satellites. Each side of the cube is covered with solar panels which supply the power by recharging NiCad batteries. This satellite platform is provided with a power board, witch managed the power of the solar panels, the level of the batteries and the power needed by the others boards of the satellite. In addition to this power board, the CUBESAT platform includes a controller board. The controller used is the Microchip PIC 16C77. It acquires the data for the different sensors of the satellite (temperature, battery current level, power supplied by the solar panel) and manages the communication between the different boards. This communication uses a serial bus based on the I2C communication protocol. The last board on the CUBESAT platform is the transmission board. CUBESAT can be remote controlled by a ground station, and it have to send its data to this station periodically. The transmission board includes an emitter/receiver part designed by Motorola. The wavelength used for this transmission is the amature radio band, so anyone can listen to the satellite, but a key is necessary to decode the data. a non-expensive satellite which is very interesting for experimental missions. Alcatel Space Industries bought a CUBESAT to launch a radiation experiment in orbit, and turned to the Center of Micro-opto-electronics of Montpellier (CEM2) to define and realize this experience. I, Laetitia Cresciucci, and my partner, Didier Campillo, have been contacted by the CEM2 during our final year at the Engineers Science Institute of Montpellier (ISIM), in order to work on this project. The mission chosen for the CUBESAT's payload is to measure the degradation of three components in space. is a multi-goal mission. The

  1. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.; Butcher, A. Garn

    2002-04-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (less than or = 304.8-millimeter (less than or = 12-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  2. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    1998-01-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (greater than or equal 304.8-millimeter (greater than or equal l2-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  3. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    2001-09-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (equal to or greater than) 304.8-millimeter (equal to or greater than 12-inch diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  4. Experimental Analysis of Team Performance: Methodological Developments and Research Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-06

    The effects of a cooperation contingency on behavior in a continuous three-person environment. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 25...J.V. Effects of a pairing contingency on behavior in a three-person programmed environment. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 1978

  5. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Pediatric Stem Cell Transplants: Report of a Recent Cluster and the Development of a Screening Protocol.

    PubMed

    Larochelle, Marissa B; Phan, Ryan; Craddock, John; Abzug, Mark J; Curtis, Donna; Robinson, Christine C; Giller, Roger H; Cosgrove, Shaun; Siringo, Frank; McCourt, Emily; Palestine, Alan G

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) population is unknown. We report a cluster of 5 pediatric patients with CMV retinitis diagnosed in a 12-month period and compare this to the rate of CMV viremia and retinitis in the 4 years prior. Presented is the ophthalmic screening protocol developed in response to this experience. Retrospective cross-sectional study. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients at Children's Hospital of Colorado (CHCO) who received allogeneic HSCT between January 2010 and December 2014. Fisher exact test was used to compare the proportion of CMV viremia and CMV retinitis in patients transplanted between January 2010 and December 2013 with those transplanted in 2014. A total of 101 patients underwent allogeneic HSCT from January 2010 to December 2013; 32 (32%) tested positive for CMV viremia. No cases of CMV retinitis were identified. From January 2014 to December 2014, 28 patients underwent allogeneic HSCT; 13 patients (46%) had CMV viremia, not a statistically significant increase (P = .18). There were 5 cases of CMV retinitis diagnosed in those transplanted in 2014, a statistically significant increase compared with those transplanted in 2010-2013 (P = .0004). A multidisciplinary team was formed to review the literature and an ophthalmic screening protocol was developed. Our recent cluster of CMV retinitis in pediatric allogeneic HSCT patients may suggest a rise in incidence of CMV retinitis. We propose an ophthalmic screening protocol to diagnose retinitis in pediatric HSCT patients in the early, often asymptomatic stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor.

    PubMed

    Nettmann, Edith; Fröhling, Antje; Heeg, Kathrin; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Oliver; Mumme, Jan

    2013-12-04

    The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. The approach described in this study enables for the first time the analysis of the metabolically

  7. Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Results Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. Conclusions The approach described in this study enables for the first time the

  8. New Capabilities in Security and QoS Using the Updated MANET Routing Protocol OLSRv2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Optimised Link State Routing ( OLSR ) is a widely used proactive ad hoc routing protocol; a successor version 2 (OLSRv2) is being developed as a...Routing ( OLSR ) is the most widely used proactive ad hoc routing protocol (AHRP). It is specified in [1], an Experimental RFC, developed by the MANET WG...of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The MANET WG is now developing version 2 of OLSR (OLSRv2) as a Standards Track Internet protocol

  9. Experimental terrestrial soil-core microcosm test protocol. A method for measuring the potential ecological effects, fate, and transport of chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Tolle, D.A.; Arthur, M.F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to protect the environment properly and have a realistic appraisal of how a chemical will act in the environment, tests of ecological effects and chemical fate must be performed on complex assemblages of biotic and abiotic components (i.e., microcosms) as well as single species. This protocol is one which could be added to a series of tests recently developed as guidelines for Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469; U.S.C., Section 2601-2629). The terrestrial soil-core microcosm is designed to supply site-specific and possibly regional information on the probable chemical fate and ecological effects resulting from release of a chemical substance to a terrestrial ecosystem. The EPA will use the data resulting from this test system to compare the potential hazards of a chemical with others that have been previously evaluated.

  10. Development and implementation of a pharmacist-managed, neonatal and pediatric, opioid-weaning protocol.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Melissa R; Nash, David R; Laird, Mary R; Kiley, Robert C; Martinez, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    To compare the length of wean and abstinence severity in neonatal and pediatric patients with neonatal abstinence syndrome or iatrogenic opioid dependence treated with a pharmacist-managed, methadone-based protocol compared with physician-managed patients treated with either methadone or dilute tincture of opium (DTO). This was a prospective, single-centered, interventional evaluation of 54 pharmacist-managed patients versus 53 retrospective, physician-managed patients. Wean duration and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome were compared between groups using the Student t test. Significantly shorter wean duration in in utero-exposed pharmacist-managed patients compared with patients on physician-managed DTO (11.7 days vs 24.2 days, p < 0.001), but not compared with patients on physician-managed methadone (11.7 days vs 47 days, p = 0.101). No statistically significant difference was seen in wean duration in iatrogenic-exposed pharmacist-managed patients compared with patients on either physician-managed DTO or methadone (8.69 days vs 14 days, p = 0.096) and (8.69 days vs 9.82 days, p = 0.34), respectively. There were significantly fewer abstinence scores >12 in pharmacist-managed patients versus physician-managed DTO, but not physician-managed methadone (2.05 vs 17.3, p = 0.008 and 2.05 vs 74.3, p = 0.119, respectively). Significantly fewer abstinence scores ≥8 × 3 consecutively were seen in pharmacist-managed patients compared with patients on either physician-managed DTO or methadone (2.89 vs 11.9, p = 0.01 and 2.89 vs 24, p < 0.001, respectively). Use of a pharmacist-managed, methadone-based weaning protocol standardizes patient care and has the potential to decrease abstinence severity and shorten duration of wean versus physician-managed patients exposed to opioids in utero. Additionally, a methadone wean of 10% to 20% per day was well tolerated in both neonatal and pediatric patients.

  11. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A; Schadt, Christopher W; Steinweg, J Megan; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life-history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks owing to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here we developed the microbial enzyme-mediated decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, that is, MEND with dormancy (MEND) and MEND without dormancy (MEND_wod), against long-term (270 days) carbon decomposition data from laboratory incubations of four soils with isotopically labeled substrates. MEND_wod adequately fitted multiple observations (total C-CO2 and (14)C-CO2 respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. MEND improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20-71% over MEND_wod. We also quantified uncertainties in parameters and model simulations using the Critical Objective Function Index method, which is based on a global stochastic optimization algorithm, as well as model complexity and observational data availability. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with experimental data for multiple carbon pools are conducive to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations, and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.

  12. The pro children intervention: applying the intervention mapping protocol to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Wind, Marianne; Hildonen, Christina; Bjelland, Mona; Aranceta, Javier; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The importance of careful theory-based intervention planning is recognized for fruit and vegetable promotion. This paper describes the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop the Pro Children intervention to promote consumption of fruit and vegetable among 10- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Based on a needs assessment, promotion of intake of fruit and vegetable was split into performance objectives and related personal, social and environmental determinants. Crossing the performance objectives with related important and changeable determinants resulted in a matrix of learning and change objectives for which appropriate educational strategies were identified. Theoretically similar but culturally relevant interventions were designed, implemented and evaluated in Norway, the Netherlands and Spain during 2 school years. Programme activities included provision of fruits and vegetables in the schools, guided classroom activities, computer-tailored feedback and advice for children, and activities to be completed at home with the family. Additionally, optional intervention components for community reinforcement included incorporation of mass media, school health services or grocery stores. School project committees were supported. The Pro Children intervention was carefully developed based on the IM protocol that resulted in a comprehensive school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme, but culturally sensible and locally relevant. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Pig welfare assessment: development of a protocol and its use by veterinary undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Wright, Angela J; Powney, Sonya L; Nevel, Amanda; Wathes, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to teaching welfare assessment is described and has been used with two cohorts of first-year veterinary undergraduates (totaling 515 students). The welfare assessment protocol was devised and trialed using pigs as an exemplar, but its principles are applicable to other species. A robust learning scheme was created, comprising didactic teaching, interactive seminars, practical hands-on training, and computer-based learning. Practical training included a formative virtual assessment of clinical signs of health and welfare using Questionmark Perception, which improved the students' performance significantly. Validation studies are being carried out to establish if acceptable levels of inter-observer variability can be achieved by students conducting on-farm assessments of pig welfare during their extramural studies program. The resulting assessments of welfare will be analyzed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study to identify risk factors for good and poor welfare, and the results will be fed back to participating farmers. This new approach enables veterinary students to learn key transferable skills in the early stages of their education and provides a strong grounding in a holistic approach to animal welfare.

  14. Development and validation of an arthropod maceration protocol for zoonotic pathogen detection in mosquitoes and fleas.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Genelle F; Scheirer, Jessica L; Melanson, Vanessa R

    2015-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases remain a pressing international public health concern. While progress has been made in the rapid detection of arthropod-borne pathogens via quantitative real-time (qPCR), or even hand-held detection devices, a simple and robust maceration and nucleic acid extraction method is necessary to implement biosurveillance capabilities. In this study, a comparison of maceration techniques using five types of beads followed by nucleic acid extraction and detection were tested using two morphologically disparate arthropods, the Aedes aegypti mosquito and Xenopsylla spp. flea, to detect the zoonotic diseases dengue virus serotype-1 and Yersinia pestis. Post-maceration nucleic acid extraction was carried out using the 1-2-3 Platinum-Path-Sample-Purification (PPSP) kit followed by qPCR detection using the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS). We found that the 5mm stainless steel beads added to the beads provided in the PPSP kit were successful in macerating the exoskeleton for both Ae. aegypti and Xenopsylla spp. Replicates in the maceration/extraction/detection protocol were increased in a stepwise fashion until a final 128 replicates were obtained. For dengue virus detection there was a 99% positivity rate and for Y. pestis detection there was a 95% positive detection rate. In the examination of both pathogens, there were no significant differences between qPCR instruments, days ran, time of day ran, or operators. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Development of plant regeneration and transformation protocols for the desiccation-sensitive weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula.

    PubMed

    Ncanana, Sandile; Brandt, Wolf; Lindsey, George; Farrant, Jill

    2005-08-01

    A tissue culture protocol, suitable for transformation, was established for the pasture grass Eragrostis curvula. Callus was generated in the dark from leaf and seed tissues on a medium comprising MS salts supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.01 mg/l BAP and 2% sucrose. Plant regeneration occurred via organogenesis on the same medium with 6% and 3% sucrose for shoot and root formation, respectively. Optimal regeneration (50 plantlets per callus) occurred when light of 45 micromol/m2 per s was used. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp12 gene was cloned into the Sac1 of the pCAMBIAUbeeQ vector and callus was transformed by biolistic bombardment. Best transformation (30%) occurred when the target tissue was bombarded twice at a distance of 70 mm using a bombardment pressure of 9,100 kPa. Although successful transformation and transcription of the Hsp12 gene occurred, no Hsp12 protein was found present in tissue extracts of transformed grass.

  16. Development of a Novel Virtual Screening Cascade Protocol to Identify Potential Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a novel sequential computational approach that can be used effectively for virtual screening and identification of prospective ligands that bind to trypanothione reductase (TryR) is reported. The multistep strategy combines a ligand-based virtual screening for building an enriched library of small molecules with a docking protocol (AutoDock, X-Score) for screening against the TryR target. Compounds were ranked by an exhaustive conformational consensus scoring approach that employs a rank-by-rank strategy by combining both scoring functions. Analysis of the predicted ligand−protein interactions highlights the role of bulky quaternary amine moieties for binding affinity. The scaffold hopping (SHOP) process derived from this computational approach allowed the identification of several chemotypes, not previously reported as antiprotozoal agents, which includes dibenzothiepine, dibenzooxathiepine, dibenzodithiepine, and polycyclic cationic structures like thiaazatetracyclo-nonadeca-hexaen-3-ium. Assays measuring the inhibiting effect of these compounds on T. cruzi and T. brucei TryR confirm their potential for further rational optimization. PMID:19296695

  17. Development of a Noncontact Kickboxing Circuit Training Protocol That Simulates Elite Male Kickboxing Competition.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Davis, Philip; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the specific kickboxing circuit training protocol (SKCTP) could reproduce kickboxing combat's hormonal, physiological, and physical responses. Twenty athletes of regional and national level volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD, age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; height: 170 ± 0.5 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 13.9 kg). After familiarization, SKCTP was conducted 1 week before a kickboxing competition. Cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as the Wingate upper-body test and countermovement jump (CMJ) performances were measured before and after SKCTP and combat. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured throughout rounds (R) R1, R2, and R3. Testosterone, GH, glucose, [La], HR, RPE, and CMJ did not differ among the 2 conditions (p > 0.05). However, Cortisol was higher for competition (p = 0.038), whereas both peak (p = 0.003) and mean power (p < 0.001) were higher in SKCTP. The study suggests that SKCTP replicates the hormonal, physiological, and physical aspects of competition. It is therefore suggested as a good form of specific kickboxing training, as well as a specific assessment tool to be used by kickboxing coaches to quantify kickboxers' fitness levels, when physiological parameters responses to the test are measured.

  18. Payload Invariant Control via Neural Networks: Development and Experimental Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    control is proposed and experimentally evaluated. An Adaptive Model-Based Neural Network Controller (AMBNNC) uses multilayer perceptron artificial neural ... networks to estimate the payload during high speed manipulator motion. The payload estimate adapts the feedforward compensator to unmodeled system

  19. SU-C-17A-02: Sirius MRI Markers for Prostate Post-Implant Assessment: MR Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Kudchadker, R; Stafford, R; Bathala, T; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Frank, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently, CT is used to visualize prostate brachytherapy sources, at the expense of accurate structure contouring. MRI is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but the sources appear as voids on MRI images. Previously we have developed Sirius MRI markers (C4 Imaging) to replace spacers to assist source localization on MRI images. Here we develop an MRI pulse sequence protocol that enhances the signal of these markers to enable MRI-only post-implant prostate dosimetric analysis. Methods: To simulate a clinical scenario, a CIRS multi-modality prostate phantom was implanted with 66 markers and 86 sources. The implanted phantom was imaged on both 1.5T and 3.0T GE scanners under various conditions, different pulse sequences (2D fast spin echo [FSE], 3D balanced steadystate free precession [bSSFP] and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo [FSPGR]), as well as varying amount of padding to simulate various patient sizes and associated signal fall-off from the surface coil elements. Standard FSE sequences from the current clinical protocols were also evaluated. Marker visibility, marker size, intra-marker distance, total scan time and artifacts were evaluated for various combinations of echo time, repetition time, flip angle, number of excitations, bandwidth, slice thickness and spacing, fieldof- view, frequency/phase encoding steps and frequency direction. Results: We have developed a 3D FSPGR pulse sequence that enhances marker signal and ensures the integrity of the marker shape while maintaining reasonable scan time. For patients contraindicated for 3.0T, we have also developed a similar sequence for 1.5T scanners. Signal fall-off with distance from prostate to coil can be compensated mainly by decreasing bandwidth. The markers are not visible using standard FSE sequences. FSPGR sequences are more robust for consistent marker visualization as compared to bSSFP sequences. Conclusion: The developed MRI pulse sequence protocol for Sirius MRI markers assists source

  20. Mindfulness for irritable bowel syndrome: protocol development for a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaylord, Susan A; Whitehead, William E; Coble, Rebecca S; Faurot, Keturah R; Palsson, Olafur S; Garland, Eric L; Frey, William; Mann, John Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional bowel disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain and disturbed defecation experienced by 10% of U.S. adults, results in significant disability, impaired quality of life, and health-care burden. Conventional medical care focusing on pharmacological approaches, diet, and lifestyle management has been partially effective in controlling symptoms. Behavioral treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis, are promising. This paper describes an on-going feasibility study to assess the efficacy of mindfulness training, a behavioral treatment involving directing and sustaining attention to present-moment experience, for the treatment of IBS. Methods/Design The study design involves randomization of adult women with IBS according to Rome II criteria, to either an eight-week mindfulness training group (based on a Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction [MBSR] format) or a previously validated IBS social-support group as an attention-control condition. The primary hypothesis is that, compared to Support Group participants, those in the Mindfulness Program will demonstrate significant improvement in IBS symptoms as measured by the IBS Symptom Severity Scale [1]. Discussion 214 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of whom 148 were eligible for the study. Of those, 87 were enrolled, with 21 withdrawing after having given consent. 66 have completed or are in the process of completing the interventions. It is feasible to undertake a rigorous randomized clinical trial of mindfulness training for people with IBS, using a standardized MBSR protocol adapted for those experiencing IBS, compared to a control social-support group previously utilized in IBS studies. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00680693 PMID:19638214

  1. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for the Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    Young, Carly; Ravida, Nicole; Curtis, Michelle; Mazzotti, Frank; Durrant, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Of the 934 lizard species evaluated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), at least one-third is threatened with extinction. However, there are no reports of semen cryopreservation efforts for lizards. Invasive Argentine black and white tegus were captured in the Florida Everglades, and sperm was collected postmortem. Initial motility score (IMS; % motile × speed of progression(2) × 100), plasma membrane integrity (IPL), and acrosome integrity (IAC) were recorded. Sperm was diluted in TEST-yolk buffer with a final glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)concentration of 8%, 12%, or 16%, and frozen at 0.3 °C, 1.0 °C, or 6.3 °C/min. At thaw, all variables were expressed as the percentage of initial (%IMS, %IPL, and %IAC). The 0.3 °C freeze rate was more successful than 1.0 °C and 6.3 °C/min in preserving %IMS and %IPL. DMSO preserved %IMS, %IPL, and %IAC better than glycerol. To determine the best overall cryopreservation protocol, a sperm quality index was calculated, giving equal weight to each of the three indicators of cryosurvival. Because there were significant interactions between freeze rate and cryoprotectant concentration, each treatment was compared with all others. The sperm quality index analysis revealed that tegu sperm frozen at 0.3 °C/min with 12% DMSO exhibited the highest postthaw viability compared with all other treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. A Psychophysical Protocol to Develop Ergonomic Recommendations for Sitting and Standing Workstations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael Y; Catalano, Paul; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine user self-selected setup for both sitting and standing computer workstations and identify major differences. No current ergonomic setup guideline for standing computer workstations is available. Twenty adult participants completed four 45-min sessions of simulated office computer work with an adjustable sit-stand computer workstation. Placement and relative position of all workstation components, including a cordless mouse, a cordless keyboard, a height-adjustable desk, and a 22-inch monitor mounted on a mechanical-assisted arm were recorded during the four sessions, which alternated between sitting and standing for each session. Participants were interrupted four times within each session, and the workstation was "reset" to extreme locations. Participants were instructed to adjust the location to achieve the most comfortable arrangement and to make as many adjustments during the session to achieve this goal. Overall, users placed the keyboard closer to their body (sternum), set desk height lower than their elbow, and set the monitor lower relative to their eyes with a greater upward tilt while standing compared to sitting. During the 45-min sessions, the number of adjustments participants made became smaller and over the four sessions was consistent, suggesting the psychophysical protocol was effective and consistent. Users preferred different workstation setups for sitting and standing computer workstations. Therefore, future setup guidelines and principles for standing computer workstations may not be simply translated from those for sitting. These results can serve as the first step toward making recommendations to establish ergonomic guidelines for standing computer workstation arrangement. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Ecological Thresholds in the Savanna Landscape: Developing a Protocol for Monitoring the Change in Composition and Utilisation of Large Trees

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Dave J.; Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R.; Grant, Rina; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure - particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts - is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (≥5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0–6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0–1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. Conclusions/Significance The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to

  5. Heparanase Is Essential for the Development of Acute Experimental Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Garsen, Marjolein; Benner, Marilen; Dijkman, Henry B; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Li, Jin-Ping; Rabelink, Ton J; Vlodavsky, Israel; Berden, Jo H M; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Elkin, Michael; van der Vlag, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Heparanase, a heparan sulfate (HS)--specific endoglucuronidase, mediates the onset of proteinuria and renal damage during experimental diabetic nephropathy. Glomerular heparanase expression is increased in most proteinuric diseases. Herein, we evaluated the role of heparanase in two models of experimental glomerulonephritis, being anti-glomerular basement membrane and lipopolysaccharide-induced glomerulonephritis, in wild-type and heparanase-deficient mice. Induction of experimental glomerulonephritis led to an increased heparanase expression in wild-type mice, which was associated with a decreased glomerular expression of a highly sulfated HS domain, and albuminuria. Albuminuria was reduced in the heparanase-deficient mice in both models of experimental glomerulonephritis, which was accompanied by a better renal function and less renal damage. Notably, glomerular HS expression was preserved in the heparanase-deficient mice. Glomerular leukocyte and macrophage influx was reduced in the heparanase-deficient mice, which was accompanied by a reduced expression of both types 1 and 2 helper T-cell cytokines. In vitro, tumor necrosis factor-α and lipopolysaccharide directly induced heparanase expression and increased transendothelial albumin passage. Our study shows that heparanase contributes to proteinuria and renal damage in experimental glomerulonephritis by decreasing glomerular HS expression, enhancing renal leukocyte and macrophage influx, and affecting the local cytokine milieu. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Protocols for Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials of Complex Treatment Interventions: Japanese Acupuncture for Endometriosis-Related Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, Diane; Kay, Joseph; Shields, Monica; Wayne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little research has been conducted in the West to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Japanese acupuncture (JA). The characteristics that define and differentiate JA from Chinese acupuncture styles add specific challenges to the operationalization of treatment protocols for use in clinical trials. Objectives To develop an ecologically valid and viable multimodal treatment intervention, including active and sham protocols, for use in a pilot randomized sham-controlled trial of a style of JA in treating endometriosis related chronic pelvic pain in adolescents and young women. Methods A focus group format was used to systematize the diagnostic framework, operationalize the intake, design the treatment protocols, and develop a viable and effective sham acupuncture intervention using the Streitberger device and sham moxibustion. Implementation of the treatment protocol employed the manualization process to provide flexibility of treatment while assuring replicability and standardization. Setting The Japanese Acupuncture Department at the New England School of Acupuncture in Newton, MA. Results Completed study visit forms indicated good compliance of study practitioners with active and sham treatment protocols. The specific JA protocols used in our pilot study were well tolerated by the adolescent girls who participated in the trial. No serious adverse events were reported by any participants. Our protocols were successful in maintaining patient blinding and minimizing differences in outcome expectations between treatment groups. Conclusions Manualization provided a viable method for conforming to the interactive nature of JA treatments, yet facilitated compliance with a replicable treatment protocol. Sham controls of complex, multicomponent JA interventions pose unique challenges. The modified Streitberger needle in conjunction with sham moxibustion showed promise as a viable control in clinical trails of JA; both components of this sham protocol

  7. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for cardiac surgery in the intensive care unit: Effects on protocol adherence.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, Marion; van den Boogaard, Mark; Ter Brugge-Speelman, Corine; Hol, Jeroen; Noyez, Luc; van Laarhoven, Kees; van der Hoeven, Hans; Pickkers, Peter

    2017-07-18

    Cardiac surgery (CS) is facilitated by multiple perioperative guidelines and protocols. Use of a clinical pathway (CP) may facilitate the care of these patients. This is a pre-post design study in the ICU of a tertiary referral centre. A CP for CS patients in the ICU was developed by ICU-nurses and enabled them to execute proactively predefined actions in accordance with and within the preset boundaries which were part of a variance report. A tailored implementation strategy was used. Primary outcome measure was protocol adherence above 80% on the domains of blood pressure control, action on chest tube blood loss and electrolyte control within the CP. In a 4-month period, 84 consecutive CP patients were included and compared with 162 matched control patients admitted in the year before implementation; 3 patients were excluded. Propensity score was used as matching parameter. CP patients were more likely to receive early adequate treatment for derangements in electrolytes (96% vs 47%, P < .001), blood pressure (90% vs 49%, P < .001) and adequate treatment for chest tube blood loss (90% vs 10%, P < .001). We found no differences in hospital and ICU LOS, ICU readmission or mortality. Use of the CP improved postoperative ICU treatment for cardiac surgical patients. Implementation of a CP and the use of a special variance report could be a blueprint for the implementation and use of a CP in low-volume high complex surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Experimental Control of Nodality via Equal Presentations of Conditional Discriminations in Different Equivalence Protocols under Speed and No-Speed Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imam, Abdulrazaq A.

    2006-01-01

    A within-participant comparison of simple-to-complex, complex-to-simple, and simultaneous protocols was conducted establishing different sets of three 7-member equivalence classes for 4 undergraduate students. The protocols were implemented under either accuracy-only or accuracy-plus-speed conditions while keeping number of presentations of…

  9. Experimental studies on thermodynamic effects of developed cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A method for predicting thermodynamic effects of cavitation (changes in cavity pressure relative to stream vapor pressure) is presented. The prediction method accounts for changes in liquid, liquid temperature, flow velocity, and body scale. Both theoretical and experimental studies used in formulating the method are discussed. The prediction method provided good agreement between predicted and experimental results for geometrically scaled venturis handling four different liquids of widely diverse physical properties. Use of the method requires geometric similarity of the body and cavitated region and a known reference cavity-pressure depression at one operating condition.