Science.gov

Sample records for experimental station evaluation

  1. Maintenance evaluation for space station liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugel, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Many of the thermal and environmental control life support subsystems as well as other subsystems of the space station utilize various liquids and contain components which are either expendables or are life-limited in some way. Since the space station has a 20-year minimum orbital lifetime requirement, there will also be random failures occurring within the various liquid-containing subsystems. These factors as well as the planned space station build-up sequence require that maintenance concepts be developed prior to the design phase. This applies to the equipment which needs maintenance as well as the equipment which may be required at a maintenance work station within the space station. This paper presents several maintenance concepts for liquid-containing items and a flight experiment program which would allow for evaluation and improvement of these concepts so they can be incorporated in the space station designs at the outset of its design phase.

  2. Aircraft earth station for experimental mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, S.; Hase, Y.; Kosaka, K.; Tanaka, M.

    A mobile satellite communication system, which can provide high quality service for small ships and aircraft, has been studied in Japan. This system is scheduled to be carried into experimental and evaluation phase in 1987, when a geostationary satellite (ETS-V) is launched by a Japanese rocket. This paper describes an aircraft earth station, which can establish telephone communication links for passengers on board the aircraft. The new technologies, especially an airborne phased array antenna, are developed. This is the first development in the world in mobile satellite communication areas.

  3. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station will be issued for the purposes of carrying on research and experimentation for the development and advancement of new broadcast technology, equipment, systems or services which are more...

  4. 6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low oblique aerial view of Test Area 1-115, looking south, showing Test Stand 1-3 at left, Instrumentation and Control building 8668 at center, and Test Stand 15 at right. The test area is under construction; no evidence of railroad line in photo. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  6. A station-based concept for teaching the neurological examination: A prospective quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Brich, Jochen; Rijntjes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The neurological examination is considered to be complex and contributes to the phenomenon of “neurophobia”. It is traditionally taught in small groups by residents (“traditional concept”), making the learning success partially dependent on the resident’s level of clinical training, didactic education and personal motivation. Aim of this study was to examine the effects of a newly developed concept (“station concept”) for teaching the neurological examination on achieving an improved and more equal transfer of knowledge and practical skills. Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental design was used to compare the traditional concept with the newly developed station concept, in which the teaching content was divided in eight subdivisions (stations) with one resident being assigned to one station. The primary endpoints of the study were the differences in students’ self-assessments of learning success in the different subdomains of the neurological examination, and secondary analyses focused on evaluation results of students and residents. Results: 144 students and 28 residents participated in the traditional concept (summer semester 2012) and 151 students and 28 residents in the station concept (winter semester 2012/13). In the station-concept students’ self-assessment significantly improved in the domains “Motor System”, “Coordination” and “Mental Status” compared to the traditional concept. Students’ evaluation showed significant improvement in five out of eight points. Fifty percent of residents rated the new approach superior to the traditional approach, ten percent as inferior. Conclusion: The station concept improved students’ self-assessed learning success as well as evaluation results while simultaneously achieving high acceptance in residents. PMID:27990473

  7. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  9. Lasercom test and evaluation station for flight-terminal evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Page, Norman A.; Biswas, Abhijit; Hemmati, Hamid; Masters, Kevin; Erickson, David M.; Lesh, James R.

    1997-04-01

    Full-up pre-launch characterization of a lasercom terminal's communications and acquisition/tracking subsystems can provide quantitative characterization of the terminal and better realize the benefits of any demonstration. The lasercom test and evaluation station (LTES) being developed at NASA/JPL is a high quality optical system that will measure the key characteristics of lasercom terminals that operate over the visible and near-IR spectral region. The LTES's large receiving aperture will accommodate terminals up to 20 cm. in diameter. The unit has six optical channels and it measures far-field beam pattern, divergence, data rates up to 1.4 Gbps and bit-error rates as low as 10-9. It also measures the output power of the laser-terminal's beacon and communications channels. The 1 kHz frame rate camera in LTES's acquisition channel measures the point-ahead angle of the laser communications terminal to a resolution of 1 (mu) rad. When combined with the data channel detection, the acquisition channel measures acquisition and reacquisition times with a 1 ms resolution.

  10. Evaluation of space station solar array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The research concerning lightweight solar array assemblies since 1970 is reported. A bibliography of abstracts of documents used for reference during this period is included along with an evaluation of available solar array technology. A list of recommended technology programs is presented.

  11. Task-analytic evaluations of Space Station Freedom workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will be a permanently manned multipurpose facility in low Earth orbit by the late 1990's. Integral to Space Station Freedom will be Data Management System workstations. These workstations will provide the human-machine interface for controlling such systems as Guidance, Navigation and Control, Propulsion, and Environmental Control and Life Support. In addition, they will be used by crewmembers in the space station's pressurized shirt-sleeve environment to control remote manipulator systems and free-flyer devices. This paper presents an overview of proposed workstations and current task-analytic evaluations being used to assess their adequacy in supporting Space Station Freedom operations. Particular emphasis is placed on the results and conclusions of the analysis.

  12. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 74.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental... and advancement of new broadcast technology, equipment, systems or services which are more extensive...

  13. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 74.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental... and advancement of new broadcast technology, equipment, systems or services which are more extensive...

  14. Calibration of streamflow gauging stations at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Scott W. Woods

    2007-01-01

    We used tracer based methods to calibrate eleven streamflow gauging stations at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in western Montana. At six of the stations the measured flows were consistent with the existing rating curves. At Lower and Upper Stringer Creek, Upper Sun Creek and Upper Tenderfoot Creek the published flows, based on the existing rating curves,...

  15. Photovoltaic-system evaluation at the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Five residential photovoltaic systems were tested and the systems' performance and cost was evaluated. The five systems each consist of an unoccupied structure employing a roof mounted photovoltaic array and a utility connected power inverter capable of sending excess PV generated energy to the local utility system. The photovoltaic systems are designed to meet at least 50% of the total annual electrical demand of residences in the cold climate regions of the country. The following specific issues were investigated: photovoltaic array and inverter system power rating and performance characterization, system energy production, reliability and system cost/worth. Summary load data from five houses in the vicinity of the Northeast Residential Experiment Station, and meteorological data from the station's weather station are also presented.

  16. Technology transfer and evaluation for Space Station telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles R.; Stokes, Lebarian; Diftler, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    The international space station (SS) must take advantage of advanced telerobotics in order to maximize productivity and safety and to reduce maintenance costs. The Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has designed, developed, and constructed the Automated Robotics Maintenance of Space Station (ARMSS) facility for the purpose of transferring and evaluating robotic technology that will reduce SS operation costs. Additionally, JSC had developed a process for expediting the transfer of technology from NASA research centers and evaluating these technologies in SS applications. Software and hardware system developed at the research centers and NASA sponsored universities are currently being transferred to JSC and integrated into the ARMSS for flight crew personnel testing. These technologies will be assessed relative to the SS baseline, and, after refinements, those technologies that provide significant performance improvements will be recommended as upgrades to the SS. Proximity sensors, vision algorithms, and manipulator controllers are among the systems scheduled for evaluation.

  17. Evaluation of selected surface-water-quality stations in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, S.J.; DeLong, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, has conducted a surface-water-quality program in Wyoming since 1965. The purpose has been to determine the chemical quality of the water in terms of the major dissolved constituents (salinity). Changing agricultural techniques and energy development have stimulated a need for an expanded program involving additional types of data. This report determines the adequacy of the data collected thus far to describe the chemical quality. The sampling program was evaluated by determining how well the data describe the dissolved-solids load of the streams. Monthly mean loads were estimated at 16 stations throughout the network where daily streamflow and daily specific conductance were available. Monthly loads were then compared with loads estimated from daily streamflow and data derived from analyses of samples collected on a monthly basis at these same stations. Agreement was good. Solute-load hydrographs were constructed for 37 stations and from some reaches where streamflow records were available. Because stations where no discharge records are available are not amenable to this type of analysis, data collected at these stations are of limited usefulness. This report covers analyses of data for all qualifying sites in Wyoming except those in the Green River Basin, which were analyzed in U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 77-103. The salinity in most of the streams evaluated is adequately described by the data collected. Reduced sampling is feasible, and time and money can be diverted to collecting other data. (USGS)

  18. Evaluating Pseudorange Multipath at CGPS Stations Spanning Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G.; Bennett, R. A.; Spinler, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A research study was conducted in order to quantify and analyze the amount of pseudorange multipath at continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations spanning Mexico. These CGPS stations are administered by a variety of organizations, including government agencies and public universities, and thus serve a wide range of positioning needs. Despite the diversity of the networks and their intended audiences, a core function of all of the networks is to provide a stable framework for high-precision positioning in support of diverse commercial and scientific applications. CGPS data from a large number of publicly available networks located in Mexico were studied. These include the RGNA (National Active Geodetic Network) administered by INEGI (National Institute of Statistics and Geography), the PBO network (Plate Boundary Observatory) funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and operated by UNAVCO (University NAVstar Consortium), the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), which is a collaboration effort of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the UNAM network, operated by the National Seismological System (SSN) and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the Suominet Geodetic Network (SNG) and the CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) network, operated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A total of 54 CGPS stations were evaluated, where dual-frequency geodetic-grade receivers collected GPS data continuously during the period from 1994 to 2013. It is usually assumed that despite carefully selected locations, all CGPS stations are to some extent, affected by the presence of signal multipath. In addition, the geographic distribution of stations provides a nation-wide access to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For real-time kinematic (RTK) and rapid static applications that depend on

  19. RAMSES: Multi-spectral experimental radar station installed on board the Transall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutry, J. M.; Lecoz, D.

    1992-10-01

    Within the context of studies devoted to onboard radar applications (missiles, aircraft, satellites, etc.), ONERA is developing and implementing, with the support of the General Delegation for Armament and in collaboration with the Flight Testing Center of Bretigny, a radar experimental station installed onboard a Transall. This permits a parametric study of the radar operating modes and the associated methods of signal processing. The areas in which the station is used are introduced, while examining in particular the problem of the transposition of the radar and geometric parameters. Then, the main technical features of the station are reviewed. Finally, a few examples of the preliminary results are described.

  20. Summary of monitoring station component evaluation project 2009-2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as a center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring (GNEM) systems. This project will sustain and enhance our component evaluation capabilities. In addition, new sensor technologies that could greatly improve national monitoring system performance will be sought and characterized. This work directly impacts the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring mission by verifying that the performance of monitoring station sensors and instrumentation is characterized and suitable to the mission. It enables the operational monitoring agency to deploy instruments of known capability and to have confidence in operational success. This effort will ensure that our evaluation capabilities are maintained for future use.

  1. Evaluation plan for space station network interface units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    Outlined here is a procedure for evaluating network interface units (NIUs) produced for the Space Station program. The procedures should be equally applicable to the data management system (DMS) testbed NIUs produced by Honeywell and IBM. The evaluation procedures are divided into four areas. Performance measurement tools are hardware and software that must be developed in order to evaluate NIU performance. Performance tests are a series of tests, each of which documents some specific characteristic of NIU and/or network performance. In general, these performance tests quantify the speed, capacity, latency, and reliability of message transmission under a wide variety of conditions. Functionality tests are a series of tests and code inspections that demonstrate the functionality of the particular subset of ISO protocols which have been implemented in a given NIU. Conformance tests are a series of tests which would expose whether or not selected features within the ISO protocols are present and interoperable.

  2. Experimental forests and ranges. Field research facilities of the Pacific Southwest Research Station.

    Treesearch

    Neil H. Berg

    1990-01-01

    The 10 experimental forests and ranges in California administered by the Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, are described. The purposes of these facilities, and how to request their use for approved scientific study are given, and the natural resource base, data bases, studies, and general features of each are also...

  3. Node 2 and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named 'Kibo' (Hope). Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  4. Node 2 and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named 'Kibo' (Hope). Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  5. Microbial Diversity Aboard Spacecraft: Evaluation of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Victoria A.; Thrasher, Adrianna N.; Healy, Mimi; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation of the microbial flora from air, water, and surface samples provided a baseline of microbial diversity onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to gain insight into bacterial and fungal contamination during the initial stages of construction and habitation. Using 16S genetic sequencing and rep-PeR, 63 bacterial strains were isolated for identification and fingerprinted for microbial tracking. The use of these molecular tools allowed for the identification of bacteria not previously identified using automated biochemical analysis and provided a clear indication of the source of several ISS contaminants. Fungal and bacterial data acquired during monitoring do not suggest there is a current microbial hazard to the spacecraft, nor does any trend indicate a potential health risk. Previous spacecraft environmental analysis indicated that microbial contamination will increase with time and require continued surveillance.

  6. Determination of Space Station on-orbit nondestructive evaluation requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkowski, Charles

    1995-07-01

    NASA has recently initiated a reassessment of requirements for the performance of in-space nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) while on- orbit. given the on-orbit operating environment, there is a powerful motivation for avoiding inspection requirements. For example the ISSA maintenance philosophy includes the use of orbital replacement units (ORUs); hardware that is designed to fail without impact on mission assurance or safety. Identification of on-orbit inspection requirements involves review of a complex set of disciplines and considerations such as fracture control, contamination, safety, mission assurance, electrical power, and cost. This paper presents background discussion concerning on-orbit NDE and a technical approach for separating baseline requirements from opportunities.

  7. Evaluating E-Labs' Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisent, Michel; Maguiraga, Lassana; Bernard, Prosper; Larhrib, Samir

    2004-01-01

    This communication discusses preliminary results on an experimentation of e-Learning with MIS students, mainly in order to cope with the logistics of lab organization. A learning management software was installed which changed completely the learning process, from content to logistics. Students have expressed their satisfaction with the e-Learning…

  8. [Evaluation of medication advertising broadcast on radio stations].

    PubMed

    Batista, Almária Mariz; Carvalho, Maria Cleide Ribeiro Dantas de

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate advertising for medication broadcast on radio stations in Natal, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from April to September 2008 and from April to September 2010. The advertising was recorded and transcribed in order to conduct legal analysis and content analysis based on the precepts of Laurence Bardin. Both the advertising recorded during the first stage (regulated by RDC 102/00) and the second stage (regulated by RDC 96/08) contained some form of legal violation. Content analysis detected practically the same violations in both stages, namely the lack of information regarding adverse effects of the medication, appeal to consumption, exaggeration of efficiency/effectiveness and abusive exploitation of illness. Despite the inclusion of more modern and restrictive legislation, radio advertising continues to violate the law blatantly, committing abuse and disrespecting the population's entitlement to good health. The study reveals the need for medication advertising to be dealt with in a broader context, in other words to be treated as a public health concern. It must take into consideration the socio-historical scenario in which it evolved, since the legislation alone is insufficient to combat abuse committed to the detriment of public health.

  9. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  10. The ALBA spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station: layout and performance

    PubMed Central

    Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Pellegrin, Eric; Nicolas, Josep; Ferrer, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station at the CIRCE helical undulator beamline, which started user operation at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility in 2012, is presented. This station, based on an Elmitec LEEM III microscope with electron imaging energy analyzer, permits surfaces to be imaged with chemical, structural and magnetic sensitivity down to a lateral spatial resolution better than 20 nm with X-ray excited photoelectrons and 10 nm in LEEM and UV-PEEM modes. Rotation around the surface normal and application of electric and (weak) magnetic fields are possible in the microscope chamber. In situ surface preparation capabilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature flashing, exposure to gases, and metal evaporation with quick evaporator exchange. Results from experiments in a variety of fields and imaging modes will be presented in order to illustrate the ALBA XPEEM capabilities. PMID:25931092

  11. 47 CFR 1.544 - Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength measurements and for experimental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength measurements and for experimental operation. 1.544 Section 1.544 Telecommunication... General Filing Requirements § 1.544 Application for broadcast station to conduct field...

  12. Evaluation of MELCOR improvements: Peach Bottom station blackout analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    Long-term station blackout analyses in Peach Bottom were first carried out using MELCOR 1.8BC, and later with 1.8DN, as part of an overall program between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident/source term analysis tool. In addition to the reference MELCOR calculation, several sensitivity calculations were also performed to explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and radionuclide releases to the environment calculated by MELCOR. An area of concern that emerged from these studies was the impact of the selection of maximum allowable timestep ({Delta}t{sub max}) on the calculational behavior of MELCOR, where the results showed significant differences in timing of key events, and a lack of convergence of the solution with reduction of {Delta}t{sub max}. These findings were reported to the NRC, SNL, and the MELCOR Peer Review Committee. As a consequence, a significant effort was undertaken to eliminate or mitigate these sensitivities. The latest released version of MELCOR, Version 1.8.2, released in April 1993, contains several new or improved models, and has corrections to mitigate numerical sensitivities. This paper presents the results of updating the earlier sensitivity studies on maximum timestep, to more properly represent the abilities of the improved MELCOR version 1.8.2. Results are presenter in terms of timing of key events, thermal-hydraulic response of the system, and environmental release of radionuclides. The impact of some of the newer models, such as falling debris quench model, and ORNL`s new BH model, is also evaluated.

  13. Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space Station configuration concepts are defined to meet the NASA Headquarters Concept Development Group (CDG) requirements. Engineering and programmatic data are produced on these concepts suitable for NASA and industry dissemination. A data base is developed for input to the CDG's evaluation of generic Space Station configurations and for use in the critique of the CDG's generic configuration evaluation process.

  14. Study of industry requirements that can be fulfilled by combustion experimentation aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the requirements of commercially motivated microgravity combustion experiments and the optimal way for space station to accommodate these requirements. Representatives of commercial organizations, universities and government agencies were contacted. Interest in and needs for microgravity combustion studies are identified for commercial/industrial groups involved in fire safety with terrestrial applications, fire safety with space applications, propulsion and power, industrial burners, or pollution control. From these interests and needs experiments involving: (1) no flow with solid or liquid fuels; (2) homogeneous mixtures of fuel and air; (3) low flow with solid or liquid fuels; (4) low flow with gaseous fuel; (5) high pressure combustion; and (6) special burner systems are described and space station resource requirements for each type of experiment provided. Critical technologies involving the creation of a laboratory environment and methods for combining experimental needs into one experiment in order to obtain effective use of space station are discussed. Diagnostic techniques for monitoring combustion process parameters are identified.

  15. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of StRATUS (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2014-0142 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) Michael A. Falugi Structures Technology Branch Aerospace...Conference Paper Preprint 01 May 2012 – 28 February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Steel Reinforced Advanced Thin Unitized Structure ( StRATUS ) is a new hybrid laminate concept composed of carbon fiber composite sandwiched between thin

  17. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey's gaging-station network in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, D.M.; Oberg, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Data collected at 97 of the 176 gaging stations operated in Illinois during 1983 were used to describe rainfall-runoff processes, to monitor and forecast floods, and to monitor and regulate lake levels, discharge from reservoirs, or discharge of navigable streams. Stream-gaging stations on the Illinois River at Havana, East Branch Du Page River, and interior streams of the Mississippi River floodplain; peak-flow stations on small watersheds; and stage-only stations upstream from unsafe high-hazard dams should be considered for inclusion in future stream-gaging programs. The accuracy of regression models for peak-flow and 1-day mean flood-volume characteristics would not be considerably improved if the density of gaging stations and length of record at those gaging stations are increased. Model error masks tradeoffs between accuracy, density, and record length. The large number of streamflow records presently available is sufficient for fairly accurately determining most streamflow characteristics. The accuracy of streamflow records reported for stream gaging stations and peak-flow stations varies widely. The accuracy of streamflow records for 12 stream-gaging stations and 11 peak-flow stations is substantially less than the accuracy of records for the other 143 gaging stations considered. Based on an evaluation of relative worth, 26 gaging stations are candidates for some type of action if budgetary limitations so demand. A candidate stream-gaging stations could be operated during only part of a year, converted to a peak-flow station, or discontinued. Candidate peak-flow stations should be discontinued. (USGS)

  18. Ranger Station Solar-Energy System Receives Economic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Economic performance of Glendo Reservoir Ranger Station solar-energy system in Wyoming and extrapolated performance in four other locations around the U.S. is reviewed in report. System is a passive drain-down system using water as heat-transfer medium for space and hot-water heating.

  19. Ranger Station Solar-Energy System Receives Economic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Economic performance of Glendo Reservoir Ranger Station solar-energy system in Wyoming and extrapolated performance in four other locations around the U.S. is reviewed in report. System is a passive drain-down system using water as heat-transfer medium for space and hot-water heating.

  20. [Development of innovative methods of electromagnetic field evaluation for portable radio-station].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Perov, S Iu; Bogacheva, E V; Kuster, N

    2013-01-01

    The results of portable radio-station "Radiy-301" electromagnetic fields (EMF) emission measurement and specific absorption rate data evaluation has shown that workers' exposure EMF levels may elevate hygienic norms and hereupon can be health risk factor. Possible way of portable radio-station EMF dosimetry enhancement by means of domestic and international approaches harmonization is considered.

  1. Evaluation of absorption cycle for space station environmental control system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Oneill, M. J.; Reid, H. C.; Bisenius, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The study to evaluate an absorption cycle refrigeration system to provide environmental control for the space stations is reported. A zero-gravity liquid/vapor separator was designed and tested. The results were used to design a light-weight, efficient generator for the absorption refrigeration system. It is concluded that absorption cycle refrigeration is feasible for providing space station environmental control.

  2. Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of a space station conceptual design and evaluation study are summarized. The study represented a temporary focusing. Three space station configurations are characterized for user and crew requirements, operation and safety accommodations, engineering considerations including assembly and growth, structural dynamics, communications, thermal control and power systems, as well as system cost.

  3. Preliminary Test Results of Heshe Hydrogeological Experimental Well Station in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P.; Liu, C.; Lin, M.; Chan, W.; Lee, T.; Chia, Y.; Teng, M.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a critical issue for the development of nuclear energy. The design of final disposal system is based on the concept of multiple barriers which integrate the natural barriers and engineering barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. As groundwater is the major medium that can transport radionuclides to our living environment, it is essential to characterize groundwater flow at the disposal site. Taiwan is located at the boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Geologic formations are often fractured due to tectonic compression and extension. In this study, a well station for the research and development of hydrogeological techniques was established at the Experimental Forest of the National Taiwan University in central Taiwan. There are 10 testing wells, ranging in depth from 25 m to 100 m, at the station. The bedrock beneath the regolith is highly fractured mudstone. As fracture is the preferential pathway of the groundwater flow, the focus of in-situ tests is to investigate the location of permeable fractures and the connection of permeable fractures. Several field tests have been conducted, including geophysical logging, heat-pulse flowmeter, hydraulic test, tracer test and double packer test, for the development of advanced technologies to detect the preferential groundwater flow in fractured rocks.

  4. XMCD experimental station optimized for ultrathin magnetic films at HiSOR-BL14

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Masahiro; Namatame, Hirofumi; Ueno, Tetsuro; Tagashira, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2010-06-23

    We have constructed a system for in situ X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements of ultrathin magnetic films at the soft X-ray beamline HiSOR-BL14 at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. The XMCD experimental station is directly connected to the beamline, and equipped with a sample fabrication chamber where various types of ultrathin magnetic films can be grown with monatomic layer control. XMCD spectra of the as-grown samples can be measured with adequate precision for the analysis of magnetic moments, under proper control of the light polarization in the beamline optics. This system has enabled the investigation of natural magnetic states in the ultrathin magnetic films without the influence of surface oxidation or any cap-layers.

  5. A neutron resonance capture analysis experimental station at the ISIS spallation source.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Antonino; Gorini, Giuseppe; Festa, Giulia; Reali, Enzo; Grazzi, Francesco; Schooneveld, Erik M

    2010-09-01

    Neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is a nuclear technique that is used to determine the elemental composition of materials and artifacts (e.g., bronze objects) of archaeological interest. NRCA experiments are mostly performed at the GELINA facility in Belgium, a pulsed neutron source operating with an electron linear accelerator. Very intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons are also provided by spallation neutron sources, such as the ISIS spallation neutron source in the United Kingdom. In the present study, the suitability of the Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) beam line for NRCA measurements is assessed using a compact (n, γ) resonance detector made of a Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite (YAP) scintillation crystal coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The measurements provided a qualitative recognition of the composition of the standard sample, a lower limit for the sensitivity for NRCA for almost-in-traces elements, and an estimation of the relative isotopic concentration in the sample.

  6. The undersea habitat as a space station analog: Evaluation of research and training potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation is given of the utility of undersea habitats for both research and training on behavioral issues relative to the space station. The feasibility of a particular habitat, La Chalupa, is discussed.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Textbooks and Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    This paper begins by providing an overview of three types of textbook research methods: asking teachers, parents, or students about the different aspects of textbook quality; textbook analysis, i.e. counting some characteristics of a textbook using strictly fixed rules; and the experimental evaluation of textbooks, usually carried out in schools.…

  8. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  9. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study.

  10. An evaluation of oxygen-hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the space station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the space station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the space station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level space station studies.

  11. An evaluation of oxygen/hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the Space Station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the Space Station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the Space Station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level Space Station studies.

  12. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  13. Applying real-time operations to integrate and evaluate Space Station Freedom design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Winkler, David

    1990-01-01

    During its 30 year lifetime, Space Station Freedom will provide unique opportunities for a variety of research, commercial and space exploration activities. The diversity of Freedom's on-orbit operations and the partitioning of the spacecraft's flight elements and systems requires consideration of operations early in the design development. This paper presents a method for defining a structured relationship between Space Station Freedom real-time operations and system functionality, and discusses how this relationship can be used when evaluating the spacecraft design.

  14. Experimental evaluation of commercial desiccant dehumidifier wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Slayzak, S.J.; Pesaran, A.A.; Hancock, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is currently characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The data are being obtained in our HVAC Equipment Test Facility in accordance with the proposed ASHRAE test standard. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and the United States Department of Energy and NREL with the information necessary to assess advances in the energy savings potential of the technology. This paper proposes several figures of merit for evaluating performance. The results of these tests indicate that dehumidification capacity performance parameters can be correlated to process inlet air relative humidity.

  15. Evaluation of an experimental dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; El-Waseffy, Noha A; Hasan, Ahmed M; El-Falal, Abeer A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture toughness, hardness, ceramic/metal bond strength and microstructure of experimental dental porcelain and compare it with commercial type. Specimens of specific dimensions were prepared. Fracture toughness was assessed by a three-point bending test. The Vickers hardness was measured using a microhardness tester. The ceramometal bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. The load was applied at the porcelain/metal interface via a chisel edged blade with a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min until fracture. The polished specimens of dental porcelain were chemically etched and the microstructure was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed comparable fracture toughness and bond strength for both materials, while the experimental porcelain exhibited higher hardness. The experimental porcelain showed uniform cohesive failure while the commercial type showed mixed mode of failure. The microstructure of the experimental porcelain was tetragonal leucite crystals dispersed randomly in a glass matrix. The leucite crystals exist in two forms, acicular and rod like structures. It was concluded that the experimental porcelain has adequate fracture toughness and ceramic/metal bond strength that can resist the rapid crack propagation and its consequent catastrophic failure, which indicates a material serviceability in the oral cavity.

  16. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.; Abel, Joshua C.; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system.An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (directionality).The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbmyr. to about 1 lbmday. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ramwake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  17. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  18. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbm//yr. to about 1 lbm/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  19. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb-mass/yr. to about 1 lb-mass/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  20. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin; Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug; Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie; Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  1. Climatic summaries and documentation for the primary meteorological station, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, 1972 To 1984.

    Treesearch

    Frederick A. Bierlmaler; Arthur. McKee

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the primary meteorological station at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (elev. 426 m, lat. 44°15' N., long. 122°10' W.) in the Willamette National Forest, the automatic digital data logger, sensors, and data-processing procedures used in measuring air temperature, dewpoint temperature, windspeed, precipitation, and solar radiation....

  2. Procedure for Surveying a Station in the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Transonic Experimental Facility Spark Shadowgraph Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    indoor instrumented spark range at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Transonic Experimental Facility was designed for firing various- caliber ...Tables iv Acknowledgments v 1. Introduction 1 2. Survey Procedure 4 3. Summary 16 Appendix. Fiducial Wire Dimensions 17 Distribution List 20...List of Tables Table 1. Reference elevations for spark stations. ............................................................................5 v

  3. Forest Service Experimental Forests and long-term data sets: stories of their meaning to station directors

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo; B. Eav; G.S. Foster; M. Rains; J. Reaves; D.J. Stouder

    2014-01-01

    As Forest Service Research and Development worked to prepare this book reporting important results from long-term research conducted on U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges, the station directors added a chapter to highlight addditional accounts of long-term research, its benefits to land managers and policy makers, and lessons...

  4. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Experimental evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment, has been experimentally evaluated. An experiment has been carried out in which nonastronaut operators with brief initial training were required to plan a trajectory to retrieve an object accidentally separated from a dual-keel Space Station, for a variety of different orbital situations. The experiments have shown that these operators were able to plan workable trajectories, satisfying a number of operational constraints. Fuel use and planning time were strongly correlated, both with the angle at which the object was separated and with the existence of spatial constraints. Planning behavior was found to be strongly operator-dependent. This finding calls for the need for standardizing planning strategies through operator training or the use of semiautomated planning schemes.

  5. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Experimental evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment, has been experimentally evaluated. An experiment has been carried out in which nonastronaut operators with brief initial training were required to plan a trajectory to retrieve an object accidentally separated from a dual-keel Space Station, for a variety of different orbital situations. The experiments have shown that these operators were able to plan workable trajectories, satisfying a number of operational constraints. Fuel use and planning time were strongly correlated, both with the angle at which the object was separated and with the existence of spatial constraints. Planning behavior was found to be strongly operator-dependent. This finding calls for the need for standardizing planning strategies through operator training or the use of semiautomated planning schemes.

  6. Performance Evaluation of the International Space Station Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Mackey, Jeff; Hall, Nancy; Frankenfield, Bruce; Harpster, George; May, Rochelle; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A ground-based experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments is built in support of the development of the long duration Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) destined for operation on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR). We performed tests with the condensation test module oriented horizontally and vertically. Using FC-72 as the test fluid and water as the cooling fluid, we evaluated the operational characteristics of the condensation module and generated ground based data encompassing the range of parameters of interest to the condensation experiment to be performed on the ISS. During this testing, we also evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, and the heat loss from different components. In this presentation, we discuss representative results of performance testing of the FBCE flow loop. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is scheduled for flight in 2019.

  7. Network planning analysis and data quality evaluation of one way ranging station for irnss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janani Balasubramaniam, Kirthika

    2012-07-01

    Indian regional navigation satellite system is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, developed by Indian Space Research Organisation. IRNSS is under total control of Indian Government. A constellation of seven satellites and a support ground segment is planned under IRNSS. The objective of my project is to design a network for single way ground stations considering the influence of Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP), Ionospheric Pierce Points (IPP) and Orbit Determination so that the accuracy of data received from IRNSS satellites is maintained and to evaluate the quality of data from the satellites to ensure its integrity. In GDOP analysis maximum, minimum GDOPS for the constellation are calculated in the service volume that is intended for IRNSS and stations in the region of minimum GDOP could be included in the network of ground stations. In IPP analysis the occurrence of IPP points over the service volume is found and analysis is done to make sure that the entire service volume (divided into grids) has IPP points over it. From the result of this analysis the ground stations that are to be included in the network and also if additional ground stations are required. Also the ground stations must be selected in such a way that the signals received by them have reduced ranging errors. Combining the results of the above said analysis a network of single way ground stations is designed. (Tool used- Matlab, ODTK)

  8. Evaluation of river water quality monitoring stations by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying

    2005-07-01

    The development of a surface water monitoring network is a critical element in the assessment, restoration, and protection of stream water quality. This study applied principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the surface water quality-monitoring network in a river where the evaluated variables are monitoring stations. The objective was to identify monitoring stations that are important in assessing annual variations of river water quality. Twenty-two stations used for monitoring physical, chemical, and biological parameters, located at the main stem of the lower St. Johns River in Florida, USA, were selected for the purpose of this study. Results show that 3 monitoring stations were identified as less important in explaining the annual variance of the data set, and therefore could be the non-principal stations. In addition, the PFA technique was also employed to identify important water quality parameters. Results reveal that total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, dissolved nitrate and nitrite, orthophosphate, alkalinity, salinity, Mg, and Ca were the parameters that are most important in assessing variations of water quality in the river. This study suggests that PCA and PFA techniques are useful tools for identification of important surface water quality monitoring stations and parameters.

  9. Flash Point: Evaluation, Experimentation and Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, J. R.; Freeman, D. K.; Rowley, R. L.; Oscarson, J. L.; Giles, N. F.; Wilding, W. V.

    2010-05-01

    The flash point is an important indicator of the flammability of a chemical. For safety purposes, many data compilations report the lowest value and not the most likely. This practice, combined with improper documentation and poor data storage methods, has resulted in compilations filled with fire-hazard data that are inconsistent with related properties and between members of homologous chemical series. In this study, the flash points reported in the DIPPR® 801 database and more than 1,400 other literature values were critically reviewed based on measurement method, inter-property relations, and trends in chemical series. New measurements for seven compounds illustrate the differences between experimental flash points and data commonly found in fire-hazard compilations. With a critically reviewed set of experimental data, published predictive methods for the flash point were evaluated for accuracy.

  10. Meteorological profiles comparison from global models and experimental radiosoundings at the Antarctica station of Belgrano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, J. A.; Yela, M.; Parrondo, M. C.; Ochoa, H.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ozonesoundings are launched from Antarctic Belgrano station (77.87S, 34.62W) since 1999 in the framework of an extensive stratospheric trace-gas measurement program. In the frame of VIOLIN (Extended Vertical Investigation of the Ozone Layer In ANtarctica) project and as a previous step in the application of meteorological models, a comparison-validation exercise has been carried out using simulations and experimental profiles. The aim is to assess the reliability of the meteorological files obtained from global models which could be used as input data in models of higher spatial resolution. Meteorological profiles (potential temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) have been obtained from ECMWF and NCEP-GDAS models with a spatial resolution of 1°x1° and 14 vertical levels from 950 to 500 mb. The simulated profiles have been compared with in situ soundings at Belgrano. A total of 83 soundings covering the period from 2009 to 2010 have been used. Data have been grouped in three period's: diurnal, nocturnal and transition diurnal-nocturnal or vice versa. The comparison has been performed with the statistical root mean square deviation (RMSD) and BIAS for the four meteorological variables. Results show that potential temperature using both models and wind speed with NCEP-GDAS are underestimated while the rest of parameters are overestimated. The RMSD of the potential temperature ranges between 1.7 and 3.2 °C with a BIAS of -0.18 to -0.74 °C. No differences were found according to the time of the year. The relative humidity analysis shows a RMSD between 21.4 and 30.2 % while the BIAS was ranging from 9.9 to 14.8 %. Best results have been obtained in the transition period. For the wind speed the RMSD oscillate between 2.9 and 4.9 m/s with a BIAS from -0.35 to 0.31 m/s. The wind direction is the parameter with the highest differences, RMSD between 68 and 104°, with a BIAS from 34 to 62°. The highest differences have been found for the diurnal period

  11. Structural evaluation of concepts for a solar energy concentrator for Space Station advanced development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, Winfred S.; Rhodes, Marvin D.

    1994-01-01

    Solar dynamic power systems have a higher thermodynamic efficiency than conventional photovoltaic systems; therefore they are attractive for long-term space missions with high electrical power demands. In an investigation conducted in support of a preliminary concept for Space Station Freedom, an approach for a solar dynamic power system was developed and a number of the components for the solar concentrator were fabricated for experimental evaluation. The concentrator consists of hexagonal panels comprised of triangular reflective facets which are supported by a truss. Structural analyses of the solar concentrator and the support truss were conducted using finite-element models. A number of potential component failure scenarios were postulated and the resulting structural performance was assessed. The solar concentrator and support truss were found to be adequate to meet a 1.0-Hz structural dynamics design requirement in pristine condition. However, for some of the simulated component failure conditions, the fundamental frequency dropped below the 1.0-Hz design requirement. As a result, two alternative concepts were developed and assessed. One concept incorporated a tetrahedral ring truss support for the hexagonal panels: the second incorporated a full tetrahedral truss support for the panels. The results indicate that significant improvements in stiffness can be obtained by attaching the panels to a tetrahedral truss, and that this concentrator and support truss will meet the 1.0-Hz design requirement with any of the simulated failure conditions.

  12. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  13. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Nitinol 60 for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation of Nitinol 60 was performed because this alloy is considered a candidate bearing material for the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), specifically in the Urine Processing Assembly of the International Space Station. An SCC evaluation that preceded this one during the 2013-2014 timeframe included various alloys: Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, titanium (Ti) commercially pure (CP), Ti 6Al-4V, extra-low interstitial (ELI) Ti 6Al-4V, and Cronidur 30. In that evaluation, most specimens were exposed for a year. The results of that evaluation were published in NASA/TM-2015-218206, entitled "Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System,"1 available at the NASA Scientific and Technical Information program web page: http://www.sti.nasa.gov. Nitinol 60 was added to the test program in 2014.

  14. Performance evaluation and analysis of a novel 300-mm combination bake-chill station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Arunn; Ramanan, Natarajan R.; Williams, Daniel J.

    2003-06-01

    DUV resists are extremely sensitive to temperature variations on the wafer during bake and chill cycles. In resist-processing tracks today, the wafer is moved by a robot or transfer arm, from the bake to chill plate. During this move, since the resist is still above the activation temperature, the wafer temperature is uncontrolled until it is placed on a chill plate. In the new station design presented here, the wafer is heated to the desired bake temperature and chilled back to room temperature before being moved by the robot, resulting in a tight temperature control of the wafer, throughout the process. Two models, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional (geometrically similar to the new station), are generated for analyzing the thermal performance of the above station. The numerical simulations, solving the momentum and energy equations in the computational domain, are performed using the commercial CFD software Fluent. The simulated temporal evolution of temperature from the beginning to the end of the bake-chill process is verified with the experimental data as measured by a 42-point OnWafer temperature sensor wafer on the new station. Methods to improve wafer surface temperature uniformity, in light of bake-chill-station mechanical and thermal design losses are discussed. Higher throughput of the cluster, a major productivity improvement contribution of this new design, is also highlighted.

  15. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  16. A simulation model for reliability evaluation of space station power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, C.; Patton, A.D.; Kumar, M. ); Wagner, H. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed simulation model for reliability evaluation of space station electrical power systems. Dependence of reliability and storage characteristics during the sun and eclipse periods is considered. The charging and discharging of energy storage modules is included on a continuous basis. Sample system studies are also presented.

  17. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorchies, F.; Fedorov, N.; Lecherbourg, L.

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%-20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ˜1 mn and ˜100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  18. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  19. Neutral buoyancy evaluation of technologies for space station external operations. [EVA weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.; Spofford, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to perform a complete systems analysis for almost any large space program, it is vital to have a thorough understanding of human capabilities in extravehicular activity (EVA). The present investigation is concerned with the most significant results from the MIT Space Systems Lab's neutral buoyancy tests. An evaluation of neutral buoyancy is considered along with the tested structures, aspects of learning, productivity, time and motion analysis, and assembly loads. Attention is given to EVA assembly with a manned maneuvering unit, teleoperated structural assembly, an integrated control station, a beam assembly teleoperator, and space station proximity operations.

  20. Evaluation of newly installed SWEPOS mast stations, individual vs. type PCV antenna models and comparison with pillar stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Jivall, Lotti; Lilje, Christina; Steffen, Holger; Lidberg, Martin; Johansson, Jan; Jarlemark, Per

    2016-04-01

    For about two decades, SWEPOS (the Swedish Permanent GNSS network) pillar stations have been used in different geodetic and geodynamic studies. To keep continuous measurements of these long lived pillar stations and at the same time modernizing the SWEPOS network, it has been decided to install new truss mast stations, equipped with modern and individually calibrated antennas and radomes, capable of tracking all new GNSS satellites. Installation of mast stations started in 2011. Today, each pillar station in the SWEPOS permanent GNSS network has a close-by truss mast station, mostly in 10 meters distance with individual calibrated Leica choke ring antenna and its attachment (LEIAR25.R3, LEIT). Due to their closeness to pillars, the modern mast stations may provide additional information for the analysis of ground movements in Sweden e.g. to distinguish between tectonic and geodynamic processes (e.g. land uplift in Sweden). In this study, we have used two datasets from two different seasons for 21 pillars and 21 mast stations and formed different networks. The mast network has been processed using both IGS standard (type) and individually calibrated PCV (Phase Center Variation) models and therefore the effect of these two different PCV models on height components has been investigated. In a combined network, we processed all 42 stations (21 pillars+21 mast) to see how this multi-baseline network (861 baselines) combination differs from independent mast or pillar networks with much less baselines (210 baselines). For our analysis, we used the GAMIT-GLOBK software and compared different networks. Ambiguity resolutions, daily coordinate repeatability and differences between height components in different solutions are presented. Moreover, the GAMIT and BERNESE solutions for combined mast and pillar networks are compared. Our results suggest that the SWEPOS truss mast stations can reliably be used for crustal deformation studies. The comparison between pillar and mast

  1. Experimental stations as a tool to teach soil science at the University of Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi

    2010-05-01

    This paper shows the strategies used at the University of Valencia (Department of Geography. Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group) to teach soil science at the Geography and Enviromental Science Degrees. The use of the Montesa and El Teularet research stations contribute with a better knowledge on soil science for the students as they can see the measurements carried out in the field. Students visit the stations and contribute to measurements and sampling every season. The use of meteorological stations, erosion plots, soil moisture and soil temperatures probes, and sampling give the students the chances to understand the theoretical approach they use to have. This presentation will show how the students evolve, and how their knowledge in soil science is improved.

  2. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hajdu, Janos

    2011-04-01

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  3. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi-Elettra free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Zangrando, Marco; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; and others

    2011-04-15

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  4. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  5. A volatile organic analyzer for Space Station: Description and evaluation of a gas chromatography/ ion mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) is being developed as an essential component of the Space Station's Environmental Health System (EHS) air quality monitoring strategy to provide warning to the crew and ground personnel if volatile organic compounds exceed established exposure limits. The short duration of most Shuttle flights and the relative simplicity of the contaminant removal mechanism have lessened the concern about crew exposure to air contaminants on the Shuttle. However, the longer missions associated with the Space Station, the complex air revitalization system and the proposed number of experiments have led to a desire for real-time monitoring of the contaminants in the Space Station atmosphere. Achieving the performance requirements established for the VOA within the Space Station resource (e.g., power, weight) allocations led to a novel approach that joined a gas chromatograph (GC) to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors of this paper will discuss the rational for selecting the GC/IMS technology as opposed to the more established gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the foundation of the VOA. The data presented from preliminary evaluations will demonstrate the versatile capability of the GC/IMS to analyze the major contaminants expected in the Space Station atmosphere. The favorable GC/IMS characteristics illustrated in this paper included excellent sensitivity, dual-mode operation for selective detection, and mobility drift times to distinguish co-eluting GC peaks. Preliminary studies have shown that the GC/IMS technology can meet surpass the performance requirements of the Space Station VOA.

  6. A volatile organic analyzer for Space Station: Description and evaluation of a gas chromatography/ ion mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) is being developed as an essential component of the Space Station's Environmental Health System (EHS) air quality monitoring strategy to provide warning to the crew and ground personnel if volatile organic compounds exceed established exposure limits. The short duration of most Shuttle flights and the relative simplicity of the contaminant removal mechanism have lessened the concern about crew exposure to air contaminants on the Shuttle. However, the longer missions associated with the Space Station, the complex air revitalization system and the proposed number of experiments have led to a desire for real-time monitoring of the contaminants in the Space Station atmosphere. Achieving the performance requirements established for the VOA within the Space Station resource (e.g., power, weight) allocations led to a novel approach that joined a gas chromatograph (GC) to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors of this paper will discuss the rational for selecting the GC/IMS technology as opposed to the more established gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the foundation of the VOA. The data presented from preliminary evaluations will demonstrate the versatile capability of the GC/IMS to analyze the major contaminants expected in the Space Station atmosphere. The favorable GC/IMS characteristics illustrated in this paper included excellent sensitivity, dual-mode operation for selective detection, and mobility drift times to distinguish co-eluting GC peaks. Preliminary studies have shown that the GC/IMS technology can meet surpass the performance requirements of the Space Station VOA.

  7. Experimental evaluation of attic radiant barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Asmar, H.R.; Jones, B.W.; Matteson, D.K.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents the results of ASHRAE Research Project 577-RP, Attic Radiant Barrier Systems, an experimental study to evaluate the impact of radiant barrier systems on summer cooling loads in residential buildings. A simulated attic was built inside the entire area of a 24-ft by 12-ft environmental chamber. A total of 72 steady-state experiments were conducted. Roof temperature varied from attic ventilation varied from 0 to 2.0 cfm/ft{sup 2} and nominal R-11 and R-19 insulations were used in the experiments. Three radiant barrier configurations were used: under the roof deck between the rafters, directly over the ceiling insulation, and with no radiant barrier. Additional experiments were conducted to examine the movement of ventilation air inside the attic. The results show reductions in attic heat gains ranging from 17% to 26% with no ventilation and from 24% to 42% when the attic was ventilated. The location of the radiant barrier had little effect on ceiling heat gain. In addition to reducing ceiling heat gains, the radiant barrier mounted under the roof reduced attic temperatures 10 F to 15 F (6 C to 8 C) under typical conditions. The radiant barrier mounted over the ceiling insulation had a lesser effect on attic air temperature. Soffit-to-ridge ventilation was more effective in reducing ceiling heat gains than gable-to-gable ventilation.

  8. Integrated regenerative fuel cell experimental evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of an integrated regenerative fuel cell (IRFC) concept. The IRFC consists of a separate fuel cell unit and electrolysis cell unit in the same structure, with internal storage of fuel cell product water and external storage of electrolysis cell produced hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell unit incorporates an enhanced Orbiter-type cell capable of improved performance at reduced weight. The electrolysis cell features a NiCo2O4 catalyst oxygen evolution eletrode with a porous Teflon cover to retard electrolyte loss. Six complete IRFC assemblies were assembled and performance tested at an operating temperature of 200 F (93.3 C) and reactant pressures up to 170 psia (117.2 n/cu cm) on IRFC No. 4. Anomalous pressure charge/discharge characteristics were encountered during performance evaluation. A reversible fuel cell incorporating a proprietary bi-functional oxygen electrode operated satisfactory at 200 F (93.3 C) at reactant pressures up to 50 psia (41.4 n/cu cm) as a regenerative fuel cell for one cycle, before developing an electrical short in the fuel cell mode. Electrolysis cell 300-hour endurance tests demonstrated the electrolyte retention capability of the electrode Teflon cover and the performance stability of the bi-functional oxygen electrode at high potential.

  9. An Experimental Evaluation of Oil Pumping Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusepi, M. W.; Walowit, J.; Cohen, M.

    1981-01-01

    The design and construction of a reciprocating test vehicle to be used in evaluating hydrodynamic oil pumping rings are discussed. In addition, experimental test data are presented for three pumping ring designs that were constructed from Tin-Based Babbitt (SAE 11), Bearing Bronze (SAE 660), and Mechanical Carbon Graphite (Union Carbide Grade CNF-J). Data of pumped flow rate versus delivered pressure, as well as friction loss, are reported for the following conditions: frequencies of 10, 35 and 45 Hz; strokes of 25.4 mm (1.00 in.), 38.1 mm (1.50 in.) and 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) oil inlet temperature of 49 degrees (120 degrees); and pumping ring close-in pressures of 10.3 MPa (1500 lb/square inch. A 20W40 automotive oil was used for all tests. The maximum delivered pressure was 11 MPa (1600 lb/square inch. An analysis of hydrodynamic oil pumping rings was performed and the results of the analysis were compared to measured test data.

  10. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  11. DELTAMETHRIN IMPREGNATED MOSQUITO NETS : AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN AN AIR FORCE STATION IN CENTRAL INDIA (DELTAMETHRIN TRIAL).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Nayak, B

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets in reducing malaria incidence under field conditions in an Air Force Station. Out of the total study population of 748 airmen and DSC personnel, 320 got their mosquito nets impregnated with deltamethrin, while 428 used unimpregnated mosquito nets. During the three months observation period, there was no significant difference in malaria incidence among the two groups (Yates Chi Sq=0.05, p=0.829405, Relative risk = 0.96 with 95% CI between 031 and 2.98). In view of study findings, it was concluded that in the station, use of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets will not reduce incidence of malaria appreciably, the stress has to be on outdoor personal protective measures.

  12. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.; Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Korean Seismological Research Station Short-Period Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-29

    PREUMINARV (VAIUAVION OF THE KOREAN SEISMOlOCICAl RESEARCH STAIION SHORT PERIOO ARRAY TECHNICAL REPORT NO. S VELA NETWORK EVAIUAT10N AND AUTOMATIC... accomplished under the tech. nical direction of the Air Force Technical Applications Center under Contract No. F08606-7 5-(,-0029. FORMATION SERVICE...34 ALEX(01)-TR-75-05 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE KOREAN SEISMOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION SHORT PERIOD ARRAY TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 5 VELA NETWORK

  14. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  15. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Luz, Paul; Smith, Guy; Spivey, Reggie; Jeter, Linda; Gillies, Donald; Hua, Fay; Anikumar, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting "real-time" and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  16. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting real-time and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  17. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Luz, Paul; Smith, Guy; Spivey, Reggie; Jeter, Linda; Gillies, Donald; Hua, Fay; Anikumar, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting "real-time" and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  18. Materials Research Conducted Aboard the International Space Station: Facilities Overview, Operational Procedures, and Experimental Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) and Maintenance Work Area (MWA) are facilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that were used to successfully conduct experiments in support of, respectively, the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI). The capabilities of these facilities are briefly discussed and then demonstrated by presenting real-time and subsequently down-linked video-taped examples from the abovementioned experiments. Data interpretation, ISS telescience, some lessons learned, and the need of such facilities for conducting work in support of understanding materials behavior, particularly fluid processing and transport scenarios, in low-gravity environments is discussed.

  19. Comparison between the results of calculation and experimental aerodynamic studies of the exhaust hoods used in the low-pressure cylinders of steam turbines of nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkov, E. I.; Mikhailov, V. E.; Lisyanskii, A. S.; Nazarov, V. V.; Epifanov, V. K.; Baranovskaya, L. V.

    2012-03-01

    Results from calculation and experimental aerodynamic studies of the exhaust hood used in the low-pressure cylinder of a prospective steam turbine for a nuclear power station are presented, and their comparison is given.

  20. Ada compiler evaluation on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the work in progress to select the Ada compilers for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Software Support Environment (SSE) project. The purpose of the SSE Ada compiler evaluation team is to establish the criteria, test suites, and benchmarks to be used for evaluating Ada compilers for the mainframes, workstations, and the realtime target for flight- and ground-based computers. The combined efforts and cooperation of the customer, subcontractors, vendors, academia and SIGAda groups made it possible to acquire the necessary background information, benchmarks, test suites, and criteria used.

  1. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  2. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  3. Synthesized multi-station tribo-test system for bio-tribological evaluation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tonghai; Du, Ying; Li, Yang; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Zhinan

    2016-07-01

    Tribological tests play an important role on the evaluation of long-term bio-tribological performances of prosthetic materials for commercial fabrication. Those tests focus on the motion simulation of a real joint in vitro with only normal loads and constant velocities, which are far from the real friction behavior of human joints characterized with variable loads and multiple directions. In order to accurately obtain the bio-tribological performances of artificial joint materials, a tribological tester with a miniature four-station tribological system is proposed with four distinctive features. Firstly, comparability and repeatability of a test are ensured by four equal stations of the tester. Secondly, cross-linked scratch between tribo-pairs of human joints can be simulated by using a gear-rack meshing mechanism to produce composite motions. With this mechanism, the friction tracks can be designed by varying reciprocating and rotating speeds. Thirdly, variable loading system is realized by using a ball-screw mechanism driven by a stepper motor, by which loads under different gaits during walking are simulated. Fourthly, dynamic friction force and normal load can be measured simultaneously. The verifications of the performances of the developed tester show that the variable frictional tracks can produce different wear debris compared with one-directional tracks, and the accuracy of loading and friction force is within ±5%. Thus the high consistency among different stations can be obtained. Practically, the proposed tester system could provide more comprehensive and accurate bio-tribological evaluations for prosthetic materials.

  4. [Experimental evaluation of the wound healing dynamics].

    PubMed

    Minaev, S V

    2003-01-01

    The experimental clinical investigation of the influence of systemic enzymotherapy on the course of the wound process was carried out in rats and in clinic. The rats of the experimental group have demonstrated more rapid debridement of the wound from blood clots and tissue detritus, intensive formation of granular tissue and its ripening. The experimental investigation has shown that using the preparation of systemic enzymotherapy (Vobenzyme) stimulates processes of healing at the expense of quicker changing the inflammation phases as well as prevents the development of early and late complications on the side of postoperative wounds. It was confirmed by clinical observations in 36 patients from 4 to 14 years of age.

  5. Experimental evaluation of pedestrian-level winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Sadek Wahba

    The presence of tall buildings has in many cases created uncomfortable and dangerous wind conditions at pedestrian level. Here a successful simple methodology was established to evaluate pedestrian level winds in a built-up urban terrain. Experiments were conducted using a 1:300 geometric scale model of the University of Minnesota hospital complex (UOMHC) and its surroundings, known for their unpleasant wind conditions. The UOMHC model was exposed to an accurately simulated atmospheric boundary layer in the SAFL wind tunnel. The modeling criteria for wind tunnel simulation of atmospheric flows and the applicability of the simulation to the experimental study are presented and discussed. The comparison between the available prototype data and the corresponding wind tunnel data showed in general good agreement for the two tested wind directions; west and northwest. Velocity measurements underneath Unit B indicated that the pedestrian access to the PWB and Unit B buildings is the worst location along the street for a door. A combination of sand scour tests, fog flow visualization, and tests using the oil film technique was applied to determine the wind environment in the UOMHC model. Sand scour tests supplied contour lines for the relative wind speeds. The scour technique can be used to estimate wind speed. The results using fine sand indicated that the scour contours most closely reflect the mean wind speeds measured by hot-film anemometers close to the ground. Fog flow visualization allowed good insight into the movement of the airstream. The average direction of the wind at ground level was shown clearly by the oil film technique. All the three visualization techniques indicated high pedestrian level winds under Unit B. The use of various combinations of wind barriers to alleviate the problems of pedestrian discomfort induced by wind effects at the UOMHC were proposed and investigated. The results of a barrier, installed as a canopy at Unit B, indicated its

  6. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Lemmon, David R.; Sommer, H. Joseph; Prout, Brian; Smith, Damon; Korth, Deborah W.; Lucero, Javier; Greenisen, Michael; Moore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 deg, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

  7. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for use on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    McCrory, J L; Lemmon, D R; Sommer, H J; Prout, B; Smith, D; Korth, D W; Lucero, J; Greenisen, M; Moore, J; Kozlovskaya, I; Pestov, I; Stepansov, V; Miyakinchenko, Y; Cavanagh, P R

    1999-08-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 degrees, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

  8. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Lemmon, David R.; Sommer, H. Joseph; Prout, Brian; Smith, Damon; Korth, Deborah W.; Lucero, Javier; Greenisen, Michael; Moore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 deg, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

  9. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Toxicity evaluation and source apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three stations in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hanedar, Asude; Alp, Kadir; Kaynak, Burçak; Avşar, Edip

    2014-08-01

    This paper focuses on the toxicity evaluation and source apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three monitoring stations in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 326 airborne samples were collected and analyzed for 16 PAHs and Total Suspended Particles (TSP) for the period of September 2006-December 2007. The total average PAH concentrations were 100.7±61.3, 84.6±46.7 and 25.1±13.3 ng m(-3) and the TSP concentrations were 101.2±53.2, 152.3±99.1, 49.8±18.6 μg m(-3) for URB1, URB2 and RUR stations, respectively. Benzo(a)Pyren (BaP) toxic equivalency factors to PAH concentration values were calculated indicating that the health risk of BaP and DiBenz(a,h)Anthracene (markers of traffic emissions) have the highest contribution compared to all of the other species measured at the sampling sites. In order to determine PAH sources, two different source apportionment techniques were applied to the measurements; diagnostic ratios (DR) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The results of the two applications were compatible indicating the vehicle emissions - especially diesel engines - as the major source for urban stations.

  11. Evaluation and experimentation with duck management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of hunting regulations on duck populations has been based largely on retrospective studies of historical data. We have reached the limits of what can be learned in this way. Future knowledge gains will likely come about only through experimentation and adaptive management.

  12. From waste to energy: First experimental bacterial fuel cells onboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.; Rutgers, R.

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial Fuel Cells are innovative energy systems that use bacteria to transform carbohydrates anaerobically into free electrons and waste products. The bacteria deposit the electrons on the anode and hence create a potential difference between the anode and the cathode, yielding a `bacterial battery'. This principle may be favourably influenced by enhanced bacterial productivity or bacterial growth in microgravity conditions, as is shown before in several other studies on bacteria in microgravity. Nonetheless, bacterial fuel cells have not been tested in space before. Currently foreseen applications are very promising for space flight and include waste disposal in manned space vehicles. This study describes a `space-first'test of bacterial fuel cells onboard the International Space Station using the Rhodoferax ferrireducens strain. We test if it is possible to use a bacterial fuel cell in 1g and under both simulated (RPM) and real microgravity conditions. Due to differences in magnitude of the output the data had to be normalized and cumulatively plotted. In all, it can be concluded that bacterial fuel cells show similar phases in the output under different gravitational conditions. Hence it can be concluded from a biological point of view that bacterial fuel cells do operate in space.

  13. Design studies and commissioning plans for plasma acceleration research station experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Mete, O.; Xia, G.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.

    2015-10-15

    Plasma acceleration research station is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the interaction between the electron beam and the plasma is numerically characterised via 2D numerical studies by using VSIM code. The wakefields induced by a single bunch travelling through the plasma were found to vary from 200 MV/m to 3 GV/m for a range of bunch length, bunch radius, and plasma densities. Energy gain for the particles populating the bunch tail through the wakefields driven by the head of the bunch was demonstrated. After determining the achievable field for various beams and plasma configurations, a reference setting was determined for further studies. Considering this reference setting, the beam quality studies were performed for a two-bunch acceleration case. The maximum energy gain as well as the energy spread mitigation by benefiting from the beam loading was investigated by positioning the witness and driver bunches with respect to each other. Emittance growth mechanisms were studied considering the beam-plasma and beam-wakefield interactions. Eventually, regarding the findings, the initial commissioning plans and the aims for the later stages were summarised.

  14. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    A stress corrosion evaluation was performed on Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276, titanium commercially pure (TiCP), Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V extra low interstitial, and Cronidur 30 steel as a consequence of a change in formulation of the pretreatment for processing the urine in the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Urine Processing Assembly from a sulfuric acid-based to a phosphoric acid-based solution. The first five listed were found resistant to stress corrosion in the pretreatment and brine. However, some of the Cronidur 30 specimens experienced reduction in load-carrying ability.

  15. A human factors evaluation of the robotic interface for Space Station Freedom orbital replaceable units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Hwang, Ellen Y.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay

    1992-01-01

    An orbital replaceable unit (ORU) is often defined as any orbital unit aboard Space Station with a wearout life of less than 30 years. The capability of successful changeout of these units by remote manipulation is critical to the ORU to telerobot interface design. A human factors evaluation of the selected interface showed certain inadequacies of the alignment target concept that was part of the interface package. Alternative target concepts which addressed these inadequacies were developed and are presented. Recommendations will be incorporated into NASA requirements documents which ORU suppliers and manufacturers must then build to.

  16. Evaluation of auxiliary tempering pump effectiveness at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, L.C.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-08-01

    The effectiveness of auxiliary tempering pump operation at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) at reducing plant-induced mortality of aquatic biota was evaluated. Several Representative Important Species (RIS) and dominant benthic and zooplankton species were used in the evaluation as indicators of overall system-wide responses. Expected mortality with and without auxiliary pump operation was estimated using thermal tolerance data available from the scientific literature for blue crabs, white perch, striped bass, spot, Macoma balthica and Acartia tonsa. The evaluation led to the conclusion that the operation of auxiliary tempering pumps at Chalk Point SES increases plant-induced mortality of spot, white perch, striped bass, and zooplankton. Operation of the tempering pumps may reduce blue crab mortality slightly under certain circumstances, and Macoma balthica mortality is probably largely unaffected by their operation.

  17. Theoretical Evaluation of Electromagnetic Emissions from GSM900 Mobile Telephony Base Stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Alkbash, Jehad Abu; ALMasri, Hussien

    2016-04-21

    Theoretical assessments of power density in far-field conditions were used to evaluate the levels of environmental electromagnetic frequencies from selected GSM900 macrocell base stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Assessments were based on calculating the power densities using commercially available software (RF-Map from Telstra Research Laboratories-Australia). Calculations were carried out for single base stations with multiantenna systems and also for multiple base stations with multiantenna systems at 1.7 m above the ground level. More than 100 power density levels were calculated at different locations around the investigated base stations. These locations include areas accessible to the general public (schools, parks, residential areas, streets and areas around kindergartens). The maximum calculated electromagnetic emission level resulted from a single site was 0.413 μW cm(-2)and found at Hizma town near Jerusalem. Average maximum power density from all single sites was 0.16 μW cm(-2) The results of all calculated power density levels in 100 locations distributed over the West Bank and Gaza were nearly normally distributed with a peak value of ~0.01% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's limit recommended for general public. Comparison between calculated and experimentally measured value of maximum power density from a base station showed that calculations overestimate the actual measured power density by ~27%.

  18. A methodology for automation and robotics evaluation applied to the space station telerobotic servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyanfi, Max; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The efforts of a recent study aimed at identifying key issues and trade-offs associated with using a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to aid in Space Station assembly-phase tasks is described. The use of automation and robotic (A and R) technologies for large space systems would involve a substitution of automation capabilities for human extravehicular or intravehicular activities (EVA, IVA). A methodology is presented that incorporates assessment of candidate assembly-phase tasks, telerobotic performance capabilities, development costs, and effect of operational constraints (space transportation system (STS), attached payload, and proximity operations). Changes in the region of cost-effectiveness are examined under a variety of systems design assumptions. A discussion of issues is presented with focus on three roles the FTS might serve: (1) as a research-oriented testbed to learn more about space usage of telerobotics; (2) as a research based testbed having an experimental demonstration orientation with limited assembly and servicing applications; or (3) as an operational system to augment EVA and to aid the construction of the Space Station and to reduce the programmatic (schedule) risk by increasing the flexibility of mission operations.

  19. The Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction. As community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a health concern in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts aboard ISS or the space station itself. Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis of archived ISS isolates confirmed our earlier studies indicating a transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers. In addition, this fingerprinting also indicated a transfer between crewmembers and their environment. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and the environment, phenotypic evaluations indicated minimal methicillin resistance. However, positive results for the Penicillin Binding Protein, indicative of the presence of the mecA gene, were detected in multiple isolates of archived Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Phenotypic analysis of these isolates confirmed their resistance to methicillin. While MRSA has not been isolated aboard ISS, the potential exists for the transfer of the gene, mecA, from coagulase negative environmental Staphylococcus to S. aureus creating MRSA strains. This study suggests the need to expand environmental monitoring aboard long duration exploration spacecraft to include antibiotic resistance profiling.

  20. Evaluation of environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline service stations by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Zambudio, A; Prado, C

    1997-08-22

    The volume of gasoline sold in refuelling operations and the ambient temperature, can increase significantly the environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbon vapours and subsequently, the occupational risk of gasoline service station attendants, specially in the case of benzene. We have evaluated the occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons by means of personal-breathing-zone samples of gasoline vapours in a service station attendant population. This evaluation was carried out using diffusive samplers, in two periods at quite different temperatures (March and July). A significant relationship between the volume of gasoline sold during the shift and the ambient concentration of benzene, toluene, and xylenes was found for each worker sampled. Furthermore a significant difference was found between the time-weighted average concentration of aromatic compounds measured in March, with ambient temperatures of 14-15 degrees C and July, with temperatures of 28-30 degrees C. In addition, 20% of the population sampled in the last period were exposed to a time-weighted average concentration of benzene above the proposed Threshold Limit Value of 960 micrograms/m(3) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  1. The Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction. As community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a health concern in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts aboard ISS or the space station itself. Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis of archived ISS isolates confirmed our earlier studies indicating a transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers. In addition, this fingerprinting also indicated a transfer between crewmembers and their environment. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and the environment, phenotypic evaluations indicated minimal methicillin resistance. However, positive results for the Penicillin Binding Protein, indicative of the presence of the mecA gene, were detected in multiple isolates of archived Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Phenotypic analysis of these isolates confirmed their resistance to methicillin. While MRSA has not been isolated aboard ISS, the potential exists for the transfer of the gene, mecA, from coagulase negative environmental Staphylococcus to S. aureus creating MRSA strains. This study suggests the need to expand environmental monitoring aboard long duration exploration spacecraft to include antibiotic resistance profiling.

  2. Evaluation of Pactruss design characteristics critical to space station primary structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the possible application of the Pactruss concept to the primary truss structure of the space station are investigated. Estimates are made of the loads and hinge moments in deploying diagonal members as full deployment is approached. Included are the effects of beam columning and compliance of the surrounding structure. Requirements for joint design are suggested and a two-stage mid-diagonal latching hinge concept is described or analyzed. The problems with providing the experimental and theoretical tools needed for assuring reliable synchronous deployment are discussed and a first attempt at high-fidelity analytical simulation with NASTRAN is described. An alternative construction scenario in which the entire dual-keel truss structure is deployed as a single Shuttle payload is suggested.

  3. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  4. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by

  5. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  6. Evaluation of high-resolution precipitation analyses using a dense station network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, A.; Meirold-Mautner, I.; Schmid, F.; Kirchengast, G.; Fuchsberger, J.; Meyer, V.; Tüchler, L.; Bica, B.

    2015-03-01

    The ability of radar-rain gauge merging algorithms to precisely analyse convective precipitation patterns is of high interest for many applications, e.g. hydrological modelling, thunderstorm warnings, and, as a reference, to spatially validate numerical weather prediction models. However, due to drawbacks of methods like cross-validation and due to the limited availability of reference data sets on high temporal and spatial scales, an adequate validation is usually hardly possible, especially on an operational basis. The present study evaluates the skill of very high-resolution and frequently updated precipitation analyses (rapid-INCA) by means of a very dense weather station network (WegenerNet), operated in a limited domain of the southeastern parts of Austria (Styria). Based on case studies and a longer-term validation over the convective season 2011, a general underestimation of the rapid-INCA precipitation amounts is shown by both continuous and categorical verification measures, although the temporal and spatial variability of the errors is - by convective nature - high. The contribution of the rain gauge measurements to the analysis skill is crucial. However, the capability of the analyses to precisely assess the convective precipitation distribution predominantly depends on the representativeness of the stations under the prevalent convective condition.

  7. Combining Meteorological Stations and Satellite data to Evaluate the Offshore Wind Power Resource of Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, F. M.; Kempton, W.; Garvine, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    Wind is strong and steady over the ocean, but on-site marine meteorological data are sparse. Here we draw on meteorological station, satellite data (QuikSCAT), and both theoretical and practical measures of wind turbine performance. The meteorological stations give high time resolution direct measurements at a few points and provide validation and adjustment of the satellite data. The satellite data provide near-complete area coverage at lower time resolution. For the southern coast of Brazil, we use both data sets to evaluate the location, timing, and availability of the resource. Then, using bathymetry and the properties of current wind-electric technology, we develop maps of wind speed, wind power density, and practical turbine output in power units (GW). In the shallower waters of south Brazil, along only one coastal area situated between 28°S and 33°S we find a total resource of 102 GW average electrical production. The potential electrical output of this one coastal region based on current technology is near today's average electric demand for the country.

  8. Evaluating Precipitation Elevation Gradients in the Alaska Range using Ice Core and Alpine Weather Station Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.; Ferris, D. G.; Birkel, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation in Alaska is sensitive to the Aleutian Low (ALow) pressure system and North Pacific sea-surface temperatures, as shown by the increase in Alaskan sub-Arctic precipitation associated with the 1976 shift to the positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Precipitation in the high-elevation accumulation zones of Alaskan alpine glaciers provides critical mass input for glacial mass balance, which has been declining in recent decades from warmer summer temperatures despite the winter precipitation increase. Twin >1500-year ice cores collected from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska show a remarkable doubling of annual snow accumulation over the past 150 years, with most of the change observed in the winter. Other alpine ice cores collected from the Alaska and Saint Elias ranges show similar snowfall increases over recent decades. However, although Alaskan weather stations at low elevation recorded a 7-38% increase in winter precipitation across the 1976 PDO transition, this increase is not as substantial as that recorded in the Mt. Hunter ice core. Weather stations at high-elevation alpine sites are comparatively rare, and reasons for the enhanced precipitation trends at high elevation in Alaska remain unclear. Here we use Automatic Weather Station data from the Mt. Hunter drill site (3,900 m a.s.l) and from nearby Denali climber's Base Camp (2,195 m a.s.l.) to evaluate the relationships between alpine and lowland Alaskan precipitation on annual, seasonal, and storm-event temporal scales from 2008-2016. Both stations are located on snow and have sonic snow depth sounders to record daily precipitation. We focus on the role of variable ALow and North Pacific High strength in influencing Alaskan precipitation elevational gradients, particularly in association with the extreme 2015-2016 El Niño event, the 2009-2010 moderate El Niño event, and the 2010-2011 moderate La Niña event. Our analysis will improve our

  9. The Black Lake (Quebec, Canada) mineral carbonation experimental station: CO2 capture in mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, G.; Constantin, M.; Duchesne, J.; Dupuis, C.; Entrazi, A.; Gras, A.; Huot, F.; Fortier, R.; Hebert, R.; Larachi, F.; Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Maldague, X.; Therrien, R.; Assima, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Passive mineral carbonation of chrysotile mining and milling waste was discovered at the Black Lake mine, southern Québec, 10 years ago. Indurated crusts were found at the surface and within waste piles where mineral and rock fragments are cemented by hydrated magnesium carbonates. A long-term research program has yielded significant insight into the process of CO2 capture from the atmosphere, and how it can be implemented during mining operations. Laboratory experiments show that the waste mineralogy is crucial, brucite being more reactive than serpentine. Partial water saturation, circa 40%, is also critical to dissolve magnesium from minerals, and transport aqueous CO2 to precipitation sites. Grain armoring by iron oxidation induced by dissolved oxygen prevents further reaction. Two experimental cells constructed with milling waste and fitted with various monitoring probes (T, H2O content, leachate) and gas sampling ports, have been monitored for more than 3 years, along with environmental conditions. The interstitial gas in the cells remains depleted in CO2 indicating continuous capture of ambient atmospheric CO2 at rates faster than advection to reaction sites. The energy released by the exothermic mineral carbonation reactions has been observed both in laboratory experiments (up to 4 °C) and in the field. Warm air, depleted to 10 ppmv CO2, vents at the surface of the waste piles, indicating reaction with atmospheric CO2 deep inside the piles. A thermal anomaly, detected by airborne infrared and coincident with a known venting area, was selected for locating a 100 m deep borehole fitted with sensor arrays to monitor active mineral carbonation within the pile. The borehole has intersected areas where mineral carbonation has indurated the milling waste. The borehole will be monitored for the next 3 years to better understand the mineral carbonation process, and its potential to yield recoverable geothermal energy in mining environments.

  10. [Comparative evaluation of the circulatory reaction during work in weightlessness and in the mockup of the Saliut station].

    PubMed

    Doroshev, V G; Lapshina, N A; Kirillova, Z A; Kulikov, O B; Kaliberdin, A V

    1982-01-01

    Comparative evaluations of circulation responses of 22 operators and 13 cosmonauts to simulated and real flights onboard Salyut station revealed significant differences. By the end of flight cardiovascular responses of the operators showed signs of their increased conditioning, whereas the cosmonauts exhibited symptoms of circulation tension, which were particularly expressed during the first week and by the end of flight. Operators' activities in an orbital station mockup cannot be considered an adequate model for cardiovascular studies.

  11. Payload Invariant Control via Neural Networks: Development and Experimental Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    control is proposed and experimentally evaluated. An Adaptive Model-Based Neural Network Controller (AMBNNC) uses multilayer perceptron artificial neural ... networks to estimate the payload during high speed manipulator motion. The payload estimate adapts the feedforward compensator to unmodeled system

  12. Evaluation of experimental UAV video change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelsen, J.; Saur, G.; Teutsch, C.

    2016-10-01

    During the last ten years, the availability of images acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been continuously increasing due to the improvements and economic success of flight and sensor systems. From our point of view, reliable and automatic image-based change detection may contribute to overcoming several challenging problems in military reconnaissance, civil security, and disaster management. Changes within a scene can be caused by functional activities, i.e., footprints or skid marks, excavations, or humidity penetration; these might be recognizable in aerial images, but are almost overlooked when change detection is executed manually. With respect to the circumstances, these kinds of changes may be an indication of sabotage, terroristic activity, or threatening natural disasters. Although image-based change detection is possible from both ground and aerial perspectives, in this paper we primarily address the latter. We have applied an extended approach to change detection as described by Saur and Kr uger,1 and Saur et al.2 and have built upon the ideas of Saur and Bartelsen.3 The commercial simulation environment Virtual Battle Space 3 (VBS3) is used to simulate aerial "before" and "after" image acquisition concerning flight path, weather conditions and objects within the scene and to obtain synthetic videos. Video frames, which depict the same part of the scene, including "before" and "after" changes and not necessarily from the same perspective, are registered pixel-wise against each other by a photogrammetric concept, which is based on a homography. The pixel-wise registration is used to apply an automatic difference analysis, which, to a limited extent, is able to suppress typical errors caused by imprecise frame registration, sensor noise, vegetation and especially parallax effects. The primary concern of this paper is to seriously evaluate the possibilities and limitations of our current approach for image-based change detection with respect

  13. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  14. Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernicki, M. Chris

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

  15. Evaluation of a voice recognition system for the MOTAS pseudo pilot station function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has undertaken a technology development activity to provide a capability, the mission oriented terminal area simulation (MOTAS), wherein terminal area and aircraft systems studies can be performed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate state-of-the-art voice recognition technology and specifically, the Threshold 600 voice recognition system to serve as an aircraft control input device for the MOTAS pseudo pilot station function. The results of the experiment using ten subjects showed a recognition error of 3.67 percent for a 48-word vocabulary tested against a programmed vocabulary of 103 words. After the ten subjects retrained the Threshold 600 system for the words which were misrecognized or rejected, the recognition error decreased to 1.96 percent. The rejection rates for both cases were less than 0.70 percent. Based on the results of the experiment, voice recognition technology and specifically the Threshold 600 voice recognition system were chosen to fulfill this MOTAS function.

  16. Analysis and evaluation of "noise" of occupational hazards in pumped storage power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Yang, Hongjian; Zhang, Huafei; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the influence of "noise" of occupational hazards on the physical health of workers, the noise intensity of a working area of a hydropower station in China was evaluated comprehensively. Under the condition of power generation, noise detection is conducted on the main patrol area of the operator, and the noise samples in different regions are analyzed and processed by the single factor analysis of variance. The results show that the noise intensity of different working areas is significantly different, in which the overall noise level of the turbine layer is the highest and beyond the national standard, the protection measures need to be strengthened and the noise intensity of the rest area is normal

  17. Test and evaluation of the heat recovery incinerator system at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    This report describes test and evaluation of the two-ton/hr heat recovery incinerator (HRI) facility located at Mayport Naval Station, Fla., carried out during November and December 1980. The tests included: (1) Solid Waste: characterization, heating value, and ultimate analysis, (2) Ash: moisture, combustibles, and heating values of both bottom and cyclone ashes; Extraction Procedure toxicity tests on leachates from both bottom and cyclone ashes; trace metals in cyclone particulates, (3) Stack Emissions: particulates (quantity and size distribution), chlorides, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and trace elements, and (4) Heat and Mass Balance: all measurements required to carry out complete heat and mass balance calculations over the test period. The overall thermal efficiency of the HRI facility while operating at approximately 1.0 ton/hr was found to be 49% when the primary Btu equivalent of the electrical energy consumed during the test program was included.

  18. Model based multivariable controller for large scale compression stations. Design and experimental validation on the LHC 18KW cryorefrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick; Bradu, Benjamin

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, a multivariable model-based non-linear controller for Warm Compression Stations (WCS) is proposed. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to have precise control of every pressure in normal operation or to stabilize and control the cryoplant under high variation of thermal loads (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details how to set the WCS model up to synthesize the Linear Quadratic Optimal feedback gain and how to use it. After preliminary tuning at CEA-Grenoble on the 400W@1.8K helium test facility, the controller has been implemented on a Schneider PLC and fully tested first on the CERN's real-time simulator. Then, it was experimentally validated on a real CERN cryoplant. The efficiency of the solution is experimentally assessed using a reasonable operating scenario of start and stop of compressors and cryogenic turbines. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  19. Model based multivariable controller for large scale compression stations. Design and experimental validation on the LHC 18KW cryorefrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Bonnay, Patrick; Bradu, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a multivariable model-based non-linear controller for Warm Compression Stations (WCS) is proposed. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to have precise control of every pressure in normal operation or to stabilize and control the cryoplant under high variation of thermal loads (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details how to set the WCS model up to synthesize the Linear Quadratic Optimal feedback gain and how to use it. After preliminary tuning at CEA-Grenoble on the 400W@1.8K helium test facility, the controller has been implemented on a Schneider PLC and fully tested first on the CERN's real-time simulator. Then, it was experimentally validated on a real CERN cryoplant. The efficiency of the solution is experimentally assessed using a reasonable operating scenario of start and stop of compressors and cryogenic turbines. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  20. Satellite-Based Investigation and Evaluation of the Observational Environment of Meteorological Stations in Anhui Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Wu, Bi-Wen; Wang, La-Bao; Shi, Chun-E.; Guo, Jian-Xia; Ji, Cheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Yang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, by using multi-temporal and high resolution Landsat data and geographic information system techniques, the land use/land cover (LULC) in the 2-km buffer zone of 52 meteorological stations in the Anhui province of China is retrieved and categorized into three types: vegetation (including farmland, forest and grass land), water (including lakes, rivers and pools), and construction (including buildings and roads). Besides, the land surface temperature (LST) in the buffer zone of these stations is also obtained from thermal infrared data. The normalized LST index (NLI) and the heat effect contribution index (HECI) of different LULC types are calculated. Via case studies and statistical analysis, the LULC and thermal environment's temporal-spatial variance in the 2-km buffer zone of these stations are surveyed, and their impacts on the observational environment are investigated. The study shows that the observational environments of the meteorological stations in Anhui province have been greatly influenced by rapid urbanization. The study proposes two new methods to classify the stations' observational environment into three types (urban, sub-urban, and rural). One uses the NLI and the other uses the HECI. The NLI method needs only LST information. The HECI method combines both LULC and LST information and, hence, is considered more reliable. The evaluation methods and criteria can be used conveniently, effectively, and quantitatively, and are especially useful when analyzing observational data from meteorological stations in weather and climate research and when choosing a location for a new meteorological station.

  1. Evaluation of temperature differences for paired stations of the U.S. Climate Reference Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Adjustments to data observed at pairs of climate stations have been recommended to remove the biases introduced by differences between the stations in time of observation, temperature instrumentatios, latitude, and elevation. A new network of climate stations, located in rural settings, permits comparisons of temperatures for several pairs of stations without two of the biases (time of observation and instrurtientation). The daily, monthly, and annual minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures were compared for five pairs of stations included in the U.S. Climate Reference Network. Significant differences were found between the paired stations in the annual minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures for all five pairs of stations. Adjustments for latitude and elevation differences contributed to greater differences in mean annual temperature for four of the five stations. Lapse rates computed from the mean annual temperature differences between station pairs differed from a constant value, whether or not latitude adjustments were made to the data. The results suggest that microclimate influences on temperatures observed at nearby (horizontally and vertically) stations are potentially much greater than influences that might be due to latitude or elevation differences between the stations. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  2. Experimental evaluation of nonlinear crosstalk in multi-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Macho, Andrés; Morant, Maria; Llorente, Roberto

    2015-07-13

    In this paper we evaluate experimentally and model theoretically the nonlinear crosstalk random process in multi-core fiber. The experimental results indicate that mode coupling in multi-core fibers is reduced in presence of fiber Kerr nonlinearities. An analytical study of the inter-core crosstalk probability density function in nonlinear regime is performed, where the theoretical distribution, derived from the nonlinear coupled-mode equation, is experimentally validated in homogeneous four-core fiber. The herein presented analysis includes the evaluation of the inter-core crosstalk probability density function, mean and variance evolution considering the optical power launched into the fiber.

  3. Automatic Evaluation of Progression Angle and Fetal Head Station through Intrapartum Echographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Perrone, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Labor progression is routinely assessed through transvaginal digital inspections, meaning that the clinical decisions taken during the most delicate phase of pregnancy are subjective and scarcely supported by technological devices. In response to such inadequacies, we combined intrapartum echographic acquisitions with advanced tracking algorithms in a new method for noninvasive, quantitative, and automatic monitoring of labor. Aim of this work is the preliminary clinical validation and accuracy evaluation of our automatic algorithm in assessing progression angle (PA) and fetal head station (FHS). A cohort of 10 parturients underwent conventional labor management, with additional translabial echographic examinations after each uterine contraction. PA and FHS were evaluated by our automatic algorithm on the acquired images. Additionally, an experienced clinical sonographer, blinded regarding the algorithm results, quantified on the same acquisitions of the two parameters through manual contouring, which were considered as the standard reference in the evaluation of automatic algorithm and routine method accuracies. The automatic algorithm (mean error ± 2SD) provided a global accuracy of 0.9 ± 4.0 mm for FHS and 4° ± 9° for PA, which is far above the diagnostic ability shown by the routine method, and therefore it resulted in a reliable method for earlier identification of abnormal labor patterns in support of clinical decisions. PMID:24106524

  4. Preliminary Results of the Third Test Series of Nonmetal Material Flammability Evaluation In SKOROST Apparatus on the Space Station Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Alymov, V. F.; Smirnov, A. B.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ye.Belov, D.; Balashov, Ye.V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Melikhov, A. S.; Bolodyan, I. A.; Potyakin, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The work has been done according to the US/Russian Joint Project "Experimental Evaluation of the Material Flammability in Microgravity" a continued combustion study in the SKOROST test apparatus on the OS Mir. The objective of the project was to evaluate the flammability and flame-spread rate for the selected polymer materials in low velocity flow in microgravity. Lately, the issue of nonmetal material combustion in microgravity has become of great importance, based on the necessity to develop the fire safety system for the new International Space Station (ISS). Lack of buoyant flow in microgravity reduces oxygen transfer into the combustion zone, which leads to flame extinction when the flow velocity is less than the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for the material. The ISS FGB fire-safety system was developed based on this phenomenon. The existence of minimum flow velocity V(sub lim) to sustain fire for the selected materials was determined both theoretically and experimentally. In the latter, it is shown that, even for thermally thin nonmetal materials with a very low oxygen index C(sub lim) of 12.5% (paper sheets with the thickness of 0.1 mm), a limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) exists at oxygen concentration Co(sub OX) = 17-21%, and is about 1.0 - 0.1 cm/sec. This might be explained by the relative increase in thermal losses due to radiation from the surface and from the gaseous phase. In the second series of experiments in Skorost apparatus on Orbital Station Mir the existence of the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for combustion was confirmed for PMMA and glass-epoxy composite strip samples 2 mm thick at oxygen concentration C(sub OX) = 21.5%. It was concluded that V(sub lim) depends on C(sub OX) for the PMMA sample with a low oxygen index of 15.5%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was less than 0.5 cm/sec, and for the glass-epoxy composite sample with a high oxygen index of 19%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was higher than 15 cm/sec. As of

  5. Evaluate the Application of TPH test kits to Identify the Potential Contaminants in Gas Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, P. Y.; Liu, C. W.; Liu, W. Y.

    2012-04-01

    This study is focusing on the utility and applicability of the portable equipments such as, photo ionization detector (PID) and flame ionization detector (FID) for the determination of contaminants during the investigation of various gas stations. According to the onsite screening results, high contaminated soil samples were sent to analytical laboratory for the detection and quantification of the contaminants present therein. However, due to limitations, PID and FID cannot detect the low vapor pressure components. Hence, they cannot reflect the real situation of the contaminated soil samples and areas. This study summarizes the analytical results of total 37 soil samples, collecting from 17 gas stations. Soil samples were not only analyzed according to the standard method of Taiwan EPA in the laboratory, but also tested using the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) test kits, following the USEPA method 9074, to evaluate the TPH concentration in soil samples. With test kits, onsite, first the TPH was extracted from the soil samples using methanol and then mixed with emulsifier to produce turbidity, and finally then measured using the turbidity meter. The TPH test kits method is simple and rapid, and not time consuming like the laboratory method. A positive relationship has been observed (co-efficient of determination, R2 = 0.74) comparing between the results obtained from the laboratory test and kits test methods, especially for the high carbon content oil such as, diesel, but it does not show the obvious relationship with gasoline. Number of advantages has been considered in using the TPH test kits including, easily portable, simple and rapid testing, cost-effective, and onsite quantification. The technique can be applied for high carbon content oil contamination sites during soil sampling, to realize the actual situations and the promoting confirmation efficiency.

  6. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  7. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  8. Evaluating space station applications of automation and robotics technologies from a human productivity point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The role that automation, robotics, and artificial intelligence will play in Space Station operations is now beginning to take shape. Although there is only limited data on the precise nature of the payoffs that these technologies are likely to afford there is a general consensus that, at a minimum, the following benefits will be realized: increased responsiveness to innovation, lower operating costs, and reduction of exposure to hazards. Nevertheless, the question arises as to how much automation can be justified with the technical and economic constraints of the program? The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology which can be used to evaluate and rank different approaches to automating the functions and tasks planned for the Space Station. Special attention is given to the impact of advanced automation on human productivity. The methodology employed is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This permits the introduction of individual judgements to resolve the confict that normally arises when incomparable criteria underly the selection process. Because of the large number of factors involved in the model, the overall problem is decomposed into four subproblems individually focusing on human productivity, economics, design, and operations, respectively. The results from each are then combined to yield the final rankings. To demonstrate the methodology, an example is developed based on the selection of an on-orbit assembly system. Five alternatives for performing this task are identified, ranging from an astronaut working in space, to a dexterous manipulator with sensory feedback. Computational results are presented along with their implications. A final parametric analysis shows that the outcome is locally insensitive to all but complete reversals in preference.

  9. Atomic oxygen durability evaluation of the flexible batten for the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Flaherty, David S.; Roig, David M.; Edwards, Jonathan L.

    1994-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to evaluate the long term low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen (AO) durability of a flexible (fiberglass-epoxy composite) batten. The flexible batten is a component used to provide structural rigidity in the photovoltaic array mast on Space Station. The mast is used to support and articulate the photovoltaic array, therefore, the flexible batten must be preloaded for the 15 year lifetime of an array blanket. Development hardware and composite materials were evaluated in ground testing facilities for AO durability and dynamic retraction-deployment cyclic loading representative of expected full life in-space application. The CV1144 silicone (AO protective) coating was determined to provide adequate protection against AO degradation of the composite material and provided fiber containment, thus the structural integrity of the flexible batten was maintained. Both silicone coated and uncoated flexible battens maintained load carrying capabilities. Results of the testing did indicate that the CV1144 silicone protective coating was oxidized by AO reactions to form a brittle glassy (SiO2) skin that formed cracking patterns on all sides of the coated samples. The cracking was observed in samples that were mechanically stressed as well as samples in non-stressed conditions. The oxidized silicon was observed to randomly spall in small localized areas, on the flexible battens that underwent retraction-deployment cycling. Some darkening of the silicon, attributed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, was observed.

  10. Impact of model defect and experimental uncertainties on evaluated output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudecker, D.; Capote, R.; Leeb, H.

    2013-09-01

    One of the current major problems in nuclear data evaluation is the unreasonably small evaluated uncertainties often obtained. These small uncertainties are partly attributed to missing correlations of experimental uncertainties as well as to deficiencies of the model employed for the prior information. In this article, both uncertainty sources are included in an evaluation of 55Mn cross-sections for incident neutrons. Their impact on the evaluated output is studied using a prior obtained by the Full Bayesian Evaluation Technique and a prior obtained by the nuclear model program EMPIRE. It is shown analytically and by means of an evaluation that unreasonably small evaluated uncertainties can be obtained not only if correlated systematic uncertainties of the experiment are neglected but also if prior uncertainties are smaller or about the same magnitude as the experimental ones. Furthermore, it is shown that including model defect uncertainties in the evaluation of 55Mn leads to larger evaluated uncertainties for channels where the model is deficient. It is concluded that including correlated experimental uncertainties is equally important as model defect uncertainties, if the model calculations deviate significantly from the measurements.

  11. Evaluation of interpolating methods for daily precipitation at various station densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Xu, C.-Y.; Chen, H.; Zhang, Z. X.; Xu, H. L.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial continuous data play a significant role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in climate research and geosciences. It is essential to get accurate grid precipitation data of high resolution in hydrological modeling and water resources management. In recent years, radar and satellite provide an alternative way for spatial precipitation data, but due to technique problems and deficient accuracy, interpolating the observed point data is still the common way to obtain gridding precipitation data for research and management purposes. Many interpolating methods have been proposed and great effort has been made to evaluate and compare them. But by far, no universal method is widely accepted because of the diversity in study regions, difference in climate situations, and differences in data quality and quantity, and selected methods in comparisons. It has been well known that the most paramount factor affecting the performance of interpolating methods is the density of sampling points. However, the performance of different interpolating methods at various sampling densities, which means the performance degradation caused by density changes, has not been deeply examined. This work focuses on the evaluation of interpolating methods in daily precipitation at various station densities and tries to provide guidance on choosing interpolating method under different circumstance. To fill this objective, we choose five commonly used or recommended interpolation methods, i.e. nearest neighbor (NN), inverse distance weighting (IDW), Gradient plus Inverse Distance Squared (GIDS), ordinary kriging (OK) and simple kriging (SK) at five designed sampling densities ranging from 22.6 to 9.8 stations per ten thousand square kilometers at Xiangjiang River basin during 2000 to 2005 when the precipitation data were in the highest density. Four criteria were used for method assessment, i.e., mean error (ME), root mean absolute error (RMSE), model efficient (EF) and index of

  12. Evaluation of an Experimental Adhesive Resin for Orthodontic Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Pavithra, D.; Hashem, M. I.; Alkhudhairy, F.; Elsharawy, M.; Divakar, D. D.; Vallittu, P. K.; Matinlinna, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an experimental adhesive resin for orthodontic bonding by measuring some the chemical and mechanical properties. The resin demonstrated increased values of nanohardness and elastic modulus, but the differences were not significant compared with those for the Transbond XT adhesives. The experimental adhesive resin could be a feasible choice or a substitute for the traditional bis-GMA-based resins used in bonding orthodontic attachments.

  13. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  14. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  15. Evaluating PRISM precipitation grid data as possible surrogates for station data at four sites in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of climate-sensitive decision support for agriculture or water resource management requires long time series of monthly precipitation for specific locations. Archived station data for many locations is available, but time continuity, quality, and spatial coverage of station data rem...

  16. Remote-sensing satellite ground station evaluation using QPSK emulator with test pattern and PRBS generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, R.; Nithyanandan, L.; Umadevi, G.; Padmavathi, C. S.; Nayani, Radha

    2015-12-01

    In order to validate the performance of X-band (8000-8400 MHz) remote-sensing satellite receive chain, when the satellite is not in the vicinity of ground station, local loop end-end evaluation tests are mandatory to certify the RF downlink and base band receive chain performance. A customised test patterns compatible to IRS satellite series and PRBS sequence are generated, which are modulated using QPSK emulator to check and verify the satellite downlink chain performance. The design and implementation are done using novel digital techniques, and QPSK modulator is integrated with Test pattern and PRBS generator using state-of-art FPGAs. The QPSK emulator output is connected to high-speed fibre optic link which transfers the signal to near field bore-site antenna system. The test signal is thus up converted from 2557.5 MHz (S-band) frequency to required satellite carrier frequency of 8212.5 MHz; the emulated test signal is radiated from bore-site antenna, which simulates real-time satellite data transmission from space. Thus, the signal received by the parabolic dish antenna is down converted to 720 MHz, demodulated, bit synchronized, clock recovered, and frame synchronized. The evaluation of frame sync errors is done for good video data quality check. Also in the QPSK emulator, there is option of PRBS mode. Hence, using this option, the RF downlink and receive chain are evaluated for good Bit error rate (BER). The BER requirement is 1 error (tolerable) in 106 Million bits. The QPSK emulator has the provision to support different frequencies and data rates corresponding to all IRS satellite missions.

  17. Status of the Mohave Generation Station pipeline coal dewatering evaluation 1989-1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    In July, 1989 two (2) prototype screen bowl centrifuges were installed at the Mohave Generating Station, Laughlin, Nevada. In the ensuing three year period both centrifuges were evaluated under a variety of operating conditions to assess process capabilities and on-line mechanical reliability. The long-term test format permitted a verification of centrifuge theory through the monitoring of actual machine performance. It further permitted a detailed analysis of mechanical reliability issues conducted throughout approximately 10,000 hours of run time. one of the principal driving forces of the evaluation was the control and moderation of spiraling maintenance costs associated with the existing solid bowl machines. Stringent requirements for on-line availability suggested that premium materials of construction would be justified above and beyond those normally encountered in coal preparation plant designs. Scheduled outages permitted a detailed evaluation of design components and a direct measurement of abrasion/erosion areas of the machines. Analysis of the results obtained to date suggested various improvements to the machine design to improve both process performance and mechanical reliability. The machine rotating assemblies, for example, will incorporate a modified bowl contour to promote even higher recovery than obtained to date. Similarly, to address reliability concerns, premium hardfacing materials will be integrated into the machine design at key wearing points. The desired end result is to obtain machines that can withstand the extremely abrasive coal slurry which represents the feed to the centrifuges. This paper will update the technical presentation entitled {open_quotes}Recent Developments in Pipeline Coal Dewatering{close_quotes} presented at the 1991 Conference.

  18. Does quantity ensure quality? Standardized OSCE-stations for outcome-oriented evaluation of practical skills at different medical faculties.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Iris; Leitner, Karsten; Juenger, Jana; Moeltner, Andreas; Ruesseler, Miriam; Bender, Bernd; Sterz, Jasmina; Stibane, Tina; Koenig, Sarah; Frankenhauser, Susanne; Kreuder, Joachim Gerhard

    2017-07-01

    Practical skills are often assessed using Objective Structured Clinical Skill Exams (OSCE). Nevertheless, in Germany, interchange and agreement between different medical faculties or a general agreement on the minimum standard for passing is lacking. We developed standardized OSCE-stations for assessing structured clinical examination of knee and shoulder joint with identical checklists and evaluation standards. These were implemented into the OSCE-course at five different medical faculties. Learning objectives for passing the stations were agreed beforehand. At each faculty, one reference examiner scored independently of the local examiner. Outcome of the students at the standardized station was compared between faculties and correlated to their total outcome at the OSCE, to their results at the Part One of the National Medical Licensing Examination as a reference test during medical studies and to their previous amount of lessons in examining joints. Comparing the results of the reference examiner, outcome at the station differed significantly between some of the participating medical faculties. Depending on the faculty, mean total results at the knee-examination-station differed from 64.4% to 77.9% and at the shoulder-examination-station from 62.6% to 79.2%. Differences were seen in knowledge-based items and also in competencies like communication and professional manner. There was a weak correlation between outcome at the joint-examination-OSCE-station and Part One of the National Medical Licensing Examination, and a modest correlation between outcome at the joint-examination-station and total OSCE-result. Correlation to the previous amount of lessons in examining joint was also weak. Although addressing approved learning objectives, different outcomes were achieved when testing a clinical skill at different medical faculties with a standardized OSCE-station. Results can be used as a tool for evaluating lessons, training and curricula at the different sites

  19. Findings of the Joint Workshop on Evaluation of Impacts of Space Station Freedom Ground Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Carruth, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    At the workshop, experts from the plasma interactions community evaluated the impacts of environmental interactions on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) under each of the proposed grounding schemes. The grounding scheme chosen for the SSF power system was found to have serious implications for SSF design. Interactions of the SSF power system and structure with the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma differ significantly between different proposed grounding schemes. Environmental constraints will require modification of current SSF designs under any grounding scheme. Maintaining the present negative-grounding scheme compromises SSF safety, structural integrity, and electromagnetic compatibility. It also will increase contamination rates over alternative grounding schemes. One alternative, positive grounding of the array, requires redesign of the primary power system in work package four. Floating the array reduces the number of circuit changes to work package four but adds new hardware. Maintaining the current design will affect all work packages; however, no impacts were identified on work packages one, two, or three by positively grounding or floating the array, with the possible exception of extra corona protection in multi-wire connectors.

  20. Invacuo tribological evaluation of coarse-pitch gears for use on the Space Station alpha joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Scotty R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing invacuo or ambient test data of slow-speed (less than 30 meters/minute pitch line velocity), coarse-pitch gears could not be found suitable for use in evaluating gear materials and surface treatments for the gear-driven bearing race of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) for Space Station Freedom (SSF). Gear testing was conducted by AEC-Able Engineering Company, Inc. to obtain design data for this critical SSF component. Some bull gear/pinion/lubrication combinations endured over 600,000 cycles (100 SSF years) without measurable wear, while other combinations experienced surface treatment degradation after only 40,000 cycles (seven SSF years). No catastrophic failures, such as seizing or tooth breakage, occurred during any test, all of which were run at least 201,000 cycles (34.5 SSF years). Specific results such as debris characteristics, mechanical efficiencies, effectiveness and degradation of lubrication, and wear data for the various gear combinations tested are described.

  1. An Evaluation of Technology to Remove Problematic Organic Compounds from the International Space Station Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John; Michalek, William; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gazda, Daniel; Carter, Layne

    2014-01-01

    Since activation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) in November of 2008, there have been three events in which the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) in the product water has increased to approximately 3 mg/L and has subsequently recovered. Analysis of the product water in 2010 identified the primary component of the TOC as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). An investigation into the fate of DMSD in the WPA ultimately determined that replacement of both Multifiltration (MF) Beds is the solution to recovering product water quality. The MF Beds were designed to ensure that ionic breakthrough occurs before organic breakthrough. However, DMSD saturated both MF Beds in the series, requiring removal and replacement of both MF Beds with significant life remaining. Analysis of the MF Beds determined that the adsorbent was not effectively removing DMSD, trimethylsilanol, various polydimethylsiloxanes, or dimethylsulfone. Coupled with the fact that the current adsorbent is now obsolete, the authors evaluated various media to identify a replacement adsorbent as well as media with greater capacity for these problematic organic contaminants. This paper provides the results and recommendations of this collaborative study.

  2. Invacuo tribological evaluation of coarse-pitch gears for use on the Space Station alpha joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Scotty R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing invacuo or ambient test data of slow-speed (less than 30 meters/minute pitch line velocity), coarse-pitch gears could not be found suitable for use in evaluating gear materials and surface treatments for the gear-driven bearing race of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) for Space Station Freedom (SSF). Gear testing was conducted by AEC-Able Engineering Company, Inc. to obtain design data for this critical SSF component. Some bull gear/pinion/lubrication combinations endured over 600,000 cycles (100 SSF years) without measurable wear, while other combinations experienced surface treatment degradation after only 40,000 cycles (seven SSF years). No catastrophic failures, such as seizing or tooth breakage, occurred during any test, all of which were run at least 201,000 cycles (34.5 SSF years). Specific results such as debris characteristics, mechanical efficiencies, effectiveness and degradation of lubrication, and wear data for the various gear combinations tested are described.

  3. Evaluation of force-torque displays for use with space station telerobotic activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrich, Robert C.; Bierschwale, John M.; Manahan, Meera K.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments which addressed Space Station remote manipulation tasks found that tactile force feedback (reflecting forces and torques encountered at the end-effector through the manipulator hand controller) does not improve performance significantly. Subjective response from astronaut and non-astronaut test subjects indicated that force information, provided visually, could be useful. No research exists which specifically investigates methods of presenting force-torque information visually. This experiment was designed to evaluate seven different visual force-torque displays which were found in an informal telephone survey. The displays were prototyped in the HyperCard programming environment. In a within-subjects experiment, 14 subjects nullified forces and torques presented statically, using response buttons located at the bottom of the screen. Dependent measures included questionnaire data, errors, and response time. Subjective data generally demonstrate that subjects rated variations of pseudo-perspective displays consistently better than bar graph and digital displays. Subjects commented that the bar graph and digital displays could be used, but were not compatible with using hand controllers. Quantitative data show similar trends to the subjective data, except that the bar graph and digital displays both provided good performance, perhaps do to the mapping of response buttons to display elements. Results indicate that for this set of displays, the pseudo-perspective displays generally represent a more intuitive format for presenting force-torque information.

  4. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  5. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  6. Long life monopropellant hydrazine thruster evaluation for Space Station Freedom application - Test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, Christopher G.; Cook, Joseph C.; Ragland, Brenda L.; Pate, Leah R.

    1992-01-01

    In support of propulsion system thruster development activity for Space Station Freedom (SSF), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) conducted a hydrazine thruster technology demonstration program. The goal of this program was to identify impulse life capability of state-of-the-art long life hydrazine thrusters nominally rated for 50 pounds thrust at 300 psia supply pressure. The SSF propulsion system requirement for impulse life of this thruster class is 1.5 million pounds-seconds, corresponding to a throughput of approximately 6400 pounds of propellant. Long life thrusters were procured from The Marquardt Company, Hamilton Standard, and Rocket Research Company, Testing at JSC was completed on the thruster designs to quantify life while simulating expected thruster firing duty cycles and durations for SSF. This paper presents a review of the SSF propulsion system hydrazine thruster requirements, summaries of the three long life thruster designs procured by JSC and acceptance test results for each thruster, the JSC thruster life evaluation test program, and the results of the JSC test program.

  7. Findings of the Joint Workshop on Evaluation of Impacts of Space Station Freedom Ground Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Carruth, Ralph

    1990-01-01

    A workshop to consider the effects of various proposed Space Station Freedom (SSF) grounding schemes was held. Expert from the plasma interactions community evaluated the impacts of environmental interactions on SSF under each of three proposed grounding schemes. The choice of the grounding scheme for the SSF power system was found to have important implications for SSF design. Interactions of the SSF power system and structure with the low earth orbit (LEO) plasma differ significantly between different grounding schemes. Environmental constraints will require modification of current SSF designs under any grounding scheme. Maintaining the present negative ground scheme may compromise SSF safety, structural integrity, and electromagnetic compatibility, and will increase contamination rates over alternate schemes. Positive grounding of the array requires redesign of the primary power system. Floating the array reduces the number of circuit changes in the primary power system but adds new hardware. Maintaining the present design will affect all parts of SSF. However, no impacts were identified on SSF systems outside of the electrical power system by positively grounding or floating the array.

  8. Evaluation of shoulder integrity in space: first report of musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Fincke, E Michael; Padalka, Gennady; Lee, Doohi; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Hamilton, Douglas R; Martin, David; Melton, Shannon L; McFarlin, Kellie; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2005-02-01

    Investigative procedures were approved by Henry Ford Human Investigation Committee and NASA Johnson Space Center Committee for Protection of Human Subjects. Informed consent was obtained. Authors evaluated ability of nonphysician crewmember to obtain diagnostic-quality musculoskeletal ultrasonographic (US) data of the shoulder by following a just-in-time training algorithm and using real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS Expedition-9 crewmembers attended a 2.5-hour didactic and hands-on US training session 4 months before launch. Aboard the ISS, they completed a 1-hour computer-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement program 7 days before examination. Crewmembers did not receive specific training in shoulder anatomy or shoulder US techniques. Evaluation of astronaut shoulder integrity was done by using a Human Research Facility US system. Crew used special positioning techniques for subject and operator to facilitate US in microgravity environment. Common anatomic reference points aided initial probe placement. Real-time US video of shoulder was transmitted to remote experienced sonologists in Telescience Center at Johnson Space Center. Probe manipulation and equipment adjustments were guided with verbal commands from remote sonologists to astronaut operators to complete rotator cuff evaluation. Comprehensive US of crewmember's shoulder included transverse and longitudinal images of biceps and supraspinatus tendons and articular cartilage surface. Total examination time required to guide astronaut operator to acquire necessary images was approximately 15 minutes. Multiple arm and probe positions were used to acquire dynamic video images that were of excellent quality to allow evaluation of shoulder integrity. Postsession download and analysis of high-fidelity US images collected onboard demonstrated additional anatomic detail that could be used to exclude subtle injury. Musculoskeletal US can be performed in space by minimally

  9. Evaluation of shoulder integrity in space: first report of musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincke, E. Michael; Padalka, Gennady; Lee, Doohi; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Martin, David; Melton, Shannon L.; McFarlin, Kellie; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Investigative procedures were approved by Henry Ford Human Investigation Committee and NASA Johnson Space Center Committee for Protection of Human Subjects. Informed consent was obtained. Authors evaluated ability of nonphysician crewmember to obtain diagnostic-quality musculoskeletal ultrasonographic (US) data of the shoulder by following a just-in-time training algorithm and using real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS Expedition-9 crewmembers attended a 2.5-hour didactic and hands-on US training session 4 months before launch. Aboard the ISS, they completed a 1-hour computer-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement program 7 days before examination. Crewmembers did not receive specific training in shoulder anatomy or shoulder US techniques. Evaluation of astronaut shoulder integrity was done by using a Human Research Facility US system. Crew used special positioning techniques for subject and operator to facilitate US in microgravity environment. Common anatomic reference points aided initial probe placement. Real-time US video of shoulder was transmitted to remote experienced sonologists in Telescience Center at Johnson Space Center. Probe manipulation and equipment adjustments were guided with verbal commands from remote sonologists to astronaut operators to complete rotator cuff evaluation. Comprehensive US of crewmember's shoulder included transverse and longitudinal images of biceps and supraspinatus tendons and articular cartilage surface. Total examination time required to guide astronaut operator to acquire necessary images was approximately 15 minutes. Multiple arm and probe positions were used to acquire dynamic video images that were of excellent quality to allow evaluation of shoulder integrity. Postsession download and analysis of high-fidelity US images collected onboard demonstrated additional anatomic detail that could be used to exclude subtle injury. Musculoskeletal US can be performed in space by minimally

  10. Evaluation of shoulder integrity in space: first report of musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincke, E. Michael; Padalka, Gennady; Lee, Doohi; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Martin, David; Melton, Shannon L.; McFarlin, Kellie; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Investigative procedures were approved by Henry Ford Human Investigation Committee and NASA Johnson Space Center Committee for Protection of Human Subjects. Informed consent was obtained. Authors evaluated ability of nonphysician crewmember to obtain diagnostic-quality musculoskeletal ultrasonographic (US) data of the shoulder by following a just-in-time training algorithm and using real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS Expedition-9 crewmembers attended a 2.5-hour didactic and hands-on US training session 4 months before launch. Aboard the ISS, they completed a 1-hour computer-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement program 7 days before examination. Crewmembers did not receive specific training in shoulder anatomy or shoulder US techniques. Evaluation of astronaut shoulder integrity was done by using a Human Research Facility US system. Crew used special positioning techniques for subject and operator to facilitate US in microgravity environment. Common anatomic reference points aided initial probe placement. Real-time US video of shoulder was transmitted to remote experienced sonologists in Telescience Center at Johnson Space Center. Probe manipulation and equipment adjustments were guided with verbal commands from remote sonologists to astronaut operators to complete rotator cuff evaluation. Comprehensive US of crewmember's shoulder included transverse and longitudinal images of biceps and supraspinatus tendons and articular cartilage surface. Total examination time required to guide astronaut operator to acquire necessary images was approximately 15 minutes. Multiple arm and probe positions were used to acquire dynamic video images that were of excellent quality to allow evaluation of shoulder integrity. Postsession download and analysis of high-fidelity US images collected onboard demonstrated additional anatomic detail that could be used to exclude subtle injury. Musculoskeletal US can be performed in space by minimally

  11. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  12. Evaluation of Advanced Retrieval Techniques in an Experimental Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses subject searching problems in online library catalogs; explains advanced information retrieval (IR) techniques; and describes experiments conducted on a test collection database, CHESHIRE (California Hybrid Extended SMART for Hypertext and Information Retrieval Experimentation), which was created to evaluate IR techniques in online…

  13. Sexual Violence Prevention through Bystander Education: An Experimental Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.

    2007-01-01

    The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…

  14. Sexual Violence Prevention through Bystander Education: An Experimental Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.

    2007-01-01

    The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…

  15. Adaptive neural network motion control of manipulators with experimental evaluations.

    PubMed

    Puga-Guzmán, S; Moreno-Valenzuela, J; Santibáñez, V

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear proportional-derivative controller plus adaptive neuronal network compensation is proposed. With the aim of estimating the desired torque, a two-layer neural network is used. Then, adaptation laws for the neural network weights are derived. Asymptotic convergence of the position and velocity tracking errors is proven, while the neural network weights are shown to be uniformly bounded. The proposed scheme has been experimentally validated in real time. These experimental evaluations were carried in two different mechanical systems: a horizontal two degrees-of-freedom robot and a vertical one degree-of-freedom arm which is affected by the gravitational force. In each one of the two experimental set-ups, the proposed scheme was implemented without and with adaptive neural network compensation. Experimental results confirmed the tracking accuracy of the proposed adaptive neural network-based controller.

  16. Adaptive Neural Network Motion Control of Manipulators with Experimental Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Puga-Guzmán, S.; Moreno-Valenzuela, J.; Santibáñez, V.

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear proportional-derivative controller plus adaptive neuronal network compensation is proposed. With the aim of estimating the desired torque, a two-layer neural network is used. Then, adaptation laws for the neural network weights are derived. Asymptotic convergence of the position and velocity tracking errors is proven, while the neural network weights are shown to be uniformly bounded. The proposed scheme has been experimentally validated in real time. These experimental evaluations were carried in two different mechanical systems: a horizontal two degrees-of-freedom robot and a vertical one degree-of-freedom arm which is affected by the gravitational force. In each one of the two experimental set-ups, the proposed scheme was implemented without and with adaptive neural network compensation. Experimental results confirmed the tracking accuracy of the proposed adaptive neural network-based controller. PMID:24574910

  17. Introduction of a terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility: IN-orbit and Networked Optical ground stations experimental Verification Advanced testbed (INNOVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Munemasa, Yasushi; Takenaka, Hideki; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Taira, Shinichi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Isao; Akioka, Maki

    2014-03-01

    A terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility, named IN-orbit and Networked Optical ground stations experimental Verification Advanced testbed (INNOVA) is introduced. Many demonstrations have been conducted to verify the usability of sophisticated optical communications equipment in orbit. However, the influence of terrestrial weather conditions remains as an issue to be solved. One potential solution is site diversity, where several ground stations are used. In such systems, implementing direct high-speed optical communications links for transmission of data from satellites to terrestrial sites requires that links can be established even in the presence of clouds and rain. NICT is developing a terrestrial free-space optical communications network called INNOVA for future airborne and satellitebased optical communications projects. Several ground stations and environmental monitoring stations around Japan are being used to explore the site diversity concept. This paper describes the terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility, the monitoring stations around Japan for free-space laser communications, and potential research at NICT.

  18. Short-range evaluation of air pollution near bus and railway stations.

    PubMed

    Corfa, E; Maury, F; Segers, P; Fresneau, A; Albergel, A

    2004-12-01

    In the early morning, during workdays, intensive activity is observed at both bus and railway stations. This particular time is critical because of the combination of three factors: (1) simultaneous departure of many buses and trains, (2) cold engines, and, quite frequently, (3) stable meteorological conditions. In our approach, we use ARIA Local, a simulation package applying CFD tools to air pollution modeling, to study different scenarios. The CFD model used in this study is the MERCURE model, developed by Electricite de France. For a bus station, we simulate a typical morning peak hour situation and study in detail how the pollution is accumulated in the station courtyard and the impact on the close vicinity. Two scenarios are presented: one with classical diesel engine and one with buses using AQUAZOL or NGV fuel. The definition of the sources inside the Eulerian grid is described as static linear sources. The total emission is averaged over the mean path driven by the bus from the bus stop to the exit of the bus station. For a railway station, we simulate a situation in a real railway station within the city of Paris. The emission from a diesel "locomotive" and its impact on air quality is computed and compared to the impact of other nonmobile emissions. In this case, the definition of sources is described as mobile point sources following the trajectory of the train. These two scenarios are discussed in an urban context, taking into account the flow around buildings and different meteorological conditions.

  19. Experimental design methodology: the scientific tool for performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1990-09-01

    With the rapid growth of the signal and image processing technology in the last several decades has arisen the need for means of evaluating and comparing the numerous algorithms and systems that are created or are being developed. Performance evaluation, in the past, has been mostly ad hoc and incohesive. In this paper we present a systematic step by step approach for the scientific evaluation of signal and image processing algorithms and systems. This approach is based on the methodology of Experimental Design. We illustrate this method by means of an example from the field of automatic object recognition.

  20. Evaluation of a redesigned self-checkout station for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Komal; Mirka, Gary A; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Khachatoorian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    Self-checkout is the emergent/emerging retail technology wherein users (shoppers) check out their own items using an interactive kiosk. A dramatic growth is anticipated in the prevalence of self-checkout systems in retail environments. A study was conducted to develop and evaluate a redesign of a self-checkout system with a focus on issues related to physical accessibility for wheelchair users. Two checkout station prototypes were built: a full-scale model of an existing system and a full-scale model of a system with design modifications (e.g., inclusion of appropriate wheelchair clearance under the workstation, reduced vertical position of the credit card reader, etc.). Five wheelchair users and 10 non-wheelchair users performed simulated self-checkout activities using both workstations. The principal independent variable was workstation type (standard design vs. modified design). The dependent measures were productivity (time to complete a transaction), shoulder flexion angle, torso flexion angle, and the user's subjective assessment of the experience. The results of this study indicate that workstation type did not influence productivity levels in either participant group (wheelchair users or non-wheelchair users). Posture, on the other hand, was significantly improved: the peak shoulder angle was reduced by 64% in wheelchair users and by 69% in the non-wheelchair user group. Peak flexion angle of the torso was also reduced by 67% for wheelchair users. Subjective feedback from the wheelchair user group supported the postural data by showing an overall preference for the redesigned workstation, whereas the non-wheelchair group showed no preference between the two. These results indicate that design for populations with specific limitations does not need to come at a cost of reduced accessibility for persons without these limitations; universal design is achievable.

  1. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Data Modelers and Forecast Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., $440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

  2. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Science and Forecast Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., $440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

  3. Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Griffa, Michele; Bas, Pierre-Yves Le; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is a commonly employed imaging technique in seismic applications (e.g., to image reservoirs of oil). Its standard implementation cannot account for multiple scattering/reverberation. For this reason it has not yet found application in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper applies RTM imaging to NDE applications in bounded samples, where reverberation is always present. This paper presents a fully experimental implementation of RTM, whereas in seismic applications, only part of the procedure is done experimentally. A modified RTM imaging condition is able to localize scatterers and locations of disbonding. Experiments are conducted on aluminum samples with controlled scatterers.

  4. 47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a) The licensee of a station...

  5. 47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a) The licensee of a station...

  6. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part 1; Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul A.; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 29-km eta model from May 1996 through January 1998. The evaluation was designed to assess the model's surface and upper-air point forecast accuracy at three selected locations during separate warm (May - August) and cool (October - January) season periods. In order to enhance sample sizes available for statistical calculations, the objective verification includes two consecutive warm and cool season periods. Systematic model deficiencies comprise the larger portion of the total error in most of the surface forecast variables that were evaluated. The error characteristics for both surface and upper-air forecasts vary widely by parameter, season, and station location. At upper levels, a few characteristic biases are identified. Overall however, the upper-level errors are more nonsystematic in nature and could be explained partly by observational measurement uncertainty. With a few exceptions, the upper-air results also indicate that 24-h model error growth is not statistically significant. In February and August 1997, NCEP implemented upgrades to the eta model's physical parameterizations that were designed to change some of the model's error characteristics near the surface. The results shown in this paper indicate that these upgrades led to identifiable and statistically significant changes in forecast accuracy for selected surface parameters. While some of the changes were expected, others were not consistent with the intent of the model updates and further emphasize the need for ongoing sensitivity studies and localized statistical verification efforts. Objective verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, is not enough to quantify the overall value that model guidance may add to the forecast process. Therefore, results from a subjective verification of the meso-eta model over the Florida peninsula are

  7. Construction and precision evaluation of the GPS virtual reference station network in North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T.; Lee, Z.; Chang, M.; Chen, C.

    2006-12-01

    The conventional single-reference station positioning is affected by systematic errors such as ionospheric and tropospheric delay, so that the rover must be located within 10 km from the reference station in order to acquire centimeter-level accuracy. The medium-range real-time kinematic has been proven feasible and can be used for high precision applications. However, the longer of the baseline, the more of the time for resolving the integer ambiguity. This is due to the fact that systematic errors can't be eliminated effectively by double- differencing. Recently, network approaches have been proposed to overcome the limitation of the single- reference station positioning. The real-time systematic error modeling can be achieved with the use of GPS network. For expanding the effective range and decreasing the density of the reference stations, Land Survey Bureau, Ministry of the Interior in Taiwan have set up a national GPS network. In order to obtain the high precision positioning and provide the multi-goals services, a GPS network including 27 stations already been constructed in North Taiwan. The users can download the corrections from the data center via the wireless internet and obtain the centimeter-level accuracy positioning. The service is very useful for surveyors and the high precision coordinates can be obtained real time.

  8. Statistical Evaluation of Experimental Determinations of Neutrino Mass Hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    X. Qian, A. Tan, W. Wang, J. J. Ling, R. D. McKeown, C. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Statistical methods of presenting experimental results in constraining the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) are discussed. Two problems are considered and are related to each other: how to report the findings for observed experimental data, and how to evaluate the ability of a future experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, namely, sensitivity of the experiment. For the first problem where experimental data have already been observed, the classical statistical analysis involves constructing confidence intervals for the parameter {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. These intervals are deduced from the parent distribution of the estimation of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} based on experimental data. Due to existing experimental constraints on |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}|, the estimation of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} is better approximated by a Bernoulli distribution (a Binomial distribution with 1 trial) rather than a Gaussian distribution. Therefore, the Feldman-Cousins approach needs to be used instead of the Gaussian approximation in constructing confidence intervals. Furthermore, as a result of the definition of confidence intervals, even if it is correctly constructed, its confidence level does not directly reflect how much one hypothesis of the MH is supported by the data rather than the other hypothesis. We thus describe a Bayesian approach that quantifies the evidence provided by the observed experimental data through the (posterior) probability that either one hypothesis of MH is true. This Bayesian presentation of observed experimental results is then used to develop several metrics to assess the sensitivity of future experiments. Illustrations are made using a simple example with a confined parameter space, which approximates the MH determination problem with experimental constraints on the |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}|.

  9. Quantitative surface evaluation by matching experimental and simulated ronchigram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantún Montiel, Juana Rosaura; Cordero Dávila, Alberto; González García, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    To estimate qualitatively the surface errors with Ronchi test, the experimental and simulated ronchigrams are compared. Recently surface errors have been obtained quantitatively matching the intersection point coordinates of ronchigrama fringes with x-axis . In this case, gaussian fit must be done for each fringe, and interference orders are used in Malacara algorithm for the simulations. In order to evaluate surface errors, we added an error function in simulations, described with cubic splines, to the sagitta function of the ideal surface. We used the vectorial transversal aberration formula and a ruling with cosinusoidal transmittance, because these rulings reproduce better experimental ronchigram fringe profiles. Several error functions are tried until the whole experimental ronchigrama image is reproduced. The optimization process was done using genetic algorithms.

  10. Do mobile phone base stations affect sleep of residents? Results from an experimental double-blind sham-controlled field study.

    PubMed

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bornkessel, Christian; Sauter, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present double-blind, sham-controlled, balanced randomized cross-over study was to disentangle effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and non-EMF effects of mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. In total 397 residents aged 18-81 years (50.9% female) from 10 German sites, where no mobile phone service was available, were exposed to sham and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz) base station signals by an experimental base station while their sleep was monitored at their homes during 12 nights. Participants were randomly exposed to real (GSM) or sham exposure for five nights each. Individual measurement of EMF exposure, questionnaires on sleep disorders, overall sleep quality, attitude towards mobile communication, and on subjective sleep quality (morning and evening protocols) as well as objective sleep data (frontal EEG and EOG recordings) were gathered. Analysis of the subjective and objective sleep data did not reveal any significant differences between the real and sham condition. During sham exposure nights, objective and subjective sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and subjective sleep latency were significantly worse in participants with concerns about possible health risks resulting from base stations than in participants who were not concerned. The study did not provide any evidence for short-term physiological effects of EMF emitted by mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. However, the results indicate that mobile phone base stations as such (not the electromagnetic fields) may have a significant negative impact on sleep quality. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Design, evaluation and construction of TEXESS and LUXESS, and research in mini-array technology and use of data from single stations and sparse networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, Eugene; Golden, Paul; Robertson, Herbert

    1994-10-01

    Objectives of the contract are twofold: (1) to conduct research in seismic mini-array technology & use of data from single stations & sparse networks, and (2) to design, evaluate and construct 2 mini-array, TEXESS (Texas Experimental Seismic System) in s.w. Texas and LUXESS (Luxor Experimental Seismic System), which is NE of Luxor, Egypt. These two tasks are dubbed CLIN 1 & CLIN 2. The proposed design was along the lines of a GSE Alpha Station. TEXESS was installed by SMU personnel the week of Aug 22, 1993, & the 1st event was a local, recorded on 31 Aug. With de-installation on hold until diplomatic agreements are in place between the U.S. and Egypt for the installation of LUXESS, work has been directed to CLIN 1 research; array processing, Ms:mb studies, & the AR (3) discrimination method. Research on time-domain processing of array data has resulted in a significant decrease in the standard deviation of azimuths as compared with this statistic obtained using f-k processing. The Ms:mb method is an effective and transportable discriminant for shallow events with mb greater than 4.75. Autoregressive (AR) modeling on Lg data has resulted in the ability to discriminate small economic explosions from small earthquakes.

  12. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    PubMed Central

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukčinskienė, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; Šidlauskienė, Aurelija; Čerkauskienė, Rimantė; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN). The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground) and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm2. The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP). PMID:28257069

  13. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations.

    PubMed

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukčinskienė, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; Šidlauskienė, Aurelija; Čerkauskienė, Rimantė; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-03-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN). The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground) and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm². The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP).

  14. Experimental approaches for evaluating the invasion risk of biofuel crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, S. Luke; Lorentz, Kimberly A.; Gordon, Doria R.; Sollenberger, Lynn E.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing concern that non-native plants cultivated for bioenergy production might escape and result in harmful invasions in natural areas. Literature-derived assessment tools used to evaluate invasion risk are beneficial for screening, but cannot be used to assess novel cultivars or genotypes. Experimental approaches are needed to help quantify invasion risk but protocols for such tools are lacking. We review current methods for evaluating invasion risk and make recommendations for incremental tests from small-scale experiments to widespread, controlled introductions. First, local experiments should be performed to identify conditions that are favorable for germination, survival, and growth of candidate biofuel crops. Subsequently, experimental introductions in semi-natural areas can be used to assess factors important for establishment and performance such as disturbance, founder population size, and timing of introduction across variable habitats. Finally, to fully characterize invasion risk, experimental introductions should be conducted across the expected geographic range of cultivation over multiple years. Any field-based testing should be accompanied by safeguards and monitoring for early detection of spread. Despite the costs of conducting experimental tests of invasion risk, empirical screening will greatly improve our ability to determine if the benefits of a proposed biofuel species outweigh the projected risks of invasions.

  15. Evaluation of RTV coating for station insulators subjected to coastal contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Carberry, R.E.; Schneider, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements and analysis of contaminant samples from a nuclear power station which has suffered flashovers due to wind-swept salt spray are presented. The results of a program of laboratory tests on artificially contaminated porcelain station insulators, with and without a room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coating, are reported. Data from clean fog and salt mist tests are used to determine the improvement in flashover voltage level over a range of high contamination severity on RTV coated insulators. Visual observations and leakage current measurements made during surface discharge activity are utilized to demonstrate the influence of the RTV coating on discharge behavior. Switching impulse test results are also presented.

  16. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

  17. SHEEP AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR BIOMATERIAL IMPLANT EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    SARTORETTO, SUELEN CRISTINA; UZEDA, MARCELO JOSÉ; MIGUEL, FÚLVIO BORGES; NASCIMENTO, JHONATHAN RAPHAELL; ASCOLI, FABIO; CALASANS-MAIA, MÔNICA DIUANA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Based on a literature review and on our own experience, this study proposes sheep as an experimental model to evaluate the bioactive capacity of bone substitute biomaterials, dental implant systems and orthopedics devices. The literature review covered relevant databases available on the Internet from 1990 until to date, and was supplemented by our own experience. Methods: For its resemblance in size and weight to humans, sheep are quite suitable for use as an experimental model. However, information about their utility as an experimental model is limited. The different stages involving sheep experiments were discussed, including the care during breeding and maintenance of the animals obtaining specimens for laboratory processing, and highlighting the unnecessary euthanasia of animals at the end of study, in accordance to the guidelines of the 3Rs Program. Results: All experiments have been completed without any complications regarding the animals and allowed us to evaluate hypotheses and explain their mechanisms. Conclusion: The sheep is an excellent animal model for evaluation of biomaterial for bone regeneration and dental implant osseointegration. From an ethical point of view, one sheep allows for up to 12 implants per animal, permitting to keep them alive at the end of the experiments. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:28149193

  18. National Register Evaluation of Sewerage Pumping Station B New Orleans, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-12

    dug through the middle of Faubourg Saint Marie , at the location of present-day Poydras Street. This canal became clogged with weeds and filth and fell... Vieux Carre. In addition, the Canal Girod or Orleans Canal became the primary draining artery with a pumping station located at its junction with Bayou

  19. Microcomputer Learning Stations and Student Health and Safety: Planning, Evaluation, and Revision of Physical Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety's recommendations for computer stations in industrial settings and proposes their adaptation to educational institutions. The human side of computer applications is stressed; solutions to educational problems are described; and a checklist of requirements for student comfort is…

  20. Systems Engineering Design and Technical Analyses for Strategic Avionics Crew Station Design Evaluation Facility (SACDEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    differs from other older systems in khe lab, it is compatible with current industry standards . The effectiveness of continued maintainability as well as...CFHI branch within the Human Engineering Division is responsible for research addressing crewstation design and areas currently include aircrew...Human Engineering Division, is responsible for research addressing crew station design and aircrew workload for current and future strategic aircraft

  1. Decision Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Integrated Solid Waste Management Alternatives for a Remote Alaskan Air Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Eareckson Air Station (AS), a remote U.S. Air Force installation, faces the complex decision of selecting a new municipal solid waste (MSW...strategy. The model results suggest that the Eareckson AS MSW strategy should be a Class II municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) along with a

  2. Experimental techniques for evaluating steady-state jet engine performance in an altitude facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Young, C. Y.; Antl, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Jet engine calibration tests were conducted in an altitude facility using a contoured bellmouth inlet duct, four fixed-area water-cooled exhaust nozzles, and an accurately calibrated thrust measuring system. Accurate determination of the airflow measuring station flow coefficient, the flow and thrust coefficients of the exhaust nozzles, and the experimental and theoretical terms in the nozzle gross thrust equation were some of the objectives of the tests. A primary objective was to develop a technique to determine gross thrust for the turbojet engine used in this test that could also be used for future engine and nozzle evaluation tests. The probable error in airflow measurement was found to be approximately 0.6 percent at the bellmouth throat design Mach number of 0.6. The probable error in nozzle gross thrust measurement was approximated 0.6 percent at the load cell full-scale reading.

  3. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    DOE PAGES

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; ...

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greatermore » than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  4. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  5. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this project was to perform an initial evaluation of reported post-flight back pain and injury cases to relevant spaceflight risk factors in United States astronauts that have completed an ISS mission. METHODS All US astronauts who completed an ISS mission between Expeditions (EXP) 1 and 41 (2000-2015) were included in this evaluation. Forty-five astronauts (36 males and 9 females) completed 50 ISS missions during the study time period, as 5 astronauts completed 2 ISS missions. Researchers queried medical records of the 45 astronauts for occurrences of back pain and injury. A case was defined as any reported event of back pain or injury to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or coccyx spine regions. Data sources for the cases included the Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record; Astronaut Strength, Conditioning and Rehabilitation electronic documentation; the Private Medical Conference tool; and the Space Medicine Operations Team records. Post-flight cases were classified as an early case if reported within 45 days of landing (R + 45) or a late case if reported from R + 46 to R + 365 days after landing (R + 1y). Risk factors in the astronaut population for back pain include age, sex, prior military service, and prior history of back pain. Additionally, spaceflight specific risk factors such as type of landing vehicle and onboard exercise countermeasures were included to evaluate their

  6. Experimental evaluation of a cruciform piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Karina M.; Rade, Domingos A.; Finzi Neto, Roberto M.; Cavalini, Aldemir A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the development and experimental evaluation of a particular type of piezoelectric energy harvester, composed of four aluminum cantilever blades to which piezoelectric patches are bonded, in such way that electric energy is generated when the blades undergo bending vibrations. Concentrated masses, whose values can be varied, are attached to the tips of the blades. Due to the geometric shape of the harvester, in which the four blades are oriented forming right angles, the harvester is named cruciform. As opposed to the large majority of previous works on the subject, in which harvesters are excited at their bases by prescribed acceleration, herein the harvester is connected to a vibrating structure excited by an imbalance force. Hence, the amount of harvested energy depends upon the dynamic interaction between the harvester and the host structure. Laboratory experiments were carried-out on a prototype connected to a tridimensional truss. The experimental setup includes a force generator consisting of an imbalanced disc driven by an electrical motor whose rotation is controlled electronically, a voltage rectifier circuit, and a battery charged with the harvested energy. After characterization of the dynamic behavior of the harvester and the host structure, both numerically and experimentally, the results of experiments are presented and discussed in terms of the voltage output of the piezoelectric transducers as function of the excitation frequency and the values of the tip masses. Also, the capacity of the harvester to charge a Lithium battery is evaluated.

  7. Experimental design to evaluate directed adaptive mutation in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, Michael; Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-12-09

    We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system and have limited preliminary data

  8. Experimental Design to Evaluate Directed Adaptive Mutation in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Objective Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. Methods An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. Results We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system

  9. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.

    2016-05-20

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS). After decommissioning is completed, the site will contain two reactor Containment Buildings, the Fuel Handling Building and Transfer Canals, Auxiliary Building, Turbine Building, Crib House/Forebay, and a Waste Water Treatment Facility that have been demolished to a depth of 3 feet below grade. Additional below ground structures remaining will include the Main Steam Tunnels and large diameter intake and discharge pipes. These additional structures are not included in the modeling described in this report, but the inventory remaining (expected to be very low) will be included with one of the structures that are modeled as designated in the Zion Station Restoration Project (ZSRP) License Termination Plan (LTP). The remaining underground structures will be backfilled with clean material. The final selection of fill material has not been made.

  10. Experimental qualification by extensive evaluation of fibre optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kusche, Nadine; Schukar, Vivien G.; Münzenberger, Sven; Habel, Wolfgang R.

    2013-09-01

    Fibre optic strain sensors used in practical applications have to provide reliable measurements. Therefore, the applied sensor and the sensor systems must be validated experimentally. This can be achieved with facilities which use physically independent measurement systems in order to avoid the influences caused by the application of a reference sensor. This paper describes the testing methods of the specially developed validation facility KALFOS for the qualification and evaluation of surface-applied strain sensors. For reliable sensor results, the performance of fibre optic strain patches with and without FBG under combined thermal and mechanical loading was investigated. Additionally, the strain gauge factor of the fibre optic strain patches with FBG was determined experimentally and compared to the specified strain gauge factor. These results will be the basis for the development of guidelines and standards concerning the application of the sensors.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA)

    SciTech Connect

    Leick, Michael T.; Moses, Ronald W.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  12. Stepped heating procedure for experimental SAR evaluation of ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Iacob, N; Schinteie, G; Palade, P; Ticos, C M; Kuncser, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a reliable procedure for the experimental determination of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in case of superparamagnetic Fe oxide nanoparticles dispersed in liquid environments. It is based on the acquisition of consecutive steps of time-temperature dependences along of both heating and cooling processes. Linear fitting of these recorded steps provides the heating and cooling speeds at different temperatures, which finally allow the determination of the heating profile in adiabatic-like conditions over a broad temperature range. The presented methodology represents on one hand, a useful alternative tool for the experimental evaluation of the heating capability of nanoparticulate systems for magnetic hyperthermia applications and on the other hand, gives support for a more accurate modeling of bio-heat transfer phenomena.

  13. A simulation model for reliability evaluation of Space Station power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kumar, Mudit; Wagner, H.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed simulation model for the hybrid Space Station power system is presented which allows photovoltaic and solar dynamic power sources to be mixed in varying proportions. The model considers the dependence of reliability and storage characteristics during the sun and eclipse periods, and makes it possible to model the charging and discharging of the energy storage modules in a relatively accurate manner on a continuous basis.

  14. SU-E-T-390: Evaluation of Heterogeneity Corrections Made by RayStation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M; Bartolac, S; Rezaee, M; Bissonnette, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the agreement between absorbed doses calculated by RayStation treatment planning algorithm to those measured with gafchromic film and ion chamber when the photon beam is perturbed by attenuation or lateral scatter of lung material. Methods: A gafchromic EBT2 film was placed in the center of a 30×30×20 cm{sup 3} solid water phantom with a 5 cm lung slab placed at 10 cm depth. The film was irradiated at SSD = 100 cm with a 6 MV photon beam, 10×10 and 5×5 cm{sup 2} field sizes and with the beam parallel to the film and lung slab. A CT was performed to the phantom arrangement for RayStation dose calculation. The films were scanned in an Epson 10000X flatbed scanner and analyzed using the red channel, 16 bits, 76 dpi. PDD curves at the central axis and profiles at dmax were also measured in water using a CC13 (0.13 CC) ion chamber. Measurements and calculation of PDD curves at the central axis and profiles at dmax and 20 cm depth were compared using the criteria suggested by the AAPM Task Group # 53. Results: The PDD curves measured with gafchromic film and those measured in water with ion chamber agree with the ones calculated by RayStation within the uncertainty of the measurements which is within 3%. The passing rate values of the measured and calculated profiles for the 2 field sizes are within 94% for both at dmax and at 20 cm depth. Conclusion: Raystation dose calculation engine models inhomogeneity corrections. Differences between the calculated PDD curves and profiles and those measured with gafchromic film are within the uncertainty of the measurements and inside of the agreement tolerance suggested by TG53. Therefore, RayStation treatment planning has an acceptable algorithm to correct dose delivered by photon beams perturbed by lung tissue.

  15. [Evaluating psychophysiologic adaptation state in operators of Bilibino nuclear power station].

    PubMed

    Isaeva, N A; Torubarov, F S; Denisova, E A; Zvereva, Z F; Koronotova, M A

    2014-01-01

    The study revealed that 60% operators of Bilibino nuclear power station suffer from psychosomatic diseases, 41.7% of them are assigned to occupational group of workers, and major part of the examinees with psychosomatic diseases (45.82%) are aged 41-50, high integral level ofpsychophysiologic adaptation is revealed in 5 examinees (12.5%), medium integral level--in 12 examinees (30%). Lower integral level of psychophysiologic adaptation manifested in decrease in psychophysiologic and physiologic levels.

  16. Categorisation of air quality monitoring stations by evaluation of PM(10) variability.

    PubMed

    Barrero, M A; Orza, J A G; Cabello, M; Cantón, L

    2015-08-15

    Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMNs) are composed by a number of stations, which are typically classified as urban, suburban or rural, and background, industrial or traffic, depending on the location and the influence of the immediate surroundings. These categories are not necessarily homogeneous and distinct from one another, regarding the levels of the monitored pollutants. A classification providing groups with these features is of interest for air quality management and research purposes, and therefore, other classification criteria should be explored. In this work, the variations of PM10 concentrations in 43 stations in the AQMN of the Basque Country in the period 2005-2012 have been studied to group them according to common characteristics. The characteristic variations in time are synthesised by the autocorrelation function (ACF), with both daily and hourly data, and by the average diurnal evolution pattern of the normalised concentrations on a seasonal basis (Evol-P). A methodology based on k-means clustering of these features is proposed. Each classification gives a different piece of information that has been phenomenologically related with specific dispersion and emission dynamics. The classification based on Evol-Ps is found to be the most influential one when comparing PM10 levels between groups. A combination of these categorisations provides 5 groups with significantly different levels of PM10, improving the discrimination of the conventional classification. Our results indicate that the time series of the pollutant concentrations contain enough information to provide an objective classification of the monitoring stations in an AQMN.

  17. Evaluating the thermodynamic efficiency of hydrogen cycles at wet-steam nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Egorov, A. N.

    2013-04-01

    Various schematic solutions for implementing a hydrogen cycle on the basis of thermal and nuclear power stations are discussed. Different approaches to construction of cooling systems for the combustion chambers used in hydrogen-oxygen steam generators are described. An example of solution is given in which the combustion chamber is cooled by steam, which is the most efficient one in the thermodynamic respect. Results from an assessment of the thermodynamic efficiency of hydrogen cycles organized on the basis of the power unit of a wet-steam nuclear power station equipped with a K-1000-60/1500 turbine are presented. The thermodynamic efficiency of different schematic and parametric versions of implementing a hydrogen cycle, including those with a satellite turbine operating on displaced steam, is carried out. It is shown that the use of satellite turbines allows the power output and efficiency of the power unit of a wet-steam nuclear power station to be upgraded in a reliable and effective manner.

  18. Electrophysiological evaluation of cremasteric reflex in experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Soyer, T; Tosun, A; Somuncu, S; Aydin, G; Akman, H; Inal, E; Kanmaz, T; Cakmak, M

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study was the electrophysiological evaluation of the cremasteric reflex after experimental testicular torsion. Ten male Wistar rats were enrolled into the study. Genitofemoral nerve (GFN) motor conduction and cremasteric reflex (CR) responses were evaluated electrophysiologically after being subjected to anesthesia with intramuscular ketamin hydrochloride. Testicular torsion was performed by rotating the right testicle 720 degrees in a clockwise direction from a midscrotal incision. Electrophysiological evaluations were repeated in the early (30 minutes) and late (90 minutes) periods of testicular torsion. Subsequently, detorsion of the testicles was performed and electrophysiological recordings were completed after 60 minutes of detorsion. The CR was also evaluated clinically before each electrophysiological evaluation. The latency and duration of GFN motor conduction and CR responses was compared for base, early torsion, late torsion and detorsion recordings. Friedman's test for repeated measurements was used for statistical analysis. The CR, which was detected clinically before torsion and after detorsion, was not detected during torsion. When base, early torsion, late torsion and detorsion recordings were compared, there was no statistical difference with respect to both latency and duration of GFN motor conduction and CR responses (p > 0.05). Although CR was not detected clinically during testicular torsion, the electrophysiological parameters of the reflex did not differ in the early and late periods of torsion in rats. The GFN motor conduction parameters also showed no differences. In conclusion, the absence of the CR after testicular torsion could not be confirmed by electrophysiological studies.

  19. Evaluation used underground water drain pipes of experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Ohara, J.; Fujisawa, K.; Nakano, R.; Tabata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The landslide measures in Japan, using the method of landslide reduce groundwater. The method is to drill a horizontal boring. Typically, this construction method 5mm diameter hole was opened in four directions was opened by drilling a 40mm VP pipe made of 90mm is inserted into the hole. Currently, the pipe has been used experimentally in the field. First, in this study, we have constructed a model to observe the water flowing through the pipe. Water gathering and water leakage obtained from two experiments using the model. Drainage performance has been evaluated from the results.

  20. Experimental evaluation of solids suspension uniformity in canyon process vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    1996-06-25

    Experimental evaluation of solids suspension in canyon process vessels was performed at several paddle agitator speeds and different volume levels in a geometrically similar vessel. The paddle agitator speeds examined were 280, 370, 528, and 686 rpm and volume levels were 30%, 50%, and 70% fill capacity. Experiments were conducted with simulated solid particles that have particle size range and density similar to plutonium particles and corrosion products typically seen in canyon vessels. Solids suspension took place in baffled cylindrical vessel equipped with two flat-blade agitators and cooling helices.

  1. Neuroradiology viewing station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shyhliang A.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Huang, H. K.; Hanafee, William; Jabour, Bradly; Bentsen, John R.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Dion, Jacques E.

    1990-07-01

    A distributed CT/MR digital viewing station for the neuroradiology section has been developed and is being evaluated in our department. The major components of the station consist of a SUN host computer, a PIXAR II image processor, and four 1K x 1K progressive video monitors. The software modules operating in the station include an image acquisition process, a local database process, and an user image display and processing process. Functions provided by the station are described. Preliminary results obtained from clinical evaluation are reported. Future plans to refine the station are presented.

  2. Experimental evaluation of a translating nozzle sidewall radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.; Rogo, Casimir

    1987-01-01

    Studies have shown that reduced specific fuel consumption of rotorcraft engines can be achieved with a variable capacity engine. A key component in such an engine in a high-work, high-temperature variable geometry gas generator turbine. An optimization study indicated that a radial turbine with a translating nozzle sidewall could produce high efficiency over a wide range of engine flows but substantiating data were not available. An experimental program with Teledyne CAE, Toledo, Ohio was undertaken to evaluate the moving sidewall concept. A variety of translating nozzle sidewall turbine configurations were evaluated. The effects of nozzle leakage and coolant flows were also investigated. Testing was done in warm air (121 C). The results of the contractual program were summarized.

  3. Insecticide resistance profile of Anopheles gambiae from a phase II field station in Cové, southern Benin: implications for the evaluation of novel vector control products.

    PubMed

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Odjo, Abibatou; Fongnikin, Augustin; Akogbeto, Martin; Weetman, David; Rowland, Mark

    2015-11-18

    station make it a suitable site for Phase II experimental hut evaluations of novel vector control products, which aim for improved efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors to WHOPES standards. The resistance genes identified can be used as markers for further studies investigating the resistance management potential of novel mixture LLIN and IRS products tested at the site.

  4. Wind, rain and soil erosion rates on bare and plant covered agriculture plots at the experimental station of El Teularet -Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Iserloh, Th.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion is being scientifically researched for more tan one century, but there is some knowledge lacks that should be researched. Within the factors of the soil erosion wind and rain were studied, but little is know about the impact of the combination of both. Soil erosion by wind was mainly studied on drylands and agriculture land (Sterk and Spaan, 1997; Bielders et al., 2002; Rajot et al., 2003; Zobeck et al., 2003). Soil erosion by water was studied in many ecosystems but it is especially active on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009) and under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010). The importance of wind on soil erosion is base in the fact that rainstorms occurs with wind, adding a driving component to the falling raindrops. The influence of wind on raindrops is clear, but there is not measurements and there is no information of this influence under field conditions with natural rainfall events.This paper aims to determine the interaction between wind and rain as factors of the soil losses under Mediterranean climatic conditions and different agriculture managements and land uses. Since 2003, the El Teularet-Serra de Enguera Soil Erosion Experimental Station located in Eastern Spain is measuring the soil losses in plots under different land uses and land managements. The station is devoted to study the soil water erosion processes under rain-fed agriculture fields and the rangelands by means of simulated rainfall experiments and plots of different sizes. The soil erosion measure ments are done by means of 13 plots, each of them composed of 5 subplots of 1, 2, 4, 16 and 48 m2 under different land uses and managements. Two plots are covered by two different types of shrubs: Quercus coccifera and Ulex parviflorus, respectively. Three plots reproduce the use of herbicides, one is ploughed, and three plots follow conservation practices (oats and beans with no-tillage, with tillage, and with a vege- tation cover of weeds). Other plots are

  5. Experimental evaluation of urinary bladder marsupialization in male goats.

    PubMed

    May, Kimberly A; Moll, H David; Duncan, Robert B; Moon, Martha M; Pleasant, R Scott; Howard, Rick D

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of urinary bladder marsupialization in male goats. Prospective, experimental study. Six healthy mixed-breed male goats. After experimentally induced urethral obstruction, 6 male goats had urinary bladder marsupialization. Renal ultrasonography, complete blood count, and serum biochemical analysis were evaluated preoperatively (day 0), at 7 postoperative days, and then at 30-day intervals until 180 days. Stomal diameter was recorded immediately postoperatively and at each postoperative interval. Necropsy examination was performed on day 180 or when stomal stricture or death occurred. Stomal stricture occurred in 1 goat at 120 days. Another goat was found dead at 150 days; severe, suppurative cystitis was identified on necropsy. All goats had mild urine scald dermatitis. Serum biochemical values remained within normal limits, but significant decreases in white blood cell count, serum creatinine concentration, and stomal diameter occurred. At necropsy, all bladders were tubular in shape. Histological evidence of chronic suppurative cystitis and chronic, mild lymphoplasmacytic pyelitis occurred in all goats. Bacterial culture of renal tissue yielded growth in 3 goats, and bladder mucosal swabs yielded bacterial growth in all goats. Although clinical signs of ascending urinary tract infection were not observed in goats with patent stomata, urinary bladder marsupialization may result in ascending urinary tract inflammation or infection. Based on our results, urinary bladder marsupialization should be recommended with caution as the primary method for management of urinary tract obstruction in clinical cases. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  6. State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay

  7. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors.

  8. Orbit determination error analysis and comparison of station-keeping costs for Lissajous and halo-type libration point orbits and sensitivity analysis using experimental design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft in orbit near libration point L1 in the Sun-Earth system are excellent platforms for research concerning solar effects on the terrestrial environment. One spacecraft mission launched in 1978 used an L1 orbit for nearly 4 years, and future L1 orbital missions are also being planned. Orbit determination and station-keeping are, however, required for these orbits. In particular, orbit determination error analysis may be used to compute the state uncertainty after a predetermined tracking period; the predicted state uncertainty levels then will impact the control costs computed in station-keeping simulations. Error sources, such as solar radiation pressure and planetary mass uncertainties, are also incorporated. For future missions, there may be some flexibility in the type and size of the spacecraft's nominal trajectory, but different orbits may produce varying error analysis and station-keeping results. The nominal path, for instance, can be (nearly) periodic or distinctly quasi-periodic. A periodic 'halo' orbit may be constructed to be significantly larger than a quasi-periodic 'Lissajous' path; both may meet mission requirements, but perhaps the required control costs for these orbits are probably different. Also for this spacecraft tracking and control simulation problem, experimental design methods can be used to determine the most significant uncertainties. That is, these methods can determine the error sources in the tracking and control problem that most impact the control cost (output); it also produces an equation that gives the approximate functional relationship between the error inputs and the output.

  9. Evaluation of Preproduction Hardware Components for IMS Station Upgrades to Reduce Manufacturers Development Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Darren; Pearce, Nathan; Starovoit, Yuri; Guralp, Cansun

    2014-05-01

    Since the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was opened for signature in 1996, nearly 80% of the network has been certified as operational, and those stations are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. Several International Monitoring System (IMS) monitoring facilities have been in operation for close to 15 years, and several certified stations are facing equipment obsolescence issues. The search for engineering solutions to replace obsolete hardware components is guided by two primary goals: 1) be compliant with IMS minimum technical requirements and 2) be able to be integrated with the existing system. To reduce the development and verification time necessary to address obsolescence in equipment, the PTS has requested the preproduction testing of the recently revised Guralp CMG-DM24AM digitizer. Performing preproduction testing has helped in identifying issues, which Guralp Systems has resolved. In our poster, we will review the reasons for the digitizer updates, present results of the preproduction testing of the Guralp digitizer, and comment on the value this process has provided to the IMS operation.

  10. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  11. Experimental evaluation of neutron dose in radiotherapy patients: Which dose?

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Expósito, M. Domingo, C.; Ortega-Gelabert, O.; Gallego, S.; Sánchez-Doblado, F.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The evaluation of peripheral dose has become a relevant issue recently, in particular, the contribution of secondary neutrons. However, after the revision of the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, there has been a lack of experimental procedure for its evaluation. Specifically, the problem comes from the replacement of organ dose equivalent by the organ-equivalent dose, being the latter “immeasurable” by definition. Therefore, dose equivalent has to be still used although it needs the calculation of the radiation quality factor Q, which depends on the unrestricted linear energy transfer, for the specific neutron irradiation conditions. On the other hand, equivalent dose is computed through the radiation weighting factor w{sub R}, which can be easily calculated using the continuous function provided by the recommendations. The aim of the paper is to compare the dose equivalent evaluated following the definition, that is, using Q, with the values obtained by replacing the quality factor with w{sub R}. Methods: Dose equivalents were estimated in selected points inside a phantom. Two types of medical environments were chosen for the irradiations: a photon- and a proton-therapy facility. For the estimation of dose equivalent, a poly-allyl-diglicol-carbonate-based neutron dosimeter was used for neutron fluence measurements and, additionally, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain the energy spectrum of the fluence in each point. Results: The main contribution to dose equivalent comes from neutrons with energy higher than 0.1 MeV, even when they represent the smallest contribution in fluence. For this range of energy, the radiation quality factor and the radiation weighting factor are approximately equal. Then, dose equivalents evaluated using both factors are compatible, with differences below 12%. Conclusions: Quality factor can be replaced by the radiation weighting factor in the evaluation of dose

  12. Experimental evaluation of neutron dose in radiotherapy patients: Which dose?

    PubMed

    Romero-Expósito, M; Domingo, C; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Ortega-Gelabert, O; Gallego, S

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of peripheral dose has become a relevant issue recently, in particular, the contribution of secondary neutrons. However, after the revision of the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, there has been a lack of experimental procedure for its evaluation. Specifically, the problem comes from the replacement of organ dose equivalent by the organ-equivalent dose, being the latter "immeasurable" by definition. Therefore, dose equivalent has to be still used although it needs the calculation of the radiation quality factor Q, which depends on the unrestricted linear energy transfer, for the specific neutron irradiation conditions. On the other hand, equivalent dose is computed through the radiation weighting factor wR, which can be easily calculated using the continuous function provided by the recommendations. The aim of the paper is to compare the dose equivalent evaluated following the definition, that is, using Q, with the values obtained by replacing the quality factor with wR. Dose equivalents were estimated in selected points inside a phantom. Two types of medical environments were chosen for the irradiations: a photon- and a proton-therapy facility. For the estimation of dose equivalent, a poly-allyl-diglicol-carbonate-based neutron dosimeter was used for neutron fluence measurements and, additionally, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain the energy spectrum of the fluence in each point. The main contribution to dose equivalent comes from neutrons with energy higher than 0.1 MeV, even when they represent the smallest contribution in fluence. For this range of energy, the radiation quality factor and the radiation weighting factor are approximately equal. Then, dose equivalents evaluated using both factors are compatible, with differences below 12%. Quality factor can be replaced by the radiation weighting factor in the evaluation of dose equivalent in radiotherapy environments simplifying the

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Actinide Transport in a Fractured Granodiorite

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments have already been conducted with uranium and additional field experiments using other actinides are planned at the site. Thus, working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiment results with fieldscale observations. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. Solutions with pH 6.8 and 8.8 were tested. Solutions were switched to radionuclide-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after near-steady actinide/colloid breakthrough occurred in column experiments. We are currently evaluating actinide adsorption/desorption rates as a function of water chemistry (initial focus on pH), with future testing planned to evaluate the influence of carbonate concentrations, flow rates, and mineralogy in solutions and suspensions with bentonite colloids. (auth)

  14. A comparison and evaluation of satellite derived positions of tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison is presented of sets of satellite tracking station coordinate values published in the past few years by a number of investigators, i.e. Goddard Space Flight Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Ohio State University, The Naval Weapons Laboratory, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, and Wallops Island. The comparisons have been made in terms of latitude, longitude and height. The results of the various solutions have been compared directly and also with external standards such as local survey data and gravimetrically derived geoid heights. After taking into account systematic rotations, latitude and longitude agreement on a global basis is generally 15 meters or better, on the North American Datum agreement is generally better than 10 meters. Allowing for scale differences (of the order of 2 ppm) radial agreement is generally of the order of 10 meters.

  15. Evaluation of the Biolog MicroStation system for yeast identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.; Molina, T. C.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine isolates representing 16 genera and 53 species of yeasts were processed with the Biolog MicroStation System for yeast identification. Thirteen genera and 38 species were included in the Biolog database. For these 129 isolates, correct identifications to the species level were 13.2, 39.5 and 48.8% after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. Three genera and 15 species which were not included in the Biolog database were also tested. Of the 30 isolates studied, 16.7, 53.3 and 56.7% of the isolates were given incorrect names from the system's database after 24,48 and 72 h incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. The remaining isolates of this group were not identified.

  16. Evaluation of the Biolog MicroStation system for yeast identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.; Molina, T. C.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine isolates representing 16 genera and 53 species of yeasts were processed with the Biolog MicroStation System for yeast identification. Thirteen genera and 38 species were included in the Biolog database. For these 129 isolates, correct identifications to the species level were 13.2, 39.5 and 48.8% after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. Three genera and 15 species which were not included in the Biolog database were also tested. Of the 30 isolates studied, 16.7, 53.3 and 56.7% of the isolates were given incorrect names from the system's database after 24,48 and 72 h incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. The remaining isolates of this group were not identified.

  17. Engineering evaluation of magma cooling-tower demonstration at Nevada Power Company's Sunrise Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The Magma Cooling Tower (MCT) process utilizes a falling film heat exchanger integrated into an induced draft cooling tower to evaporate waste water. A hot water source such as return cooling water provides the energy for evaporation. Water quality control is maintained by removing potential scaling constituents to make concentrations of the waste water possible without scaling heat transfer surfaces. A pilot-scale demonstration test of the MCT process was performed from March 1979 through June 1979 at Nevada Power Company's Sunrise Station in Las Vegas, Nevada. The pilot unit extracted heat from the powerplant cooling system to evaporate cooling tower blowdown. Two water quality control methods were employed: makeup/sidestream softening and fluidized bed crystallization. The 11 week softening mode test was successful.

  18. Evaluation of RF electromagnetic field exposure levels from cellular base stations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Chan; Park, Seong-Ook

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the measurement results of human exposure to CDMA800 and CDMA1800 signals at locations in Korea where the general public has expressed concern. Measurements were performed at 50 locations across the country to compare the electromagnetic field levels with the general public exposure compliance limits. At each site, the distances between the nearest single or co-located base station and measurement positions were within a range of approximately 32-422 m. The measured exposure levels were very low compared with the international standard and the Korean human protection notice. The highest field level was 1.5 V/m, which corresponds to 0.15% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for human exposure. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Control of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made to develop controllers for the NASA-JSC Triangular Space Station and evaluate their performances to make recommendations for structural design and/or control alternatives. The control system design assumes the rigid body of the Space Station and developes the lumped parameter control system by using the Inverse Optimal Control Theory. In order to evaluate the performance of the control system, a Parameter Estimation algorithm is being developed which will be used in modeling an equivalent but simpler Space Station model. Finally, a scaled version of the Space Station is being built for the purpose of physical experiments to evaluate the control system performance.

  20. Automated modular high energy evaluation system for experimental thyristor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacouture, Shelby; Lawson, Kevin; Bayne, Stephen; Giesselmann, Michael; Scozzie, Charles J.; O'Brien, Heather; Ogunniyi, Aderinto A.

    2013-10-01

    A high energy, modular, completely automated test bed with integrated data acquisition and characterization systems was successfully designed in order to perform both safe operating area as well as very high volume reliability testing on experimental silicon carbide Super Gate Turn Off (SGTO) thyristors. Although the system follows a modular design philosophy, with each functional block acting as a peripheral to a main control module and can be adapted to arbitrary power and pulse width levels, for the specific SGTO devices initially evaluated it was configured to have the device discharge variable current levels of up to 6 kA into a 0.5 Ω resistive load with a relatively square pulse fixed at 100 μs full width at half maximum delivering energy levels up to 1.8 kJ to the load.

  1. [Sugarcane biopolymer membrane: experimental evaluation in the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Mayer, Débora Lopes Bunzen; Araújo, Juliana Gusmão de; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho; Caldas Neto, Silvio da Silva; Ataíde, Rafael Figueiredo; Mello, Roberto José Vieria de

    2011-01-01

    New developments on biomaterials are important in surgery. The behavior of a new membrane produced from sugarcane will be evaluated in the middle ear of rats. This study analyzed the results from the interaction of the sugarcane-base biopolymer membrane in the middle ear of a rat. We ran an experimental, prospective, paired study with 24 Wistar rats. The sugarcane-base polymer membrane was inoculated in the right ear; and an autologous fascia in the left ear. The rats were divided in 3 groups of 8, and slaughtered at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Histological analyses were performed on the rats' middle ear mucosa and their tympanic membranes. There was an inflammatory reaction on the experimental group and middle ear subacute exudate in 50%of the cases; 30% chronic exudate; and 20% was normal. In the control group there was only one case of exudate. The inflammation was initially described as intense, but it decreased over time. Myringosclerosis was observed in both groups. The sugarcane biopolymer membrane was absorbed later when compared with fascia. The sugarcane biopolymer membrane induced an inflammatory reaction in the middle ear which decreased over time, and mild fibrosis. Future studies can indicate its use in otolaryngology.

  2. An experimental evaluation of a small fusion fuel cleanup system

    SciTech Connect

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Gravelle, F.B.; Schultz, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Small tritium-burning experimental tokamaks will require some means of handling and purifying the deuterium-tritium fuel. A simple purification system would allow reinjection of fuel, minimize tritium inventory on site, and reduce the number of shipments of tritium to and from the tokamak site. This could simplify the licensing and safety aspects for sites unsuited to large inventories of tritium. At the request of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, a number of conceptual designs of fusion fuel cleanup systems were prepared. These designs were based on handling 5000-Ci batches of fuel containing helium (2%), water (0.4%), oxygen and nitrogen (0.1% each), and carbon oxides and methane (0.5% each). The purified fuel was to have impurity concentrations no greater than 1% helium and 0.1% total for the remainder. Six conceptual designs were prepared and evaluated. In each of these, the fuel from the tokamak was diluted to {approximately}25% in helium prior to processing. The basis of the purification cycle was to dilute the fuel with helium as a carrier gas, remove all of the hydrogen and impurities, and regenerate pure fuel for reuse. The preferred design consisted of a gas circulation loop comprising an expansion tank, a pump, and a number of purification units, a uranium bed, a zirconium-aluminum getter bed, and two catalyst beds, Pt/Pd and CuO/MnO{sub 2}. This paper summarizes an experimental evaluation of this system using hydrogen and nontriated impurities. 1 ref.

  3. Experimental and CFD analysis for prediction of vortex and swirl angle in the pump sump station model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. G.; Kim, B. H.; Bang, B. H.; Lee, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sump model testing is mainly used to check flow conditions around the intake structure. In present paper, numerical simulation with SST turbulence model for a scaled sump model was carried out with air entrainment and two phases for prediction of locations of vortex generation. The sump model used for the CFD and experimental analysis was scaled down by a ratio of 1:10. The experiment was performed in Korea Maritime and Ocean University (KMOU) and the flow conditions around pump's intake structure were investigated. In this study, uniformity of flow distribution in the pump intake channel was examined to find out the specific causes of vortex occurrence. Furthermore, the effectiveness of an Anti Vortex Device (AVD) to suppress the vortex occurrence in a single intake pump sump model was examined. CFD and experimental analysis carried out with and without AVDs produced very similar results. Without the AVDs, the maximum swirl angle obtained for experimental and CFD analysis were 10.9 and 11.3 degree respectively. Similarly, with AVDs, the maximum swirl angle obtained for experimental and CFD analysis was 2.7 and 0.2 degree respectively. So, with reference to the ANSI/HI 98 standard that permits a maximum swirl angle of 5 degree, the use of AVDs in experimental and CFD analysis produced very desirable results which is well within the limit.

  4. Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP): Past Micro-Gravity Experiments and Future Experimental Plan on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with a growing solid-liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the four decades. For a metallurgist or a material scientist understanding the fundamental physics of such an interaction is relevant for applications that include distribution of reinforcement particles in metal matrix composites, inclusion management in castings, and distribution of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates (flux pinning sites) in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (123) superconducting crystals. The same physics is also applicable to other areas including geological applications (frost heaving in soils) and preservation of biological cells. Experimentally this interaction can be quantified in terms of a critical growth velocity, Vcr, of the SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the advancing interface, and above which the particles are engulfed. Past experimental evidence suggests that this Vcr is an inverse function of the particle radius, R. In order to isolate the fundamental physics that governs such a relationship it is necessary to minimize natural convection at the SLI that is inherent in ground based experiments. Hence for the purpose of producing benchmark data (Vcr vs. R) PEP is a natural candidate for micro-gravity experimentation. Accordingly, experiments with pure Al containing a dispersion of ZrO2 particles and an organic analogue, succinonitrile (SCN) containing polystyrene particles have been performed on the LMS and USMP-4 mission respectively. In this paper we will summarize the experimental data that was obtained during these two micro-gravity missions and show that the results differ compared to terrestrial experiments. We will also discuss the basic elements of our analytical and numerical model and present a comparison of the predictions of these models against micro-gravity experimental data. Finally. we will discuss our future experimental plan that includes the ISS glovebox and MSRRl.

  5. Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP): Past Micro-Gravity Experiments and Future Experimental Plan on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with a growing solid-liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the four decades. For a metallurgist or a material scientist understanding the fundamental physics of such an interaction is relevant for applications that include distribution of reinforcement particles in metal matrix composites, inclusion management in castings, and distribution of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates (flux pinning sites) in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (123) superconducting crystals. The same physics is also applicable to other areas including geological applications (frost heaving in soils) and preservation of biological cells. Experimentally this interaction can be quantified in terms of a critical growth velocity, Vcr, of the SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the advancing interface, and above which the particles are engulfed. Past experimental evidence suggests that this Vcr is an inverse function of the particle radius, R. In order to isolate the fundamental physics that governs such a relationship it is necessary to minimize natural convection at the SLI that is inherent in ground based experiments. Hence for the purpose of producing benchmark data (Vcr vs. R) PEP is a natural candidate for micro-gravity experimentation. Accordingly, experiments with pure Al containing a dispersion of ZrO2 particles and an organic analogue, succinonitrile (SCN) containing polystyrene particles have been performed on the LMS and USMP-4 mission respectively. In this paper we will summarize the experimental data that was obtained during these two micro-gravity missions and show that the results differ compared to terrestrial experiments. We will also discuss the basic elements of our analytical and numerical model and present a comparison of the predictions of these models against micro-gravity experimental data. Finally. we will discuss our future experimental plan that includes the ISS glovebox and MSRRl.

  6. Evaluation of advanced materials through experimental mechanics and modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Yii-Ching

    1993-01-01

    Composite materials have been frequently used in aerospace vehicles. Very often defects are inherited during the manufacture and damages are inherited during the construction and services. It becomes critical to understand the mechanical behavior of such composite structure before it can be further used. One good example of these composite structures is the cylindrical bottle of solid rocket motor case with accidental impact damages. Since the replacement of this cylindrical bottle is expensive, it is valuable to know how the damages affects the material, and how it can be repaired. To reach this goal, the damage must be characterized and the stress/strain field must be carefully analyzed. First the damage area, due to impact, is surveyed and identified with a shearography technique which uses the principle of speckle shearing interferometry to measure displacement gradient. Within the damage area of a composite laminate, such as the bottle of solid rocket motor case, all layers are considered to be degraded. Once a lamina being degraded the stiffness as well as strength will be drastically decreased. It becomes a critical area of failure to the whole bottle. And hence the stress/strain field within and around a damage should be accurately evaluated for failure prediction. To investigate the stress/strain field around damages a Hybrid-Numerical method which combines experimental measurement and finite element analysis is used. It is known the stress or strain at the singular point can not be accurately measured by an experimental technique. Nevertheless, if the location is far away from the singular spot, the displacement can be found accurately. Since it reflects the true displacement field locally regardless of the boundary conditions, it is an excellent input data for a finite element analysis to replace the usually assumed boundary conditions. Therefore, the Hybrid-Numerical method is chosen to avoid the difficulty and to take advantage of both experimental

  7. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    Eye trauma results in 30,000 cases of blindness each year in the United States and is the second leading cause of monocular visual impairment. Eye injury is caused by a wide variety of projectile impacts and loading scenarios with common sources of trauma being motor vehicle crashes, military operations, and sporting impacts. For the current study, 79 experimental eye impact tests in literature were computationally modeled to analyze global and localized responses of the eye to a variety of blunt projectile impacts. Simulations were run with eight different projectiles (airsoft pellets, baseball, air gun pellets commonly known as BBs, blunt impactor, paintball, aluminum, foam, and plastic rods) to characterize effects of the projectile size, mass, geometry, material properties, and velocity on eye response. This study presents a matched comparison of experimental test results and computational model outputs including stress, energy, and pressure used to evaluate risk of eye injury. In general, the computational results agreed with the experimental results. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to establish the stress and pressure thresholds that best discriminated for globe rupture in the matched experimental tests. Globe rupture is predicted by the computational simulations when the corneoscleral stress exceeds 17.21 MPa or the vitreous pressure exceeds 1.01 MPa. Peak stresses were located at the apex of the cornea, the limbus, or the equator depending on the type of projectile impacting the eye. A multivariate correlation analysis revealed that area-normalized kinetic energy was the best single predictor of peak stress and pressure. Additional incorporation of a relative size parameter that relates the projectile area to the area of the eye reduced stress response variability and may be of importance in eye injury prediction. The modeling efforts shed light on the injury response of the eye when subjected to a variety of blunt projectile

  8. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  9. Evaluation of the MICAST #2-12 AI-7wt%Si Sample Directionally Solidified Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, Surendra N.; Ghods, Masoud; Angart, Samuel G.; Lauer, Mark; Grugel, Richard N.; Poirier, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The US team of the European led "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions" (MICAST) program recently received a third Aluminum - 7wt% silicon alloy that was processed in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. The sample, designated MICAST#2-12, was directionally solidified in the Solidification with Quench Furnace (SQF) at a constant rate of 40micometers/s through an imposed temperature gradient of 31K/cm. Procedures taken to evaluate the state of the sample prior to sectioning for metallographic analysis are reviewed and rational for measuring the microstructural constituents, in particular the primary dendrite arm spacing (Lambda (sub1)), is given. The data are presented, put in context with the earlier samples, and evaluated in view of a relevant theoretical model.

  10. An application of multiattribute decision analysis to the Space Station Freedom program. Case study: Automation and robotics technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Levin, Richard R.; Carpenter, Elisabeth J.

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an application of multiattribute analysis to the evaluation of high leverage prototyping technologies in the automation and robotics (A and R) areas that might contribute to the Space Station (SS) Freedom baseline design. An implication is that high leverage prototyping is beneficial to the SS Freedom Program as a means for transferring technology from the advanced development program to the baseline program. The process also highlights the tradeoffs to be made between subsidizing high value, low risk technology development versus high value, high risk technology developments. Twenty one A and R Technology tasks spanning a diverse array of technical concepts were evaluated using multiattribute decision analysis. Because of large uncertainties associated with characterizing the technologies, the methodology was modified to incorporate uncertainty. Eight attributes affected the rankings: initial cost, operation cost, crew productivity, safety, resource requirements, growth potential, and spinoff potential. The four attributes of initial cost, operations cost, crew productivity, and safety affected the rankings the most.

  11. Experimental evaluation of a translating nozzle sidewall radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.; Rogo, Casimir

    1987-01-01

    An experimental performance evaluation was made of two movable sidewall variable area radial turbines. The turbine designs were representative of the gas generator turbine of a variable flow capacity rotorcraft engine. The first turbine was an uncooled design while the second turbine had a cooled nozzle but an uncooled rotor. The cooled nozzle turbine was evaluated both with and without coolant flow. The test results showed that the movable nozzle wall is a viable and efficient means to effectively control the flow capacity of a radial turbine. Peak efficiencies of the second turbine with and without nozzle coolant were 86.5 and 88 percent respectively. These values are comparable to pivoting vane variable geometry turbines; however, the decrease in efficiency as the flow was varied from the design value was much less for the movable wall turbine. Several design improvements which should increase the turbine efficiency one or two more points are identified. These design improvements include reduced leakage losses and relocation of the vane coolant ejection holes to reduce mainstream disturbance.

  12. Experimental evaluation of a MOSFET dosimeter for proton dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishio, Teiji; Miyagishi, Tomoko; Hirano, Eriko; Hotta, Kenji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2006-12-07

    The metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter has been widely studied for use as a dosimeter for patient dose verification. The major advantage of this detector is its size, which acts as a point dosimeter, and also its ease of use. The commercially available TN502RD MOSFET dosimeter manufactured by Thomson and Nielsen has never been used for proton dosimetry. Therefore we used the MOSFET dosimeter for the first time in proton dose measurements. In this study, the MOSFET dosimeter was irradiated with 190 MeV therapeutic proton beams. We experimentally evaluated dose reproducibility, linearity, fading effect, beam intensity dependence and angular dependence for the proton beam. Furthermore, the Bragg curve and spread-out Bragg peak were also measured and the linear-energy transfer (LET) dependence of the MOSFET response was investigated. Many characteristics of the MOSFET response for proton beams were the same as those for photon beams reported in previous papers. However, the angular MOSFET responses at 45, 90, 135, 225, 270 and 315 degrees for proton beams were over-responses of about 15%, and moreover the MOSFET response depended strongly on the LET of the proton beam. This study showed that the angular dependence and LET dependence of the MOSFET response must be considered very carefully for quantitative proton dose evaluations.

  13. [Experimental research on the biological action of the pulse-modulated microwave radiation created by shipboard radar stations].

    PubMed

    Kaliada, T V; Nikitina, V N; Liashko, G G; Masterova, I Iu; Shaposhnikova, E S

    1995-01-01

    The article represents experimental data on influence of impulse modulated microwave irradiation with discontinuous effects varying in intensity and exposure. Becavior, peripheral blood, biochemical and morphologic parameters were assessed in the laboratory animals exposed. The response appeared to correlate with individual and typologic features of the examinees.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Large Aperture 'Polished Panel' Optical Receivers Based on Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the development and installation of a "polished-panel" optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via realtime tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both "on-source" and "off-source" data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats with photon-counting detection, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance for these modulations. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  15. Performance evaluation of large aperture "polished panel" optical receivers based on experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    Recent interest in the development of hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the installation of a “ polished-panel” optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex1. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via real-time tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both “ on-source” and “ off-source” data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Large Aperture 'Polished Panel' Optical Receivers Based on Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the development and installation of a "polished-panel" optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via realtime tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both "on-source" and "off-source" data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats with photon-counting detection, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance for these modulations. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  17. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  18. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia; Aber, Gregory; Adam, Niklas; Clements, Anna; Modica, Catherine; Younker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems which are less dependent on hardware that would need to be launched on a regular basis. Three systems for electrochemical production of potable water disinfectants are being assessed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). Since there is a wide variability in the literature with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, there is a need to establish baseline efficacy values. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to determine whether these electrochemical disinfection devices are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  19. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Modica, Catherine; Bodkin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up ]mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that there is a wide variability with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, therefore baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  20. Microstructural Evaluation and Comparison of Solder Samples Processed Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Samples from the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI), conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS), are being examined for post-solidification microstructural development and porosity distribution. In this preliminary study, the internal structures of two ISSI processed samples are compared. In one case 10cm of rosin-core solder was wrapped around a coupon wire and melted by conduction, whereas, in the other a comparable length of solder was melted directly onto the hot wire; in both cases the molten solder formed ellipsoidal blobs, a shape that was maintained during subsequent solidification. In the former case, there is clear evidence of porosity throughout the sample, and an accumulation of larger pores near the hot end that implies thermocapillary induced migration and eventual coalescence of the flux vapor bubbles. In the second context, when solder was fed onto the wire. a part of the flux constituting the solder core is introduced into and remains within the liquid solder ball, becoming entombed upon solidification. In both cases the consequential porosity, particularly at a solder/contact interface, is very undesirable. In addition to compromising the desired electrical and thermal conductivity, it promotes mechanical failure.

  1. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Adams, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Botkin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle Program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up-mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that a wide variability exists with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants; therefore, baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on the ISS.

  2. Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

  3. Evaluation of ionospheric height assumption for single station GPS-TEC derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijun; Ma, Guanyi; Wang, Xiaolan; Wan, Qingtao; Li, Jinghua

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effects of ionospheric single thin layer height on GPS based total electron content (TEC) derivation by a single station, the GPS dual frequency pseudoranges and carrier phases received in Beijing at solar minimum and maximum are used for derivation at different heights through grid method, Kalman filtering method and polynomial method respectively. Detailed analyses proceed to be conducted on derived vertical TEC (VTEC) and estimated instrumental biases as well as residual errors of slant TEC (STEC) and errors of satellite biases, during which derived VTEC is compared with VTEC offered by CODE and IRI2012. VTEC at receiver zenith derived through three methods tends to increase with the height, whereas that through grid method at relatively large height may be unsolvable. Biases estimated via Kalman filtering method and polynomial method are less affected by the height. Those via grid method at height below 400 km are similar to those via other two methods, but the errors rise sharply above that value. Under the research condition the optimum height for Kalman filtering method as well as polynomial method at solar minimum is 380 km, and 310 km at solar maximum, while for grid method the optimum height ranges from 280 km to 350 km.

  4. Antarctic station-based seasonal pressure reconstructions since 1905: 1. Reconstruction evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogt, Ryan L.; Goergens, Chad A.; Jones, Megan E.; Witte, Grant A.; Lee, Ming Yueng; Jones, Julie M.

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal mean Antarctic pressures at 17 stations are reconstructed based on the method of principal component regression, employing midlatitude pressure data as predictors. Several reconstruction methods were performed in order to assess the stability and reliability of the reconstructions obtained, including performing the reconstructions over a shorter 30 year window and withholding the remaining data for an independent validation. Generally, there were small differences between the various approaches, but typically reconstructions conducted on data with the trends still present and over the full period of observations achieved the highest skill. Seasonally, reconstruction skill was high in austral summer across the entire Antarctic continent. Reconstructions that employed gridded pressure data over oceans as well as the observations (here termed "pseudoreconstructions") also performed remarkably well in austral winter. Spatially, the reconstruction skill was highest near the Antarctic Peninsula in all seasons, and weakest in coastal East Antarctica and the Antarctic Interior during austral spring and autumn; the spatial variability of the skill in part reflects the distance to the nearest midlatitude predictor. Nonetheless, for nearly all seasons and locations the observed trends since 1957 were well captured by the reconstructions, as was the low-frequency decadal-scale variability. These results suggest Antarctic pressure observations can be extended throughout the twentieth century with high confidence, especially in summer, allowing for a more precise understanding of the role and magnitude of natural atmospheric circulation variability across Antarctica.

  5. Evaluation of tele-ultrasound as a tool in remote diagnosis and clinical management at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the McMurdo Research Station.

    PubMed

    Otto, Christian; Shemenski, Ron; Scott, Jessica M; Hartshorn, Jeanette; Bishop, Sheryl; Viegas, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Background: A large number of Antarctic stations do not utilize ultrasound for medical care. Regular use of ultrasound imaging at South Pole and McMurdo Stations first began in October 2002. To date, there has been no evaluation of medical events requiring ultrasound examination from this remote environment. Additionally, the importance of tele-ultrasound for clinical management in Antarctica has not yet been assessed. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of all ultrasound exams performed at South Pole and McMurdo Stations between October 2002 and October 2003. Radiology reports and patient charts were reviewed for pre- and post-ultrasound diagnosis and treatment. Sixty-six ultrasound exams were conducted on 49 patients. Of the exams, 94.0% were interpreted by the store-and-forward method, whereas 6.0% were interpreted in "real-time" format. Abdominal, genitourinary, and gynecology ultrasound exams accounted for 63.6% of exams. Ultrasound examination prevented an intercontinental aeromedical evacuation in 25.8% of cases, and had a significant effect on the diagnosis and management of illness in patients at South Pole and McMurdo research stations. These findings indicate that diagnostic ultrasound has significant benefits for medical care at Antarctic stations and that tele-ultrasound is a valuable addition to remote medical care for isolated populations with limited access to tertiary-healthcare facilities.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-21

    Artist's concept of the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  7. 47 CFR 74.1283 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1283 Station identification. (a) The call sign of an FM...

  8. Experimentally evaluating the origin of dilute magnetism in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L. M. C.

    2017-10-01

    Reports of room-temperature ferromagnetism continue to emerge for an ever-growing range of nanomaterials with a small or even vanishing concentration of magnetic atoms. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are the most representative class of such materials, but similar magnetic properties have been reported in many others. Challenging our understanding of magnetic order in solids, as well as our ability to experimentally assess it, these remarkable magnetic phenomena have become one of the most controversial topics in magnetism. Various non-intrinsic sources of ferromagnetism (e.g. instrumental artifacts and magnetic contamination) are becoming well documented, and rarely are all of them taken into account when room-temperature ferromagnetism is reported. This topical review is intended to serve as a guide when evaluating to what extent a given data set supports the claim of intrinsic ferromagnetism in dilute nanomaterials. It compiles the most relevant sources of non-intrinsic ferromagnetism which have been reported, as well as guidelines for how to minimize them. It also provides an overview of complementary structural and magnetic characterization techniques which can be combined to provide different levels of scrutiny of the intrinsic nature of experimentally observed ferromagnetism. In particular, it gives some notable examples of how comprehensive studies based on those techniques have led to a remarkably detailed understanding of model DMS materials, with strong evidence of absence of room-temperature ferromagnetism. Although mostly based on DMS research, this review provides a set of guidelines and cautionary notes of broader relevance, including some emerging new fields of dilute nanomagnetism such as magnetically doped 3D topological insulators, 3D Dirac semimetals, and 2D materials.

  9. Experimental evaluation of particulate contamination on backside of EUV reticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Kazuya; Taguchi, Takao; Amemiya, Mitsuaki; Nishimura, Naosuke; Suga, Osamu

    2009-03-01

    "Reticle protection during storage, handling and use" is one of the critical issues of EUV lithography because no practical pellicle has been found for EUV reticles as yet. The front surface of an EUV reticle has to be protected from particles larger than 20-30 nm to maintain the image quality projected on the wafer plane, and the backside also has to be protected to maintain the flatness of the reticle chucked on an electrostatic chuck (ESC). In this paper, we are focusing on particles on the backside of a reticle. If a particle lies between a reticle and a chuck, it has a strong impact on the flatness of the reticle, and the wafer overlay is degraded by out-of-plane distortion (OPD) and in-plane distortion (IPD) caused by the particle. From this point of view, we need to know the maximum allowable size of particles on the backside of a reticle. MIRAI-Selete introduced an experimental setup that can measure the flatness of the chucked reticle in a vacuum. Two electrostatic chucks were alternately installed in the vacuum chamber of Mask Protection Engineering Tool (MPE Tool), a reticle is automatically carried from a reticle pod to the chuck in the tool. The flatness of the reticle can be measured by an interferometer through the viewport underneath the chamber. We report results of experimental evaluation about the relationship between the reticle OPD and the initial size of particles and mention the maximum allowable size of particles between a reticle and a chuck.

  10. Experimental evaluation of a small fusion fuel cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Gravelle, F.B.; Schultz, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Small tritium-burning experimental tokamaks will require some means of handling and purifying the deuterium-tritium fuel. A simple purification system would allow reinjection of fuel, minimize tritium inventory on site, and reduce the number of shipments of tritium to and from the tokamak site. This could simplify the licensing and safety aspects for sites unsuited to large inventories of tritium. At the request of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, a number of conceptual designs of fusion fuel cleanup systems were prepared. The preferred design consisted of a gas circulation loop comprising an expansion tank, a pump, and a number of purification units, a uranium bed, a zirconium-aluminum getter bed, and two catalyst beds, Pt/Pd and CuO/MnO/sub 2/. This paper summarizes an experimental evaluation of this system using hydrogen and nontriated impurities. Using the information generated in the first part of the study, a simplified cleanup system containing two alternative purification paths was built and tested. The first path was through two uranium beds in series operating at 25 and 400/sup 0/C. In the second path, a zirconium-aluminum getter bed at 700/sup 0/C replaced the hot uranium bed. Both systems were demonstrated to be effective in the cleanup of a multicomponent gas mixture. These results show it is possible to have a simple cleanup system that is effective for purification of hydrogen that is typical of a fusion fuel mixture. This system provides for tritium recovery from the impurities, as well as purification.

  11. Evaluation of the prompt alerting systems at four nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Keast, D.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents evaluations of the prompt notification siren systems at the following four US nuclear power facilities: Trojan, Three Mile Island, Indian Point, and Zion. The objective of these evaluations was to provide examples of an analytical procedure for predicting siren-system effectiveness under specific conditions in the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding nuclear power plants. This analytical procedure is discussed in report No. PNL-4227.

  12. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part I: Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Nutter, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A subjective evaluation of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 29-km (meso-) eta model during the 1996 warm (May-August) and cool (October-January) seasons is described. The overall evaluation assessed the utility of the model for operational weather forecasting by the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron, National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) and NWS Office in Melbourne, FL.

  13. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  14. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  15. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  16. Evaluation of two automated instruments for pre-transfusion testing: AutoVue Innova and Techno TwinStation.

    PubMed

    Shin, So Youn; Kwon, Kye Chul; Koo, Sun Hoe; Park, Jong Woo; Ko, Chi Seon; Song, Jeong Hoon; Sung, Ji Youn

    2008-06-01

    Despite the advances in total laboratory automation, a considerable amount of work in blood banks is still done using outdated manual methods. Some automated pre-transfusion testing instruments have recently been developed. Of these, we evaluated and compared the AutoVue Innova (Ortho, USA) and the Techno TwinStation (DiaMed AG, Switzerland). Forward and reverse ABO/Rh typing and unexpected antibody screening and identification tests were performed on 4,628 samples using the manual method and the two automated instruments. Two different anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate) were compared in ABO/Rh typing and unexpected antibody screening tests. Titrating studies were conducted on the following 7 dilutions using 5 samples of irregular antibodies with anti-E, anti-E & -c, anti-D, and anti-Le(a) with anti-Fy(a): 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64, and 1:128. The test throughput per hour, the time required to perform 1 and 100 tests, and a simulation test for total events occurring in 1 day were also measured. No erroneous results were reported between the two instruments and the manual method. Discrepancies observed in 10 cases (0.4%) of ABO/Rh typing were of higher intensity with AutoVue Innova than with the manual method. AutoVue Innova exhibited the highest sensitivity in the titrating study and throughput performance compared with the manual method and the Techno TwinStation. Especially in the throughput and time required to complete 100 antibody screening tests, AutoVue Innova had a 3.3- and 3.5-fold higher performance, respectively, than Techno TwinStation. Because both of the two fully automated instruments (AutoVue Innova and Techno TwinStation) had high levels of accuracy and performance, it is expected that use of fully automated instruments will reduce human labor, turnaround time, and operator error in the blood bank.

  17. Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions (VO2max) will document changes in maximum oxygen uptake for crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) on long-duration missions, greater than 90 days. This investigation will establish the characteristics of VO2max during flight and assess the validity of the current methods of tracking aerobic capacity change during and following the ISS missions.

  18. DSS-13 - Using an OSI process control standard for monitor and control. [Deep Space Network experimental station applying Open System interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, W. R.; Chen, Richard L.; Stockett, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control (M&C) system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for M&C at the Deep Space Communications Complexes has been developed based on the manufacturing message specification (MMS) process control standard of the open system interconnection (OSI) suite of protocols. This architecture has been tested both in a laboratory environment and under operational conditions at the Deep Space Network experimental station (DSS-13). The DSS-13 experience in the application of OSI standards to support M&C has been extremely successful. MMS meets the functional needs of the station and provides a level of flexibility and responsiveness previously unknown in that environment. The architecture is robust enough to meet current operational needs and flexible enough to provide a migration path for new subsystems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSS-13 M&C system, discuss how MMS was used and the requirements this imposed on other parts of the system, and provides results from systems and operational testing at DSS-13.

  19. DSS-13 - Using an OSI process control standard for monitor and control. [Deep Space Network experimental station applying Open System interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, W. R.; Chen, Richard L.; Stockett, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control (M&C) system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for M&C at the Deep Space Communications Complexes has been developed based on the manufacturing message specification (MMS) process control standard of the open system interconnection (OSI) suite of protocols. This architecture has been tested both in a laboratory environment and under operational conditions at the Deep Space Network experimental station (DSS-13). The DSS-13 experience in the application of OSI standards to support M&C has been extremely successful. MMS meets the functional needs of the station and provides a level of flexibility and responsiveness previously unknown in that environment. The architecture is robust enough to meet current operational needs and flexible enough to provide a migration path for new subsystems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSS-13 M&C system, discuss how MMS was used and the requirements this imposed on other parts of the system, and provides results from systems and operational testing at DSS-13.

  20. Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground. © 2011 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Evaluating abdominal oedema during experimental sepsis using an isotope technique.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco; Maripuu, Enn; Segerstad, Carl Hard af; Lundqvist, Hans; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal oedema is common in sepsis. A technique for the study of such oedema may guide in the fluid regime of these patients. We modified a double-isotope technique to evaluate abdominal organ oedema and fluid extravasation in 24 healthy or endotoxin-exposed ('septic') piglets. Two different markers were used: red blood cells (RBC) labelled with Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and Transferrin labelled with Indium111 ((111)In). Images were acquired on a dual-head gamma camera. Microscopic evaluation of tissue biopsies was performed to compare data with the isotope technique. No (99m)Tc activity was measured in the plasma fraction in blood sampled after labelling. Similarly, after molecular size gel chromatography, (111)In activity was exclusively found in the high molecular fraction of the plasma. Extravasation of transferrin, indicating the degree of abdominal oedema, was 4·06 times higher in the LPS group compared to the healthy controls (P<0·0001). Abdominal free fluid, studied in 3 animals, had as high (111)In activity as in plasma, but no (99m)Tc activity. Intestinal lymphatic vessel size was higher in LPS (3·7 ± 1·1 μm) compared to control animals (0·6 + 0·2 μm; P<0·001) and oedema correlated to villus diameter (R(2) = 0·918) and lymphatic diameter (R(2) = 0·758). A correlation between a normalized index of oedema formation (NI) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was also found: NI = 0·46*IAP-3·3 (R(2) = 0·56). The technique enables almost continuous recording of abdominal oedema formation and may be a valuable tool in experimental research, with the potential to be applied in the clinic. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Kidney Regeneration by Organ Scaffold Recellularization

    PubMed Central

    Remuzzi, Andrea; Figliuzzi, Marina; Bonandrini, Barbara; Silvani, Sara; Azzollini, Nadia; Nossa, Roberta; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The rising number of patients needing renal replacement therapy, alongside the significant clinical and economic limitations of current therapies, creates an imperative need for new strategies to treat kidney diseases. Kidney bioengineering through the production of acellular scaffolds and recellularization with stem cells is one potential strategy. While protocols for obtaining organ scaffolds have been developed successfully, scaffold recellularization is more challenging. We evaluated the potential of in vivo and in vitro kidney scaffold recellularization procedures. Our results show that acellular scaffolds implanted in rats cannot be repopulated with host cells, and in vitro recellularization is necessary. However, we obtained very limited and inconsistent cell seeding when using different infusion protocols, regardless of injection site. We also obtained experimental and theoretical data indicating that uniform cell delivery into the kidney scaffolds cannot be obtained using these infusion protocols, due to the permeability of the extracellular matrix of the scaffold. Our results highlight the major physical barriers that limit in vitro recellularization of acellular kidney scaffolds and the obstacles that must be investigated to effectively advance this strategy for regenerative medicine. PMID:28266553

  3. Robot-assisted intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation: an experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgner, Jessica; Swaney, Philip J.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel robotic approach for the rapid, minimally invasive treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH), in which a hematoma or blood clot arises in the brain parenchyma. We present a custom image-guided robot system that delivers a steerable cannula into the lesion and aspirates it from the inside. The steerable cannula consists of an initial straight tube delivered in a manner similar to image-guided biopsy (and which uses a commercial image guidance system), followed by the sequential deployment of multiple individual precurved elastic tubes. Rather than deploying the tubes simultaneously, as has been done in nearly all prior studies, we deploy the tubes one at a time, using a compilation of their individual workspaces to reach desired points inside the lesion. This represents a new paradigm in active cannula research, defining a novel procedure-planning problem. A design that solves this problem can potentially save many lives by enabling brain decompression both more rapidly and less invasively than is possible through the traditional open surgery approach. Experimental results include a comparison of the simulated and actual workspaces of the prototype robot, and an accuracy evaluation of the system.

  4. Experimental evaluation of stent retrievers’ mechanical properties and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Machi, Paolo; Jourdan, Franck; Ambard, Dominique; Reynaud, Cedric; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Sanchez, Mathieu; Bonafé, Alain; Costalat, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Background Five randomized controlled trials recently appeared in the literature demonstrating that early mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke is significantly related to an improved outcome. Stent retrievers are accepted as the most effective devices for intracranial thrombectomy. Objective To analyze the mechanical properties of stent retrievers, their behavior during retrieval, and interaction with different clots and to identify device features that might correlate with the effectiveness of thrombus removal. Materials and methods All stent retrievers available in France up to June 2015 were evaluated by mechanical and functional tests aimed at investigating the variation of their radial force and their behavior during retrieval. Devices were also tested during in vitro thrombectomies using white and red experimental thrombi produced with human blood. Functional tests and in vitro thrombectomies were conducted using a rigid 3D printed vascular model. Results Mechanical tests showed a variation in radial force during retrieval for each stent. A constant radial force during retrieval was related to continuous cohesion over the vessel wall and a higher rate of clot removal efficacy. All stent retrievers failed when interacting with white large thrombi (diameter ≥6 mm). Conclusions None of the tested devices were effective in removing white clots of large diameter (≥6 mm). Constant radial force during retrieval allows constant cohesion to the vessel wall and pressure over the clot; such features allow for a higher rate of clot removal. PMID:27016318

  5. Experimental evaluation of outer planets probe thermal insulation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, M. G.; Mezines, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate various thermal insulation concepts for use in the Outer Planets Probe (OPP) during entry and descent into the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Phenolic fiberglass honeycomb specimens representative of the OPP structure were packed and tested with various fillers: Thermal conductivity measurements were made over a temperature range of 300 K to 483 K and pressures from vacuum up to 10 atmospheres in helium and nitrogen gas environments. The conductivity results could not be fully explained so new test specimens were designed with improved venting characteristics, and tested to determine the validity of the original data. All of the conductivity data showed results that were substantially higher than expected. The original test data in helium were lower than the data from the redesigned specimens, probably due to inadequate venting of nitrogen gas from the original specimens. The thermal conductivity test results show only a marginal improvement in probe thermal protection performance for a filled honeycomb core compared to an unfilled core. In addition, flatwise tension tests showed a severe bond strength degradation due to the inclusion of either the powder or foam fillers. In view of these results, it is recommended that the baseline OPP design utilize an unfilled core.

  6. Experimental evaluation of starch utilization mechanism by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ozlem; Martins, António; Orhon, Derin; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2006-04-05

    The study aimed to explore the conversion processes of hydrolysable substrates by activated sludge. Experimental data were collected from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and from batch tests using activated sludge acclimated to native potato starch (NPS). Parallel batch tests were run with NPS (particulate), soluble starch (SolS), maltose, and glucose for comparative evaluation. The fate of organic carbon in the reactor was followed directly by measuring substrate, poly-glucose, and oxygen uptake rate. Results indicated that adsorption was the dominant mechanism for starch removal with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis inside the flocs. The role of bulk liquid enzyme activity was minimal. Starch was observed to hydrolyze to maltose rather than glucose. The behavior of NPS and SolS was quite similar to maltose in terms of poly-glucose formation and oxygen uptake. Since the simplest hydrolysis product was maltose, the biomass was not acclimated to glucose and thus, glucose exhibited a significantly different removal and storage pattern. The study also showed that differentiation of readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD should better be based on the kinetics of their utilization rather than simple physical characterization.

  7. Experimental evaluation of new chitin-chitosan graft for duraplasty.

    PubMed

    Pogorielov, M; Kravtsova, A; Reilly, G C; Deineka, V; Tetteh, G; Kalinkevich, O; Pogorielova, O; Moskalenko, R; Tkach, G

    2017-02-01

    Natural materials such as collagen and alginate have promising applications as dural graft substitutes. These materials are able to restore the dural defect and create optimal conditions for the development of connective tissue at the site of injury. A promising material for biomedical applications is chitosan-a linear polysaccharide obtained by the deacetylation of chitin. It has been found to be nontoxic, biodegradable, biofunctional and biocompatible in addition to having antimicrobial characteristics. In this study we designed new chitin-chitosan substitutes for dura mater closure and evaluated their effectiveness and safety. Chitosan films were produced from 3 % of chitosan (molar mass-200, 500 or 700 kDa, deacetylation rate 80-90%) with addition of 20% of chitin. Antimicrobial effictively and cell viability were analysed for the different molar masses of chitosan. The film containing chitosan of molar mass 200 kDa, had the best antimicrobial and biological activity and was successfully used for experimental duraplasty in an in vivo model. In conclusion the chitin-chitosan membrane designed here met the requirements for a dura matter graft exhibiting the ability to support cell growth, inhibit microbial growth and biodegradade at an appropriate rate. Therefore this is a promising material for clinical duroplasty.

  8. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Rocket Exhaust Diffusers for Altitude Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, Joseph N.; Meyer, Carl L.; Peters, Daniel J.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation of exhaust diffusers has been conducted to evaluate various methods of minimizing the overall pressure ratio (from chamber to ambient pressure) required to establish and maintain full expansion of the nozzle flow (altitude simulation). Exhaust-diffuser configurations investigated were (1) cylindrical diffusers, (2) diffusers with contraction, and (3) diffusers including a right-angle turn. Cylindrical diffusers were evaluated with primary nozzles of various area ratios and types, as well as two clustered configurations; the other diffusers were evaluated with individual nozzles of constant area ratio and varied type. Air was the working fluid, except for two check points obtained with JP-4 fuel and liquid-oxygen rocket engines and cylindrical diffusers. The minimum length-diameter ratio of cylindrical diffusers was about 6 for minimum pressure-ratio requirements. With cylindrical diffusers of adequate length, the pressure-ratio requirements were primarily a function of the ratio of diffuser to nozzle-throat areas and were essentially independent of primary-nozzle type (including two clustered configurations) or area ratio. The two check points obtained with rocket engines indicated the pressure-ratio requirements at given ratios of diffuser to nozzle-throat areas were lowered, as compared with the requirements with air, as a result of the reduced ratio of specific heats. The minimum length-diameter ratio of the contraction throat of convergent-divergent diffusers was also about 6 for minimum pressure-ratio requirements. With adequate contraction-throat length, the pressure-ratio requirements of such diffusers were appreciably below those of comparable cylindrical diffusers when used with conical and cutoff-isentropic nozzles, but not when used with a bell nozzle. Minimum pressure-ratio requirements of a diffuser including a simple long-radius right-angle turn at maximum diffuser area, obtained with the center of radius of the turn a

  10. A better understanding of hydroxyl radical photochemical sources in cloud waters collected at the puy de Dôme station - experimental versus modelled formation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, A.; Passananti, M.; Perroux, H.; Voyard, G.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.; Chaumerliac, N.; Mailhot, G.; Deguillaume, L.; Brigante, M.

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative capacity of the cloud aqueous phase is investigated during three field campaigns from 2013 to 2014 at the top of the puy de Dôme station (PUY) in France. A total of 41 cloud samples are collected and the corresponding air masses are classified as highly marine, marine and continental. Hydroxyl radical (HO•) formation rates (RHO•f) are determined using a photochemical setup (xenon lamp that can reproduce the solar spectrum) and a chemical probe coupled with spectroscopic analysis that can trap all of the generated radicals for each sample. Using this method, the obtained values correspond to the total formation of HO• without its chemical sinks. These formation rates are correlated with the concentrations of the naturally occurring sources of HO•, including hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, nitrate and iron. The total hydroxyl radical formation rates are measured as ranging from approximately 2 × 10-11 to 4 × 10-10 M s-1, and the hydroxyl radical quantum yield formation (ΦHO•) is estimated between 10-4 and 10-2. Experimental values are compared with modelled formation rates calculated by the model of multiphase cloud chemistry (M2C2), considering only the chemical sources of the hydroxyl radicals. The comparison between the experimental and the modelled results suggests that the photoreactivity of the iron species as a source of HO• is overestimated by the model, and H2O2 photolysis represents the most important source of this radical (between 70 and 99 %) for the cloud water sampled at the PUY station (primarily marine and continental).

  11. XOQDOQ: computer program for the meteorological evaluation of routine effluent releases at nuclear power stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1982-09-01

    Provided is a user's guide for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) computer program X0QDOQ which implements Regulatory Guide 1.111. This NUREG supercedes NUREG-0324 which was published as a draft in September 1977. This program is used by the NRC meteorology staff in their independent meteorological evaluation of routine or anticipated intermittent releases at nuclear power stations. It operates in a batch input mode and has various options a user may select. Relative atmospheric dispersion and deposition factors are computed for 22 specific distances out to 50 miles from the site for each directional sector. From these results, values for 10 distance segments are computed. The user may also select other locations for which atmospheric dispersion deposition factors are computed. Program features, including required input data and output results, are described. A program listing and test case data input and resulting output are provided.

  12. Evaluation on the environmental radioactivity in Shanghai city during the normal operational condition of Qinshan nuclear power station.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heqing; Wang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of environmental radioactivity in Shanghai from the operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station (QNPS). The levels of terrestrial gamma radiation and radioactivities in the drinking water, main food and soils in the Jinshan area where is only 38 km far away from the QNPS were continuously measured in the past 19 y. Both the levels of terrestrial gamma radiation and the radioactivities in the samples were on the normal background levels. No significant changes were found before and after the running of QNPS. The annual public exposure to the terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be ∼0.1 mSv, and the annual exposure from intakes of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in food was ∼0.5 μSv. In the past 19 y, no significant impact on the environmental radioactivity in Shanghai was observed due to the operation of QNPS.

  13. Risk-based evaluation of technical specification problems at the La Salle County Nuclear Station: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzak, D.J.; Trainer, J.E.; McClymont, A.S.

    1987-06-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods are used to evaluate alternatives to existing requirements for three operationally burdensome technical specifications at La Salle Nuclear Station. The study employs a decision logic to minimize the detailed analysis necessary to show compliance with given acceptance criteria; in this case, no risk increase resulting from a proposed change. The analyses provide insights to choose from among alternative options. The SOCRATES computer code was used for the probabilistic analysis. Results support a change to less frequent diesel generator testing, eliminations of one reactor scram setpoint, and establishing an allowed out-of-service time for valves in a reactor scram system. In each case, the change would result in a safety improvement.

  14. Evaluation of Two Ionic Liquid-Based Epoxies from the MISSE-8 (Materials International Space Station Experiment-8) Sample Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabenberg, Ellen; Kaukler, William; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of epoxy mixtures, both containing the same ionic liquid (IL) based resin but utilizing two different curing agents, were evaluated after spending more than two years of continual space exposure outside of the International Space Station on the MISSE-8 sample rack. During this period the samples, positioned on nadir side, also experienced some 12,500 thermal cycles between approximately -40?C and +40 C. Initial examination showed some color change, a miniscule weight variance, and no cracks or de-bonding from the sample substrate. Microscopic examination of the surface reveled some slight deformities and pitting. These observations, and others, are discussed in view of the ground-based control samples. Finally, the impetus of this study in terms of space applications is presented.

  15. A numerical coefficient for evaluation of the environmental impact of electromagnetic fields radiated by base stations for mobile communications.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Cerri, G; Vespasiani, V

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is the development of an Electromagnetic Environmental Impact Factor (EEIF). This is a global parameter that represents the level of electromagnetic impact on a specific area due to the presence of radiating systems, such as base station (BS) antennas for mobile communications. The numerical value of the EEIF depends only on the electromagnetic field intensity, a well-defined physical quantity that can easily be measured or computed. The paper describes the significant parameters of the field distribution adopted to evaluate the EEIF, and the assumptions used to develop a proper scale of values. Finally, some examples of application of the EEIF method are analyzed for real situations in a typical urban area.

  16. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  17. An Evaluation of a Welding Fumes Exhaust System. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 284.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    A study evaluated the feasibility of introducing unheated outside air into the airstream of a cross-flow welding exhaust system to reduce heating energy costs of a school welding laboratory. The physical facility used was the agricultural mechanics laboratory at the University of Arizona, which is similar to facilities in which instruction in…

  18. Real-Time Risk and Fault Management in the Mission Evaluation Room of the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Nelson; Steven D. Novack

    2003-05-01

    Effective anomaly resolution in the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) of the International Space Station (ISS) requires consideration of risk in the process of identifying faults and developing corrective actions. Risk models such as fault trees from the ISS Probablistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can be used to support anomaly resolution, but the functionality required goes significantly beyond what the PRA could provide. Methods and tools are needed that can systematically guide the identification of root causes for on-orbit anomalies, and to develop effective corrective actions that address the event and its consequences without undue risk to the crew or the mission. In addition, an overall information management framework is needed so that risk can be systematically incorporated in the process, and effectively communicated across all the disciplines and levels of management within the space station program. The commercial nuclear power industry developed such a decision making framework, known as the critical safety function approach, to guide emergency response following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979. This report identifies new methods, tools, and decision processes that can be used to enhance anomaly resolution in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room. Current anomaly resolution processes were reviewed to identify requirements for effective real-time risk and fault management. Experience gained in other domains, especially the commercial nuclear power industry, was reviewed to identify applicable methods and tools. Recommendations were developed for next-generation tools to support MER anomaly resolution, and a plan for implementing the recommendations was formulated. The foundation of the proposed toolset will be a "Mission Success Framework" designed to integrate and guide the anomaly resolution process, and to facilitate consistent communication across disciplines while focusing on the overriding importance of mission success.

  19. Real-Time Risk and Fault Management in the Mission Evaluation Room for the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Novack, S.D.

    2003-05-30

    Effective anomaly resolution in the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) of the International Space Station (ISS) requires consideration of risk in the process of identifying faults and developing corrective actions. Risk models such as fault trees from the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can be used to support anomaly resolution, but the functionality required goes significantly beyond what the PRA could provide. Methods and tools are needed that can systematically guide the identification of root causes for on-orbit anomalies, and to develop effective corrective actions that address the event and its consequences without undue risk to the crew or the mission. In addition, an overall information management framework is needed so that risk can be systematically incorporated in the process, and effectively communicated across all the disciplines and levels of management within the space station program. The commercial nuclear power industry developed such a decision making framework, known as the critical safety function approach, to guide emergency response following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979. This report identifies new methods, tools, and decision processes that can be used to enhance anomaly resolution in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room. Current anomaly resolution processes were reviewed to identify requirements for effective real-time risk and fault management. Experience gained in other domains, especially the commercial nuclear power industry, was reviewed to identify applicable methods and tools. Recommendations were developed for next-generation tools to support MER anomaly resolution, and a plan for implementing the recommendations was formulated. The foundation of the proposed tool set will be a ''Mission Success Framework'' designed to integrate and guide the anomaly resolution process, and to facilitate consistent communication across disciplines while focusing on the overriding importance of mission success.

  20. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  1. Evaluation of 3% hydrogen peroxide for use as an environmental disenfectant aboard the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucia, Helen L.; Mishra, S. K.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1993-01-01

    We evaluate the ability of a 3% (8800 micromolar) solution of hydogen peroxide to kill 12 strains of bacteria and 12 strains of fungi. A 1:4 dilution of 3% H2O2 equivalent to 1100 micromolar, was lethal to all the tested strains. If the situation calls for a nonagressive disinfectant without residue or toxic aftereffects, 3% H2O2 seems an ideal choice.

  2. Evaluation of 3% hydrogen peroxide for use as an environmental disenfectant aboard the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucia, Helen L.; Mishra, S. K.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1993-01-01

    We evaluate the ability of a 3% (8800 micromolar) solution of hydogen peroxide to kill 12 strains of bacteria and 12 strains of fungi. A 1:4 dilution of 3% H2O2 equivalent to 1100 micromolar, was lethal to all the tested strains. If the situation calls for a nonagressive disinfectant without residue or toxic aftereffects, 3% H2O2 seems an ideal choice.

  3. Evaluation of 25 y of environmental monitoring data around Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam, India.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Brindha, J Thulasi; Sreedevi, K R; Manu, Anitha; Thilakavathi, A; Ramkumar, S; Santhanakrishnan, V; Balagurunathan, M R; Jesan, T; Kannan, V; Hegde, A G

    2010-12-01

    The Environmental Survey Laboratory at Kalpakkam, India carries out elaborate monitoring programme involving atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic samples for radioactivity to evaluate the impact of operating two pressurised heavy water reactors. This paper presents the evaluation of 25 y (1983-2008) data. Statistical analysis of the environmental data for different radionuclides showed that the data best fits log-normal distribution. The data analysed showed that fission products such as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and (131)I were due to global fallout only. A ratio of 0.2 was obtained for (90)Sr to (137)Cs in air filter samples, only during Chernobyl accident period. The transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for rice was computed to be 0.23 and 0.03 and vegetables 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. Activation products (3)H and (41)Ar are the only radionuclides that are related to MAPS operation. A strong correlation (r = 0.9) was observed between (3)H activity in air and (3)H discharged to the atmosphere. A similar correlation (r = 0.8) was observed in (3)H concentration in seawater and (3)H discharged in the liquid waste. The annual internal dose due to (3)H and annual external dose due to (41)Ar evaluated in the last 25 y show that the members of the public received less than 2 % of the dose limit (1 mSv y(-1)) set by ICRP 72.

  4. Generic experimental cockpit for evaluating pilot assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toebben, Helmut H.; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Hecker, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The workload of aircraft crews, especially during taxiing, take-off, approach and landing under adverse weather conditions has heavily increased due to the continuous growth of air traffic. New pilot assistance systems can improve the situational awareness of the aircrew and consequently increase the safety and reduce the workload. For demonstration and human factor evaluation of such new systems the DLR has built a Generic Experimental Cockpit Simulator equipped with a modern glass-cockpit collimated display. The Primary Flight Display (PFD), the human machine interface for an Advanced Flight Management System (AFMS), a Taxi Guidance System called Taxi and Ramp Management and Control (TARMAC) and an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) based on real time simulation of MMWR and FLIR sensors are integrated into the cockpit on high resolution TFT touch screens. The situational awareness is further enhanced by the integration of a raster/stroke capable Head-Up Display (HUD). It prevents the pilot's eye from permanent accommodation between the Head-Down Displays and the outside view. This contribution describes the technical implementation of the PFD, the Taxi Guidance System and the EVS onto the HUD. The HUD is driven by a normal PC, which provides the Arinc data for the stroke generator and the video signal for the raster image. The PFD uses the built-in stroke generator and is working under all operations. During taxi operations the cleared taxi route and the positions of other aircraft are displayed via raster. The images of the real time simulation of the MMWR and FLIR Sensors are presented via raster on demand. During approach and landing a runway symbol or a 3D wire frame database is shown which exactly matches the outside view and obstacles on the runway are highlighted. The runway position is automatically calculated from the MMWR Sensor as reported in previous contributions.

  5. Subcoronary versus supracoronary aortic stenosis. an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Valvular aortic stenosis is the most common cause of left ventricular hypertrophy due to gradually increasing pressure work. As the stenosis develop the left ventricular hypertrophy may lead to congestive heart failure, increased risk of perioperative complications and also increased risk of sudden death. A functional porcine model imitating the pathophysiological nature of valvular aortic stenosis is very much sought after in order to study the geometrical and pathophysiological changes of the left ventricle, timing of surgery and also pharmacological therapy in this patient group. Earlier we developed a porcine model for aortic stenosis based on supracoronary aortic banding, this model may not completely imitate the pathophysiological changes that occurs when valvular aortic stenosis is present including the coronary blood flow. It would therefore be desirable to optimize this model according to the localization of the stenosis. Methods In 20 kg pigs subcoronary (n = 8), supracoronary aortic banding (n = 8) or sham operation (n = 4) was preformed via a left lateral thoracotomy. The primary endpoint was left ventricular wall thickness; secondary endpoints were heart/body weight ratio and the systolic/diastolic blood flow ratio in the left anterior descending coronary. Statistical evaluation by oneway anova and unpaired t-test. Results Sub- and supracoronary banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy compared with the control group. The coronary blood flow ratio was slightly but not significantly higher in the supracoronary group (ratio = 0.45) compared with the two other groups (subcoronary ratio = 0.36, control ratio = 0.34). Conclusions A human pathophysiologically compatible porcine model for valvular aortic stenosis was developed by performing subcoronary aortic banding. Sub- and supracoronary aortic banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. This model may be valid for experimental investigations of aortic

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Seed Limitation in Alpine Snowbed Plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The distribution and abundance of plants is controlled by the availability of seeds and of sites suitable for establishment. The relative importance of these two constraints is still contentious and possibly varies among species and ecosystems. In alpine landscapes, the role of seed limitation has traditionally been neglected, and the role of abiotic gradients emphasized. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the importance of seed limitation for the incidence of four alpine snowbed species (Achillea atrata L., Achillea clusiana Tausch, Arabis caerulea L., Gnaphalium hoppeanum W. D. J. Koch) in local plant communities by comparing seedling emergence, seedling, juvenile and adult survival, juvenile and adult growth, flowering frequency as well as population growth rates λ of experimental plants transplanted into snowbed patches which were either occupied or unoccupied by the focal species. In addition, we accounted for possible effects of competition or facilitation on these rates by including a measure of neighbourhood biomass into the analysis. We found that only A. caerulea had significantly lower seedling and adult survival as well as a lower population growth rate in unoccupied sites whereas the vital rates of the other three species did not differ among occupied and unoccupied sites. By contrast, all species were sensitive to competitive effects of the surrounding vegetation in terms of at least one of the studied rates. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that seed and site limitation jointly determine the species composition of these snowbed plant communities and that constraining site factors include both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions. The traditional focus on abiotic gradients for explaining alpine plant distribution hence appears lopsided. The influence of seed limitation on the current distribution of these plants casts doubt on their ability to readily track shifting habitats under climate change unless seed production is

  7. Can local climate variability be explained by weather patterns? A multi-station evaluation for the Rhine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Aline; Bürger, Gerd; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    To understand past flood changes in the Rhine catchment and in particular the role of anthropogenic climate change in extreme flows, an attribution study relying on a proper GCM (general circulation model) downscaling is needed. A downscaling based on conditioning a stochastic weather generator on weather patterns is a promising approach. This approach assumes a strong link between weather patterns and local climate, and sufficient GCM skill in reproducing weather pattern climatology. These presuppositions are unprecedentedly evaluated here using 111 years of daily climate data from 490 stations in the Rhine basin and comprehensively testing the number of classification parameters and GCM weather pattern characteristics. A classification based on a combination of mean sea level pressure, temperature, and humidity from the ERA20C reanalysis of atmospheric fields over central Europe with 40 weather types was found to be the most appropriate for stratifying six local climate variables. The corresponding skill is quite diverse though, ranging from good for radiation to poor for precipitation. Especially for the latter it was apparent that pressure fields alone cannot sufficiently stratify local variability. To test the skill of the latest generation of GCMs from the CMIP5 ensemble in reproducing the frequency, seasonality, and persistence of the derived weather patterns, output from 15 GCMs is evaluated. Most GCMs are able to capture these characteristics well, but some models showed consistent deviations in all three evaluation criteria and should be excluded from further attribution analysis.

  8. Comparison and evaluation of nuclear power plant options for geosynchronous power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of eleven types of nuclear fission reactors in combination with five potential energy conversion systems for use in geosynchronous power plants is evaluated. Gas turbine, potassium Rankine liquid metal MHD, and thermionic energy conversion systems are considered. The existing technology of reactors in near-term, intermediate-term, and long-term classes is discussed, together with modifications for use in large-scale power production in space. Unless the temperature is high enough for MHD, reactors which heat gases are generally more suitable for use with gas turbines. Those which heat liquid metals will be more useful for potassium Rankine or liquid metal MHD conversion systems.

  9. Comparison and evaluation of nuclear power plant options for geosynchronous power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of eleven types of nuclear fission reactors in combination with five potential energy conversion systems for use in geosynchronous power plants is evaluated. Gas turbine, potassium Rankine liquid metal MHD, and thermionic energy conversion systems are considered. The existing technology of reactors in near-term, intermediate-term, and long-term classes is discussed, together with modifications for use in large-scale power production in space. Unless the temperature is high enough for MHD, reactors which heat gases are generally more suitable for use with gas turbines. Those which heat liquid metals will be more useful for potassium Rankine or liquid metal MHD conversion systems.

  10. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  11. The Screening and Evaluation of Experimental Antiparasitic Drugs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    a.o & % Nb...I- V. THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DRUG- r RESISTANT AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS (I. JLEJNE) IN MICE. A. Introduction 31 B...Methods 31 C. Results 33 D. Summary of compounds tested (Table VII). 35 VI. THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS (_T...rhodesiense Plasmodium berghei Prophylactic African trypanosomiasis P. yoelii Repository American trypanosomiasis Drug-sensitive Suppressive

  12. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 81-278-1371, Warrick Generating Station, Yankeetown, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Donohue, M.

    1983-09-01

    Environmental samples were collected to evaluate employee exposures to airborne concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, coal dust, fly ash, crystalline silica, and inorganic metals. In addition, gas leaks from the boilers were evaluated. While the majority of personal samples were below current criteria, a health hazard did exist for some employees exposed to sulfur dioxide, coal dust, and crystalline silica. Highest concentrations were obtained on samples worn by electrical and maintenance personnel and employees working on the positive pressure boiler (unit 4). In addition, the potential exists for employee exposure to boiler gases due to boiler leaks. Respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm production, and wheezing were twice the expected rate for this group of workers. If preventive maintenance and engineering measures are employed, the occurrence of continued group health effects will likely be reduced. Recommendations are made in the body of the full report for an improved respiratory protection program, reducing leaks from boiler units, and for periodic environmental monitoring of the employees.

  13. Review of reactor pressure vessel evaluation report for Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station (YAEC No. 1735)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Dickson, T.L.; Merkle, J.G.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1992-03-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company has performed an Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS)-type evaluation of the Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel in accordance with the PTS Rule (10 CFR 50. 61) and a US Regulatory Guide 1.154. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the YAEC document and performed an independent probabilistic fracture-mechnics analysis. The review included a comparison of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the ORNL probabilistic fracture-mechanics codes (VISA-II and OCA-P, respectively). The review identified minor errors and one significant difference in philosophy. Also, the two codes have a few dissimilar peripheral features. Aside from these differences, VISA-II and OCA-P are very similar and with errors corrected and when adjusted for the difference in the treatment of fracture toughness distribution through the wall, yield essentially the same value of the conditional probability of failure. The ORNL independent evaluation indicated RT{sub NDT} values considerably greater than those corresponding to the PTS-Rule screening criteria and a frequency of failure substantially greater than that corresponding to the ``primary acceptance criterion`` in US Regulatory Guide 1.154. Time constraints, however, prevented as rigorous a treatment as the situation deserves. Thus, these results are very preliminary.

  14. Review of reactor pressure vessel evaluation report for Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station (YAEC No. 1735)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Dickson, T.L.; Merkle, J.G.; Nanstad, R.K. )

    1992-03-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company has performed an Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS)-type evaluation of the Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel in accordance with the PTS Rule (10 CFR 50. 61) and a US Regulatory Guide 1.154. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the YAEC document and performed an independent probabilistic fracture-mechnics analysis. The review included a comparison of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the ORNL probabilistic fracture-mechanics codes (VISA-II and OCA-P, respectively). The review identified minor errors and one significant difference in philosophy. Also, the two codes have a few dissimilar peripheral features. Aside from these differences, VISA-II and OCA-P are very similar and with errors corrected and when adjusted for the difference in the treatment of fracture toughness distribution through the wall, yield essentially the same value of the conditional probability of failure. The ORNL independent evaluation indicated RT{sub NDT} values considerably greater than those corresponding to the PTS-Rule screening criteria and a frequency of failure substantially greater than that corresponding to the primary acceptance criterion'' in US Regulatory Guide 1.154. Time constraints, however, prevented as rigorous a treatment as the situation deserves. Thus, these results are very preliminary.

  15. An Experimental Study of Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnault, E. Jane; Gordon, Louis; Joines, Douglas H.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Three commercial job evaluation firms rated the same set of 27 jobs. Statistical analysis indicated that evaluators differed in which job traits they used to evaluate inherent job worth. Comparable worth may thus be sensitive to the choice of evaluator. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/SK)

  16. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  17. Space Station Freedom coupling tasks: An evaluation of their telerobotic and EVA compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Bierschwale, John M.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Of the couplings included in this study, several design components were found to be of interest. With respect to the operation of the couplings, the various concepts resulted in differing reactions from the four subjects who participated in this study. The purpose of this study was not to conceive the final coupling design. Rather, it was intended as a step along an interactive process. The newly modified coupling will be included in a series of further controlled, as well as subjective, evaluations. This part of the ongoing work in the Remote Operator Interaction Laboratory (ROIL) designed to enhance the overall interface by improving design at both the teleoperator and telerobot ends of the system.

  18. Evaluation of bateriologial and sanitary quality of drinking water stations and water tankers in Makkah Al-Mokarama.

    PubMed

    Mihdhdir, Alaa A

    2009-02-15

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriological and sanitary quality of drinking water produced in Makkah Al-Mokarama during the high season in the month of Ramadan. Water samples were collected both from the drinking water stations and the water tankers (in Arabic language called whitats) used to transport and distribute water in different places in the Holy city. Water samples were analyzed to determine the densities of HPC at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus. The bacteriological analysis of drinking water samples at 37 degrees C proved that 6.7-33.3, 20-46.7, 0-20 and 0-6.7% of total water samples contained HPC, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively which were higher than the safe limits for drinking water. The bacterial analysis of drinking water varied from one water station to another. On the other hand, drinking water transported by tankers appeared to be in the lowest category of water quality. Because out of total water samples 40-59%, 60-68.8%, 31.2-37.5%, 10-25% contained HPC, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, which were higher than the established safe limits of drinking water. One possible reason for poor quality of drinking water could be attributed to the application of inadequate water disinfection treatments and also the absence of sanitary aspects as supported by the bacteriological analysis which holds true especially for water supplied by tankers. In conclusion, it is important to apply proper water disinfection measures and provide sanitary monitoring programs during the production of drinking water as a whole and for the water tanker in particular.

  19. Evaluation of a Gas Chromatograph-Differential Mobility Spectrometer for Potential Water Monitoring on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental monitoring for manned spaceflight has long depended on archival sampling, which was sufficient for short missions. However, the longer mission durations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have shown that enhanced, real-time monitoring capabilities are necessary in order to protect both the crewmembers and the spacecraft systems. Over the past several years, a number of real-time environmental monitors have been deployed on the ISS. Currently, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the station air are monitored by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), a small, lightweight gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer. For water monitoring, real-time monitors are used for total organic carbon (TOC) and biocide analysis. No information on the actual makeup of the TOC is provided presently, however. An improvement to the current state of environmental monitoring could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for VOCs in air samples, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. The major hurdle for this effort lies in the liberation of the target analytes from the water matrix. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target VOCs at the concentrations at which they are routinely detected in archival water samples from the ISS. We will compare the results of these studies with those obtained from the instrumentation routinely used to analyze archival water samples.

  20. CT of the heart and the great vessels. Experimental evaluation and clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Carlsson, E.; Lipton, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The book is divided into four sections: (1) Technical Considerations and Instrumentation, (2) Morphological Considerations, (3) Experimental Evaluation, and (4) Clinical Applications. About two-thirds of the pages are devoted to technical and experimental aspects.

  1. Pattern recognition applied to seismic signals of Llaima volcano (Chile): An evaluation of station-dependent classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curilem, Millaray; Huenupan, Fernando; Beltrán, Daniel; San Martin, Cesar; Fuentealba, Gustavo; Franco, Luis; Cardona, Carlos; Acuña, Gonzalo; Chacón, Max; Khan, M. Salman; Becerra Yoma, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Automatic pattern recognition applied to seismic signals from volcanoes may assist seismic monitoring by reducing the workload of analysts, allowing them to focus on more challenging activities, such as producing reports, implementing models, and understanding volcanic behaviour. In a previous work, we proposed a structure for automatic classification of seismic events in Llaima volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes, located in the Araucanía Region of Chile. A database of events taken from three monitoring stations on the volcano was used to create a classification structure, independent of which station provided the signal. The database included three types of volcanic events: tremor, long period, and volcano-tectonic and a contrast group which contains other types of seismic signals. In the present work, we maintain the same classification scheme, but we consider separately the stations information in order to assess whether the complementary information provided by different stations improves the performance of the classifier in recognising seismic patterns. This paper proposes two strategies for combining the information from the stations: i) combining the features extracted from the signals from each station and ii) combining the classifiers of each station. In the first case, the features extracted from the signals from each station are combined forming the input for a single classification structure. In the second, a decision stage combines the results of the classifiers for each station to give a unique output. The results confirm that the station-dependent strategies that combine the features and the classifiers from several stations improves the classification performance, and that the combination of the features provides the best performance. The results show an average improvement of 9% in the classification accuracy when compared with the station-independent method.

  2. Fourth Meeting of the Panel for Evaluation of Experimental Literacy Projects. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The work of this Panel for the Evaluation of Experimental Literacy Projects was the assessing of how the pattern of evaluation it had previously formulated had been applied in the Experimental World Literacy Programme (EWLP). In the judgment of the Panel, by 1974 evaluation specialists will be able to present a report that will enable Member…

  3. Experimental evaluation of flux footprint by natural tracer experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriga, N.; Aubinet, M.; Carrara, A.; Pieruccetti, F.; Rannik, Ü.; Vesala, T.; Papale, D.

    2009-04-01

    Accuracy and representativeness of fluxes estimates by micrometeorological methods are strictly dependent on the spatial distribution and contribution of sources of the detected signal, whose study is generally referred to as the footprint analysis. Until now most part of the measurement has been carried out over surfaces homogenously extended for long distances, of the order of several hundreds of meters, following a general rule of thumb for which footprint of fluxes is extended up to 100 times the measurement height. This common practice prevented researchers from exploitation of micrometeorological techniques on smaller spatial scales. We investigated the use of eddy covariance technique on very small plots and the effect of variable source areas on, mainly, CO2 fluxes above an oats crop canopy. One system has been installed on a reference plot with vegetation surface of 30m radius, two other identical systems have been placed at two heights above a crop surface identical to the reference one, whose extension has been progressively reduced by mowing. This experimental setup allowed estimation of the contribution to the measured flux signal coming from areas close to the measurement point and a statistical comparison with unperturbed signal. Results indicate that a significant part of the flux signal come from a very small area surrounding the measurement system. According to the theory and model simulations the footprint is reduced with lower measurement heights, but source area extension as indicated by first results is surprisingly small compared to all models predictions, analytical or numerical, for both measurement height: most part of the turbulent fluxes seems to be generated from distances lower than 15 times the measurement height, or less if we consider measurements very close to the canopy top. Turbulence statistics profiles have been measured above vegetated and mown surfaces to provide data input for Lagrangian stochastic simulation, while

  4. A Review of Out-of-School Time Program Quasi-Experimental and Experimental Evaluation Results. Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M. D.; Harris, Erin

    As the amount of resources allocated to out-of-school (OST) programming and policymakers' demands for research-based results increase, there is increasing interest in rigorous research designs to examine OST program outcomes. This issue of "Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshots" reviews 27 quasi-experimental and experimental OST…

  5. A Review of Out-of-School Time Program Quasi-Experimental and Experimental Evaluation Results. Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M. D.; Harris, Erin

    As the amount of resources allocated to out-of-school (OST) programming and policymakers' demands for research-based results increase, there is increasing interest in rigorous research designs to examine OST program outcomes. This issue of "Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshots" reviews 27 quasi-experimental and experimental OST…

  6. Evaluating experimental cerebral malaria using oxidative stress indicator OKD48 mice.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takashi; Iwawaki, Takao; Akai, Ryoko; Suzue, Kazutomo; Hirai, Makoto; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Okada, Hiroko; Hisaeda, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral malaria is a fatal complication of malaria. Conventional methods for evaluating experimental cerebral malaria have several drawbacks. Therefore, we aimed to develop an easy-to-use method for evaluating experimental cerebral malaria using OKD48 (Keap1-dependent Oxidative stress Detector, No-48-luciferase) mice to evaluate oxidative stress. OKD48 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain (PbA) suffered from experimental cerebral malaria and oxidative stress was successfully detected in the brains of living OKD48 mice developing experimental cerebral malaria. Oxidative stress in the brain was dependent on the development of experimental cerebral malaria, as prevention of experimental cerebral malaria did not elicit oxidative stress. We provide a novel evaluation method for experimental cerebral malaria using oxidative stress indicator OKD48 mice. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-06-01

    Artist's digital concept of the International Space Station (ISS), a gateway to permanent human presence in space, after all assembly is completed in Year 2003. The Station will be powered by almost an acre of solar panels and have a mass of almost one million pounds. Station modules are being provided by the United States, Russia, Japan, and Europe. Canada is providing a mechanical arm and Canada Hand. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  8. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a modular space station. In 1970 the Marshall Space Flight Center arnounced the completion of a study concerning a modular space station that could be launched by the planned-for reusable Space Shuttle. The study envisioned a space station composed of cylindrical sections 14 feet in diameter and of varying lengths joined to form any one of a number of possible shapes. The sections were restricted to 14 feet in diameter and 58 feet in length to be consistent with a shuttle cargo bay size of 15 by 60 feet. Center officials said that the first elements of the space station could be in orbit by about 1978 and could be manned by three or six men. This would be an interim space station with sections that could be added later to form a full 12-man station by the early 1980s.

  9. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  10. Space Station Laser Communication Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitzmaurice, Michael; Hayden, William

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has initiated the development of experimental optical communication system which will be installed on Space Station Freedom. This system is part of the Space Station Attached a Payloads Program and is currently scheduled for a 1997 launch. The system is being designed to carry out comprehensive set of tests to evaluate and demonstrate the capabilities of this relatively new technology. Communication tests at rates up to 1200 mbps will be conducted over the space-to-ground link using an existing tracking facility at the GSFC. GaAlAs semiconductor lasers will be intensity modulated using 4 slot pulse position modulation format. Direct detection receivers using silicon avalanche photodiodes will be utilized, and 1 microradian accuracy pointing will be achieved with 2 cascaded pointing stages. Successful completion of this in-orbit test program should demonstrate both the technical maturity and readiness of this technology for follow-up operational missions.

  11. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  12. Evaluation of experimental genetic management in reintroduced bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary H; Whittaker, Donald G; Rhodes, Olin E

    2012-01-01

    Positive demographic responses have been reported in several species where the immigration or supplementation of genetically distinct individuals into wild populations has resulted in a genetic rescue effect. However, rarely have researchers incorporated what could be considerable risk of outbreeding depression into planning for genetic management programs. We assess the genetic effects of an experiment in genetic management involving replicate populations of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) in Oregon, USA, which previously experienced poor productivity and numerical declines. In the experiment, two declining populations were supplemented with ewes from a more genetically diverse population of California bighorn sheep in Nevada. We incorporated analysis of genetic samples representing both experimental populations prior to supplementation, samples from the supplemented individuals, and samples collected from both experimental populations approximately one generation after supplementation. We used genetic analyses to assess the integration of supplemented and resident populations by identifying interpopulation hybrids. Further, we incorporated demographic simulations to assess the risk of outbreeding depression as a result of the experimental augmentation. Finally, we used data from microsatellites and mitochondrial sequences to determine if genetic management increased genetic diversity in the experimental populations. Our analyses demonstrated the success of genetic management by documenting interpopulation hybrids, identifying no evidence for outbreeding depression as a result of contact between the genetically distinct supplemented and resident populations, and by identifying increased population-level metrics of genetic diversity in postsupplementation populations compared with presupplementation levels. PMID:22423334

  13. A green infrastructure experimental site for developing and evaluating models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in Athens, GA has a 14-acre urban watershed which has become an experimental research site for green infrastructure studies. About half of the watershed is covered by pervious la...

  14. EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN (1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, LUCILLE M.

    THE AIM OF AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN WAS TO PREPARE THEM FOR REGULAR KINDERGARTEN CLASSES. ACTIVITIES AND EXPERIENCES WERE PROVIDED WHICH HELPED THE CHILDREN EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERBALLY AND BECOME AWARE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE BUDGET FOR A 6-WEEK PROGRAM, INCLUDING STAFF, PROGRAM SUPPLIES, AND…

  15. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: An Experimental Test of Processes and Outcomes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-26

    Theory: An Experimental Test of Processes and Outcomes Reinforcement and cognitive motivational theorists (e.g., Hamner, 1974; Porter and Lawler, 1968...phenomenological changes in workers’ responses brought about by performance contingent versus noncontingent pay systems, difference scores between pre...multivariate contrasts between the control group (no pay increase) and each pay treatment (contingent/ noncontingent ) were performed followed by univariate

  16. A green infrastructure experimental site for developing and evaluating models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in Athens, GA has a 14-acre urban watershed which has become an experimental research site for green infrastructure studies. About half of the watershed is covered by pervious la...

  17. EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN (1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, LUCILLE M.

    THE AIM OF AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN WAS TO PREPARE THEM FOR REGULAR KINDERGARTEN CLASSES. ACTIVITIES AND EXPERIENCES WERE PROVIDED WHICH HELPED THE CHILDREN EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERBALLY AND BECOME AWARE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE BUDGET FOR A 6-WEEK PROGRAM, INCLUDING STAFF, PROGRAM SUPPLIES, AND…

  18. Experimental Method for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Training Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Michel F.; And Others

    Training materials are beginning to be developed, packaged and (sometimes) evaluated for use by behavioral professionals to train nonprofessionals teaching and care-giving skills; however, economic factors in many programs require that non-professional staff be trained by their non-professional predecessors. To evaluate the function of training…

  19. An experimental performance evaluation of the hybrid FSO/RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, Abir; Touati, Farid; Abdaoui, Abderrazak; Khandakar, Amith; Hussain, Syed Jawad; Bouallegue, Ammar

    2017-02-01

    This paper is a first attempt to study the effects of atmospheric turbulences on hybrid free space optics/ radio frequency (FSO/RF) transmission system in Doha, Qatar. The state of Qatar is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers with modest cloud coverage highly affected by airborne dust. Due to its sensitivity to atmospheric turbulences, throughout this study, we try to demonstrate the working capabilities of FSO technology as well as to promote an understanding of this technology amongst the countries of the gulf cooperation council (GCC). Moreover, we studied the behavior of RF link during the same period. In order to analyze the transport media, two transmitting subsystems are employed and installed at Qatar University (QU) at two different buildings separated by a distance of 600 m. Each system is composed of a FSO and RF terminal. We have ported an Embedded Linux kernel on Micro-blaze processor build in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Then, we have designed a network sniffer application that can run on the FPGA board. The measurements from the network sniffer applications were carried out during summer season from June up to September 2015. The relation between the measurements and the atmospheric factors, taken from a weather station installed at QU, were also found.

  20. Anthropogenic transformation of soils in the northern Ergeni Upland (studies at the first experimental plot of the Arshan'-Zelmen Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, A. F.; Konyushkova, M. V.

    2013-03-01

    The results of soil studies performed in 2005-2009 at the first experimental plot of the Arshan'-Zelmen Research Station of the Institute of Forest Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences are discussed. The post-reclamation state (about 55 years after reclamation) of the soils under forest shelterbelts and adjacent croplands in the rainfed agriculture was studied. The long-term efficiency of forest reclamation and crop-growing technologies developed in the 1950s by the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute and the Institute of Forest to reclaim strongly saline solonetzic soils was proved. In 55 years, strongly saline sodic solonetzes with sulfate-chloride and chloride-sulfate composition of salts were replaced by agrogenic soils with new properties. Under forest shelterbelts, where deep (40-60 cm) plowing was performed, the soils were transformed into slightly saline solonetzic agrozems with slight soda salinization in the upper meter and with dealkalized plowed and turbated horizons (0-20(40) cm). Under the adjacent cropland subjected to the influence of the shelterbelts on the soil water regime, strongly saline solonetzes were transformed into solonchakous agrosolonetzes with slight soda salinization in the upper 50 cm. In the plow layer, the content of exchangeable sodium decreased to 4-12% of the sum of exchangeable cations. An increased alkalinity and the presence of soda were found in the middle-profile horizons of the anthropogenically transformed soils.

  1. Evaluation of R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station thermal discharge effects on finfish and macroinvertebrate communities, summer/fall 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the thermal effects of the R. P. Smith steam Electric Station upon the finfish and macroinvertebrates communities during summer and fall, on the Potomac River. The finfish community was sampled during August and September 1980 with electrofishing gear. The increased water temperature along the Maryland shore appeared to influence the distribution of spotfin shiner and smallmouth bass. Carp, although not statistically tested, appeared to be more abundant in the thermal plume than at stations outside the thermal plume. The thermal discharge exhibited no discernible influence on the composition of the benthic or drift macroinvertebrate communities.

  2. An Evaluation of the Effects of Experimenter Control of Objects on Individuals' Engagement in Object Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangeland, Lindsay A.; Smith, Dean P.; Rapp, John T.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, the authors evaluated the extent to which (a) individuals preferred engaging in object stereotypy versus observing an experimenter while the experimenter engaged in object stereotypy and (b) an experimenter's engagement in object stereotypy decreased the participants' engagement in object stereotypy. Results of Experiment 1…

  3. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  4. Performance evaluation of ionospheric time delay forecasting models using GPS observations at a low-latitude station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivavaraprasad, G.; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-07-01

    Ionospheric delay is one of the major atmospheric effects on the performance of satellite-based radio navigation systems. It limits the accuracy and availability of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, related to critical societal and safety applications. The temporal and spatial gradients of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) are driven by several unknown priori geophysical conditions and solar-terrestrial phenomena. Thereby, the prediction of ionospheric delay is challenging especially over Indian sub-continent. Therefore, an appropriate short/long-term ionospheric delay forecasting model is necessary. Hence, the intent of this paper is to forecast ionospheric delays by considering day to day, monthly and seasonal ionospheric TEC variations. GPS-TEC data (January 2013-December 2013) is extracted from a multi frequency GPS receiver established at K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur station (geographic: 16.37°N, 80.37°E; geomagnetic: 7.44°N, 153.75°E), India. An evaluation, in terms of forecasting capabilities, of three ionospheric time delay models - an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, and a Holt-Winter's model is presented. The performances of these models are evaluated through error measurement analysis during both geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. It is found that, ARMA model is effectively forecasting the ionospheric delay with an accuracy of 82-94%, which is 10% more superior to ARIMA and Holt-Winter's models. Moreover, the modeled VTEC derived from International Reference Ionosphere, IRI (IRI-2012) model and new global TEC model, Neustrelitz TEC Model (NTCM-GL) have compared with forecasted VTEC values of ARMA, ARIMA and Holt-Winter's models during geomagnetic quiet days. The forecast results are indicating that ARMA model would be useful to set up an early warning system for ionospheric disturbances at low latitude regions.

  5. Recommended Experimental Procedures for Evaluation of Abrupt Wing Stall Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Hall, R. M.; Owens, D. B.; Lamar, J. E.; McMillin, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the experimental program under the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. Candidate figures of merit from conventional static tunnel tests are summarized and correlated with data obtained in unique free-to-roll tests. Where possible, free-to-roll results are also correlated with flight data. Based on extensive studies of static experimental figures of merit in the Abrupt Wing Stall Program for four different aircraft configurations, no one specific figure of merit consistently flagged a warning of potential lateral activity when actual activity was seen to occur in the free-to-roll experiments. However, these studies pointed out the importance of measuring and recording the root mean square signals of the force balance.

  6. Experimental evaluation of a modal parameter based system identification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minli; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2016-02-01

    Correct modelling of the foundation of a rotor bearing foundation system (RBFS) is an invaluable asset for the balancing and efficient running of turbomachinery. Numerical experiments have shown that a modal parameter based identification approach could be feasible for this purpose but there is a lack of experimental verification of the suitability of such a modal approach for even the simplest systems. In this paper the approach is tested on a simple experimental rig comprising a clamped horizontal bar with lumped masses. It is shown that apart from damping, the proposed approach can identify reasonably accurately the relevant modal parameters of the rig; and that the resulting equivalent system can predict reasonably well the frequency response of the rig. Hence, the proposed approach shows promise but further testing is required, since application to identifying the foundation of an RBFS involves the additional problem of accurately obtaining the force excitation from motion measurements.

  7. Evaluation of experimental parameters for growth of homogeneous solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Swendsen, Robert H.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the experimental conditions required to grow large two-component crystals from homogeneous solid solutions. Building on the work of Burton, Prim, and Slichter and that of Van Erk, we are able to establish that the concentration fluctuations for diffusion-limited growth are rather insensitive to hydrodynamic fluctuations. This enables a crystal grower to take advantage of forced convection to optimize growth rates without aggravating the striation problem.

  8. Experimental Design and Evaluation of Bounded Rationality Using Dimensional Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    dimensional analysis; experimental design; cognitive s ork load. pressure is very high), decisionmakers are likely to make INTRODUCION mistakes so...Homogeneity, the following will be shown. The following procedure was used to analyze set of simultaneous algebraic equations must be satisfied. the data...Information theory. H is constant for the by solving the set of algebraic equations, we obtain: experiment, and G depends on the algorithm used by a

  9. Acupuncture for crack-cocaine detoxification: experimental evaluation of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lipton, D S; Brewington, V; Smith, M

    1994-01-01

    Anecdotal studies have reported acupuncture alleviating the severity of withdrawal symptoms associated with cocaine abuse. The efficacy of auricular (ear) acupuncture in reducing cocaine/crack craving and consumption was examined via a single-blind, placebo experiment. One hundred and fifty individuals seeking treatment for cocaine/crack abuse were randomly assigned to receive either experimental or placebo acupuncture treatments. Treatments were provided in an outpatient setting for a one-month period. Placebo treatments involved acupuncture at ear locations not used for drug treatment. Subjects provided urine specimens for drug content analysis after each acupuncture session. Urinalysis results over the one-month study period favored the experimental group. Experimental subjects in treatment over 2 weeks had significantly lower cocaine metabolite levels relative to placebo subjects in treatment for a comparable period. Treatment retention with both groups was similar. Relative to pretreatment usage, a significant decrease in cocaine consumption was reported by both groups. Self-report outcomes did not indicate significant between-groups differences.

  10. Evaluating the impact of population bottlenecks in experimental evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Lindi M; Gerrish, Philip J; Saika-Voivod, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evolution involves severe, periodic reductions in population size when fresh media are inoculated during serial transfer. These bottlenecks affect the dynamics of evolution, reducing the probability that a beneficial mutation will reach fixation. We quantify the impact of these bottlenecks on the evolutionary dynamics, for populations that grow exponentially between transfers and for populations in which growth is curbed by a resource-limited environment. We find that in both cases, mutations that survive bottlenecks are equally likely to occur, per unit time, at all times during the growth phase. We estimate the total fraction of beneficial mutations that are lost due to bottlenecks during experimental evolution protocols and derive the "optimal" dilution ratio, the ratio that maximizes the number of surviving beneficial mutations. Although more severe dilution ratios are often used in the literature, we find that a ratio of 0.1-0.2 minimizes the chances that rare beneficial mutations are lost. Finally, we provide a number of useful approximate results and illustrate our approach with applications to experimental evolution protocols in the literature. PMID:12399403

  11. Technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation (Part A) for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation compares the submittals made by the licensee with the NRC staff positions and the review criteria and presents the reviewer's conclusion on the acceptability of the proposed system.

  12. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-04-29

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources.

  13. Experimental Effects of Student Evaluations Coupled with Collaborative Consultation on College Professors' Instructional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knol, Mariska H.; in't Veld, Rachna; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; van Driel, Jan H.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study concerned the effects of repeated students' evaluations of teaching coupled with collaborative consultation on professors' instructional skills. Twenty-five psychology professors from a Dutch university were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. During their course, students evaluated them…

  14. Cross-checking of Large Evaluated and Experimental Nuclear Reaction Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Zeydina, O.; Koning, A.J.; Soppera, N.; Raffanel, D.; Bossant, M.; Dupont, E.; Beauzamy, B.

    2014-06-15

    Automated methods are presented for the verification of large experimental and evaluated nuclear reaction databases (e.g. EXFOR, JEFF, TENDL). These methods allow an assessment of the overall consistency of the data and detect aberrant values in both evaluated and experimental databases.

  15. The Nonuse, Misuse, and Proper Use of Pilot Studies in Experimental Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Erik; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the nonuse, misuse, and proper use of pilot studies in experimental evaluation research. The authors first show that there is little theoretical, practical, or empirical guidance available to researchers who seek to incorporate pilot studies into experimental evaluation research designs. The authors then discuss how pilot…

  16. Experimental Evaluation of the Training Structure of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based alternative communication method that is widely accepted and utilized with individuals with disabilities. Although prior studies have examined the clinical efficacy of PECS, none have experimentally evaluated its manualized training structure. We experimentally evaluated the…

  17. Experimental Effects of Student Evaluations Coupled with Collaborative Consultation on College Professors' Instructional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knol, Mariska H.; in't Veld, Rachna; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; van Driel, Jan H.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study concerned the effects of repeated students' evaluations of teaching coupled with collaborative consultation on professors' instructional skills. Twenty-five psychology professors from a Dutch university were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. During their course, students evaluated them…

  18. An Analytical Hierarchy Process Model for the Evaluation of College Experimental Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Qingli

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the characteristics of college experimental teaching, through investigaton and analysis, evaluation indices and an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytical hierarchy process method, and the evaluation indices have been given reasonable weights. An…

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  2. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  3. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    PubMed

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  4. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: (1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and (2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots

  5. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: 1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and 2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots are

  6. Experimental and analytical evaluation of efficiency of helicopter planetary stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    The efficiency of a helicopter transmission planetary stage was studied both experimentally and analytically. Experiments were done by using a back-to-back, test-and-slave arrangement. The experiments were a parametric study of the effects of operating conditions on efficiency. In order to enhance the analysis, a model was developed that calculates the power required for the meshing gears to displace oil trapped between the gear teeth. In general, the analysis predicted higher efficiencies than were measured. The results of this study were compared with those of other studies.

  7. Fatigue of notched fiber composite laminates - Analytical and experimental evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, S. V.; Rosen, B. W.; Mclaughlin, P. V., Jr.; Pipes, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Axial cracking in the load direction and transverse cracking across notched boron/epoxy laminate specimens subjected to tension/tension fatigue loading are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The fatigue analysis, which allows for the computation of residual strength and the determination of the preferred mode of crack propagation, is reviewed; static and fatigue data for boron/epoxy lamina are investigated with the aim of characterizing fatigue growth and residual strength as a function of the number of load cycles. It is suggested that correlation between the theory and the experiment may be limited by lack of a capability to predict the growth of delaminations.

  8. A systems-based food safety evaluation: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Charles L; Hartfield, Barry S

    2004-11-01

    Food establishments are complex systems with inputs, subsystems, underlying forces that affect the system, outputs, and feedback. Building on past exploration of the hazard analysis critical control point concept and Ludwig von Bertalanffy General Systems Theory, the National Park Service (NPS) is attempting to translate these ideas into a realistic field assessment of food service establishments and to use information gathered by these methods in efforts to improve food safety. Over the course of the last two years, an experimental systems-based methodology has been drafted, developed, and tested by the NPS Public Health Program. This methodology is described in this paper.

  9. Contribution of electromagnetic and tomographic technique to the study of the impact of salinity in soils of the experimental station of Al Ain Atti (Errachidia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamara, A.; El Harnafi, M.; Ammar, A.

    2017-03-01

    is closely related to the concentration of mineral particles. Characterization studies at the La Ronde tailings mine (Agnico-Eagle Ltd, in Abitibi), showed quite encouraging results (Campos, 2004; Anterrieu, 2006). Since it is a salt-bearing areas (highly conductive) and given that the induced polarization is very sensitive to the ground conductivity; by measurement of residual potential, so we took measures chargeability tomography, the result is compared to the resistivity measured at different soils (control and irrigated), which will better clarify the impact of salinity on the quality of the disturbed soil. Indeed, the chargeability response it possible to characterize the different irrigated soils and its variation is attributed not only to the effect of saline irrigation but also the existence of an heterogeneity of the original ground. Prospecting in electrical tomography has displayed vertically and horizontally anomalies existing within the experimental site of the station of Ain Al Atti, it showed that: - accumulation of salinity becomes wider going from the control ground to that of Acacias. - surveyed the ground at least appear more homogeneous in surface, but their conductivity varies in depth. - salinity origin and the concretion formed on the surface greatly influenced chargeability and resistivity measured on the different experimental soils.

  10. Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs using both engine dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hours in engine dynamometer tests and for more than 38,600 kilimeters (24,000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

  11. Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors are summarized. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs by using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated-metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hr in engine-dynamometer tests and more than 38,600 km (24000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as those containing silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

  12. Experimental evaluation of tachistoscopic measurement: a step beyond Wundt's criticism.

    PubMed

    Voboril, Dalibor; Jelínek, Martin; Kvĕton, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible systematic bias in measurements obtained using tachistoscopic devices from different historical periods of psychological research. Four different tachistoscopic devices were used for brief presentations of stimuli in a letter recognition task. The research sample consisted of 24 participants (12 female, 12 male) in a within-subject experimental design with complete counterbalancing of 4 conditions defined by 4 instrument types: fall tachistoscope, tachistoscope with camera-like shutter, and computer-based tachistoscopes with cathode ray tube and liquid crystal diode display screens. The effects of experimental conditions were examined using a linear mixed model analysis. Our experiment demonstrated that even in standardized settings the type of tachistoscope used for stimulus presentation systematically influenced the participants' performance. We found that the lowest number of correctly recalled stimuli, as well as the highest number of erroneously recalled stimuli, was produced in the camera-like tachistoscope condition. Together, these findings suggest that when results from studies involving tachistoscopic experiments are reviewed, the unique characteristics of each particular instrument used must be considered carefully.

  13. Evaluation of two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, L M; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Aller, M A; Nava, M P; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2005-01-01

    The serious neuropsychological repercussions of hepatic encephalopathy have led to the creation of several experimental models in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present investigation, two possible causes of hepatic encephalopathy, cholestasis and portal hypertension, were chosen to study the behavioral impairments caused by the disease using an object recognition task. This working memory test is based on a paradigm of spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample and was performed 60 days after surgery. Male Wistar rats (225-250 g) were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, microsurgical cholestasis (N = 20) and extrahepatic portal hypertension (N = 20), and a control group (N = 20). A mild alteration of the recognition memory occurred in rats with cholestasis compared to control rats and portal hypertensive rats. The latter group showed the poorest performance on the basis of the behavioral indexes tested. In particular, only the control group spent significantly more time exploring novel objects compared to familiar ones (P < 0.001). In addition, the portal hypertension group spent the shortest time exploring both the novel and familiar objects (P < 0.001). These results suggest that the existence of portosystemic collateral circulation per se may be responsible for subclinical encephalopathy.

  14. Experimental evaluation of human teeth using noninvasive ultrasound: echodentography.

    PubMed

    Ghorayeb, Sleiman R; Valle, Teresa

    2002-10-01

    Anomalies present in the hard tissue of teeth are manifested in several ways such as cavities, decay, and caries. The most extensively and commonly used diagnostic modality for the assessment of these abnormalities are x-rays. Unfortunately, these rays are harmful to the human body and may be a source of health risk. This work describes the development of a new testing technique that uses ultrasound designed to complement, or even replace, existing tools used in dentistry applications. Previous studies have shown several models of acoustic field simulation, propagation, and interaction of ultrasound with the layers of several tooth structures. In this paper, experimental data is gathered for the purpose of assessing the viability of this technique in an attempt to detect cavities and fractures in extracted human teeth. A low-intensity, high-frequency ultrasonic set-up is used in all in vitro tests. Four cases have been examined: an intact tooth, a tooth containing an amalgam restoration and a natural surface fissure, a tooth containing a machine side-drilled hole that mimics a cavity, and a calcified tooth--a rare naturally occurring condition. Upon analysis of the obtained A-scans and B-scans, it is verified that these experimental measurements confirm predictions reported in earlier finite element and transmission line studies and suggest that ultrasound is a valuable tool which has the potential to be an addition to, or even an improvement upon, current dental imaging systems.

  15. Evaluating the ergonomics of BCI devices for research and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Ekandem, Joshua I; Davis, Timothy A; Alvarez, Ignacio; James, Melva T; Gilbert, Juan E

    2012-01-01

    The use of brain computer interface (BCI) devices in research and applications has exploded in recent years. Applications such as lie detectors that use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to video games controlled using electroencephalography (EEG) are currently in use. These developments, coupled with the emergence of inexpensive commercial BCI headsets, such as the Emotiv EPOC ( http://emotiv.com/index.php ) and the Neurosky MindWave, have also highlighted the need of performing basic ergonomics research since such devices have usability issues, such as comfort during prolonged use, and reduced performance for individuals with common physical attributes, such as long or coarse hair. This paper examines the feasibility of using consumer BCIs in scientific research. In particular, we compare user comfort, experiment preparation time, signal reliability and ease of use in light of individual differences among subjects for two commercially available hardware devices, the Emotiv EPOC and the Neurosky MindWave. Based on these results, we suggest some basic considerations for selecting a commercial BCI for research and experimentation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Despite increased usage, few studies have examined the usability of commercial BCI hardware. This study assesses usability and experimentation factors of two commercial BCI models, for the purpose of creating basic guidelines for increased usability. Finding that more sensors can be less comfortable and accurate than devices with fewer sensors.

  16. Evaluating experimental molecular physics studies of radiation damage in DNA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.

    2016-11-01

    The field of Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMP) is a mature field exploring the spectroscopy, excitation, ionisation of atoms and molecules in all three phases. Understanding of the spectroscopy and collisional dynamics of AMP has been fundamental to the development and application of quantum mechanics and is applied across a broad range of disparate disciplines including atmospheric sciences, astrochemistry, combustion and environmental science, and in central to core technologies such as semiconductor fabrications, nanotechnology and plasma processing. In recent years the molecular physics also started significantly contributing to the area of the radiation damage at molecular level and thus cancer therapy improvement through both experimental and theoretical advances, developing new damage measurement and analysis techniques. It is therefore worth to summarise and highlight the most prominent findings from the AMP community that contribute towards better understanding of the fundamental processes in biologically-relevant systems as well as to comment on the experimental challenges that were met for more complex investigation targets. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic, B. Sivaraman.

  17. A novel experimental model for the study and evaluation of experimental vaccines to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Montaraz, J A; Rosales, M E; Bautista, E; Barcenas, G; Lara, V

    1994-06-01

    A novel experimental model to study immune protection to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the rat is described. One-week-old rats born from immunized mothers were challenged intraperitoneally with a suspension of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and mortality recorded up to 48 h postinfection. Immunization with inactivated whole cells (IWC) or a whole cell extract (WCE) from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 resulted in protection against an homologous challenge, particularly in the case of WCE where protection was observed at the highest challenge dose of approximately 1000 50% lethal doses.

  18. Collaborative Partnerships in Evaluation and Experimental Rehabilitation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Kathleen A.; Laver, Alison; Sabatino, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    This article contrasts the traditional relationships between researchers and subjects in traditional rehabilitation evaluation and research with relationships between researchers and clients-consumers in new methodologies. Collaborative research, characterized by shared power and non-hierarchical authority between client-consumers and researchers…

  19. Age 60 Study, Part 4: Experimental Evaluation of Pilot Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    and aging. Computerized cognitive test batteries, COGSREEN and WOMBAT , were selected as the domain-independent measures. Flitescript and whole task...were assessed. COGSCREEN total composite scores were significantly correlated with evaluator ratings on emergency/abnormal maneuvers. Neither WOMBAT ...B-3 WOMBAT Questionnaire .......................................... B-4 Sim ulator Post-flight Questionnaire

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the ELS Teacher Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Donald P.; And Others

    This report presents the results of pragmatically selected tryouts of the English Language Services "Teacher Education Program" in the Regional English Language Centre in Singapore, the Central Institute of English in Hyderabad, and the Instituto Pedagogico in Caracas. American Institutes for Research, in submitting the present evaluation to the…

  1. OKAPI: Evaluating and Enhancing an Experimental Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of a prototype online catalog; reviews research which evaluated the system in terms of types of searches and success rates; and offers suggestions for enhancing subject access, including automatic stemming, synonym tables and cross-reference lists, and relevance feedback mechanisms. (CLB)

  2. Experimental Development and Evaluation of a Shop Safety Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Mervin Dale

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a shop safety attitude scale that could be administered at the beginning of a shop course to help identify students who may be accident repeaters. A semantic differential scale was adapted from one originated by Osgood and his associates (1964) and administered to a sample of 125 university…

  3. Population exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by radio base stations: evaluation of the urban background by using provisional model and instrumental measurements.

    PubMed

    Anglesio, L; Benedetto, A; Bonino, A; Colla, D; Martire, F; Saudino Fusette, S; d'Amore, G

    2001-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation, which is used by broadcasting and mobile telephone systems to transmit information, permeates the city environment. In order to properly evaluate population exposure to electromagnetic fields, knowledge of their intensity and spectral components is necessary. In this study the results of radiofrequency field monitoring carried out in Torino, a large town located in the north-west of Italy are shown: the variation of the electromagnetic field strength is evaluated as a function of the height from the ground, the location in the urban area and the frequency. separating the contributions of the different sources (broadcasting antennas and radio base stations for mobile phones). Furthermore, the contribution of the radio base stations is theoretically evaluated, adding the emissions off all installations situated in Torino and examining the field strength maps calculated, considering the orography, for different heights. The theoretical values are also compared with those measured in the frequency range of mobile telephony emissions.

  4. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  5. Local technicians in long-term research projects: evaluation of 25 years experience in an active tropical research station.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Johanna; Clark, David B

    2011-12-01

    Most field ecology is conceived and financed by scientists from urban areas but is actually carried out in rural areas. Field staff can either be imported from urban areas or recruited from local residents. We evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of involving rural residents as local technicians over a 25- year period at active field research site in Costa Rica. We defined "local technicians" as local residents with no university education who acquired significant experience in field data collection, data management and/or laboratory work. We analyzed the experiences of incorporating these technicians into field research in developing countries from the points of view of scientist and of the local technicians themselves. Primary data were written responses from to a standardized survey of 19 senior scientists and Ph.D. students,and results from standardized personal interviews with 22 local technicians. Researchers highlighted the advantages of highly-skilled technicians with minimal staff turnover, as well as the technicians' knowledge of local ecological conditions. Local technicians considered the primary advantages of their jobs to be opportunities for continuing education training in science as well as cultural enrichment through interactions with people of different cultures. The main challenges identified by researchers were the lack of long-term funding for projects and extended training required for local technicians. Local technicians can be of great benefit to research projects by providing high-quality data collection at reasonable costs with low staff turnover. Over the last 25 years the research model at the field station we studied has evolved to the point that most long-term projects now depend heavily on local technicians. This model of involving local technicians in long-term research has multiple benefits for the researchers, the technicians and the local community, and could be adapted to a variety of settings in rural areas of developing

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.

    2016-01-01

    Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.

  7. Experimental evaluation of certification trails using abstract data type validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dwight S.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. Recent experimental work reveals many cases in which a certification-trail approach allows for significantly faster program execution time than a basic time-redundancy approach. Algorithms for answer-validation of abstract data types allow a certification trail approach to be used for a wide variety of problems. An attempt to assess the performance of algorithms utilizing certification trails on abstract data types is reported. Specifically, this method was applied to the following problems: heapsort, Hullman tree, shortest path, and skyline. Previous results used certification trails specific to a particular problem and implementation. The approach allows certification trails to be localized to 'data structure modules,' making the use of this technique transparent to the user of such modules.

  8. Experimental evaluation of chromatic dispersion estimation method using polynomial fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2014-11-01

    We experimentally validate a non-data-aided, modulation-format independent chromatic dispersion (CD) estimation method based on polynomial fitting algorithm in single-carrier coherent optical system with a 40 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) system. The non-data-aided CD estimation for arbitrary modulation formats is achieved by measuring the differential phase between frequency f±fs/2 (fs is the symbol rate) in digital coherent receivers. The estimation range for a 40 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal can be up to 20,000 ps/nm with a measurement accuracy of ±200 ps/nm. The maximum CD measurement is 25,000 ps/nm with a measurement error of 2%.

  9. Experimental evaluation of a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Kenneth A; Li, Yifan; Morris, Emily A; Kogler, Géza F; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2011-01-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) ameliorate the impact of impairments to the lower limb neuromuscular motor system that affect gait. Emerging technologies provide a vision for fully powered, untethered AFOs. The portable powered AFO (PPAFO) provides both plantarflexor and dorsiflexor torque assistance via a bi-directional pneumatic rotary actuator. The system uses a portable pneumatic power source (bottle of compressed CO(2)) and embedded electronics to control foot motion during level walking. Experimental data were collected to demonstrate functionality from two subjects with bilateral impairments to the lower legs. These data demonstrated the PPAFO's ability to provide functional assistance during gait. The stringent design requirements of light weight, small size, high efficiency and low noise make the creation of daily wear assist devices challenging; but once such devices appear, they will present new opportunities for clinical treatment of gait abnormalities.

  10. Experimental and computational evaluation of rolling bearing steel durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohál, L.; Vaculka, M.

    2017-02-01

    Rolling element bearings are widely-used machine components and their failure can result in damage to the whole machine. A bearing failure can be caused by many factors. In most cases it is damage on the raceway surface as a result of rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This article describes the fatigue analysis consists of determining service-life of a roller bearing using a stress-strain analysis with finite element method and subsequent numeric calculation using software fe-safe with application of multiaxial fatigue criterion. These theoretical results are compared to the experiments carried out on AXMAT test-rig with more accurate defect detection using acoustic emission method. Numerical service-life calculation can be applied as tool for fatigue life prediction of full scale bearing with sufficient correlation with experimental results.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the certification-trail method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.; Itoh, Mamoru; Smith, Warren W.; Kay, Jonathan S.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the method is reported. The method is applied to algorithms for the following problems: huffman tree, shortest path, minimum spanning tree, sorting, and convex hull. Our results reveal many cases in which an approach using certification-trails allows for significantly faster overall program execution time than a basic time redundancy-approach. Algorithms for the answer-validation problem for abstract data types were also examined. This kind of problem provides a basis for applying the certification-trail method to wide classes of algorithms. Answer-validation solutions for two types of priority queues were implemented and analyzed. In both cases, the algorithm which performs answer-validation is substantially faster than the original algorithm for computing the answer. Next, a probabilistic model and analysis which enables comparison between the certification-trail method and the time-redundancy approach were presented. The analysis reveals some substantial and sometimes surprising advantages for ther certification-trail method. Finally, the work our group performed on the design and implementation of fault injection testbeds for experimental analysis of the certification trail technique is discussed. This work employs two distinct methodologies, software fault injection (modification of instruction, data, and stack segments of programs on a Sun Sparcstation ELC and on an IBM 386 PC) and hardware fault injection (control, address, and data lines of a Motorola MC68000-based target system pulsed at logical zero/one values). Our results indicate the viability of the certification trail technique. It is also believed that the tools developed provide a solid base for additional exploration.

  12. A VDU experimental setup for fixation disparity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Raul A. R. C.; Baptista, António M. G.

    2011-05-01

    A new experimental setup for any standard Video Display Unit (VDUET) with dichromatic glasses was developed for fixation disparity (FD) accessing. A computer software produce a dark field with white targets for central and peripheral fusion and two lines colors red and green for dissociated vision with the use of red and green filters. These lines can be moved right or left by the subject, until are seen apparently aligned. The real displacement between the lines is then recorded. The fixation curve (FC) is obtained by the interposition of prisms before one or both eyes, as in a regular commercial FD test. A comparison for FD and measurement time between this experimental setup and two commercially available methods, Wesson and Saladin cards, was performed in thirty-two university students. The means slope, x-intercept and y-intercept were 0.13, -0.22 and -5.63 for Saladin; 0.01, -2.29 and -1.88 for Wesson; and 0.61, -1.33 and -2.46 for VDUET. The mean measurement test time was 582.3 s, 501.3 s and 444.8 s for Saladin, Wesson and VDUET. The FC measured by these three methods was different but not statically significant (ANOVA one-way, Tukey post-hoc test) with the exception of the slope between Wesson test and VDUET (p<0.05). The average time measurement for the VDUET was the faster by about one minute, although statically significant differences (ANOVA one-way, Tukey posthoc test) were only found between Saladin and VDUET (p<0.01). The VDUET has some features that represent some improvement over the current commercial methods for DF measurement.

  13. [Experimental evaluation of the spraying disinfection efficiency on dental models].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Yuan-fei; Xu, Kan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the disinfect effect after spraying a new kind of disinfectant on the dental plaster models. The germ-free plaster samples, which were smeared with bacteria compound including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus were sprayed with disinfectants (CaviCide) and glutaraldehyde individually. In one group(5 minutes later) and another group(15 minutes later), the colonies were counted for statistical analysis after sampling, inoculating, and culturing which were used for evaluation of disinfecting efficiency. ANOVA was performed using SPSS12.0 software package. All sample bacteria were eradicated after spraying disinfectants(CaviCide) within 5 minutes and effective bacteria control was retained after 15 minutes. There was significant difference between the disinfecting efficiency of CaviCide and glutaraldehyde. The effect of disinfection with spraying disinfectants (CaviCide) on dental models is quick and effective.

  14. Theory and experimental technique for nondestructive evaluation of ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    The important ultrasonic scattering mechanisms for SiC and Si3N4 ceramic composites were identified by examining the interaction of ultrasound with individual fibers, pores, and grains. The dominant scattering mechanisms were identified as asymmetric refractive scattering due to porosity gradients in the matrix material, and symmetric diffractive scattering at the fiber-to-matrix interface and at individual pores. The effect of the ultrasonic reflection coefficient and surface roughness in the ultrasonic evaluation was highlighted. A new nonintrusive ultrasonic evaluation technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS), was presented that is sensitive to microstructural variations in composites. Preliminary results indicate that APSS will yield information on the composite microstructure that is not available by any other nondestructive technique.

  15. [Evaluation of brain ischemia by mitochondrial respiration: experimental model].

    PubMed

    Carlotti, C G; Colli, B O; Kazuo, J Y

    2001-06-01

    Brain ischemia occurs in several diseases. One of the critical factors for recovery of patients is the duration of the ischemic process. Brain activity depends on the energetic supply, it suggests that the study of mitochondrial function can be useful for evaluation of neuronal damage. The purpose of the present research was to study the mitochondrial respiration by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery by intraluminal suture technique. Adults Wistar rats were subdivided in 4 groups: control, 15, 30 and 60 minutes of occlusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the group of 15 minutes and the control group. The group of 30 minutes had significant decrease of state III of mitochondrial respiration compared with control group. The group of 60 minutes had significant decrease in state III and IV of mitochondrial respiration compared with control group. Mitochondrial respiration allowed an early and effective evaluation of focal ischemic process of the rat brain.

  16. An experimental evaluation of the tensile strength of impact ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xian, X.; Chu, M. L.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of the tensile strength of impact built-up ice on structural components has been prompted by such problems as electrical transmission line losses and catastrophic failures in Arctic regions, deicing problems with fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, etc. It is demonstrated that the conventional tensile-testing technique furnishes adequate data on artificially refrigerated ice, and helps establish the influence of extrinsic factors on ice tensile strength.

  17. Evaluating experimental artifacts in hydrothermal prebiotic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A A.

    2003-01-01

    Control experiments with ultra pure deionized water were conducted to evaluate the organic contamination in hydrothermal prebiotic experiments. Different combinations of reaction vessel material, sampling tubing and stirring were tested and the amounts of organic contaminants determined. All tested types of polymer tubing were proven to introduce organic contaminants (formate, acetate and propionate ions) into the reacting solution. Stainless steel has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of formate, consistent with earlier work at high temperatures and pressures.

  18. An experimental evaluation of the tensile strength of impact ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xian, X.; Chu, M. L.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of the tensile strength of impact built-up ice on structural components has been prompted by such problems as electrical transmission line losses and catastrophic failures in Arctic regions, deicing problems with fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, etc. It is demonstrated that the conventional tensile-testing technique furnishes adequate data on artificially refrigerated ice, and helps establish the influence of extrinsic factors on ice tensile strength.

  19. Evaluating Experimental Artifacts in Hydrothermal Prebiotic Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Control experiments with ultra pure deionized water were conducted to evaluate the organic contamination in hydrothermal prebiotic experiments. Different combinations of reaction vessel material, sampling tubing and stirring were tested and the amounts of organic contaminants determined. All tested types of polymer tubing were proven to introduce organic contaminants (formate, acetate and propionate ions) into the reacting solution. Stainless steel has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of formate, consistent with earlier work at high temperatures and pressures.

  20. Evaluating experimental artifacts in hydrothermal prebiotic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A A.

    2003-01-01

    Control experiments with ultra pure deionized water were conducted to evaluate the organic contamination in hydrothermal prebiotic experiments. Different combinations of reaction vessel material, sampling tubing and stirring were tested and the amounts of organic contaminants determined. All tested types of polymer tubing were proven to introduce organic contaminants (formate, acetate and propionate ions) into the reacting solution. Stainless steel has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of formate, consistent with earlier work at high temperatures and pressures.

  1. Experimental evaluation of Ethibloc for nonsurgical nephrectomy. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.C.; Bowers, T.; Chuang, V.P.; Tsai, C.C.

    1982-11-01

    Six adult dogs weighing 18-28 kg were used to evaluate a new embolic material, Ethibloc, for nonsurgical nephrectomy. Both acute and chronic studies were performed. Results indicated that Ethibloc is easily administered and neither toxic nor mutagenic (at 9 weeks). However, it exhibits inadequate radiopacity at the dosages used and may require a balloon catheter (which could cause some Ethibloc to be forced through the glomerular capillaries) or repeat embolization to achieve permanent and complete renal infarction.

  2. Evaluating experimental artifacts in hydrothermal prebiotic synthesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A A

    2003-04-01

    Control experiments with ultra pure deionized water were conducted to evaluate the organic contamination in hydrothermal prebiotic experiments. Different combinations of reaction vessel material, sampling tubing and stirring were tested and the amounts of organic contaminants determined. All tested types of polymer tubing were proven to introduce organic contaminants (formate, acetate and propionate ions) into the reacting solution. Stainless steel has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of formate, consistent with earlier work at high temperatures and pressures.

  3. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station featured a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  4. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth; illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station features a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  5. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-07-16

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of High Performance Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Berry, Robert; Durfee, Neal; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    Integrated heat pump (IHP) technology provides significant potential for energy savings and comfort improvement for residential buildings. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a high performance IHP that provides space heating, cooling, and water heating services. Experiments were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard 206-2013 where 24 test conditions were identified in order to evaluate the IHP performance indices based on the airside performance. Empirical curve fits of the unit s compressor maps are used in conjunction with saturated condensing and evaporating refrigerant conditions to deduce the refrigerant mass flowrate, which, in turn was used to evaluate the refrigerant side performance as a check on the airside performance. Heat pump (compressor, fans, and controls) and water pump power were measured separately per requirements of Standard 206. The system was charged per the system manufacturer s specifications. System test results are presented for each operating mode. The overall IHP performance metrics are determined from the test results per the Standard 206 calculation procedures.

  7. An evaluation of water-quality data obtained at four streamflow daily-record stations in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyer, Kenneth L.

    1973-01-01

    Chemical data for four stream-gaging stations in Idaho, each having 6 to 22 years of available records, were analyzed to determine functional relations between concentrations of the major inorganic constituents, specific conductance, and stream discharge. Three of the four stations had sufficient available record for assessing changes in constituent relations with time. The records for each long-term station were subdivided into segments of approximately 5 years each. Plots and regression equations were derived for each record segment to show the relations of each major constituent value to levels of specific conductance and stream discharge. At only one stations, Boise River at Notus, was there was an apparent significant change in chemical characteristics with time. Between 1940 and 1951, the percentages of chloride and sulfate in solution at this station declined appreciably and were largely replaced by bicarbonate. In general, there were highly significant correlations between the major inorganic ions and specific conductance, although those observed at Bear River at Border were distinctly poorer than those observed for the other stations. Corresponding correlations between the major ions and discharge were almost always less significant than those observed between the same ions and specific conductance. The common ion-discharge relations observed on the Snake River near Heise were more highly correlated before 1957 than thereafter--probably because of changes induced by the construction of Palisades Dam. A similar decline in correlation of common ion-discharge relations was observed at the Snake River at King Hill station after 1957, and this also might be attributable to changes in water regulation at various upstream impoundments.

  8. Using test station and on-farm data for the genetic evaluation of Pietrain boars used on Landrace sows for growth performance.

    PubMed

    Dufrasne, M; Rustin, M; Jaspart, V; Wavreile, J; Gengler, N

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new genetic evaluation model to estimate the genetic merit of boars for growth based on 1) performance of their crossbred progeny fattened in the test station and 2) their own performance or those of relatives from the on-farm testing system. The model was a bivariate random regression animal model with linear splines and was applied to Piétrain boars from the Walloon Region of Belgium mated with Landrace sows. Data contained 1) 12,610 BW records from the test station collected on 1,435 crossbred pigs from Piétrain boars and Landrace sows, and 2) 52,993 BW records from the on-farm testing system collected on 50,670 pigs with a breed composition of at least 40% Piétrain or Landrace. Since 2007, 56 Piétrain boars have been tested in the station. Data used to estimate variance components and breeding values were standardized for the age to take into account heterogeneity of variances and then pre-adjusted at 210 d of age to put all records on the same scale. Body weight records from the test station and from the on-farm testing system were considered as 2 different traits. The heterosis effect was modeled as fixed regression on the heterozygosity coefficient. As all test station animals were similarly crossbred, smaller variation in heterozygosity caused the sampling error of the regression estimate at 210 d to be larger in the test station than in on-farm data with estimates of 28.35 ± 14.55 kg and 9.02 ± 0.67 kg, respectively. Therefore, the most likely reason for the large differences in estimates was sampling. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.37 to 0.60 at 210 and 75 d, respectively, for test station BW and from 0.42 to 0.60 at 210 d and 175 d, respectively, for on-farm BW. Genetic correlation decreased when the age interval between records increased, and were greater between ages for test station than for on-farm data. Genetic correlations between test station and on-farm BW at the same age were high: 0.90 at 175 d

  9. Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques for Nacelle Liner Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.; Nark, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed to investigate sound propagation through a duct of size comparable to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The axial dimension of the bypass duct is often curved and this geometric characteristic is captured in the CDTR. The semiannular bypass duct is simulated by a rectangular test section in which the height corresponds to the circumferential dimension and the width corresponds to the radial dimension. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core and are installed on the side walls of the test section. The top and bottom surfaces of the test section are acoustically rigid to simulate a hard wall bifurcation or pylon. A unique feature of the CDTR is the control system that generates sound incident on the liner test section in specific modes. Uniform air flow, at ambient temperature and flow speed Mach 0.275, is introduced through the duct. Experiments to investigate configuration effects such as curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a sample liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Combinations of treated and acoustically rigid side walls are investigated. The scattering of modes of the incident wave, both by the curvature and by the asymmetry of wall treatment, is demonstrated in the experimental results. The effect that mode scattering has on total acoustic effectiveness of the liner treatment is also shown. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation are reported. The spectra of attenuation produced by the analytic model are similar to experimental results for both walls treated, straight and curved flow path, with plane wave and higher order modes incident. The numerical model is used to define the optimized resistance and reactance of a liner that significantly improves liner attenuation in the frequency range 1900-2400 Hz. A

  10. Experimental evaluation of exhaust mixers for an Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Kraft, G.

    1980-01-01

    Static scale model tests were conducted to evaluate exhaust system mixers for a high bypass ratio engine as part of the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient program. Gross thrust coefficients were measured for a series of mixer configurations which included variations in the number of mixer lobes, tailpipe length, mixer penetration, and length. All of these parameters have a significant impact on exhaust system performance. In addition, flow visualization pictures and pressure/temperature traverses were obtained for selected configurations. Parametric performance trends are discussed and the results considered relative to the Energy Efficient Engine program goals.

  11. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  12. Aspiration pneumonia: experimental evaluation of albumin and steroid therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Toung, T J; Bordos, D; Benson, D W; Carter, D; Zuidema, G D; Permutt, S; Cameron, J L

    1976-01-01

    An experimental model using an ex vivo perfused ventilated canine pulmonary lobe was used to study aspiration pneumonia. After intrabronchial acid instillation, the lobe weight tripled, air way pressure and pulmonary artery pressure doubled, and intrapulmonary shunting increased from 5.5% to 53.4%. If large quantities of albumin were added to the lobe perfusate 5 minutes after intrabronchial acid instillation, weight gain, air way and pulmonary artery pressure, and intrapulmonary shunting were unchanged from control levels. If large quantities of steroid were added to the lobe perfusate 5 minutes after intrabronchial acid instillation, the lobe weight doubled but air way pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and intrapulmonary shunting were not significantly different from control values. It is surmised that intrapulmonary acid aspiration causes an immediate and marked changed in pulmonary capillary permeability. Albumin administration by counteracting this permeability change, and steroid administration by modifying the permeability change, are both beneficial following acid aspiration. Images Fig. 7a. Fig. 7a., Fig. 7c. PMID:1247316

  13. Experimental evaluation of job provenance in ATLAS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křenek, A.; Sitera, J.; Chudoba, J.; Dvořák, F.; Filipovič, J.; Kmuníček, J.; Matyska, L.; Mulaš, M.; Ruda, M.; Šustr, Z.; Campana, S.; Molinari, E.; Rebatto, D.

    2008-07-01

    Grid middleware stacks, including gLite, matured into the state of being able to process up to millions of jobs per day. Logging and Bookkeeping, the gLite job-tracking service, keeps pace with this rate; however, it is not designed to provide a long-term archive of information on executed jobs. ATLAS — representative of a large user community — addresses this issue with its own job catalogue (ProdDB). Development of such a customized service, not easily reusable, took considerable effort which is not affordable by smaller communities. On the contrary, Job Provenance (JP), a generic gLite service designed for long-term archiving of information on executed jobs focusing on scalability, extensibility, uniform data view, and configurability, allows more specialized catalogues to be easily built. We present the first results of an experimental JP deployment for the ATLAS production infrastructure where a JP installation was fed with a part of ATLAS jobs, and also stress tested with real production data. The main outcome of this work is a demonstration that JP can complement large-scale application-specific job catalogue services, while serving a similar purpose where there are none available.

  14. PRESCHOOLERS' COMPLIANCE WITH SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS: A DESCRIPTIVE AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kasey M; Hanley, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Compliance is often used to describe a situation in which a child completes instructions from adults, and low levels of compliance are a common teacher concern. We conducted a descriptive assessment that showed that compliance was relatively stable for individual children, variable across children, and positively correlated with age. The impact of six antecedent variables (proximity, position, physical contact, eye contact, vocal attention, and play interruption) on compliance was assessed for 4 children. Next, the effects of three-step prompting were assessed alone, in combination with the antecedent variables, and at different integrity levels for 2 children. Results of the experimental analyses showed that compliance gradually increased with the addition of each antecedent variable for 2 of the 4 children. Three-step prompting in combination with the six antecedent variables increased compliance for the remaining 2 children, and high compliance levels were maintained until treatment integrity was decreased to 20% of full strength. The utility of this naturalistic compliance assessment is discussed, as are the relevant experiences that give rise to acceptable levels of compliance in preschool classrooms. PMID:21119897

  15. Evaluation of local versus remote areas of CH4 sources at IC3 stations using a combined analysis of 222Rn tracer and Atmospheric Particles Transport Model (APTM) results. Application at the Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3), Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Àgueda, Alba; Arnold, Delia; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lidia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Vogel, Felix; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the IC3 (Institut Català de Ciències del Clima) atmospheric monitoring network. This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park (40.22º N; -5.14º E) in the Spanish central plateau. The IC3 network consists of 8 stations distributed across Spain. It has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Since 2012, CO2, CH4, 222Rn (a natural radioactive gas) and meteorological variables are continuously measured at GIC3 at 20 m a.g.l. (1100 m a.s.l.). Furthermore, 4-days backward simulations are run daily for each IC3 station using the FLEXPART model. Simulations use ECMWF meteorological data as input and a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.2 degrees. The Laboratory of the Atmosphere and the Oceans (LAO) of the IC3 has elaborated a new approach to evaluate the local or remote greenhouse gases emissions using the radon gas as tracer and the atmospheric particles transport model FLEXPART under nocturnal and winter conditions. The ratios between the normalized and rescaled measured concentrations of CH4 and 222Rn during nocturnal hours (21h, 00h, 03h and 06h) and in the winter season, in order to reduce local radon flux and methane source due to seasonal livestock migration and to get stable atmospheric conditions, have been analyzed in relation to the influence of the local area (set to an initial dimension of 20x20 km2). The influence area (IA) has been defined as the percentage of the ratio between the residence time of the fictitious particles released in FLEXPART simulations over the area of interest (TLocal Area) and the residence time of these fictitious particles over the total area included in the simulation (TTotal Area ), i.e. IA = (TLocal Area/TTotal Area * 100). First results considering an area of interest of 20x20 km2 show a linear increase of the radon concentration with IA until reaching a maximum when IA is

  16. Experimental Configuration Effects on ICE Tumble Flow Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Bryan; Puzinauskas, Paulius

    2014-11-01

    The generation of ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) in-cylinder charge motions, such as swirl and tumble, have shown positive effects on reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emission levels at partial engine loads. Tumble flow is commonly measured utilizing a steady-flow rig and two-dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) systems, among others. In order to optimize the tumble flow, it is important to retrieve accurate measurements. The tumble flow values could be affected by variations in the geometry and/or design of the steady-flow rig utilized during flow tests. In this research, a four-valve per cylinder head was tested on a steady flow bench, varying several aspects of the configuration to evaluate how they influence bulk momentum as well as PIV measurements. The configuration variations included symmetrical, asymmetrical and runner-fed configurations throughout testing. Volumetric flow rate and tumble strength flow measurements were retrieved at the selected L/D ratios. Additionally, several PIV seeding particles were characterized for size and shape. Corresponding PIV flow measurements using each type of seeding were made to evaluate how the particles influence the results. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported Bryan Santana Rivera as an REU student.

  17. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  18. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This is an illustration of the Space Base concept. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial-gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  19. Evaluation of Cameroonian plants towards experimental bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ngueguim, Florence Tsofack; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Donfack, Jean Hubert; Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Tewari, Deepshikha; Nagar, Geet K; Tiwari, Satish C; Theophile, Dimo; Maurya, Rakesh; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2012-05-07

    Elephantopus mollis, Spilanthes africana, Urena lobata, Momordica multiflora, Asystasia gangetica and Brillantaisia ovariensis are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of bone diseases and fracture repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of six Cameroonian medicinal plants on bone regeneration following bone and marrow injury. Ethanol extract of Cameroonian medicinal plants were administered (each extract at 250, 500 and 750mg/kg doses) orally to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats having a drill hole injury (0.8mm) in the femur diaphysis. Vehicle (gum-acacia in distilled water) was given to the control group. After 12 days of treatment, animals were euthanized and femur bones collected. Confocal microscopy of fractured bone was performed to evaluate bone regeneration (calcein labeling). Only active plant extracts were used for further experiments. Thus, callus was analyzed by microcomputed tomography. Osteogenic effects of the extracts were evaluated by assessing mineralized nodules formation of bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblast recruitment at drill hole site by immunohistochemistry. Ethanolic extract of the leaves and twigs of Elephantopus mollis (EM) and whole plant of Spilanthes africana (SA) dose-dependently stimulated bone regeneration at the drill hole site. EM at 250 and 750mg/kg doses and SA at 750mg/kg dose significantly increased mineral deposition compared to controls. Both extracts at 500 and 750mg/kg doses improved microarchitecture of the regenerating bone evident from increased bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. EM and SA extracts increased the formation of mineralized nodules from the bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, EM and SA extracts increased osteoblast recruitment at the drill hole site evident from increased Runx-2 positive cells following their treatments compared to control

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin; Dalton, Angela C.

    2009-12-01

    The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.

  1. Experimental evaluation of shark detection rates by aerial observers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, William D; Peddemors, Victor M; Kennelly, Steven J; Ives, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼ 2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks.

  2. Statistical evaluation of SAGE libraries: consequences for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank

    2002-10-29

    Since the introduction of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) as a method to quantitatively analyze the differential expression of genes, several statistical tests have been published for the pairwise comparison of SAGE libraries. Testing the difference between the number of specific tags found in two SAGE libraries is hampered by the fact that each SAGE library is only one measurement: the necessary information on biological variation or experimental precision is not available. In the currently available tests, a measure of this variance is obtained from simulation or based on the properties of the tag distribution. To help the user of SAGE to decide between these tests, five different pairwise tests have been compared by determining the critical values, that is, the lowest number of tags that, given an observed number of tags in one library, needs to be found in the other library to result in a significant P value. The five tests included in this comparison are SAGE300, the tests described by Madden et al. (Oncogene 15: 1079-1085, 1997) and by Audic and Claverie (Genome Res 7: 986-995, 1997), Fisher's Exact test, and the Z test, which is equivalent to the chi-squared test. The comparison showed that, for SAGE libraries of equal as well as different size, SAGE300, Fisher's Exact test, Z test, and the Audic and Claverie test have critical values within 1.5% of each other. This indicates that these four tests will give essentially the same results when applied to SAGE libraries. The Madden test, which can only be used for libraries of similar size, is, with 25% higher critical values, more conservative, probably because the variance measure in its test statistic is not appropriate for hypothesis testing. The consequences for the choice of SAGE library sizes are discussed.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Shark Detection Rates by Aerial Observers

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William D.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Kennelly, Steven J.; Ives, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks. PMID:24498258

  4. Experimental evaluation of a pilot multinozzle-duct apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A pilot multinozzle and duct were tested at ambient enthalpy to evaluate the suitability of such apparatus for testing thermal protection system panels mounted in the sidewalls of the duct downstream of the nozzle array. The flow field in the duct was complex: effects of wakes and shock waves from the nozzle dominated the flow field; the wakes continually mixed with the surrounding fluid; the boundary layer on the sidewalls of the duct was nonuniform; and near the exit of the duct the sidewall pressure variation was as much as 8.5 percent about the mean wall pressure. Starting loads on the duct walls were higher than those of a similar conventional nozzle and duct. It was concluded that the multinozzle-duct apparatus was not suitable for testing TPS panels, although the design and flow-field information should be of interest to designers of high-energy gasdynamic lasers.

  5. Experimental evaluation of combustor concepts for burning broad property fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, J. M.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Dodds, W. J.; Shayeson, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    A baseline CF6-50 combustor and three advanced combustor designs were evaluated to determine the effects of combustor design on operational characteristics using broad property fuels. Three fuels were used in each test: Jet A, a broad property 13% hydrogen fuel, and a 12% hydrogen fuel blend. Testing was performed in a sector rig at true cruise and simulated takeoff conditions for the CF6-50 engine cycle. The advanced combustors (all double annular, lean dome designs) generally exhibited lower metal temperatures, exhaust emissions, and carbon buildup than the baseline CF6-50 combustor. The sensitivities of emissions and metal temperatures to fuel hydrogen content were also generally lower for the advanced designs. The most promising advanced design used premixing tubes in the main stage. This design was chosen for additional testing in which fuel/air ratio, reference velocity, and fuel flow split were varied.

  6. New experimental model for the evaluation of adaptogenic products.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, U; Divekar, H M; Grover, S K; Srivastava, K K

    1990-07-01

    A new animal model for evaluating improvement in physical work performance and endurance in an adverse environment is described. In this model, rats in restraint were exposed to 5 degrees C at 480 mmHg atmospheric pressure. Results were compared to an animal forced to swim in water at 23 degrees C. In both the models, colonic temperature (Tr) of the rats was continually monitored during exposure to adverse environment and during recovery at 32 degrees C and normal atmospheric pressure. The time and pattern for Tr fall to 23 degrees C and its recovery to 37 degrees C were used as measures of endurance. The cold-hypoxia-restraint model was found to provide more precise results compared with the cold-swimming model. Panax ginseng root and Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts were compared for their positive endurance-promoting properties using both models.

  7. A passive exoskeleton with artificial tendons: design and experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Wietse; van der Kooij, Herman; Hekman, Edsko

    2011-01-01

    We developed a passive exoskeleton that was designed to minimize joint work during walking. The exoskeleton makes use of passive structures, called artificial tendons, acting in parallel with the leg. Artificial tendons are elastic elements that are able to store and redistribute energy over the human leg joints. The elastic characteristics of the tendons have been optimized to minimize the mechanical work of the human leg joints. In simulation the maximal reduction was 40 percent. The performance of the exoskeleton was evaluated in an experiment in which nine subjects participated. Energy expenditure and muscle activation were measured during three conditions: Normal walking, walking with the exoskeleton without artificial tendons, and walking with the exoskeleton with the artificial tendons. Normal walking was the most energy efficient. While walking with the exoskeleton, the artificial tendons only resulted in a negligibly small decrease in energy expenditure. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Experimental evaluation of the Skylab orbital workshop ventilation system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Ralston, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive testing was conducted to evaluate the Orbital Workshop ventilation concept. Component tests were utilized to determine the relationship between operating characteristics at 1 and 0.34 atm. System tests were conducted at 1 atm within the Orbital Workshop full-scale mockup to assess delivered volumetric flow rate and compartment air velocities. Component tests with the Anemostat circular diffusers (plenum- and duct-mounted) demonstrated that the diffuser produced essentially equivalent airflow patterns and velocities in 1- and 0.34-atm environments. The tests also showed that the pressure drop across the diffuser could be scaled from 1 to 0.34 atm using the atmosphere pressure ratio. Fan tests indicated that the performance of a multiple, parallel-mounted fan cluster could be predicted by summing the single-fan flow rates at a given delta P.

  9. Inversion of AMSR-E observations for land surface temperature estimation: 1. Methodology and evaluation with station temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, C.; Prigent, C.; Ermida, S. L.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2017-03-01

    Inversions of the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures (Tbs) to derive the land surface temperature (Ts) are presented based on building a global transfer function by neural networks trained with AMSR-E Tbs and retrieved microwave Ts*. The only required inputs are the Tbs and monthly climatological emissivities, minimizing the dependence on ancillary data. The inversions are accompanied by a coarse estimation of retrieval uncertainty, an estimate of the quality of the retrieval, and a series of flags to signal difficult inversion situations. For ˜75% of the land surface the root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the training target Ts* and the neural network retrieved Ts is below 2.8 K. The RMSD when comparing with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) clear-sky Ts is below 3.9 K for the same conditions. Over 10 ground stations, AMSR-E and MODIS Ts were compared with the in situ data. Overall, MODIS agrees better with the station Ts than AMSR-E (all-station mean RMSD of 2.4 K for MODIS and 4.0 for AMSR-E), but AMSR-E provides a larger number of Ts estimates by being able to measure under cloudy conditions, with an approximated ratio of 3 to 1 over the analyzed stations. At many stations the RMSD of the AMSR-E clear and cloudy sky are comparable, highlighting the ability of the microwave inversions to provide Ts under most atmospheric conditions. Closest agreement with the in situ Ts happens for stations with dense vegetation, where AMSR-E emissivity is less varying.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-11

    Artist's concept for Phase III of the International Space Station (ISS) as shown here in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the United States, Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-20

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-12-16

    Artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha deployed and operational. This figure also includes the docking procedures for the Space Shuttle (shown with cargo bay open). The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  13. Experimental evaluation of ballistic hazards in imaging diagnostic center

    PubMed Central

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Serious hazards for human health and life and devices in close proximity to the magnetic resonance scanners (MRI scanners) include the effects of being hit by ferromagnetic objects attracted by static magnetic field (SMF) produced by scanner magnet – the so-called ballistic hazards classified among indirect electromagnetic hazards. International safety guidelines and technical literature specify different SMF threshold values regarding ballistic hazards – e.g. 3 mT (directive 2004/40/EC, EN 60601-2-33), and 30 mT (BMAS 2009, directive proposal 2011). Investigations presented in this article were performed in order to experimentally verify SMF threshold for ballistic hazards near MRI scanners used in Poland. Material/Methods: Investigations were performed with the use of a laboratory source of SMF (0–30 mT) and MRI scanners of various types. The levels of SMF in which metal objects of various shapes and 0.4–500 g mass are moved by the field influence were investigated. The distance from the MRI scanners (0.2–3T) where hazards may occur were also investigated. Results: Objects investigated under laboratory conditions were moved by SMF of 2.2–15 mT magnetic flux density when they were freely suspended, but were moved by the SMF of 5.6–22 mT when they were placed on a smooth surface. Investigated objects were moved in fields of 3.5–40 mT by MRI scanners. Distances from scanner magnet cover, where ballistic hazards might occur are: up to 0.5 m for 0.2–0.3T scanners; up to 1.3 m for 0.5T scanners; up to 2.0 m for 1.5T scanners and up to 2.5 m for 3T scanners (at the front and back of the magnet). Conclusions: It was shown that SMF of 3 mT magnetic flux density should be taken as the threshold for ballistic hazards. Such level is compatible with SMF limit value regarding occupational safety and health-protected areas/zones, where according to the Polish labor law the procedures of work environment inspection and prevention measures

  14. Experimental evaluation of ballistic hazards in imaging diagnostic center.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Serious hazards for human health and life and devices in close proximity to the magnetic resonance scanners (MRI scanners) include the effects of being hit by ferromagnetic objects attracted by static magnetic field (SMF) produced by scanner magnet - the so-called ballistic hazards classified among indirect electromagnetic hazards. International safety guidelines and technical literature specify different SMF threshold values regarding ballistic hazards - e.g. 3 mT (directive 2004/40/EC, EN 60601-2-33), and 30 mT (BMAS 2009, directive proposal 2011). Investigations presented in this article were performed in order to experimentally verify SMF threshold for ballistic hazards near MRI scanners used in Poland. Investigations were performed with the use of a laboratory source of SMF (0-30 mT) and MRI scanners of various types. The levels of SMF in which metal objects of various shapes and 0.4-500 g mass are moved by the field influence were investigated. The distance from the MRI scanners (0.2-3T) where hazards may occur were also investigated. Objects investigated under laboratory conditions were moved by SMF of 2.2-15 mT magnetic flux density when they were freely suspended, but were moved by the SMF of 5.6-22 mT when they were placed on a smooth surface. Investigated objects were moved in fields of 3.5-40 mT by MRI scanners. Distances from scanner magnet cover, where ballistic hazards might occur are: up to 0.5 m for 0.2-0.3T scanners; up to 1.3 m for 0.5T scanners; up to 2.0 m for 1.5T scanners and up to 2.5 m for 3T scanners (at the front and back of the magnet). It was shown that SMF of 3 mT magnetic flux density should be taken as the threshold for ballistic hazards. Such level is compatible with SMF limit value regarding occupational safety and health-protected areas/zones, where according to the Polish labor law the procedures of work environment inspection and prevention measures regarding indirect electromagnetic hazards should be applied. Presented results

  15. Development and Experimental Evaluation of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Castle, Charles H.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    To provide uniform cooling for a fuel cell stack, a cooling plate concept was evaluated. This concept utilized thin cooling plates to extract heat from the interior of a fuel cell stack and move this heat to a cooling manifold where it can be transferred to an external cooling fluid. The advantages of this cooling approach include a reduced number of ancillary components and the ability to directly utilize an external cooling fluid loop for cooling the fuel cell stack. A number of different types of cooling plates and manifolds were developed. The cooling plates consisted of two main types; a plate based on thermopyrolytic graphite (TPG) and a planar (or flat plate) heat pipe. The plates, along with solid metal control samples, were tested for both thermal and electrical conductivity. To transfer heat from the cooling plates to the cooling fluid, a number of manifold designs utilizing various materials were devised, constructed, and tested. A key aspect of the manifold was that it had to be electrically nonconductive so it would not short out the fuel cell stack during operation. Different manifold and cooling plate configurations were tested in a vacuum chamber to minimize convective heat losses. Cooling plates were placed in the grooves within the manifolds and heated with surface-mounted electric pad heaters. The plate temperature and its thermal distribution were recorded for all tested combinations of manifold cooling flow rates and heater power loads. This testing simulated the performance of the cooling plates and manifold within an operational fuel cell stack. Different types of control valves and control schemes were tested and evaluated based on their ability to maintain a constant temperature of the cooling plates. The control valves regulated the cooling fluid flow through the manifold, thereby controlling the heat flow to the cooling fluid. Through this work, a cooling plate and manifold system was developed that could maintain the cooling plates

  16. Evaluation of an Army Aviator’s Ability to Conduct Ingress and Egress of the RAH-66 Comanche Crew Station While Wearing the Air Warrior Ensemble

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    lightweight composite airframe struc- tures; protected anti-torque systems; low-vibration, high -reliability rotor systems; reduced radar cross section (RCS...conduct an ingress-egress evaluation using a mock-up that approximates the modified crew stations with a high degree of fidelity. It is important to...testing will address the most extreme operational conditions, which is likely a combination of both cold weather and nuclear-biological- chemical (NBC

  17. Experimental evaluation of magnetic interaction in pyrrhotite bearing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehland, F.; Stancu, A.; Rochette, P.; Dekkers, M. J.; Appel, E.

    2005-12-01

    Pyrrhotite bearing metamorphic limestones have recently experienced an increasing relevance in paleomagnetic research. Simple univectorial remanences document the metamorphic uplift, whereas more complex multicomponent pTRMs may constrain its age. For a successful application of the latter, it is important to estimate the degree of magnetic interactions to ensure the additivity of individual pTRM segments. We therefore have subjected the sized dispersed suite (<5-250 μm) of TTE pyrrhotite to FORC analysis and compared the result with remanence-based parameters like the Δ M or the irreversible susceptibility. This is used as a basis to evaluate the response of marly limestone samples from regionally metamorphic areas (Bourg d'Oisans, France) and contact-metamorphic aureoles (Elba, Italy; Skye, Scottland; Manaslu area, Nepal) to these techniques. The results show that the techniques are able to estimate the nature and - to a certain degree - the intensity of the magnetic interaction. The different dominant magnetic states of the assemblage can also be unravelled as well. Based on the remanence measurements of the TTE samples, a relationship between grain-size and the irreversible susceptibility is established in order to estimate the mean grain-size fraction in natural particle distribution.

  18. Comparison of methods for evaluation of experimentally induced emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Smith, L.G.

    1984-04-01

    Four methods to quantify induced emphysema, in a manner economically applicable to large numbers of animals, are compared by correlation analyses. Lung tissue used was from rats pretreated intratracheally with elastase or saline prior to exposure to air or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ aerosols. The most sensitive quantitative evaluation was from mean chord length (MCL) measurements on scanning electron micrographs (SEM). Four-corner and parallel-line grids provided similar results, and reducing sample size to one selected field per lobe yielded a high degree of reliability for MCL measurements. Alveolar-pore perimeter and area (also measured on SEM photographs) were increased by induced emphysema, but were not reliable indicators for degree of pulmonary involvement. Both subjective score (grading the degree of emphysema) and percentage-area-affected determinations indicated the presence of emphysema, but with less sensitivity than MCL measurements. However, these two subgross methods (performed with a dissecting microscope) provided valuable information on the distribution of pulmonary lesions; emphysema was induced in a nonuniform but consistent and progressive pattern in the two lobes of the lung studied. 23 studied.

  19. Biodegradability, toxicity and mutagenicity of detergents: Integrated experimental evaluations.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Ilaria; Casale, Rosario; Gozio, Eleonora; Bertanza, Giorgio; Gelatti, Umberto; Donato, Francesco; Feretti, Donatella

    2012-10-01

    The widespread use of detergents has raised concern with regard to the environmental pollution caused by their active ingredients, which are biorefractory, toxic and persistent. Since detergents are complex mixtures of different substances, in which synergistic effects may occur, we aimed to assess the mutagenicity of different detergent formulations, taking into account aquatic toxicity and ready biodegradability. We performed a ready biodegradability test (OECD 301 F), Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity tests, and mutagenicity tests (Salmonella/microsome test, Allium cepa test and comet assay). Six detergent formulations were examined, 3 pre-manufacture and 3 commercially available. All detergents presented ready biodegradability. EC50 values varied for all products, according to the marker organism used, but were always higher than the more stringent value considered for aquatic toxicity assessment (V. fischeri 10-60 mg/L; D. magna 25-300 mg/L; A. cepa 250-2000 mg/L). None of the detergents caused mutations in bacteria. However, one commercial ecolabelled product induced an increase in micronucleus frequency in A. cepa root cells. All pre-manufacture detergents and one commercial one, which gave negative results in the Ames and A. cepa tests, induced DNA damage in human leukocytes. A more accurate evaluation of the environmental impact of complex mixtures such as detergents requires a battery of tests to describe degradation, as well as toxicological and mutagenic features. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonometry evaluation of axial compression osteosinthesis. An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mandarano, Luiz Garcia; Barbieri, Giuliano; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the ultrasound propagation velocity (UV) through a tibial transverse osteotomy in sheep, before and after the fixation with a DCP plate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten assemblies of a DCP plate with the diaphyseal segment of tibiae, in which a transverse osteotomy was made, were used. Both coronal and sagittal transverse and the axial UV were measured, first with the intact bone assembled with the plate and then with the uncompressed and compressed osteotomy; statistical comparisons were made at the 1% (p<0.01) level of significance. RESULTS: Compared with the intact bone assembly, axial UV significantly decreased with the addition of the osteotomy and significantly increased with compression, presenting the same behavior for the other modalities, although not significantly. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In accordance with the literature data on the ultrasonometric evaluation of fracture healing, underwater UV measurement was able to demonstrate the efficiency of DCP plate fixation. The authors conclude that the method has a potential for clinical application in the postoperative follow-up of DCP plate osteosinthesis, with a capability to demonstrate when it becomes ineffective. Laboratory investigation. PMID:24453644

  1. Experimental performance evaluation of human balance control models.

    PubMed

    Huryn, Thomas P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Croft, Elizabeth A; Koehle, Michael S; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-11-01

    Two factors commonly differentiate proposed balance control models for quiet human standing: 1) intermittent muscle activation and 2) prediction that overcomes sensorimotor time delays. In this experiment we assessed the viability and performance of intermittent activation and prediction in a balance control loop that included the neuromuscular dynamics of human calf muscles. Muscles were driven by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The performance of the different controllers was compared based on sway patterns and mechanical effort required to balance a human body load on a robotic balance simulator. All evaluated controllers balanced subjects with and without a neural block applied to their common peroneal and tibial nerves, showing that the models can produce stable balance in the absence of natural activation. Intermittent activation required less stimulation energy than continuous control but predisposed the system to increased sway. Relative to intermittent control, continuous control reproduced the sway size of natural standing better. Prediction was not necessary for stable balance control but did improve stability when control was intermittent, suggesting a possible benefit of a predictor for intermittent activation. Further application of intermittent activation and predictive control models may drive prolonged, stable FES-controlled standing that improves quality of life for people with balance impairments.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Tude Support Plate Crevice Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Allen Baum

    2001-05-08

    A test methodology for measuring temperature, impedance, pH, and electrochemical potential distributions within a sludge-packed tube support plate crevice in a laboratory test is described. The method successfully showed that there were large concentration gradients between the tube and tube support plate sides of the crevice. The testing also showed that strong bases concentrated more effectively than strong acids, and that the crevice pH, when exposed to seawater-based solutions, increased with increasing superheat and decreasing bulk concentration. The large variations in the crevice chemistry observed under heat transfer were eliminated upon shutdown. These new test data suggest that it might be beneficial to evaluate the variation in the extent of stress corrosion cracking with tube support plate elevation found in some steam generators in light of local chemistry changes, as well as the variation in tubing temperature. Because of the large crevice chemistry gradients during boiling heat transfer and their subsequent homogenization upon test shutdown, the results suggest reassessing the use of hideout return measurements and tube deposit analyses in industry to infer the crevice chemistry under heat transfer conditions.

  3. Experimental evaluation of the concept of supevisory manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-controlled teleoperator system which is based on task-referenced sensor-aided control has been developed to study supervisory manipulation. This system, called SUPERMAN, is capable of performing complicated tasks in real-time by utilizing the operator for high-level functions related to the unpredictable portions of a task, while the subordinate machine performs the more well-defined subtasks under human supervison. To determine whether supervisory control schemes such as these offer any advantage over manual control under real-time conditions, a number of experiments involving both simple and complicated tasks were performed. Six representative tasks were chosen for the study: (1) obtaining a tool from a rack, (2) returning the tool to the rack, (3) removing a nut, (4) placing samples in a storage bin, (5) opening and closing a valve, and (6) digging with a shovel. The experiments were performed under simulated conditions using four forms of manual control (i.e., switch rate, joystick rate, master-slave position control, and master-slave with force feedback), as well as supervisory control. Through these experiments the effectiveness and quality of control were evaluated on the basis of the time required to complete each portion of the task and the type and number of errors which occurred.

  4. Neuromuscular evaluation of post-orthodontic stability: an experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Marciandi, Paolo V; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2002-01-01

    To prevent relapse after orthodontic treatment, retention is often considered indispensable. Soft tissues are thought to have a significant influence on dental movements. To quantify the influence of masticatory muscles on post-treatment relapse, and in an attempt to avoid unnecessary procedures, 2 male orthodontic patients (13 and 30 years old at debonding) were followed up. The patients completed 2 years of fixed orthodontic treatment and received no post-orthodontic retention. After 1 week and again after 6 months, alginate impressions of dental arches and a surface electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the masseter and temporalis muscles during maximum voluntary clenching were performed. The younger patient received surface EMG monitoring once a month for the first 6 months and at the 1-year follow-up appointment. Arch dimensions and the 3-dimensional inclination of the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) were measured using a computerized digitizer. Symmetry in muscular contraction was measured by the percentage overlapping coefficient (POC), and potential lateral displacing components were assessed by the torque coefficient (TC). At the 6-month follow-up, no clinical modifications were observed. Quantitative evaluation assessed that arch dimensions had changed slightly (up to 1 mm). While the adolescent patient had no modifications in FACC inclinations, the 30-year-old patient showed significant alterations (up to 18 degrees). In all examinations of the adolescent patient, POC was higher than 86% and TC was lower than 10%. In the adult, POC was inside the normal range, while all TCs were higher than 10.5%. The larger TC measured in the adult may explain the larger modifications in the 3-dimensional position of his dental crowns. In conclusion, a surface EMG assessment may help in the detection of patients who might need post-orthodontic retention.

  5. Carbon and oxygen minibeam radiation therapy: An experimental dosimetric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rovira, Immaculada; González, Wilfredo; Brons, Stephan; Prezado, Yolanda

    2017-08-01

    To perform dosimetric characterization of a minibeam collimator in both carbon and oxygen ion beams to guide optimal setup geometry and irradiation for future radiobiological studies. Carbon and oxygen minibeams were generated using a prototype tungsten multislit collimator presenting line apertures 700 μm wide, which are spaced 3500 μm centre-to-centre distance apart. Several radiation beam spots generated the desired field size of 15 × 15 mm(2) and production of a 50 mm long spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) centered at 80 mm depth in water. Dose evaluations were performed with two different detectors: a PTW microDiamond® single crystal diamond detector and radiochromic films (EBT3). Peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) values, output factors (OF), penumbras, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were measured. Measured lateral dose profiles exhibited spatial fractionation of dose at depth in a water phantom in the expected form of peaks and valleys for both carbon and oxygen radiation fields. The diamond detector and radiochromic film provided measurements of PVDR in good agreement. PVDR values at shallow depth were about 60 and decreased to about 10 at 80 mm depth in water. OF in the center of the SOBP was about 0.4; this value is larger than the corresponding one in proton minibeam radiation therapy measured using a comparable collimator due to a reduced lateral scattering for carbon and oxygen minibeams. Carbon and oxygen minibeams may be produced by a mechanical collimator. PVDR values and output factors measured in this first study of these minibeam radiation types indicate there is potential for their therapeutic use. Optimization of minibeam collimator design and the number and size of focal spots for irradiation are advocated to improve PDVR values and dose distributions for each specific applied use. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  7. Laser resistant stainless steel endotracheal tube: experimental and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fried, M P; Mallampati, S R; Liu, F C; Kaplan, S; Caminear, D S; Samonte, B R

    1991-01-01

    A fire due to endotracheal tube (ET) ignition is a catastrophic event that may occur during laser surgery of the upper airway, regardless of the wavelength utilized. Although methods exist that permit laser surgery without an ET, this is frequently not feasible. The current investigation was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a double-cuffed stainless steel ET, first in the laboratory and subsequently in a clinical setting. Bench testing was performed using CO2 (both standard and milliwatt) and KTP/532 lasers. Only the distal polyvinyl chloride cuffed end of the tube was potentially ignitable, however, the appropriate use of saline to fill the cuffs allowed only for cuff perforation without ignition. Canine testing was performed in 10 animals: 4 dogs were intubated from 3 to 4.5 hours with the laser resistant stainless steel endotracheal tube (LRSS-ET) (Laser-Flex Tracheal Tube; Mallinckrodt Anesthesia Products, St. Louis, MO) and 2 with an aluminum tape wrapped red rubber ET. Visual and histological examination were performed in both groups at 3 and 7 days. Four dogs underwent CO2 laser laryngeal surgery with visual and histological examination performed at 7 days postoperatively. No untoward effects could be demonstrated due to the LRSS-ET. A clinical study was then performed in 24 patients who underwent laser surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract with either a CO2 or KTP/532 laser. In all cases ventilation was adequate, the shaft of the LRSS-ET proved impervious to the laser, and the distal end of the tube protected the tracheobronchial tree safely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Development and Evaluation of an Experimental Parametric Acoustic Receiving Array (PARRAY)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-16

    The development, test, and evaluation of an experimental parametric acoustic receiving array ( PARRAY ) with a pump-hydrophone separation of 340 m are...described in this report. Tests in Lake Travis, Texas, demonstrated a greater than 40 dB reduction in the self-noise floor of the experimental PARRAY ...major hardware subsystems employed in the experimental PARRAY : high spectral purity pump signal generation; commensurate power amplification; high

  9. An Evaluation of the General Dynamics 20 Khz 5 Kw Breadboard for Space Station Electrical Power at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Kapustka, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    The results and observations are discussed of tests made on the General Dynamics 20 kHz Breadboard for Space Station Electrical Power. The General Dynamics 20 kHz system only is considered, and not the issue of the use of 20 kHz ac Power for Spacecraft Applications.

  10. [MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR EAR, NOSE AND THROAT RENDERING AND EVALUATION IN RESEARCHES ON RUSSIAN SEGMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION].

    PubMed

    Popova, I I; Orlov, O I; Matsnev, E I; Revyakin, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the results of testing some diagnostic video systems enabling digital rendering of TNT teeth and jaws. The authors substantiate the criteria of choosing and integration of imaging systems in future on Russian segment of the International space station kit LOR developed for examination and download of high-quality images of cosmonauts' TNT, parodentium and teeth.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named "Kibo" (Hope). Node 2, the "utility hub" and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  12. Experimental and analytical tools for evaluation of Stirling engine rod seal behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauter, A. I.; Cheng, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The first year of a two year experimental and analytical program is reported. The program is directed at the elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric rod seals for the Stirling engine. During the year, experimental and analytical tools were developed for evaluating seal leakage, seal friction, and the fluid film thickness at the seal/cylinder interface.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Cooperative Learning on Kindergarten Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artut, Perihan Dinc

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on the mathematics ability and cooperative social behaviours of kindergarten children and to evaluate teachers' perspectives on the application of the program. One control (n = 17) and one experimental group (n = 17) were studied. In the experimental group, a curriculum…

  14. Experimental evaluation of the power balance model of speed skating.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Lampen, Joanne; Hettinga, Floor; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of speed skating performance with a power balance model requires assumptions about the kinetics of energy production, skating efficiency, and skating technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these parameters during competitive imitations for the purpose of improving model predictions. Elite speed skaters (n = 8) performed races and submaximal efficiency tests. External power output (P(o)) was calculated from movement analysis and aerodynamic models and ice friction measurements. Aerobic kinetics was calculated from breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (Vo(2)). Aerobic power (P(aer)) was calculated from measured skating efficiency. Anaerobic power (P(an)) kinetics was determined by subtracting P(aer) from P(o). We found gross skating efficiency to be 15.8% (1.8%). In the 1,500-m event, the kinetics of P(an) was characterized by a first-order system as P(an) = 88 + 556e(-0.0494t) (in W, where t is time). The rate constant for the increase in P(aer) was -0.153 s(-1), the time delay was 8.7 s, and the peak P(aer) was 234 W; P(aer) was equal to 234[1 - e(-0.153(t-8.7))] (in W). Skating position changed with preextension knee angle increasing and trunk angle decreasing throughout the event. We concluded the pattern of P(aer) to be quite similar to that reported during other competitive imitations, with the exception that the increase in P(aer) was more rapid. The pattern of P(an) does not appear to fit an "all-out" pattern, with near zero values during the last portion of the event, as assumed in our previous model (De Koning JJ, de Groot G, and van Ingen Schenau GJ. J Biomech 25: 573-580, 1992). Skating position changed in ways different from those assumed in our previous model. In addition to allowing improved predictions, the results demonstrate the importance of observations in unique subjects to the process of model construction.

  15. Solar Collector Thermal Power System. Volume 3. Basic Study and Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Train Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    AD/A-000 942 SOLAR -COLLECTOR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM. VOLUME III. BASIC STUDY AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THERMAL TRAIN COMPONENTS Robert Richter...Experimental 16 Aug 1971 to 28 Jun 1974 Evaluation of Thermal Train 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Components 4074-Final 7. AUTHOR(s) 1. CONTRACT OR GRANT...complete thermal train . The effort comprised the design, fabrication, and testing of the heat pipe as an individual component and the integration and

  16. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  17. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Research and Applications Modules (RAM). Evolutionary growth was an important consideration in space station plarning, and another project was undertaken in 1971 to facilitate such growth. The RAM study, conducted through a Marshall Space Flight Center contract with General Dynamics Convair Aerospace, resulted in the conceptualization of a series of RAM payload carrier-sortie laboratories, pallets, free-flyers, and payload and support modules. The study considered two basic manned systems. The first would use RAM hardware for sortie mission, where laboratories were carried into space and remained attached to the Shuttle for operational periods up to 7 days. The second envisioned a modular space station capability that could be evolved by mating RAM modules to the space station core configuration. The RAM hardware was to be built by Europeans, thus fostering international participation in the space program.

  18. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-08-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts a configuration with enhanced capabilities. It builds on the horizontal boom and module pattern of the revised baseline. This configuration would feature dual keels, two vertical spines 105-meters long joined by upper and lower booms. The structure carrying the modules would become a transverse boom of a basically rectangular structure. The two new booms, 45-meters in length, would provide extensive accommodations for attached payloads, and would offer a wide field of view. Power would be increased significantly, with the addition if a 50-kW solar dynamic power system.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's digital concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida and the Bahamas. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating in the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  1. Evaluation of prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) pack for use by the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) Pack which was developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). This pack will enable the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) to have ready access to advanced life support supplies and equipment for time critical responses to any situation within the Space Station Freedom. The objectives are: (1) to evaluate the design of the pack; and (2) to collect comments for revision to the design of the pack. The in-flight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic test flight to simulate weightlessness are presented.

  2. 47 CFR 74.1265 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....1265 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1265 Posting of station license. (a) The...

  3. 47 CFR 74.1265 - Posting of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1265 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1265 Posting of station license. (a) The...

  4. Comparison of Ambient Noise From Two Station Designs, Evaluating USArray's Transportable and Flexible Arrays in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, M.; Alvarez, M.; Woodward, R.; Yang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The USArray program within the National Science Foundation-funded Earthscope program is comprised of two portable broadband seismic projects; the Transportable Array (TA), and the Flexible Array (FA). The TA consists of 400 stations occupy locations within the United States on a nominal 70 km spacing for a period of approximately 24 months. As a network, these TA stations roll from west to east so that within 10 years the entire lower 48 states will have been occupied by the TA network. As a complementary component of USArray, the FA pool of instruments is comprised of 1200 active-source, 120 short-period and 326 broadband portable stations. These instruments are used by Principal Investigator-driven studies which focus on geologic targets within the TA footprint. Currently the TA network is transitioning from the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. The FA currently has four experiments installed. In this study we quantify the overall performance of these two tandem networks using a controlled set of continuous recordings in Western Washington. We compare the background noise levels between the standard deep TA and shallow FA broadband sensor vault system. We use McNamara’s probability density function (PDF) analysis as the basis of the comparison. We combine the network wide PDF’s of each network for a period of over 600 days of contemporaneous recordings. Preliminary analysis using data from 28 TA stations in western Washington and 47 nearby FA stations from the CAFE experiment (Abers, et al. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl. S43D-07), show that the TA stations are quieter at periods below 20 seconds by about 12 dB on the horizontal components. The vertical components for both the TA and FA are equivalent for periods below 5 seconds. At higher frequencies (> 2 Hz), however, the FA shallower vault is quieter by approximately 10 dB on both the vertical and horizontal components. The question addressed is, what is contributing to the difference in

  5. An evaluation of the effect of volcanic eruption on the solar radiation at Australian and Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Yatko, B.R.; Garrison, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    Peak (most probable) and average values of {angstrom}`s turbidity coefficient {beta} and peak (most probable) and average values of the diffuse index k{sub d} are obtained from the solar radiation data from 21 stations in Australia and 5 stations in Canada. These data exhibit clear increases in their values when the volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere increase following volcanic eruptions of sufficient magnitude. The effect of the eruptions of Fuego (1974), El Chichon (1982) and Pinatubo (1991) are seen most clearly in the data. The effect of lesser eruptions is also seen. The store of volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere shifts with the season so that scattering by volcanic aerosols in the spring half of the year is stronger than in the fall.

  6. Modernization of the first-generation Intercosmos laser rangefinder at the Zvenigorod experimental satellite-tracking station of the Astronomical Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, D. T.; Chepurnov, B. D.

    Test results obtained during 1980-1981 at the Zvenigorod station are presented for the Intercosmos laser rangefinder which was modified in various ways: e.g., optical components of the laser were replaced, and the mechanical Q-switch of the laser resonator was replaced by a phototropic Q-switch. Improved reliability was noted, and the ranging accuracy was increased by 1.5-2 times. It is concluded that the Zvenigorod tests indicate that the first-generation Intercosmos laser rangefinder can be effectively modernized at other Intercosmos tracking stations.

  7. Evaluation of R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station thermal discharge effects on benthic communities; Spring 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A study of thermal effluent effects on benthic invertebrates was conducted near the R.P. Smith Steam Electric Station. Samples were collected during May 1980 with a dome suction sampler and an aquatic drift net. Samples were collected on upstream and downstream control transects and on transects in the thermally influenced area. The objective of this survey was to assess effects of thermal discharge on the abundance and biomass macroinvertebrates in the Potomac River.

  8. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  9. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  10. Leveraging Volunteers: An Experimental Evaluation of a Tutoring Program for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Armstrong, Catherine; Bowden, A. Brooks; Pan, Yilin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the impacts and costs of the Reading Partners program, which uses community volunteers to provide one-on-one tutoring to struggling readers in under-resourced elementary schools. The evaluation uses an experimental design. Students were randomly assigned within 19 different Reading Partners sites to a program or control…

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  12. The effectiveness of family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the magnitude of effects for family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs. METHODS: Studies that used true experimental designs to evaluate family planning programs were identified and their results subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: For the 14 studies with the information needed to calculate effect size, the Pearson r between program and effect variables ranged from -.08 to .09 and averaged .08. CONCLUSIONS: The programs evaluated in the studies considered have had, on average, smaller effects than many would assume and desire. PMID:9146451

  13. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    PubMed

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided.

  14. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  15. Evaluating long-term trends in mean- and high- river flows using a network of reference stations in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, R. L.; Murphy, C.; Harrigan, S.; Hall, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a reference hydrometric network for Ireland established primarily for the detection of climate driven trends in mean and high river flows. Thirty-five stations were identified for inclusion in the network plus a further 8 from the UK Benchmark Network. Their average record length is 40 years with a minimum of 28 and maximum of 63 years. Time series were derived for eight river flow indices: annual and seasonal mean flows and the annual maximum 1-, 10- and 30-day flows. Mann Kendall and Theil Sen statistics were applied to all indices using fixed and variable start/end dates. Trends in the winter mean are found to be highly dependent on the chosen period of analysis with the longest records showing increased flows. Contrary to expectations (of regional climate change scenarios), increases are also evident for long-term summer mean flows. High flow metrics exhibit positive and persistent trends that are less affected by inter-annual variability and period of record. Overall, there is strong spatial coherence in these patterns of change, linked to temporal variations in precipitation. Our results highlight the dangers of using conventional fixed periods such as 1961-1990 for trend detection, recognising that there is always a trade-off between record length, density of the network, and geographic coverage. Furthermore, outliers at the beginning of the record can be an artefact of the original motivation for installing the gauging station(s). In this case, water resource concerns during a markedly dry period in the mid-1970s favour positive trends over subsequent decades. Future work will focus on detection times for climate change signals and the identification of sentinel sites for discerning early signs of anthropogenic climate change across Ireland. Broader lessons for monitoring and detection of anthropogenic climate change signals will also be distilled.

  16. An experimental evaluation and comparison of explicit force control strategies for robotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard; Khosla, Pradeep

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an experimental evaluation and comparison of basic strategies that have been proposed for force control of robot manipulators. This experimental review of force control methodologies is unique in its breadth. The commonality amongst the experiments has permitted the ability to objectively compare and contrast these strategies, and draw conclusions about the efficacy of each. The results support previous analysis and show the superiority of integral force control for force trajectory tracking.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of an experimental clinical chemistry analyzer developed for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Gornet, T G; Schenkel, O; Smith-Cronin, L; Graham, G A; Tonnesen, A S; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    An experimental clinical chemistry analyzer system was designed and built to demonstrate the feasibility of clinical chemistry as part of a medical-care system at NASA's planned space station Freedom. We report the performance of the experimental analyzer, called a medical development unit (MDU), for selected analytes in a laboratory setting in preparation for a preliminary clinical trial at patients' bedsides in an intensive-care unit. Within-run CVs ranged from 0.7% for sodium to 7.1% for phosphorus; day-to-day CVs ranged from 1.0% for chloride to 23.4% for calcium. Correlation of patients' blood sample analyses compared well with those by Ektachem E700 and other high-volume central laboratory analyzers (r ranged from 0.933 for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme to 0.997 for potassium), except for hemoglobin (r = 0.901) and calcium (r = 0.823). Although several CVs obtained in this study exceeded theoretical desired precision limits based on biological variations, performance was adequate for clinical laboratory diagnosis. We examined the effect of potentially interfering concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids: the only effect was negative interference with calcium analyses by high concentrations of bilirubin. We also examined the effects of preanalytical variables and the performance of experimental sample-transfer cups designed to retain sample and reference liquid in microgravity. Continued development of the MDU system is recommended, especially automation of sample processing.

  18. Technical evaluation of the noise and isolation testing of the reactor protection system for the Davis Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Selan, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the noise and isolation testing of the reactor protection system (RPS) for the Davis Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The testing was performed in accordance to Section 4.6.11, Susceptibility, of MIL-N-19900B, and NRC approved plant test methods. Analysis of the test results shows that the reactor protection system did not degrade below acceptable levels when subjected to electromagnetic, electrostatic, isolation and noise level tests, nor was the system's ability to perform its Class 1E protective functions affected.

  19. Experimental feature-based SAR ATR performance evaluation under different operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Huimin; Qian, Tao; Chen, Genshe

    2008-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) system performance over various operating conditions is of great interest in military applications. The performance of ATR system depends on many factors, such as the characteristics of input data, feature extraction methods, and classification algorithms. Generally speaking, ATR performance evaluation can be performed either theoretically or empirically. The theoretical evaluation method requires reasonably accurate underlying models for characterizing target/clutter data, which in many cases is unavailable. The empirical (experimental) evaluation method, on the other hand, needs a fairly large data set in order to conduct meaningful experimental tests. In this paper, we present experimental performance evaluation of ATR algorithms using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) data set. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the ATR performance under different operating conditions. In the experimental tests, different feature extraction techniques, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and kernel PCA, are employed on target SAR imagery to reduce the feature dimension. A number of classification approaches, Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine are tested and compared for their classification accuracy under different conditions such as various feature dimensions, target classes, feature selection methods and input data quality. Our experimental results provide a guideline for selecting features and classifiers in ATR system using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery.

  20. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  1. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  2. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  3. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Patrik Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-30

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  4. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contain a mixture of crude oil, gasoline, creosote and diesel is one of the most common groups of persistent organic pollutants. TPH enters into the ecosystem (soil, water and air) through leakage of underground storage tanks (LUST), accidental oil spills, transportation losses and industrial processes. Pollution associated with diesel oil and its refined products is of great concern worldwide due to its threats/damages for human and ecosystem health, soil structure and ground water quality. Extensive soils pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons results in extreme harsh surroundings, produce hydrophobic conditions and infertile soils that ultimately lead towards less plant and microorganisms growth. Among biological methods, bioremediation and phytoremediation are promising technologies that have both technical and ecological benefits as compared to convention methods. Within phytoremediation, rhizoremediation based on stimulation of degrading microorganism's population influenced by plant rhizospheric effect is known as main mechanism for phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Composting along with rhizodegradtion was used to remediate freshly spilled soils at Lysimeter station Siebersdof, Austria. Experiment was started in July 2013 and will be monitored up to September 2016. Field station has 12 Lysimeter in total; each has length, width and depth of 100 cm respectively. Each Lysimeter was filled with normal agricultural soil from Siebersdof (0-70 cm), sand (70-85 cm) and stones (85-100cm). Sand and stones were added to support the normal leaching and percolation of water as we collected leachate samples after regular intervals. After filling, commercial diesel oil (2% w/w of 0-70 cm soil) was spilled on top of each Lysimeter as accidental spill occurs in filed. Compost was added at 0-15 cm layer (5% w/w of soil) to stimulate plant as well as microorganisms growth. Whole Lysimeter station was divided into three treatments

  5. Space station - Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station program's systems technology effort involves the development of novel techniques that will reduce the scope of tasks neeeded for design, development, testing and evaluation of the hardware. Operations technology efforts encompass analyses that will define those techniques best able to improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of space station functions. The technology objective for data management calls for a fault-tolerant, distributed, expandable and adaptable, as well as repairable and user-friendly, flight data management system that employs state-of-the-art hardware and software. The space station's power system includes the largest element, a 'solar blanket', and the heaviest component, the batteries, of all the subsystems. A thermal management system for the power system is of paramount importance. Attention is also given to the exacting demands of attitude control and stabilization and a regenerative life support system of the requisite capacity and reliability.

  6. ISOLATING AND EVALUATING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS: EVALUATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most solid-phase sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) techniques for organic chemicals have been focused on solid phase sorptive techniques, such as amending contaminated sediments with the carbonaceous resin, Ambersorb, coconut charcoal, or XAD resin to reduce t...

  7. ISOLATING AND EVALUATING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS: EVALUATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most solid-phase sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) techniques for organic chemicals have been focused on solid phase sorptive techniques, such as amending contaminated sediments with the carbonaceous resin, Ambersorb, coconut charcoal, or XAD resin to reduce t...

  8. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom Power Management and distribution DC test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station Freedom dc Electrical Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switchmode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and tests results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  9. An evaluation of the accuracy of geomagnetic data obtained from an unattended, automated, quasi-absolute station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison is made of geomagnetic calibration data obtained from a high-sensitivity proton magnetometer enclosed within an orthogonal bias coil system, with data obtained from standard procedures at a mid-latitude U.S. Geological Survey magnetic observatory using a quartz horizontal magnetometer, a Ruska magnetometer, and a total field magnetometer. The orthogonal coil arrangement is used with the proton magnetometer to provide Deflected-Inclination-Deflected-Declination (DIDD) data from which quasi-absolute values of declination, horizontal intensity, and vertical intensity can be derived. Vector magnetometers provide the ordinate values to yield baseline calibrations for both the DIDD and standard observatory processes. Results obtained from a prototype system over a period of several months indicate that the DIDD unit can furnish adequate absolute field values for maintaining observatory calibration data, thus providing baseline control for unattended, remote stations. ?? 1990.

  10. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2012-06-01

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  11. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station freedom dc Electric Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switch-mode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and test results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  12. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station freedom dc Electric Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switch-mode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and test results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  13. Evaluation and Certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in Activated Carbon Ion Exchange Filters for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Cox, Trey; Larner, Katherine; Carter, Donald; Kouba, Coy

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the Activated Carbon Ion Exchange (ACTEX) filters on the International Space Station (ISS), testing was performed on the Ambersorb 4652 carbon to determine the effectiveness of the material for use in ACTEX filters to remove iodine. This work summarizes the testing and the certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in the ACTEX filters for the ISS.

  14. Evaluation of representativeness of near-surface winds in station measurements, global and regional reanalysis for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Frank; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Heene, Vera; Borsche, Michael; Keller, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Within the preparation activities for a European COPERNICUS Climate Change Service (C3S) several ongoing research projects analyse the potential of global and regional model-based climate reanalyses for applications. A user survey in the FP7-project CORE-CLIMAX revealed that surface wind (10 m) is among the most frequently used parameters of global reanalysis products. The FP7 project UERRA (Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analysis) has the focus on regional European reanalysis and the associated uncertainties, also from a user perspective. Especially in the field of renewable energy planning and production there is a need for climatological information across all spatial scales, i.e., from climatology at a certain site to the spatial scale of national or continental renewable energy production. Here, we focus on a comparison of wind measurements of the Germany's meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) with global reanalyses of ECWMF and a regional reanalysis for Europe based on DWD's NWP-model COSMO (performed by the Hans-Ertel-Center for Weather Research, University of Bonn). Reanalyses can provide valuable additional information on larger scale variability, e.g. multi-annual variation over Germany. However, changes in the observing system, model errors and biases have to be carefully considered. On the other hand, the ground-based observation networks partly suffer from change of the station distribution, changes in instrumentation, measurements procedures and quality control as well as local changes which might modify their spatial representativeness. All these effects might often been unknown or hard to characterize, although plenty of the meta-data information has been recorded for the German stations. One focus of the presentation will be the added-value of the regional reanalysis.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  17. Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frickland, P. O.; Repar, J.

    1982-01-01

    A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

  18. Experimental Manufacture and Performance Evaluation of Linear Switched Reluctance Motor with HTS Excitation Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Oto, Satoshi; Higashijima, Atsushi; Kawabata, Shuma

    This paper presents an experimental manufacture and performance evaluation of prototype linear switched reluctance motor with HTS excitation windings (HTS-LSRM). The Ag-alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes are used for HTS coils. We first present a structure of the prototype HTS-LSRM. Next, current-carrying properties of the HTS coils are measured. Furthermore, current and voltage waveforms are measured and we evaluation a control performance of the current and voltage.

  19. Unique considerations in the design and experimental evaluation of tailored wings with elastically produced chordwise camber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Zischka, Peter J.; Fentress, Michael L.; Chang, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Some of the unique considerations that are associated with the design and experimental evaluation of chordwise deformable wing structures are addressed. Since chordwise elastic camber deformations are desired and must be free to develop, traditional rib concepts and experimental methodology cannot be used. New rib design concepts are presented and discussed. An experimental methodology based upon the use of a flexible sling support and load application system has been created and utilized to evaluate a model box beam experimentally. Experimental data correlate extremely well with design analysis predictions based upon a beam model for the global properties of camber compliance and spanwise bending compliance. Local strain measurements exhibit trends in agreement with intuition and theory but depart slightly from theoretical perfection based upon beam-like behavior alone. It is conjectured that some additional refinement of experimental technique is needed to explain or eliminate these (minor) departures from asymmetric behavior of upper and lower box cover strains. Overall, a solid basis for the design of box structures based upon the bending method of elastic camber production has been confirmed by the experiments.

  20. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.