Science.gov

Sample records for experimental test site

  1. Nevada Test Site Experimental Farm: summary report 1963-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings from experiments conducted at the Experimental Dairy Farm located on the Nevada Test Site. These experiments included the air-forage-cow-milk transport of the radioiodines, and the metabolism and milk transfer of other fission products and several actinides. Major studies are listed in chronological order from 1964 to 1978 and include the purpose, procedures, isotopes used, and findings for each such study. Animal exposures occurred from fallout, from artificial aerosol generation, and from oral or intravenous administration. A complete bibliography and references to published reports of the experiments are included. The findings from the radioisotope studies at the Experimental Dairy Farm and the results obtained from the Animal Investigation Program provide a rationale for making predictions and for planning protective actions that could be useful in emergency response to accidental contaminating events where fresh fission products are involved. 61 references.

  2. Rescoring Docking Hit Lists for Model Cavity Sites: Predictions And Experimental Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, A.P.; Shivakumar, D.M.; Boyce, S.E.; Jacobson, M.P.; Case, D.A.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2009-05-19

    Molecular docking computationally screens thousands to millions of organic molecules against protein structures, looking for those with complementary fits. Many approximations are made, often resulting in low 'hit rates'. A strategy to overcome these approximations is to rescore top-ranked docked molecules using a better but slower method. One such is afforded by molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) techniques. These more physically realistic methods have improved models for solvation and electrostatic interactions and conformational change compared to most docking programs. To investigate MM-GBSA rescoring, we re-ranked docking hit lists in three small buried sites: a hydrophobic cavity that binds apolar ligands, a slightly polar cavity that binds aryl and hydrogen-bonding ligands, and an anionic cavity that binds cationic ligands. These sites are simple; consequently, incorrect predictions can be attributed to particular errors in the method, and many likely ligands may actually be tested. In retrospective calculations, MM-GBSA techniques with binding-site minimization better distinguished the known ligands for each cavity from the known decoys compared to the docking calculation alone. This encouraged us to test rescoring prospectively on molecules that ranked poorly by docking but that ranked well when rescored by MM-GBSA. A total of 33 molecules highly ranked by MM-GBSA for the three cavities were tested experimentally. Of these, 23 were observed to bind-these are docking false negatives rescued by rescoring. The 10 remaining molecules are true negatives by docking and false positives by MM-GBSA. X-ray crystal structures were determined for 21 of these 23 molecules. In many cases, the geometry prediction by MM-GBSA improved the initial docking pose and more closely resembled the crystallographic result; yet in several cases, the rescored geometry failed to capture large conformational changes in the protein. Intriguingly, rescoring not

  3. Foraging by forest ants under experimental climatic warming: a test at two sites

    PubMed Central

    Stuble, Katharine L; Pelini, Shannon L; Diamond, Sarah E; Fowler, David A; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    Climatic warming is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of warming on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where environmental temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by warming than are species inhabiting relatively cooler sites. We used a large-scale experimental temperature manipulation to warm intact forest ant assemblages in the field and examine the impacts of chronic warming on foraging at a southern (North Carolina) and northern (Massachusetts) site in eastern North America. We examined the influence of temperature on the abundance and recruitment of foragers as well as the number of different species observed foraging. Finally, we examined the relationship between the mean temperature at which a species was found foraging and the critical thermal maximum temperature of that species, relating functional traits to behavior. We found that forager abundance and richness were related to the experimental increase in temperature at the southern site, but not the northern site. Additionally, individual species responded differently to temperature: some species foraged more under warmer conditions, whereas others foraged less. Importantly, these species-specific responses were related to functional traits of species (at least at the Duke Forest site). Species with higher critical thermal maxima had greater forager densities at higher temperatures than did species with lower critical thermal maxima. Our results indicate that while climatic warming may alter patterns of foraging activity in predictable ways, these shifts vary among species and between sites. More southerly sites and species with lower critical thermal maxima are likely to be at greater risk to ongoing climatic warming. PMID:23531642

  4. Computer simulations of rare earth sites in glass: experimental tests and applications to laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Computer simulations of the microscopic structure of BeF/sub 2/ glasses using molecular dynamics are reviewed and compared with x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, NMR, and optical measurements. Unique information about the site-to-site variations in the local environments of rare earth ions is obtained using optical selective excitation and laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing techniques. Applications and limitations of computer simulations to the development of laser glasses and to predictions of other static and dynamic properties of glasses are discussed. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Theoretical and experimental determination of matrix diffusion and related solute transport properties of fractured tuffs from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, G.R.

    1982-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the chemical and physical factors which affect molecular diffusion of dissolved substances from fractures into a tuffaceous rock matrix have been made on rocks from G-Tunnel and Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A variety of groundwater tracers, which may be useful in field tests at the NTS, have also been developed and tested. Although a number of physical/chemical processes may cause nonconvective transport of dissolved species from fractures into the tuff matrix, molecular diffusion seems to be the most important process. Molecular diffusion in these rocks is controlled by the composition of the groundwater through multicomponent effects and several rock properties. The porosities of the samples studied ranged from about 0.1 to 0.4. The constrictivity-tortuosity parameter ranged from 0.1 and 0.3 and effective matrix-diffusion coefficients were measured to be between 2 to 17. x 10{sup -7} c,{sup 2}/s for sodium halides and sodium pentafluorobenzoate. Total porosity was found to be the principle factor accounting for the variation in effective diffusion coefficients. The constrictivity-tortuosity factor was found to have a fair correlation (r = 0.75) with the median pore diameters measured by mercury intrusion. Measurements of bulk-rock electrical impedance changes with frequency indicate that the constrictivity factor has a maximum value of 0.8 to 1, but may be smaller. If the larger values are correct, then the diffusion paths in tuff are more tortuous than in granular media. Computation of the full diffusion-coefficient matrix for various tracers in J-13 well water from the NTS indicates coupling of the diffusion fluxes of all ionic species. These effects are being incorporated into a numerical model of multicomponent-matrix diffusion.

  6. CELT site testing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeck, Matthias; Erasmus, D. Andre; Djorgovski, S. George; Chanan, Gary A.; Nelson, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope, CELT, is a proposed 30-m telescope. Choosing the best possible site for CELT is essential in order to extract the best science from the observations and to reduce the complexity of the telescope. Site selection is therefore currently one of the most critical pacing items of the CELT project. In this paper, we first present selected results from a survey of the atmospheric transparency at optical and infrared wavelengths over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico using satellite data. Results of a similar study of South America have been reported elsewhere. These studies will serve as the pre-selection criterion of the sites at which we will perform on-site testing. We then describe the current status of on-site turbulence evaluation efforts and the future plans of the CELT site testing program.

  7. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2010-03-31

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  8. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  10. Multi-frequency and polarimetric radar backscatter signatures for discrimination between agricultural crops at the Flevoland experimental test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Villasenor, J.; Klein, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the calibration and analysis of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar backscatter signatures over an agriculture test site in the Netherlands. The calibration procedure involved two stages: in the first stage, polarimetric and radiometric calibrations (ignoring noise) were carried out using square-base trihedral corner reflector signatures and some properties of the clutter background. In the second stage, a novel algorithm was used to estimate the noise level in the polarimetric data channels by using the measured signature of an idealized rough surface with Bragg scattering (the ocean in this case). This estimated noise level was then used to correct the measured backscatter signatures from the agriculture fields. We examine the significance of several key parameters extracted from the calibrated and noise-corrected backscatter signatures. The significance is assessed in terms of the ability to uniquely separate among classes from 13 different backscatter types selected from the test site data, including eleven different crops, one forest and one ocean area. Using the parameters with the highest separation for a given class, we use a hierarchical algorithm to classify the entire image. We find that many classes, including ocean, forest, potato, and beet, can be identified with high reliability, while the classes for which no single parameter exhibits sufficient separation have higher rates of misclassification. We expect that modified decision criteria involving simultaneous consideration of several parameters increase performance for these classes.

  11. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  12. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  13. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  14. Nevada Test Site Sensor Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, B.J.; Boyer, W.B.

    1996-12-01

    A Sensor Test Facility (STF) was recently established at the Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS). It has been used for a series of sensor tests that have demonstrated the usefulness of the testbed. The facility consists of a cut-and-cover bunker complex and the two square mile surrounding area. The STF was developed as a scientific testbed optimized for the development and evaluation of advanced sensor systems, including ground sensor systems designed to identify and detect hardened underground facilities. This was accomplished by identifying a facility in a remote location where seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic interference would be minimal, establishing a testbed that would be accommodating to field testing, and conducting a thorough geophysical characterization of the area surrounding the facility in order to understand the local geology and its effects on geophysical signals emanating from the facility. The STF is representative of a number of cut-and-cover bunkers around the world that are used for the manufacture and/or storage of weapons of mass destruction. This paper provides a general description of the Nevada Test Site, the Sensor Test Facility, and the Geophysical Site Characterization.

  15. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  16. Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfan, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics are discussed in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ continuum, in pp and anti p p collisions, in measurements of ..cap alpha../sub s/ from UPSILON decays, in deep inelastic lepton scattering, and in the measurement of the photon structure function. A large body of data relating to the testing of quantum chromodynamics is reviewed, showing qualitative agreement between the data from a wide range of processes and QCD. 66 refs., 79 figs. (LEW)

  17. Desert Test Site Uniformity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerola, Dana X.; Bruegge, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Desert test sites such as Railroad Valley (RRV) Nevada, Egypt-1, and Libya-4 are commonly targeted to assess the on-orbit radiometric performance of sensors. Railroad Valley is used for vicarious calibration experiments, where a field-team makes ground measurements to produce accurate estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The Sahara desert test sites are not instrumented, but provide a stable target that can be used for sensor cross-comparisons, or for stability monitoring of a single sensor. These sites are of interest to NASA's Atmospheric Carbon Observation from Space (ACOS) and JAXA's Greenhouse Gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) programs. This study assesses the utility of these three test sites to the ACOS and GOSAT calibration teams. To simulate errors in sensor-measured radiance with pointing errors, simulated data have been created using MODIS Aqua data. MODIS data are further utilized to validate the campaign data acquired from June 22 through July 5, 2009. The first GOSAT vicarious calibration experiment was conducted during this timeframe.

  18. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Tom

    2006-12-13

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  19. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    ScienceCinema

    Roberts, Tom [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  20. SLS Test Stand Site Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Kathryn; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Test site selection is a critical element of the design, development and production of a new system. With the advent of the new Space Launch System (SLS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had a number of test site selection decisions that needed to be made early enough in the Program to support the planned Launch Readiness Date (LRD). This case study focuses on decisions that needed to be made in 2011 and 2012 in preparation for the April 2013 DPMC decision about where to execute the Main Propulsion Test that is commonly referred to as "Green Run." Those decisions relied upon cooperative analysis between the Program, the Test Lab and Center Operations. The SLS is a human spaceflight vehicle designed to carry a crew farther into space than humans have previously flown. The vehicle consists of four parts: the crew capsule, the upper stage, the core stage, and the first stage solid rocket boosters. The crew capsule carries the astronauts, while the upper stage, the core stage, and solid rocket boosters provide thrust for the vehicle. In other words, the stages provide the "lift" part of the lift vehicle. In conjunction with the solid rocket boosters, the core stage provides the initial "get-off-the-ground" thrust to the vehicle. The ignition of the four core stage engines and two solid rocket boosters is the first step in the launch portion of the mission. The solid rocket boosters burn out after about 2 minutes of flight, and are then jettisoned. The core stage provides thrust until the vehicle reaches a specific altitude and speed, at which point the core stage is shut off and jettisoned, and the upper stage provides vehicle thrust for subsequent mission trajectories. The integrated core stage primarily consists of a liquid oxygen tank, a liquid hydrogen tank, and the four core stage engines. For the SLS program, four RS-25 engines were selected as the four core stage engines. The RS-25 engine is the same engine that was used for Space

  1. Thinnest optical waveguide: experimental test.

    PubMed

    Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y; Domachuk, P; Eggleton, B J

    2007-04-01

    A thin dielectric waveguide with a subwavelength diameter can exhibit very small transmission loss only if its diameter is greater than a threshold value, while for smaller diameters, waveguide loss grows dramatically. The threshold diameter of transition between these waveguiding and nonwaveguiding regimes is primarily determined by the wavelength of propagating light and, to a much lesser degree, by the characteristic length of the waveguide's long-range nonuniformity. For this reason, the transmission spectrum of a thin waveguide allows immediate and quite accurate determination of its thickness. An experimental test of these facts is performed for a tapered microfiber. Good agreement with the recently developed theory of adiabatic microfiber tapers is demonstrated.

  2. Experimental test accelerator (ETA) II

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Birx, D.L.

    1981-03-06

    The Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) is designed to produce a 10 kAmp electron beam at an energy of 4.5 MeV in 40 nsec pulses at an average rate of 2 pps. The accelerator also operates in bursts of 5 pulses spaced by as little as one millisec at an average rate of 5 pps. The machine is currently operating near 80% of its design values and has accumulated over 2.5 million pulses - mostly at a rate of one pps. The plasma cathode electron source, the remainder of the accelerator, and the operating characteristics of the machine are discussed.

  3. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND AND COMPONENTS TEST LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  5. 30 CFR 36.40 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test site. 36.40 Section 36.40 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.40 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at MSHA's Diesel Testing Laboratory or...

  6. 30 CFR 36.40 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test site. 36.40 Section 36.40 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.40 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at MSHA's Diesel Testing Laboratory or...

  7. 30 CFR 36.40 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test site. 36.40 Section 36.40 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.40 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at MSHA's Diesel Testing Laboratory or...

  8. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  9. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA....

  10. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA....

  11. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA....

  12. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES SATURN V STAND (BACKGROUND), BLOCK HOUSE (MIDDLE GROUND), STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND (FAR RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  14. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES POWER PLANT TEST STAND AND SATURN V TEST STAND IN THE WEST TEST AREA (FAR BACKGROUND). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. Colloid research for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.

    1992-05-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of particulates in the migration of radionuclides away from the sites of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The process of testing itself may produce a reservoir of particles to serve as vectors for the transport of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater. Exploratory experiments indicate the presence of numerous particulates in the vicinity of the Cambric test but a much lower loading in a nearby well that has been pumped continuously for 15 years. Recent groundwater colloid research is briefly reviewed to identify sampling and characterization methods that may be applicable at the Nevada Test Site.

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  17. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  18. MECA TECP Testing and Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollerud, Erik J.

    2005-01-01

    MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, Conductivity Analyzer) is an instrument on the Phoenix 2007 mission to Mars designed to investigate the properties of high-latitude Martian soils. One of the MECA components, TECP (the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe) is in an advanced stage of hardware development but requires testing and characterization. Two separate experiments are examined to attempt to answer open questions regarding the operation of the TECP. The humidity sensor tests showed a number of important details about the operation and design of the humidity sensor integrated on the TECP. The second experiment focused on the details of how the TECP contacts the soil it is inserted into and provided important answers to questions regarding the viability of this method of characterizing soils.

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  20. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  1. Experimental Tests Of Paleoclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J D; Anderson, J K; Arlen, T C; Bateman, G; Budny, R V; Fujita, T; Greenfield, C M; Greenwald, M; Groebner, R J; Hill, D N; Hogeweij, G D; Kaye, S M; Kritz, A H; Lazarus, E A; Leonard, A C; Mahdavi, M A; McLean, H S; Osborne, T H; Pankin, A Y; Petty, C C; Sarff, J S; St. John, H E; Stacey, W M; Stutman, D; Synakowski, E J; Tritz, K

    2006-09-12

    Predictions of the recently developed paleoclassical transport model are compared with data from many toroidal plasma experiments: electron heat diffusivity in DIII-D, C-Mod and NSTX ohmic and near-ohmic plasmas; transport modeling of DIII-D ohmic-level discharges and of the RTP ECH 'stair-step' experiments with eITBs at low order rational surfaces; investigation of a strong eITB in JT-60U; H-mode Te edge pedestal properties in DIII-D; and electron heat diffusivities in non-tokamak experiments (NSTX/ST, MST/RFP, SSPX/spheromak). The radial electron heat transport predicted by the paleoclassical model is found to agree with a wide variety of ohmic-level experimental results and to set the lower limit (within a factor {approx} 2) for the radial electron heat transport in most resistive, current-carrying toroidal plasmas -- unless it is exceeded by fluctuation-induced transport, which often occurs in the edge of L-mode plasmas and when the electron temperature is high ({approx}>T{sub e}{sup crit} {approx}B{sup 2/3}{bar {alpha}}{sup 1/2} keV) because then paleoclassical transport becomes less than gyro-Bohm-level anomalous transport.

  2. Experimental test of nonlocal causality

    PubMed Central

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell’s local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  3. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  4. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect.

  5. Double tracks test site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  6. 14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1120. Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1-120. Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 7 of 148; file no. 1320/58, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338 Rev. C, Date: 16 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test...

  8. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test...

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  11. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  14. Description of Liquid Nitrogen Experimental Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Jacobs, Richard E.; Saiyed, Naseem H.

    1991-01-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Test Facility is a unique test facility for ground-based liquid nitrogen experimentation. The test rig consists of an insulated tank of approximately 12.5 cubic ft in volume, which is supplied with liquid nitrogen from a 300 gal dewar via a vacuum jacketed piping system. The test tank is fitted with pressure and temperature measuring instrumentation, and with two view ports which allow visual observation of test conditions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility, the initial test program is briefly described. The objective of the test program is to measure the condensation rate by injecting liquid nitrogen as a subcooled spray into the ullage of a tank 50 percent full of liquid nitrogen at saturated conditions. The condensation rate of the nitrogen vapor on the subcooled spray can be analytically modeled, and results validated and corrected by experimentally measuring the vapor condensation on liquid sprays.

  15. Description of liquid nitrogen experimental test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, J. M.; Jacobs, R. E.; Saiyed, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Test Facility is a unique test facility for ground-based liquid nitrogen experimentation. The test rig consists of an insulated tank of approximately 12.5 cubic ft in volume, which is supplied with liquid nitrogen from a 300 gal dewar via a vacuum jacketed piping system. The test tank is fitted with pressure and temperature measuring instrumentation, and with two view ports which allow visual observation of test conditions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility, the initial test program is briefly described. The objective of the test program is to measure the condensation rate by injecting liquid nitrogen as a subcooled spray into the ullage of a tank 50 percent full of liquid nitrogen at saturated conditions. The condensation rate of the nitrogen vapor on the subcooled spray can be analytically modeled, and results validated and corrected by experimentally measuring the vapor condensation on liquid sprays.

  16. Experimental characterization of composites. [load test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental characterization for composite materials is generally more complicated than for ordinary homogeneous, isotropic materials because composites behave in a much more complex fashion, due to macroscopic anisotropic effects and lamination effects. Problems concerning the static uniaxial tension test for composite materials are considered along with approaches for conducting static uniaxial compression tests and static uniaxial bending tests. Studies of static shear properties are discussed, taking into account in-plane shear, twisting shear, and thickness shear. Attention is given to static multiaxial loading, systematized experimental programs for the complete characterization of static properties, and dynamic properties.

  17. Nevada Test Site seismic: telemetry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J N; Parker, L E; Horton, E H

    1983-08-01

    The feasibility and limitations of surface-to-tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements using current technology. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmitted signal power at 16, 24, and 32 Hz was measured at two locations in G-Tunnel separated by 670 m (2200 ft). Transmissions from 58 surface sites distributed primarily along three azimuths from G-Tunnel were studied. The G-Tunnel noise environment was monitored over the 20-day duration of the field tests. Noise-power probability functions were calculated for 20-s and 280-s seismic-record populations. Signaling rates were calculated for signals transmitted from superior transmitter sites to G-Tunnel. A detection threshold of 13 dB re 1 nm/sup 2/ displacement power at 95% reliability was demanded. Consideration of field results suggests that even for the frequency range used in this study, substantially higher signaling rates are likely to be obtained in future work in view of the present lack of information relevant to hardware-siting criteria and the seismic propagation paths at the Nevada Test Site. 12 references.

  18. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  20. The Nevada Test Site as a Lunar Analog Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon Freid

    2007-02-13

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a large (1,350 square miles) secure site currently operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy and was established in 1951 to provide a venue for testing nuclear weapons. Three areas with a variety of elevation and geological parameters were used for testing, but the largest number of tests was in Yucca Flat. The Yucca Flat area is approximately 5 miles wide and 20 miles long and approximately 460 subsidence craters resulted from testing in this area. The Sedan crater displaced approximately 12 million tons of earth and is the largest of these craters at 1,280 feet across and 320 feet deep. The profiles of Sedan and the other craters offer a wide variety of shapes and depths that are ideally suited for lunar analog testing.

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Summary Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  2. Nevada Test Site Summary 2006 (Volume 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security-related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  3. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2007 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  4. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

  5. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  6. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wruble, D T; McDowell, E M

    1990-11-01

    Prior to 1989 annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the offsite radiological surveillance program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with this 1989 annual Site environmental report for the NTS, these two documents are being combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection program conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear activities at the Site. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental releases and meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimate calculations. 57 refs., 52 figs., 65 tabs.

  7. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  8. Astronomical Site Testing Initiatives in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David A. H.; Graham, Edward; Vaughan, Richard; Belay, Solomon; Biressa, Tolu

    2015-08-01

    Two astronomical site testing initiatives are beginning in both Kenya and Ethiopia, with the aim of selecting suitable locations in those countries for modest sized (1-2m) optical telescopes.The first project, in Kenya, has initially involved a desk-top study of ~30 years of low resolution (~80 km) meteorological satellite data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (so called “ERA-reanalysis” data). This was later supplemented by ~2 years of higher resolution (~12 km) United Kingdom Met Office Limited Area Model for Africa (“Africa-LAM”) data, kindly made available by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC).The analysis looked at cloud cover, aerosol distribution, integrated water vapour and wind conditions, On the basis of this study, we determined a number of regions in the north of Kenya, east of the Rift Valley, which show promise as potential observatory sites. We are now in the process of installing Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) at 3 selected sites (~2000-2700 m altitude) to begin monitoring meteorological conditions over the next few years. It is eventually hoped to supplement this study with instrumentation to allow the measurement of sky brightness, local cloud cover and seeing (e.g. with a DIMM system).A similar program of astronomical site testing is due to start in 2015 in the Lalibela region of northern Ethiopia, at three potential dark sky sites with expected relatively low cloud cover, ranging in altitude from ~3600 to 4100 m.

  9. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  12. Hydrogeologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W L; Trudeau, D A; Drellack, S L

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices and, since 1963, all nuclear detonations there have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts with a small percentage conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks or alluvium. In the testing areas the water table is 450--700 m below the surface. Pre- and post- event geologic investigations are conducted for each test location and long-term studies assess the impact of underground testing on a more regional scale. Studies in progress have not identified any impact on the regional ground water system from testing, but some local effects have been recognized. In some areas where several large tests have been conducted below the water table, water levels hundreds of meters above the regional water table have been measured and radioactivity has been discovered associated with fractures in a few holes. Flow-through and straddle packer testing has revealed unexpectedly high hydraulic pressures at depth. Recently, a multiple completion monitoring well installed to study three zones has confirmed the existence of a significant upward hydraulic gradient. These observations of local pressurization and fracture flow are being further explored to determine the influence of underground nuclear testing on the regional hydrogeologic system.

  13. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  14. On site testing of the compound spiral

    SciTech Connect

    MacNamara, L.; Toney, T.A.; Moorhead, R.G.; Davies, P.; Miles, N.J.; Bethell, P.; Everitt, B.

    1996-12-31

    Research undertaken over the last few years has shown that a short turn spiral can effectively replace a conventional full length spiral. A recent development of this work has been the design of a Compound spiral, incorporating two short turn units on one central column. Conventional spirals have become almost universally applied to clean 14M x 100M size fine coal in the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. coal fields and widely used in UK coal preparation plants to process fine coal. Compound spiral were installed at Cyprus Amax`s Lady Dunn Plant in West Virginia for on site testing and, at the time of going to press, at a UK coal preparation plant operated by RJB Mining (UK) for comparison testing with a conventional duplex spiral. This paper describes the testing approach used by Cyprus Amax and Krebs Engineers to test a compound spiral at Cyprus Amax`s Lady Dunn Plant.

  15. Site acceptance test, W-030 MICON system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-10

    Monitoring and control of the W-030 ventilation upgrade is provided by a distributed control system (DCS) furnished by MICON Corporation. After shipment to the Hanford Site, the site acceptance test (SAT) for this system was conducted in a laboratory environment over a six month period, involving four distinct phases and numerous hardware and software modifications required to correct test exceptions. The final results is a system which is not fully compliant with procurement specifications but is determined to meet minimum Project W-030 safety and functional requirements. A negotiated settlement was reached with the supplier to establish a `path forward` for system implementation. This report documents the `as-run` status of the SAT. The SAT was completed in August of 1995. It was later followed by comprehensive acceptance testing of the W-030 control-logic configuration software; results are documented in WHC-SD-W030-ATR-011. Further testing is reported as part of process system startup operational testing, performed after the MICON installation.

  16. Spent fuel test project, Climax granitic stock, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-10-24

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of dry geologic storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The SFT-C is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent commercial PWR fuel assemblies are to be stored for 3 to 5 years. Additional heat is supplied by electrical heaters, and more than 800 channels of technical information are being recorded. The measurements include rock temperature, rock displacement and stress, joint motion, and monitoring of the ventilation air volume, temperature, and dewpoint.

  17. Modern Experimental Techniques in Turbine Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Bencic, T. J.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes application of two modern experimental techniques, thin-film thermocouples and pressure sensitive paint, to measurement in turbine engine components. A growing trend of using computational codes in turbomachinery design and development requires experimental techniques to refocus from overall performance testing to acquisition of detailed data on flow and heat transfer physics to validate these codes for design applications. The discussed experimental techniques satisfy this shift in focus. Both techniques are nonintrusive in practical terms. The thin-film thermocouple technique improves accuracy of surface temperature and heat transfer measurements. The pressure sensitive paint technique supplies areal surface pressure data rather than discrete point values only. The paper summarizes our experience with these techniques and suggests improvements to ease the application of these techniques for future turbomachinery research and code verifications.

  18. How Can We Test Seesaw Experimentally?

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-06-07

    The seesaw mechanism for the small neutrino mass has been a popular paradigm, yet it has been believed that there is no way to test it experimentally. We present a conceivable outcome from future experiments that would convince us of the seesaw mechanism. It would involve a variety of data from LHC, ILC, cosmology, underground, and low-energy flavor violation experiments to establish the case.

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NTS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NTS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  20. Experimental verification of HVDC test sources requirements for pollution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chagas, F.A.; Kuffel, E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted to verify the effect of the voltage source on the critical flashover voltage of dc insulators under pollution. Tests were performed under 3 pollution levels using voltage sources with different voltage drop x leakage current characteristics. A data acquisition system was used to record all current pulses above a certain pre selected current pulse duration, which made possible a complete analysis of current pulses and voltage drops characteristics. The experimental results show that the present restrictions imposed on the dc voltage sources can probably be relaxed. Also from the experimental data collected it was found that the insulator tested presents a constant impedance x current characteristic. This characteristic can be useful in checking theoretical models for polluted insulator flashover.

  1. Population dose near the Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Hille, R; Hill, P; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D; Kluson, J; Seisebaev, A; Smagulov, S

    1998-10-01

    To determine the consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, a pilot study was performed by an international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two villages, Mostik and Maisk. Together with Kazakh scientists, eight experts from Europe carried out a field mission in September 1995 to assess, within the framework of a NATO supported project, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man were concerned. A summary of the results obtained is presented. The actual radiological situation near the test site is characterized by fallout contaminations. Cs was found in upper soil layers in concentrations similar to those of the global fallout. Also Sr, Am and Co were observed. The resulting present dose to the population is low. Mean external doses from soil contamination for Maisk and Mostik (0.60-0.63 mSv/year) presently correspond to mean external doses in normal environments. Mean values of the annual internal doses observed in these two villages are below 2 microSv/year for 90Sr. For other radionuclides the internal doses are also negligible.

  2. Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, U

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.

  3. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined.

  4. A green infrastructure experimental site for developing and evaluating models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in Athens, GA has a 14-acre urban watershed which has become an experimental research site for green infrastructure studies. About half of the watershed is covered by pervious la...

  5. Mistletoe as a keystone resource: an experimental test

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David M.; Herring, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Various entities have been designated keystone resources, but few tests have been attempted and we are unaware of any experimental manipulations of purported keystone resources. Mistletoes (Loranthaceae) provide structural and nutritional resources within canopies, and their pervasive influence on diversity led to their designation as keystone resources. We quantified the effect of mistletoe on diversity with a woodland-scale experiment, comparing bird diversities before and after all mistletoe plants were removed from 17 treatment sites, with those of 11 control sites and 12 sites in which mistletoe was naturally absent. Three years after mistletoe removal, treatment woodlands lost, on average, 20.9 per cent of their total species richness, 26.5 per cent of woodland-dependent bird species and 34.8 per cent of their woodland-dependent residents, compared with moderate increases in control sites and no significant changes in mistletoe-free sites. Treatment sites lost greater proportions of birds recorded nesting in mistletoe, but changes in species recorded feeding on mistletoe did not differ from control sites. Having confirmed the status of mistletoe as a keystone resource, we suggest that nutrient enrichment via litter-fall is the main mechanism promoting species richness, driving small-scale heterogeneity in productivity and food availability for woodland animals. This explanation applies to other parasitic plants with high turnover of enriched leaves, and the community-scale influence of these plants is most apparent in low productivity systems. PMID:22787026

  6. Experimental Test of Resonant Particle Transport Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    1999-11-01

    It has long been suggested that the single-particle resonant transport theory developed for tandem mirrors might be able to explain asymmetry-induced transport in Malmberg-Penning traps.(C.F. Driscoll and J.H. Malmberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50), 167 (1983). We have recently adapted this theory to non-neutral plasmas(D.L. Eggleston and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 6), 2699 (1999). and are attempting an experimental test under the simplest possible conditions. The experiment(D.L. Eggleston, Phys. Plasmas 4), 1196 (1997). employs forty wall sectors in order to apply an asymmetry consisting of a single Fourier mode: φ1 =φ _nlωexp [ i( fracnπ Lz+lθ -ω t) ] . The electron density is kept low enough to avoid complications due to collective effects (shielding and waves) while the usual azimuthal E× B drift is maintained by a negatively biased central wire. We have confirmed the dominant role played by resonant particlesfootnote D.L. Eggleston, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 43, 1805 (1998). and here report on an absolute comparison between experimental and theoretical values for the radial particle flux. Interestingly, our initial results indicate that the experimental flux is forty times smaller than the theoretical value.

  7. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  8. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  9. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Management Plan (RMP) describes the NTS Stewardship Mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. The NTS Stewardship Mission is to manage the land and facilities at the NTS as a unique and valuable national resource. The RMP has defined goals for twelve resource areas based on the principles of ecosystem management. These goals were established using an interdisciplinary team of DOE/NV resource specialists with input from surrounding land managers, private parties, and representatives of Native American governments. The overall goal of the RMP is to facilitate improved NTS land use management decisions within the Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions.

  10. Sensor test facilities and capabilities at the Nevada test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, William B.; Burke, Larry J.; Gomez, Bernard J.; Livingston, Leonard; Nelson, Daniel S.; Smathers, Douglas C.

    1997-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently developed two major field test capabilities for unattended ground sensor systems at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first capability utilizes the NTS large area, varied terrain, and intrasite communications systems for testing sensors for detecting and tracking vehicular traffic. Sensor and ground truth data can be collected at either of two secure control centers. This system also includes an automated ground truth capability that consists of differential Global Positioning Satellite receivers on test vehicles and live TV coverage of critical road sections. Finally there is a high-speed, secure computer network link between the control centers and the Air Force's Theater Air Command and Control Simulation Facility in Albuquerque NM. The second capability is Bunker 2-300. It is a facility for evaluating advanced sensor systems for monitoring activities in underground cut-and-cover facilities. The main part of the facility consists of an underground bunker with three large rooms for operating various types of equipment. This equipment includes simulated chemical production machinery and controlled seismic and acoustic signal sources. There has been a thorough geologic and electromagnetic characterization of the region around the bunker. Since the facility is in a remote location, it is well-isolated from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic interference.

  11. Multidisciplinary study on Wyoming test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Borgman, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ten EREP data passes over the Wyoming test site provided excellent S190A and S190B coverage and some useful S192 imagery. These data were employed in an evaluation of the EREP imaging sensors in several earth resources applications. Boysen Reservoir and Hyattsville were test areas for band to band comparison of the S190 and S192 sensors and for evaluation of the image data for geologic mapping. Contrast measurements were made from the S192 image data for typical sequence of sedimentary rocks. Histograms compiled from these measurements show that near infrared S192 bands provide the greatest amount of contrast between geologic units. Comparison was also made between LANDSAT imagery and S190B and aerial photography for regional land use mapping. The S190B photography was found far superior to the color composite LANDSAT imagery and was almost as effective as the 1:120,000 scale aerial photography. A map of linear elements prepared from LANDSAT and EREP imagery of the southwestern Bighorn Mountains provided an important aid in defining the relationship between fracture and ground water movement through the Madison aquifer.

  12. Plutonium Particle Migration in the Shallow Vadose Zone: The Nevada Test Site as an Analog Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. R.; Smith, D. K.

    2004-12-01

    The upper meter of the vadose zone in desert environments is the horizon where wastes have been released and human exposure is determined through dermal, inhalation, and food uptake pathways. This region is also characterized by numerous coupled processes that determine contaminant transport, including precipitation infiltration, evapotranspiration, daily and annual temperature cycling, dust resuspension, animal burrowing, and geochemical weathering reactions. While there is considerable interest in colloidal transport of minerals, pathogenic organisms, and contaminants in the vadose zone, there are limited field sites where the actual occurrence of contaminant migration can be quantified over the appropriate spatial and temporal scales of interest. At the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site, there have been numerous releases of radionuclides since the 1950's that have become field-scale tracer tests. One series of tests was the four safety shots conducted in an alluvial valley of Area 11 in the 1950's. These experiments tested the ability of nuclear materials to survive chemical explosions without initiating fission reactions. Four above-ground tests were conducted and they released plutonium and uranium on the desert valley floor with only one of the tests undergoing some fission. Shortly after the tests, the sites were surveyed for radionuclide distribution on the land surface using aerial surveys and with depth. Additional studies were conducted in the 1970's to better understand the fate of plutonium in the desert that included studies of depth distribution and dust resuspension. More recently, plutonium particle distribution in the soil profile was detected using autoradiography. The results to date demonstrate the vertical migration of plutonium particles to depths in excess of 30 cm in this arid vadose zone. While plutonium migration at the Nevada Test Site has been and continues to be a concern, these field experiments have become analog sites for the

  13. GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies

  14. Savannah River Site TEP-SET tests uncertainty report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.J.N.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a measurement uncertainty analysis for the instruments used for the Phase I, II and III of the Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank/Muff/Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) Experiment Series. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory conducted the tests for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The tests represented a range of hydraulic conditions and geometries that bound anticipated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents in the SRS reactors. Important hydraulic phenomena were identified from experiments. In addition, code calculations will be benchmarked from these experiments. The experimental system includes the following measurement groups: coolant density; absolute and differential pressures; turbine flowmeters (liquid phase); thermal flowmeters (gas phase); ultrasonic liquid level meters; temperatures; pump torque; pump speed; moderator tank liquid inventory via a load cells measurement; and relative humidity meters. This document also analyzes data acquisition system including the presampling filters as it relates to these measurements.

  15. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  16. Photographic copy of site plan for proposed Test Stand "D" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of site plan for proposed Test Stand "D" in 1958. The contemporary site plans of test stands "A," "B," and "C" are also visible, along with the interconnecting tunnel system. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering "Site Plan for Proposed Test Stand "D" - Edwards Test Station," drawing no. ESP/22-0, 14 November 1958 - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  18. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGES

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more » as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  19. Structural geology report: Spent Fuel Test - Climax Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    We performed underground mapping and core logging in the Climax Stock, a granitic intrusive at the Nevada Test Site, as part of a major field test to determine the feasibility of using granitic or crystalline rock for the underground storage of spent fuel from a nuclear reactor. This mapping and logging identified more than 2500 fractures, over 1500 of which were described in enough detail to allow statistical analyses and orientation studies to be performed. We identified eight joint sets, three major shear sets, and a fault zone within the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) portion of the Stock. Joint sets identified within the SFT-C and elsewhere in the Stock correlated well. The orientations of joint sets identified by other investigators were consistent with our findings, indicating that the joint sets are persistent and have a relatively uniform orientation throughout a major portion of the Stock. The one joint set not seen elsewhere in the Stock is healed and the wall rock is altered, implying that healed joints were not included in the mapping criteria used by other investigators. The shear sets were distinguished from the joint sets by virtue of crushed minerals, continuous clay infilling, and other evidences of shearing, and from faults by the lack of offsetting. Previous investigators working mainly in the Pile Driver Drifts identified two of the shear sets. The third set, being nearly parallel to these Drifts had not been identified previously. The fault zone identified at the far (Receiving Room) end of the project is oriented approximately N45{sup 0}E-75{sup 0}SE, similar to both the Boundary and Shaft Station Faults. We have, therefore, concluded that the Receiving Room Fault is one of a series of normal faults that occur within the Climax Stock and that are possibly related, in both age and genesis, to the Boundary Fault. 52 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. An experimental test of Darwin's naturalization hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Tan, Jiaqi; Pu, Zhichao

    2010-04-01

    One of the oldest ideas in invasion biology, known as Darwin's naturalization hypothesis, suggests that introduced species are more successful in communities in which their close relatives are absent. We conducted the first experimental test of this hypothesis in laboratory bacterial communities varying in phylogenetic relatedness between resident and invading species with and without a protist bacterivore. As predicted, invasion success increased with phylogenetic distance between the invading and the resident bacterial species in both the presence and the absence of protistan bacterivory. The frequency of successful invader establishment was best explained by average phylogenetic distance between the invader and all resident species, possibly indicating limitation by the availability of the unexploited niche (i.e., organic substances in the medium capable of supporting the invader growth); invader abundance was best explained by phylogenetic distance between the invader and its nearest resident relative, possibly indicating limitation by the availability of the unexploited optimal niche (i.e., the subset of organic substances supporting the best invader growth). These results were largely driven by one resident bacterium (a subspecies of Serratia marcescens) posting the strongest resistance to the alien bacterium (another subspecies of S. marcescens). Overall, our findings support phylogenetic relatedness as a useful predictor of species invasion success.

  1. Evaluation of potential geopressure geothermal test sites in southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiouni, Z.

    1980-04-01

    Six geopressured-geothermal prospects in southern Louisiana were studied in detail to assess their potential use as test sites for the production of geopressure-geothermal energy. Each of the six sites contains substantial quantities of energy. Three of these prospects, Grand Lake, Lake Theriot, and Bayou Hebert, appear to be suitable for a test site. A summary of the findings is presented.

  2. Furniture wood wastes: experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected "raw" and primarily "engineered" ("composite") wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in "engineered" wood wastes as compared with "raw" wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of "engineered" wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg(-1) for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg(-1) for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in "engineered" wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with "raw" wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in "engineered" wood burning tests as compared with "raw" wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM(1) fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  3. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  4. Experimental Test Plan DOE Tidal and River Reference Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S; Hill, Craig; Chamorro, Leonardo; Gunawan, Budi

    2012-09-01

    Our aim is to provide details of the experimental test plan for scaled model studies in St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) Main Channel at the University of Minnesota, including a review of study objectives, descriptions of the turbine models, the experimental set-up, instrumentation details, instrument measurement uncertainty, anticipated experimental test cases, post-processing methods, and data archiving for model developers.

  5. 13. Photographic copy of site plan displaying Test Stand 'C' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of site plan displaying Test Stand 'C' (4217/E-18), Test Stand 'D' (4223/E-24), and Control and Recording Center (4221/E-22) with ancillary structures, and connecting roads and services. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Facilities Engineering and Construction Office 'Repairs to Test Stand 'C,' Edwards Test Station, Legend & Site Plan M-1,' drawing no. ESP/115, August 14, 1987. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Testing Pearl Model In Three European Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    The Plant Protection Product Directive (91/414/EEC) stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. The use of models has become an unavoidable step before pesticide registration. In this context, European Commission, and in particular DGVI, set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pes- ticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project, with one of its objective being the validation and im- provement of existing pesticide fate models. The main topic of research presented here is the validation of the PEARL model for different sites in Europe. The PEARL model, actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure, was validated in three well- instrumented sites: Vredepeel (the Netherlands), Brimstone (UK), and Lanna (Swe- den). A step-wise procedure was used for the validation of the PEARL model. First the water transport module was calibrated, and then the solute transport module, using tracer measurements keeping unchanged the water transport parameters. The Vrede- peel site is characterised by a sandy soil. Fourteen months of measurements were used for the calibration. Two pesticides were applied on the site: bentazone and etho- prophos. PEARL predictions were very satisfactory for both soil moisture content, and pesticide concentration in the soil profile. The Brimstone site is characterised by a cracking clay soil. The calibration was conducted on a time series measurement of 7 years. The validation consisted in comparing predictions and measurement of soil moisture at different soil depths, and in comparing the predicted and measured con- centration of isoproturon in the drainage water. The results, even if in good agreement with the measuremens, highlighted the limitation of the model when the preferential flow becomes a dominant process. PEARL did not reproduce well soil moisture pro- file during summer months, and also under-predicted the arrival of

  7. Site Testing in the Northwest of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; García Lambas, D.; Muriel, H.; Stasyszyn, F.; Renzi, V.; Vrech, R.; Viramonte, J.; Sarazin, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present results of the characterization of the Tolar Grande-Macon Range site in the North-West of Argentina. This project is being developed by the IATE in collaboration with ESO in the framework of the E-ELT project. We present and discuss one year of image quality measurements with MASS and DIMM, three years of meteorological data and detailed studies of seismic activity and geo-technical aspects as well as diverse logistic issues.

  8. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  9. 78 FR 51678 - Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... 39 CFR Parts 3001 and 3035 Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory... Service filings concerning market tests of experimental products. The proposed rules address the contents of market test filings, describe how the filings will be reviewed, and discuss related matters....

  10. Experimental test of universal complementarity relations.

    PubMed

    Weston, Morgan M; Hall, Michael J W; Palsson, Matthew S; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J

    2013-05-31

    Complementarity restricts the accuracy with which incompatible quantum observables can be jointly measured. Despite popular conception, the Heisenberg uncertainty relation does not quantify this principle. We report the experimental verification of universally valid complementarity relations, including an improved relation derived here. We exploit Einstein-Poldolsky-Rosen correlations between two photonic qubits to jointly measure incompatible observables of one. The product of our measurement inaccuracies is low enough to violate the widely used, but not universally valid, Arthurs-Kelly relation.

  11. Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System siren testing report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, L.B.

    1997-08-13

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effective coverage of the proposed upgrades to the existing Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System (HSEAS). The upgrades are to enhance the existing HSEAS along the Columbia River from the Vernita Bridge to the White Bluffs Boat Launch as well as install a new alerting system in the 400 Area on the Hanford Site. Five siren sites along the Columbia River and two sites in the 400 Area were tested to determine the site locations that will provide the desired coverage.

  12. Nevada Test Site Treatment Plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Treatment Plans (STPS) are required for facilities at which the US Department of Energy (DOE) or stores mixed waste, defined by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) as waste containing both a hazardous waste subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and a radioactive material subject to the Atomic Energy Act. On April 6, 1993, DOE published a Federal Register notice (58 FR 17875) describing its proposed process for developing the STPs in three phases including a Conceptual, a Draft, and a Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). All of the DOE Nevada Operations Office STP iterations have been developed with the state of Nevada`s input. The options and schedules reflect a ``bottoms-up`` approach and have been evaluated for impacts on other DOE sites, as well as impacts to the overall DOE program. Changes may have occurred in the preferred option and associated schedules between the PSTP, which was submitted to the state of Nevada and US Environmental Protection Agency April 1995, and the Final STP (hereafter referred to as the STP) as treatment evaluations progressed. The STP includes changes that have occurred since the submittal of the PSTP as a result of state-to-state and DOE-to-state discussions.

  13. Overview of experimental tests of the IBA

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A broad overview is presented of the principal tests to date of the IBA, or both even and odd nuclei, and including the evidence concerning the possible existence of the recently proposed supersymmetries. Although some details are presented, the aim is rather to survey the principal characteristics of the model, to assess the overall quality and extent of the agreement with experiment, and to indicate where further testing would be most useful.

  14. Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

  15. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System...

  16. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... Administration and the Department of Defense, develop a test site program for the integration of...

  17. When Web Sites Post Test Answers, Professors Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several Web sites have emerged in recent years that encourage students to upload old exams to build a bank of test questions and answers that can be consulted by other students. This article reports that some professors have raised concerns about these sites, arguing that these could be used to cheat, especially if professors reuse old tests.…

  18. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  19. On-site cell field test support program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  20. Beta site testing: risky business or rewarding opportunity?

    PubMed

    Knox, C; Swango, J

    1989-06-01

    Beta site testing in the HIS industry is as important as test driving a new car or test marketing a new consumer product. The end-user or manufacturer wants to make sure the product or service does everything it is supposed to do. And no hospital wants to purchase an information system that hasn't been put to the test.

  1. Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alling, Abigail; Leigh, Linda S.; Maccallum, Taber; Alvarez-Romo, Norberto

    1990-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 Test Module is a facility which has the capability to do either short or long term closures: five month closures with plants were conducted. Also conducted were investigations of specific problems, such as trace gas purification by bioregenerative systems by in-putting a fixed concentration of a gas and observing its uptake over time. In other Test Module experiments, the concentration of one gas was changed to observe what effects this has on other gases present or on the system. The science of biospherics which encompasses the study of closed biological systems provides an opening into the future in space as well as in the Earth's biosphere.

  2. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  3. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Tatano, Fabio Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-15

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  4. An Experimental Test of the Concentration Index

    PubMed Central

    Bleichrodt, Han; Rohde, Kirsten I.M.; Van Ourti, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The concentration index is widely used to measure income-related inequality in health. No insight exists, however, whether the concentration index connects with people's preferences about distributions of income and health and whether a reduction in the concentration index reflects an increase in social welfare. We explored this question by testing the central assumption underlying the concentration index and found that it was systematically violated. We also tested the validity of alternative health inequality measures that have been proposed in the literature. Our data showed that decreases in the spread of income and health were considered socially desirable, but decreases in the correlation between income and health not necessarily. Support for a condition implying that the inequality in the distribution of income and in the distribution of health can be considered separately was mixed. PMID:22307035

  5. [Experimental tests of a microwave sterilization system].

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Liguori, G; Anzanel, D; Finzi, G; Salvatorelli, G

    1994-01-01

    Data obtained in our experiments indicate that the microwave sterilization system utilized may be considered as a practical and rapid method for decontaminating steel surgical instruments. For the tested organisms (7 Gram- and 2 Gram+ genera) a 3' exposure time to microwaves provides successful sterilization. Microwave irradiation also had a killing action against Bacillus subtilis spores. A study by SEM of microwave treated spores shows typical morphological alterations of spore surfaces. PMID:8170448

  6. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Stereo View of Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Salient Characteristics for Terrestrial Analog Engineering Test Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J.K.; Blaisdell, G. L.

    2000-01-01

    The use of terrestrial analog sites is an essential component of the development process for systems that are planned for lunar and planetary surfaces. These sites can also be valuable for training personnel who are expected to operate those systems. The fact that the site is an integral element, capable of influencing data and impacting test results, must not be overlooked. For tests performed in analog environments to be truly valid it is essential that the relevant characteristics of the employed sites be thoroughly understood. It is also critical that a comparative evaluation be made to assess the similarity of the analog sites to target planetary sites. Examples of relevant characteristics include terrain, soil properties, meteorology, geologic features, biological history, and remoteness. The importance of each of the characteristics varies with the type of extraterrestrial activity to be conducted. As a result, a site that is ideal for one purpose may be totally inadequate for another. It may also be appropriate to utilize multiple sites of increasing fidelity as the development process evolves. For example, early in the development process, the use of lower-fidelity sites may be elected - especially if they are available for a lower cost. Later, it may be necessary to employ higher-fidelity sites to capture greater realism, even if there is an associated increased cost. Finally, when interpreting the results of field tests, it is necessary to understand the sensitivity of the results to the relevant conditions. Knowledge of characteristics and sensitivity of results is particularly important when using field test results to validate analytical model predictions. This is especially true for activities that involve physical interaction with the site. Examples would include tests of rovers or other vehicles and associated trafficability modeling, spacesuit mobility tests, and tests associated with system deployment operations.

  9. Experimental Validation: Subscale Aircraft Ground Facilities and Integrated Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Roger M.; Hostetler, Robert W., Jr.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Belcastro, Celeste M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental testing is an important aspect of validating complex integrated safety critical aircraft technologies. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Testbed is being developed at NASA Langley to validate technologies under conditions that cannot be flight validated with full-scale vehicles. The AirSTAR capability comprises a series of flying sub-scale models, associated ground-support equipment, and a base research station at NASA Langley. The subscale model capability utilizes a generic 5.5% scaled transport class vehicle known as the Generic Transport Model (GTM). The AirSTAR Ground Facilities encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for the GTM testbed. The ground facilities support remote piloting of the GTM aircraft, and include all subsystems required for data/video telemetry, experimental flight control algorithm implementation and evaluation, GTM simulation, data recording/archiving, and audio communications. The ground facilities include a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, capable of deployment to remote sites when conducting GTM flight experiments. The ground facilities also include a laboratory based at NASA LaRC providing near identical capabilities as the mobile command/operations center, as well as the capability to receive data/video/audio from, and send data/audio to the mobile command/operations center during GTM flight experiments.

  10. Experimental tests of the standard model.

    SciTech Connect

    Nodulman, L.

    1998-11-11

    The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of {alpha}{sub EM} in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G{sub F}, most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered.

  11. Tools for DIY site-testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Federico; Rondanelli, Roberto; Abarca, Accel; Diaz, Marcos; Querel, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Our group has designed, sourced and constructed a radiosonde/ground-station pair using inexpensive opensource hardware. Based on the Arduino platform, the easy to build radiosonde allows the atmospheric science community to test and deploy instrumentation packages that can be fully customized to their individual sensing requirements. This sensing/transmitter package has been successfully deployed on a tethered-balloon, a weather balloon, a UAV airplane, and is currently being integrated into a UAV quadcopter and a student-built rocket. In this paper, the system, field measurements and potential applications will be described. As will the science drivers of having full control and open access to a measurement system in an age when commercial solutions have become popular but are restrictive in terms of proprietary sensor specifications, "black-box" calibration operations or data handling routines, etc. The ability to modify and experiment with both the hardware and software tools is an essential part of the scientific process. Without an understanding of the intrinsic biases or limitations in your instruments and system, it becomes difficult to improve them or advance the knowledge in any given field.

  12. Experimental Testing of Dynamically Optimized Photoelectron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Cook, A. M.; Dunning, M.; England, R. J.; Musumeci, P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boscolo, M.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Fillipetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.; Vicario, C.; Jones, S.

    2006-11-01

    We discuss the design of and initial results from an experiment in space-charge dominated beam dynamics which explores a new regime of high-brightness electron beam generation at the SPARC photoinjector. The scheme under study employs the tendency of intense electron beams to rearrange to produce uniform density, giving a nearly ideal beam from the viewpoint of space charge-induced emittance. The experiments are aimed at testing the marriage of this idea with a related concept, emittance compensation. We show that this new regime of operating photoinjector may be the preferred method of obtaining highest brightness beams with lower energy spread. We discuss the design of the experiment, including developing of a novel time-dependent, aerogel-based imaging system. This system has been installed at SPARC, and first evidence for nearly uniformly filled ellipsoidal charge distributions recorded.

  13. Experimental Testing of Dynamically Optimized Photoelectron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Cook, A. M.; Dunning, M.; England, R. J.; Musumeci, P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boscolo, M.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Fillipetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Palumbo, L.; Vicario, C.; Serafini, L.; Jones, S.

    2006-11-27

    We discuss the design of and initial results from an experiment in space-charge dominated beam dynamics which explores a new regime of high-brightness electron beam generation at the SPARC photoinjector. The scheme under study employs the tendency of intense electron beams to rearrange to produce uniform density, giving a nearly ideal beam from the viewpoint of space charge-induced emittance. The experiments are aimed at testing the marriage of this idea with a related concept, emittance compensation. We show that this new regime of operating photoinjector may be the preferred method of obtaining highest brightness beams with lower energy spread. We discuss the design of the experiment, including developing of a novel time-dependent, aerogel-based imaging system. This system has been installed at SPARC, and first evidence for nearly uniformly filled ellipsoidal charge distributions recorded.

  14. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

  16. 49 CFR 325.53 - Site characteristics; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... characteristics; stationary test. (a)(1) The motor vehicle to be tested shall be parked on the test site. A... in which the motor vehicle is parked at a point that is within 3 feet (.9 m) of the longitudinal position of the vehicle's exhaust system outlet(s). A microphone location point shall be established on...

  17. 49 CFR 325.53 - Site characteristics; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... characteristics; stationary test. (a)(1) The motor vehicle to be tested shall be parked on the test site. A... in which the motor vehicle is parked at a point that is within 3 feet (.9 m) of the longitudinal position of the vehicle's exhaust system outlet(s). A microphone location point shall be established on...

  18. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    SciTech Connect

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-04-03

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank.

  19. Noteworthy mammal distribution records for the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Medica, P.A.

    1989-06-01

    Nevada Test Site records for the gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus scottii and the dark kangaroo mouse Microdipodops meqacephalus sabulonis are substantiated, and a range extension for Mustela frenata nevadensis documented. 17 refs.

  20. Experimental tests of garnet peridotite oxygen barometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G.; Wood, B. J.

    1995-02-01

    We have performed experiments aimed at testing the calibration of oxygen barometers for the garnet peridotite [garnet (Gt)-olivine (Ol)-orthopyroxene (Opx)] phase assemblage. These involved equilibrating a thin layer of garnet sandwiched between layers of olivine and orthopyroxene at 1300° C and 25 35 kbar for 1 7 days. Oxygen fugacity was controlled (but not buffered) by using inner capsules of Fe Pt alloy or graphite or molybdenum sealed in welded Pt outer capsules. Post-experiment measurement of f O2 was made by determining the compositions of Pt Fe alloy sensors at the interface between garnet and olivine+orthopyroxene layers. The composition of alloy in equilibrium with olivine+orthopyroxene was approached from Fe-oversaturated and Fe-undersaturated conditions in the same experiment with, in general, excellent convergence. Product phase compositions were determined by electron microprobe and a piece of the garnet layer saved for 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The latter gave the Fe3+ content of the garnet at the measured P-T-f O2 conditions. Approach to equilibrium was checked by observed shifts in Fe3+ content and by the approach of garnet-olivine Fe Mg partitioning to the expected value. The compositions of the phases were combined with mixing properties and thermodynamic data to calculate an apparent f O2 from two possible garnet oxybarometers:- 2Ca3Fe2Si3O12Gt1+2Mg3Al2Si3O12Gt+4FeSiO3Opx=2Ca3Al2Si3O12Gt+8FeSi0.5O2Ol+6MgSiO3Opx+O2 (1) and 2Fe3Fe2Si3O12Gt=8FeSi0.5O2Ol+2FeSiO3Opx+O2(2) Comparison of calculated f O2s with those measured by the Pt-Fe sensors demonstrated that either barometer gives the correct answer within the expected uncertainty. Data from the first (Luth et al. 1990) has an uncertainty of about 1.6 log f O2 units, however, while that from equilibrium (2) (Woodland and O’Neill 1993) has an error of +/- 0.6 log units, comparable to that of the spinel peridotite oxybarometer. We therefore conclude that equilibrium (2) may be used to

  1. 6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low oblique aerial view of Test Area 1-115, looking south, showing Test Stand 1-3 at left, Instrumentation and Control building 8668 at center, and Test Stand 15 at right. The test area is under construction; no evidence of railroad line in photo. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Low Impact Soil Sites' and consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Closure activities were conducted from February through April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996; as amended February 2008) and Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 107 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2009). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized.

  3. Detection of electrically failed photovoltaic modules at selected MIT Lincoln Laboratory test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has set a 20-year lifetime goal for terrestrial photovoltaic modules. In its capacity as a Photovoltaic Field Tests and Applications Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory has established various experimental test sites throughout the United States, ranging in size from 1.5 to 100 kW of peak power. These sites contain modules from several manufacturers and serve as test beds for photovoltaic system components. From May 1977 to date, over 11,000 modules have been placed in service at these sites, of which a total of 250 have suffered electrical failures. In previous reports emphasis has been placed on failure modes and the types of physical and electrical degradation found in modules. The methods used to detect failures in operational photovoltaic power-generating systems are reported for several Lincoln Laboratory test sites.

  4. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  5. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VI: Turbulence Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Els, S. G.; Travouillon, T.; Schöck, M.; Riddle, R.; Skidmore, W.; Seguel, J.; Bustos, E.; Walker, D.

    2009-05-01

    The results on the vertical distribution of optical turbulence above the five mountains which were investigated by the site testing for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are reported. On San Pedro Mártir in Mexico; the 13 North site on Mauna Kea; and three mountains in northern Chile: Cerro Tolar, Cerro Armazones, and Cerro Tolonchar; MASS-DIMM turbulence profilers have been operated over at least two years. Acoustic turbulence profilers—SODARs—were also operated at these sites. The obtained turbulence profiles indicate that at all sites the lowest 200 m are the main source of the total seeing observed, with the Chilean sites showing a weaker ground layer than the other two sites. The two northern hemisphere sites have weaker turbulence at altitudes above 500 m, with 13N showing the weakest turbulence at 16 km, responsible for the large isoplanatic angle at this site. The influence of the jetstream and wind speeds close to the ground on the clear sky turbulence strength throughout the atmosphere are discussed, as well as seasonal and nocturnal variations. This is the sixth article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  6. Nuclear Test-Experimental Science: Annual report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program.

  7. 75 FR 20832 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Nevada Test Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Nevada Test Site. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public notice of this meeting be announced in the Federal...

  8. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; Els, Sebastian; Travouillon, Tony; Riddle, Reed; Schöck, Matthias; Bustos, Edison; Seguel, Juan; Walker, David

    2009-10-01

    In this article we present an analysis of the statistical and temporal properties of seeing and isoplanatic angle measurements obtained with combined Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) units at the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) candidate sites. For each of the five candidate sites we obtained multiyear, high-cadence, high-quality seeing measurements. These data allow for a broad and detailed analysis, giving us a good understanding of the characteristics of each of the sites. The overall seeing statistics for the five candidate sites are presented, broken into total seeing (measured by the DIMM), free-atmosphere seeing and isoplanatic angle (measured by the MASS), and ground-layer seeing (difference between the total and free-atmosphere seeing). We examine the statistical distributions of seeing measurements and investigate annual and nightly behavior. The properties of the seeing measurements are discussed in terms of the geography and meteorological conditions at each site. The temporal variability of the seeing measurements over timescales of minutes to hours is derived for each site. We find that each of the TMT candidate sites has its own strengths and weaknesses when compared against the other candidate sites. The results presented in this article form part of the full set of results that are used for the TMT site-selection process. This is the fifth article in a series discussing the TMT site-testing project.

  9. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters.

    PubMed

    Cregger, Melissa A; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Classen, Aimée T

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems.

  10. Overview of software development at the parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyazono, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of the data acquisition and data analysis software is discussed. The software development occurred between 1978 and 1984 in support of solar energy module testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Parabolic Dish Test Site, located within Edwards Test Station. The development went through incremental stages, starting with a simple single-user BASIC set of programs, and progressing to the relative complex multi-user FORTRAN system that was used until the termination of the project. Additional software in support of testing is discussed including software in support of a meteorological subsystem and the Test Bed Concentrator Control Console interface. Conclusions and recommendations for further development are discussed.

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VII: Turbulence Coherence Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travouillon, Tony; Els, Sebastian; Riddle, Reed L.; Schöck, Matthias; Skidmore, Warren

    2009-07-01

    As one of the atmospheric turbulence figures of merit, the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site-testing campaign is aimed at measuring the time constant that dictates adaptive optics observations. We hence present the coherence time statistics of the TMT candidate sites, measured using a Multi Aperture Scintillation sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM). We find, using radiosonde and NCEP reanalysis data, that the MASS underestimates the free atmosphere component of the coherence time by a factor of 1.73. After debias of the MASS data and including the ground layer component, we find median coherence times ranging from 4.2 to 5.6 ms for our five candidate sites. This is the seventh article in a series discussing the TMT site-testing project.

  12. Astronomy Developments and Site Testing in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.

    2015-04-01

    Two astronomical site testing initiatives are beginning in both Kenya and Ethiopia, with the aim of selecting suitable locations in those countries for initially modest sized (1-2m) optical telescopes. The first project, in Kenya, has to date involved a study of existing meteorological satellite data, from which potential sites have been selected for further studies (see paper by Graham et al. in these proceedings). A similar program of astronomical site testing, including using DIMMs, will begin later in 2014 in the Lalibela region of northern Ethiopia, at three potential sites ranging in altitude from ∼3600 to 4500 m. In parallel to this, the Entoto Observatory and Research Centre (EO), comprising twin 1-m alt-az telescopes, has been established at Mt. Entoto, on the outskirts of Addis Ababa, and science operations are due to begin in early 2015.

  13. 13. "CIVIL, SITE PLAN AND VICINITY MAP, AREA LOCATIONS." Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. "CIVIL, SITE PLAN AND VICINITY MAP, AREA LOCATIONS." Test Area 1-125. Specifications No. ENG (NASA)-04-35363-1; Drawing No. 60-09-34; sheet 11. Ref. No. C-l. D.O. SERIES 1597/1. Approved for siting on 24 April 1962. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Site Release Reports for C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks Test Site, and 29 GSF Test Pits

    SciTech Connect

    K.E. Rasmuson

    2002-04-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to reclaim lands disturbed by site characterization at Yucca Mountain. Long term goals of the program are to re-establish processes on disturbed sites that will lead to self-sustaining plant communities. The Biological Opinion for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Studies required that the U.S. Department of Energy develop a Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan to evaluate the success of reclamation efforts. According to the Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan, reclaimed sites will be monitored periodically, remediated if necessary, and eventually compared to an appropriate reference area to determine whether reclamation goals have been achieved and the site can be released from further monitoring. Plant cover, density, and species richness (success parameters) on reclaimed sites are compared to 60 percent of the values (success criteria) for the same parameters on the reference area. Small sites (less than 0.1 ha) are evaluated for release using qualitative methods while large sites (greater than 0.1 ha) are evaluated using quantitative methods. In the summer of 2000, 31 small sites reclaimed in 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for reclamation success and potential release from further monitoring. Plant density, cover, and species richness were estimated on the C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks test site, and 29 ground surface facility test pits. Evidence of erosion, reproduction and natural recruitment, exotic species abundance, and animal use (key attributes) also were recorded for each site and used in success evaluations. The C-Well Pipeline and ground surface facility test pits were located in a ''Larrea tridentata - Ephedra nevadensis'' vegetation association while the UE-25 Large Rocks test site was located in an area dominated by ''Coleogyne ramosissima and Ephedra nevadensis''. Reference areas in the same vegetation associations with similar slope and aspect were chosen for comparison to

  15. Reactor-pumped laser facility at DOE's Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.

    1994-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one excellent possibility for a laser power beaming site. It is in the low latitudes of the U.S., is in an exceptionally cloud-free area of the southwest, is already an area of restricted access (which enhances safety considerations), and possesses a highly skilled technical team with extensive engineering and research capabilities from underground testing of our nation's nuclear deterrence. The average availability of cloud-free clear line of site to a given point in space is about 84%. With a beaming angle of +/- 60 degree(s) from the zenith, about 52 geostationary-orbit (GEO) satellites could be accessed continuously from NTS. In addition, the site would provide an average view factor of about 10% for orbital transfer from low earth orbit to GEO. One of the major candidates for a long-duration, high- power laser is a reactor-pumped laser being developed by DOE. The extensive nuclear expertise at NTS makes this site a prime candidate for utilizing the capabilities of a rector pumped laser for power beaming. The site then could be used for many dual-use roles such as industrial material processing research, defense testing, and removing space debris.

  16. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-07-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

  17. GIS Surface Effects Map Archive, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Dennis N.

    2003-08-28

    The GIS Surface Effects Map Archive contains a comprehensive collection of maps showing the surface effects produced by underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. From 1951 to 1992, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and agencies of the U.S. Department of Energy used field and aerial-photo mapping techniques to painstakingly map such surface effects as collapse sinks, craters, cracks, fractures, faults, and pressure ridges. Shortly after each test, a complex surface effects map was produced. Of the more than 920 underground detonations conducted at the Nevada Test Site, 688 were mapped for surface effects. This archive preserves these original maps in digital format. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to digitally reproduce each original, hand-drawn surface effects map and to assemble these maps into the digital data sets of this archive. The archive was designed to allow easy access to the maps, while preserving the original maps for perpetuity. Users can query the detonation sites database; prepare, view, and print individual or composite maps; and perform various types of scientific analysis and management tasks. Spatial analyses and queries can be performed on detonation sites and related surface effects in conjunction with other chronological, geographical, geological, or hydrological information via links to external maps and databases. This browser interface provides information about the archive, the history of surface effects mapping at the Nevada Test Site, the methods used to produce the digital surface effects maps, and links to published reports, data tables, and maps. Location maps show testing areas, operational areas, and detonation sites. Demonstration maps illustrate the methods used to produce the digital surface effects maps and exhibit some of the characteristics and uses for these data. Use the links below to view and print individual surface effects maps, retrieve information about the detonations and types of

  18. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  19. Ecological Sites of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation efforts on rangelands require a marriage of hydrologic and range management concepts. One important range management concept is that of an ecological site, which is defined by its ability to produce a plant community consisting of certain kinds, amounts, and proportions o...

  20. Subsurface novel gas transport at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.; Guell, M.A.; Hunt, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of our research was to explain the results of a groundwater pumping test done from 1975 to 1991 at the location of the nuclear test {open_quotes}Cambric{close_quotes} on the Nevada Test Site. The elution data from the pumped well indicated that krypton was delayed relative to tritium in the eluate and that less than half of the calculated Kr-85 source term was removed (though over 92% of the tritium was removed). We postulated an explanation for these observations and tested it with a mathematical model that simulated the movement of tritium and krypton at this site. The model showed that the hypothesis was consistent with the observed behavior; but the model was very sensitive to assumptions about initial radionuclide distributions and to hydrologic parameters. 1 ref.

  1. Remotely Piloted Vehicles for Experimental Flight Control Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.

    2009-01-01

    A successful flight test and training campaign of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed was conducted at Naval Outlying Field, Webster Field, MD during 2008. Both the prop and jet-powered versions of the subscale, remotely piloted testbeds were used to test representative experimental flight controllers. These testbeds were developed by the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project s emphasis on new flight test techniques. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The purpose of these testbeds is to quickly and inexpensively evaluate advanced concepts and experimental flight controls, with applications to adaptive control, system identification, novel control effectors, correlation of subscale flight tests with wind tunnel results, and autonomous operations. Flight tests and operator training were conducted during four separate series of tests during April, May, June and August 2008. Experimental controllers were engaged and disengaged during fully autonomous flight in the designated test area. Flaps and landing gear were deployed by commands from the ground control station as unanticipated disturbances. The flight tests were performed NASA personnel with support from the Maritime Unmanned Development and Operations (MUDO) team of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 396: Area 20 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 396, Area 20 Spill Sites, is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 396 is listed in Appendix II of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 20-25-01, Oil Spills (2); CAS 20-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 20-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 20-99-08, Spill. Closure activities for CAU 396 were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 396.

  3. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  4. Land utilization and water resource inventories over extended test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In addition to the work on the corn blight this year, several other analysis tests were completed which resulted in significant findings. These aspects are discussed as follows: (1) field spectral measurements of soil conditions; (2) analysis of extended test site data; this discussion involves three different sets of data analysis sequences; (3) urban land use analysis, for studying water runoff potentials; and (4) thermal data quality study, as an expansion of our water resources studies involving temperature calibration techniques.

  5. Geomechanics of the Climax mine-by, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-03-01

    A generic test of retrievable geologic storage of spent fuel assemblies in an underground chamber is being conducted at the Nevada Test Site. The horizontal shrinkage of the pillars is not explainable, but the vertical pillar stresses are easily understood. A two-phase project was initiated to estimate the in-situ deformability of the Climax granite and to refine the in-situ stress field data, and to model the mine-by. (DLC)

  6. Nevada Test Site environmental data report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations. These mandates require compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection regulations. During calendar year (CY) 1996, environmental protection and monitoring programs were conducted at the Nevada Test Site and other DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV)-managed sites in Nevada and across the US. A detailed discussion of these environmental protection and monitoring programs and summary data and assessments for environmental monitoring results are provided in the DOE/NV Annual Site Environmental Report-1996 (ASER), DOE/NV/11718-137. This document provides summary data results and detailed assessments for the environmental monitoring conducted for all DOE/NV-managed sites in CY1996.

  7. Experimental Results of Site Calibration and Sensitivity Measurements in OTR for UWB Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanadham, Chandana; Rao, P. Mallikrajuna

    2016-08-01

    System calibration and parameter accuracy measurement of electronic support measures (ESM) systems is a major activity, carried out by electronic warfare (EW) engineers. These activities are very critical and needs good understanding in the field of microwaves, antennas, wave propagation, digital and communication domains. EW systems are broad band, built with state-of-the art electronic hardware, installed on different varieties of military platforms to guard country's security from time to time. EW systems operate in wide frequency ranges, typically in the order of thousands of MHz, hence these are ultra wide band (UWB) systems. Few calibration activities are carried within the system and in the test sites, to meet the accuracies of final specifications. After calibration, parameters are measured for their accuracies either in feed mode by injecting the RF signals into the front end or in radiation mode by transmitting the RF signals on to system antenna. To carry out these activities in radiation mode, a calibrated open test range (OTR) is necessary in the frequency band of interest. Thus site calibration of OTR is necessary to be carried out before taking up system calibration and parameter measurements. This paper presents the experimental results of OTR site calibration and sensitivity measurements of UWB systems in radiation mode.

  8. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  9. 49 CFR 325.53 - Site characteristics; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Site characteristics; stationary test. 325.53 Section 325.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH...

  10. 49 CFR 325.53 - Site characteristics; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Site characteristics; stationary test. 325.53 Section 325.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH...

  11. 49 CFR 325.53 - Site characteristics; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Site characteristics; stationary test. 325.53 Section 325.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH...

  12. Test-Site Evaluation of ICU/PLANIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Terry J.

    Test-site evaluation of the Instructor's Computer Utility/Programing Language of Interactive Teaching (ICU/PLANIT) was conducted. Goals included: 1) analysis of the operation of ICU/PLANIT; 2) development of two PLANIT. Modifications were made in a distrubuted version, cost analyses were in man hours and quantities of machine resources consumed,…

  13. 78 FR 68360 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... comments published in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12259), Docket No. FAA-2013-0061... (78 FR 18932), Docket No. FAA-2013-0061- 0050. In addition, this document publishes the FAA's Final... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY:...

  14. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-09

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, “Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  15. Smallpox Vaccination of Laboratory Workers at US Variola Testing Sites.

    PubMed

    Medcalf, Sharon; Bilek, Laura; Hartman, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Leuschen, Patricia; Miller, Hannah; O'Keefe, Anne; Sayles, Harlan; Smith, Philip W

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the need to revaccinate laboratory workers against smallpox, we assessed regular revaccination at the US Laboratory Response Network's variola testing sites by examining barriers to revaccination and the potential for persistence of immunity. Our data do not provide evidence to suggest prolonging the recommended interval for revaccination.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 540 is located within Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-44-01, ER 12-1 Well Site Release; CAS 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; CAS 19-25-02, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-04, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-05, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-06, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-07, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and CAS 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action for the CASs within CAU 540. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Performed closure activities to address the presence of substances regulated by 'Nevada Administrative Code' 445A.2272 (NAC, 2002); and (3) Documented Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 540 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  18. An experimental test of noncontextuality without unphysical idealizations.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Michael D; Pusey, Matthew F; Kunjwal, Ravi; Resch, Kevin J; Spekkens, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    To make precise the sense in which nature fails to respect classical physics, one requires a formal notion of classicality. Ideally, such a notion should be defined operationally, so that it can be subject to direct experimental test, and it should be applicable in a wide variety of experimental scenarios so that it can cover the breadth of phenomena thought to defy classical understanding. Bell's notion of local causality fulfils the first criterion but not the second. The notion of noncontextuality fulfils the second criterion, but it is a long-standing question whether it can be made to fulfil the first. Previous attempts to test noncontextuality have all assumed idealizations that real experiments cannot achieve, namely noiseless measurements and exact operational equivalences. Here we show how to devise tests that are free of these idealizations. We perform a photonic implementation of one such test, ruling out noncontextual models with high confidence. PMID:27292369

  19. An experimental test of noncontextuality without unphysical idealizations

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Michael D.; Pusey, Matthew F.; Kunjwal, Ravi; Resch, Kevin J.; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    To make precise the sense in which nature fails to respect classical physics, one requires a formal notion of classicality. Ideally, such a notion should be defined operationally, so that it can be subject to direct experimental test, and it should be applicable in a wide variety of experimental scenarios so that it can cover the breadth of phenomena thought to defy classical understanding. Bell's notion of local causality fulfils the first criterion but not the second. The notion of noncontextuality fulfils the second criterion, but it is a long-standing question whether it can be made to fulfil the first. Previous attempts to test noncontextuality have all assumed idealizations that real experiments cannot achieve, namely noiseless measurements and exact operational equivalences. Here we show how to devise tests that are free of these idealizations. We perform a photonic implementation of one such test, ruling out noncontextual models with high confidence. PMID:27292369

  20. Geohydrologic data for test well UE-25bH, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Whitfield, M.S.; Lahoud, R.G.; Bruckheimer, Laura

    1983-01-01

    Data were collected to determine the hydraulic characteristics of rocks penetrated in test well UE-25b number 1. This well is one of a series of test wells drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site in a program conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify suitable sites for storage of high level radioactive wastes. Data on drilling operations, lithology , core analyses, borehole geophysics, hydrologic monitoring, hydraulic testing, and groundwater chemistry for test well UE-25b number 1 are reported. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  2. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Atrial natriuretic factor binding sites in experimental congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Thibault, G.; Wrobel-Konrad, E.; De Lean, A.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M. )

    1989-10-01

    A quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study was performed on the aorta, renal glomeruli, and adrenal cortex of cardiomyopathic hamsters in various stages of heart failure and correlated, in some instances, with in vivo autoradiography. The results indicate virtually no correlation between the degree of congestive heart failure and the density of 125I-labeled atrial natriuretic factor ((Ser99, Tyr126)ANF) binding sites (Bmax) in the tissues examined. Whereas the Bmax was increased in the thoracic aorta in moderate and severe heart failure, there were no significant changes in the zona glomerulosa. The renal glomeruli Bmax was lower in mild and moderate heart failure compared with control and severe heart failure. The proportion of ANF B- and C-receptors was also evaluated in sections of the aorta, adrenal, and kidney of control and cardiomyopathic hamsters with severe heart failure. (Arg102, Cys121)ANF (des-(Gln113, Ser114, Gly115, Leu116, Gly117) NH2) (C-ANF) at 10(-6) M displaced approximately 505 of (Ser99, Tyr126)125I-ANF bound in the aorta and renal glomeruli and approximately 20% in the adrenal zona glomerulosa in both series of animals. These results suggest that ANF may exert a buffering effect on the vasoconstriction of heart failure and to a certain extent may inhibit aldosterone secretion. The impairment of renal sodium excretion does not appear to be related to glomerular ANF binding sites at any stage of the disease.

  4. Stiffness of Carpentry Connections - Numerical Modelling vs. Experimental Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekeliak, Miloš; Gocál, Jozef; Vičan, Josef

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, numerical modelling of the traditional carpentry connection with mortise and tenon is presented. Numerical modelling is focused on its stiffness and the results are compared to results of experimental tests carried out by (Feio, 2005) [6]. To consider soft behaviour of wood in carpentry connections, which are related to its surface roughness and geometrical accuracy of the contact surfaces, the characteristics of the normal contact stiffness, determined experimentally, are introduced in the numerical model. Parametric study by means of numerical modelling with regard to the sensitivity of connection stiffness to contact stiffness is presented. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented relevant differences between the results of numerical modelling and experimental tests (Feio, 2005) [6].

  5. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  6. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  7. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  9. Site study plan for intermediate hydrology clusters tests wells Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic characteristics of intermediate-depth formations at the proposed Deaf Smith County, Texas, repository site, wells called Intermediate Hydrology clusters will test the Dewey Lake, Alibates, Salado, Yates, Upper and Lower Seven Rivers, and Queen Grayburg Formations. Sixteen wells will be installed at six locations. One location will have four wills, two locations will have three wells, and three locations will have two wells for a total of 16 wells. Testing of the formations is to proceed from the bottom up, with 2-day pumping tests at the less permeable formations. Tracer tests and tests for verticall hydraulic properties will be designed and performed after other hydrologic tests are completed. After testing, selected wells are to be completed as single or possibly dual monitoring wells to observe water-level trends. To develop a hydrogeologic testing plan, the response of each formation to potential testing procedures was evaluated using design values and an assumend range for hydraulic parameters. These evaluations indicate that hydraulic properties of a sandy zone of the Dockum, the lower Sever Rivers, and possibly the Alibates and Queen/Grayburg can be determined by pumping tests. Standard of shut-in slug tests must be conducted in the remaining formations. Tests of very long duration would be required to determine the verticla properties of less permeable formations. Tracer tests would also require weeks or months. 61 figs., 34 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Increase of crevicular interleukin 1beta under academic stress at experimental gingivitis sites and at sites of perfect oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Deinzer, R; Förster, P; Fuck, L; Herforth, A; Stiller-Winkler, R; Idel, H

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of academic stress on crevicular interleukin-1beta(I1-1beta) both at experimental gingivitis sites and at sites of perfect oral hygiene. I1-1beta is thought to play a predominant role in periodontal tissue destruction. 13 medical students participating in a major medical exam (exam group) and 13 medical students not participating in any exam throughout the study period (control group) volunteered for the study. In a split-mouth-design, they refrained from any oral hygiene procedures in two opposite quadrants for 21 days (experimental gingivitis) while they maintained perfect hygiene levels at the remaining sites. Crevicular fluid was sampled for further I1-1beta analysis at teeth 5 and 6 of the upper jaw at days 1, 5, 8, 11, 14, 18 and 21 of the experimental gingivitis period. Exam students showed significantly higher I1-1beta levels than controls both at experimental gingivitis sites (area under the curve, exam group: 1240.64+/-140.07; control group: 697.61+/-111.30; p=0.004) and at sites of perfect oral hygiene (exam group: 290.42+/-63.19; control group: 143.98+/-42.71; p = 0.04). These results indicate that stress might affect periodontal health by increasing local I1-1beta levels especially when oral hygiene is neglected. PMID:9923503

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 350: Miscellaneous Housekeeping Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-05-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 350: Miscellaneous Housekeeping sites. CAU 350 is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 12 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-26-01, Lead Shot; CAS 15-22-04, Drums(2); CAS 15-22-06, Drums(10); CAS 15-22-16, Drums(3); CAS 15-22-22, Hydrocarbon Impacted Soil; CAS 15-22-29, Drums(2); CAS 15-24-07, Batteries; and CAS 15-99-02, Gas Cylinder. Closure activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or material, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  12. Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) Local and Remote Test Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janoiko, Barbara; Kosmo, Joseph; Eppler, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) is a combined group of inter-NASA center scientists and engineers, collaborating with representatives of industry and academia, for the purpose of conducting remote field exercises. These exercises provide the capability to validate experimental hardware and software, to evaluate and develop mission operational techniques, and to identify and establish technical requirements applicable for future planetary exploration. D-RATS completed its ninth year of field testing in September 2006. Dry run test activities prior to testing at designated remote field site locations are initially conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Remote Field Demonstration Test Site. This is a multi-acre external test site located at JSC and has detailed representative terrain features simulating both Lunar and Mars surface characteristics. The majority of the remote field tests have been subsequently conducted in various high desert areas adjacent to Flagstaff, Arizona. Both the local JSC and remote field test sites have terrain conditions that are representative of both the Moon and Mars, such as strewn rock and volcanic ash fields, meteorite crater ejecta blankets, rolling plains, hills, gullies, slopes, and outcrops. Flagstaff is the preferred remote test site location for many reasons. First, there are nine potential test sites with representative terrain features within a 75-mile radius. Second, Flagstaff is the location of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS)/Astrogeology Branch, which historically supported Apollo astronaut geologic training and currently supports and provides host accommodations to the D-RATS team. Finally, in considering the importance of logistics in regard to providing the necessary level of support capabilities, the Flagstaff area provides substantial logistics support and lodging accommodations to take care of team members during long hours of field operations.

  13. Experimental tests of pseudo-complex General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönenbach, Thomas; Caspar, Gunther; Hess, Peter O.; Boller, Thomas; Müller, Andreas; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Based on previous publications exploring pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR) we present a selection of observable consequences of pc-GR and possible ways to experimentally access them. Whenever possible we compare the results to Einstein's GR and differences are worked out in detail. We propose experimental tests to check the predictions of pc-GR for the orbital frequency of test particles, the gravitational redshift effect and the last stable orbit. We will show that the orbital frequency of test particles at a given radius in pc-GR is in general lower compared to standard GR. Also the effect of frame dragging is modified (weakened) in pc-GR. Concerning the gravitational redshift of a radiation emitting object we find that it is also lower in pc-GR than in standard GR. Eventually, the classical concept of a last stable orbit has to be modified in pc-GR.

  14. Analysis of the rock mechanics properties of volcanic tuff units from Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R. H.

    1983-08-01

    Over two hundred fifty mechanical experiments have been run on samples of tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site. Cores from the Topopah Spring, Calico Hills, Bullfrog and Tram tuff units were deformed to collect data for an initial evaluation of mechanical (elastic and strength) properties of the potential horizons for emplacement of commercial nuclear wastes. The experimental conditions ranged in sample saturation from room dry to fully saturated, confining pressure from 0.1 to 20 MPa, pore pressure from 0.1 to 5 MPa, temperature from 23 to 200{sup 0}C, and strain rate from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These test data have been analyzed for variations in elastic and strength properties with changes in test conditions, and to study the effects of bulk-rock characteristics on mechanical properties. In addition to the site-specific data on Yucca Mountain tuff, mechanical test results on silicic tuff from Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, are also discussed. These data both overlap and augment the Yucca Mountain tuff data, allowing more definitive conclusions to be reached, as well as providing data at some test conditions not covered by the site-specific tests.

  15. Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.N.

    2000-05-31

    This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area.

  16. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  17. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  18. Automated test-site radiometer for vicarious calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Yin, Ya-peng; Liu, En-chao; Zhang, Yan-na; Xun, Li-na; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-peng; Qiu, Gang-gang; Zhang, Quan; Zheng, Xiao-bing

    2014-11-01

    In order to realize unmanned vicarious calibration, Automated Test-site Radiometer (ATR) was developed for surface reflectance measurements. ATR samples the spectrum from 400nm-1600 nm with 8 interference filters coupled with silicon and InGaAs detectors. The field of view each channel is 10 ° with parallel optical axis. One SWIR channel lies in the center and the other seven VNIR channels are on the circle of 4.8cm diameters which guarantee each channel to view nearly the same section of ground. The optical head as a whole is temperature controlled utilizing a TE cooler for greater stability and lower noise. ATR is powered by a solar panel and transmit its data through a BDS (China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) terminator for long-term measurements without personnel in site. ATR deployed in Dunhuang test site with ground field about 30-cm-diameter area for multi-spectral reflectance measurements. Other instruments at the site include a Cimel sunphotometer and a diffuser-to-globe irradiance meter for atmosphere observations. The methodology for band-averaged reflectance retrieval and hyperspectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the hyperspectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6s code to predict TOA radiance which compare with MODIS radiance.

  19. Creation of geographic information database of subsatellite calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    The prototype of geographic information database (DB) of the sub-satellite calibration test site has been created, to which user can be accessed from the free open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS (QGIS) environment. QGIS is used as an integrator of all data and applications and visualizer of the satellite imagery and vector layers of test sites in the cartographic interface. Conversion of the database from the local representation in the MS Access to the server representation in the PostgreSQL environment has been performed. Dynamic application to QGIS for user interaction from QGIS environment with the object-relational database and to display information from the database has been created. Functional-algorithmic part of these application and the interface for user interaction with the database has been developed.

  20. Nevada Test Site tortoise population monitoring study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.M.; Zander, K.K.

    1994-12-01

    A Tortoise Population Monitoring Study was initiated to determine and monitor the density of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Quadrat sampling was conducted following methodology described in the Draft Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan (FWS, 1993). So few tortoises were found that densities could not be calculated. Based on estimates of capture probabilities and densities from other studies, it was determined that 1-km{sup 2} (0.4 mi{sup 2}) plots did not contain enough tortoises for estimating densities with the Recovery Plan methods. It was recommended that additional surveys on the Nevada Test Site using those methods not be conducted. Any future efforts to monitor desert tortoise densities should start by identifying other possible methods, determining their relative power to detect changes, and estimating their cost.

  1. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. Evaluation of transition year Canadian test sites. [Saskatchewan Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The spring small grain proportion accuracy in 15 Saskatchewan test sites was found to be comparable to that of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment Phase 3 and Transition Year results in the U.S. spring wheat states. Spring small grain labeling accuracy was 94%, and the direct wheat labeling accuracy was 89%, despite the low barley separation accuracy of 30%.

  3. The Use of Scintillation for Astronomical Site Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, M. S.; Tokovinin, A.

    2009-09-01

    When site testing for future astronomical facilities (Extremely Large Telescopes, ELT), teams around the world use scintillation to locate the optically turbulent layers within the atmosphere. Several dedicated instruments are described which have been developed to retrieve the whole vertical Cn2 profile from close to the ground up to about 20km. MASS (Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor) high altitude profilers in particular, when used in a network, can provide a 3D tracking of clear air turbulence during nighttime over large areas.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Rosemary; Giroux, Brian; Pohll, Greg; Hershey, Ronald; Russell, Charles; Howcroft, William

    2004-01-28

    Alternative uses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) may require large amounts of water to construct and/or operate. The only abundant source of water at the NTS is groundwater. This report describes preliminary modeling to quantify the amount of groundwater available for development from three hydrographic areas at the NTS. Modeling was conducted with a three-dimensional transient numerical groundwater flow model.

  5. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces.

  6. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Southern Yucca Flat, Profile 4, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  7. Magnetotelluric Data, Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Central Yucca Flat, Profile 1, as shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  8. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T. H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Frenchman Flat Profile 3, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  9. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  10. [Recognition of the potential SF-1 binding sites by SiteGA method, their experimental verification and search for new SF-1 target genes].

    PubMed

    Klimova, N V; Levitskiĭ, V G; Ignat'eva, E V; Vasil'ev, G V; Kobzev, V F; Busygina, T V; Merkulova, T I; Kolchanov, N A

    2006-01-01

    The SF-1 (Steroidogenic Factor-1) is a transcription factor known as a key regulator of the steroidogenic gene expression. SF-1 is required for the development and functioning at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and adrenal axis. Also it plays an essential role in sex determination. SF-1 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and it activates gene expression by binding to DNA in a monomeric form. Here, we report the results of potential SF-1 binding sites identification by using the SiteGA recognition method. The SiteGA method was implemented using a genetic algorithm (GA) involving a iterative discriminant analyses of local dinucleotide context characteristics. These characteristics were compiled not only over the core binding sites region but over its flanks as well. Developed SiteGA method is characterized by considerably better recognition accuracy when compared to that for the weight matrix method. The experimental tests demonstrated that 83% of the sites recognized by the SiteGA method in the regulatory regions of steroidogenic genes, indeed, interact with the SF-1 factor. We also estimated the density of predicted sites in regulatory region of genes, the members of different functional groups and developed the criterion to search for new SF-1 target genes in genome sequences.

  11. Motivation and Performance in Physical Education: An Experimental Test

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan A.; González-Cutre, David; Martín-Albo, José; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls), aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance. Key points The incremental group showed more situational intrinsic motivation. The entity group showed higher performance in the first test attempt, but significant differences disappeared in the second attempt. It seems that this incremental belief and greater intrinsic motivation made the students trust they would improve their performance in the second attempt at the lateral movement test. PMID:24149389

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  13. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM), Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (National Security Technologies, 2007). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, and 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006) located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat, further refining what is known about the pre

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  15. Los Alamos studies of the Nevada test site facilities for the testing of nuclear rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynes, Michael V.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Nevada test site geographic location; location of NRDA facilities, area 25; assessment program plan; program goal, scope, and process -- the New Nuclear Rocket Program; nuclear rocket engine test facilities; EMAD Facility; summary of final assessment results; ETS-1 Facility; and facilities cost summary.

  16. Los Alamos studies of the Nevada test site facilities for the testing of nuclear rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Michael V.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Nevada test site geographic location; location of NRDA facilities, area 25; assessment program plan; program goal, scope, and process -- the New Nuclear Rocket Program; nuclear rocket engine test facilities; EMAD Facility; summary of final assessment results; ETS-1 Facility; and facilities cost summary.

  17. The strong Bell inequalities: A proposed experimental test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Edward S.

    1994-01-01

    All previous experimental tests of Bell inequalities have required additional assumptions. The strong Bell inequalities (i.e. those requiring no additional assumptions) have never been tested. An experiment has been designed that can, for the first time, provide a definitive test of the strong Bell inequalities. Not only will the detector efficiency loophole be closed; but the locality condition will also be rigorously enforced. The experiment involves producing two Hg-199 atoms by a resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer ((199)Hg2) that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Bell inequalities can be tested by measuring angular momentum correlations between the spin one-half nuclei of the two Hg-199 atoms. The method used to make these latter measurements will be described.

  18. Hydrogeologic testing plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses methods of hydraulic testing which are recommended for use in the Deep Hydronest Test Wells at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The deep hydronest wells are intended to provide geologic, geophysical and hydrologic information on the interval from the Upper San Andres Formation to the base of the Pennsylvanian system at the site. Following the period of drilling and testing, the wells will be converted into permanent monitoring installations through which fluid pressures and water quality can be monitored at various depths in the section. 19 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. How can we test the neutrino mass seesaw mechanism experimentally?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Matthew R; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-12-01

    The seesaw mechanism for the small neutrino mass has been a popular paradigm, yet it has been believed that there is no way to test it experimentally. We present a conceivable outcome from future experiments that would convince us of the seesaw mechanism. It would involve data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider, International Linear Collider, cosmology, underground, and low-energy flavor experiments to establish the case. PMID:17280194

  20. Characteristics of vestibulosensory reactions studied by experimental caloric test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapranov, V. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibulo-sensory reactions were studied in 135 workers who were in contact with nitroethers, by the method of an experimental caloric test. The response vestibulo-sensory reactions were recorded by means of an electroencephalograph. The changes in the sensory reaction depended on the duration of the workers' contact with toxic agents. A study of illusion reactions by the labyrinth calorization widens diagnostic possibilities in the examination of functional condition of the vestibular analyser considerably.

  1. How can we test the neutrino mass seesaw mechanism experimentally?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Matthew R; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-12-01

    The seesaw mechanism for the small neutrino mass has been a popular paradigm, yet it has been believed that there is no way to test it experimentally. We present a conceivable outcome from future experiments that would convince us of the seesaw mechanism. It would involve data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider, International Linear Collider, cosmology, underground, and low-energy flavor experiments to establish the case.

  2. Experimental testing of prototype face gears for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, R.; Lewicki, D.; Bossler, R.

    An experimental program to test the feasibility of using face gears in a high-speed and high-power environment was conducted. Four face gear sets were tested, two sets at a time, in a closed-loop test stand at pinion rotational speeds to 19,100 rpm and to 271 kW. The test gear sets were one-half scale of the helicopter design gear set. Testing the gears at one-eighth power, the test gear set had slightly increased bending and compressive stresses when compared to the full scale design. The tests were performed in the LeRC spiral bevel gear test facility. All four sets of gears successfully ran at 100 percent of design torque and speed for 30 million pinion cycles, and two sets successfully ran at 200 percent of torque for an additional 30 million pinion cycles. The results, although limited, demonstrated the feasibility of using face gears for high-speed, high-load applications.

  3. Experimental testing of prototype face gears for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R.; Lewicki, D.; Bossler, R.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental program to test the feasibility of using face gears in a high-speed and high-power environment was conducted. Four face gear sets were tested, two sets at a time, in a closed-loop test stand at pinion rotational speeds to 19,100 rpm and to 271 kW. The test gear sets were one-half scale of the helicopter design gear set. Testing the gears at one-eighth power, the test gear set had slightly increased bending and compressive stresses when compared to the full scale design. The tests were performed in the LeRC spiral bevel gear test facility. All four sets of gears successfully ran at 100 percent of design torque and speed for 30 million pinion cycles, and two sets successfully ran at 200 percent of torque for an additional 30 million pinion cycles. The results, although limited, demonstrated the feasibility of using face gears for high-speed, high-load applications.

  4. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  5. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  6. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and

  7. Determination of in situ state of stress at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax site, Climax Stock, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, W.L.; Magner, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the in situ state of stress at the site of the Spent Fuel Test--Climax, using the U.S. Bureau of Mines overcore method, indicates principal stress magnitudes of 11.6 MPa, 7.1 MPa, and 2.8 MPa. The bearing and plunge of the maximum and minimum principal stress components are, respectively: N. 56? E., 29? NE; and N. 42? W., 14? NW. The vertical stress magnitude of 7.9 MPa calculated from the overcore data is significantly less than expected from overburden pressure, suggesting the stress field is influenced by local or areal geologic factors. Results from this investigation indicate (1) the stress state at the Spent Fuel Test--Climax site deviates significantly from a gravitational stress field, both in relative stress magnitudes and in orientation; (2) numerical modeling will not realistically simulate the near-field response of the Spent Fuel Test--Climax site if gravitational and (or) horizontal and vertical applied stress boundary conditions are assumed; and (3) substantial stress variations may occur spatially within the stock.

  8. Excess plutonium in soil near the Nevada Test Site, USA.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mary; Rudin, Mark; Cizdziel, James; Hodge, Vernon

    2003-01-01

    Two soil profiles were collected from undisturbed areas near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The activity of 137Cs in the surface layer of the downwind Queen City Summit profile is three times higher than at the upwind site at Searchlight, NV (41.1+/-0.6 mBq/g vs. 13.0+/-0.4 mBq/g), and the 239,240Pu activity is 100 times greater (51+/-2 mBq/g vs. 0.52+/-0.03 mBq/g). An examination of the literature suggests that the 137Cs/239,240Pu and the 239,240Pu/238Pu activity ratios in soils and sediments from the northern hemisphere, due to fallout from atmospheric atomic weapons testing, have generalized values of 36+/-4 and 30+/-4, respectively (as of 1 July 1995). Deviations from these values may indicate possible contamination by sources other than fallout. Data from the surface soil of the downwind Queen City Summit profile yield a 137Cs/239,240Pu ratio of 0.81+/-0.02 and a 239,240Pu/238Pu ratio of 78+/-6. Clearly, an increase in 239,240Pu relative to 137Cs or 238Pu can account for these observations. There is compelling evidence that this "excess" 239,240Pu came from activities at the NTS during the aboveground testing of nuclear devices, more than likely from safety tests, some 40 years ago, and/or during the interim by the wind-driven resuspension of contaminated surface soil on the NTS and its transport off-site. Moreover, the two concentration profiles show that high percentages of both of these elements are retained for decades in the upper few centimeters of soil in Nevada's desert environment.

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  10. The Kauring Airborne Gravity Test Site, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R. J.; Grujic, M.; Aravanis, T.; Tracey, R.; Dransfield, M.; Howard, D.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    A test site for airborne gravity (AG) systems has been established at Kauring, approximately 100 km east of Perth, Western Australia. The site was chosen using a range of criteria that included being within 200 km of Jandakot Airport in Perth where most of the airborne systems would be based at one time or another when operating in Australia, being free of low level flight restrictions, having minimal human infrastructure in the central 20 by 20 km area, and the presence of gentle to rolling terrain rather than deeply incised topography or an extensive flat plain with very low relief. In anticipation of catering for airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) systems, the site was required to have a gravity gradient feature with clear response in the wavelength range of 100 m to 2 km in a 5 by 5 km core region. The existence of closely-spaced, high quality ground gravity data would have been a positive factor for selecting a test site, but a search of the national gravity database indicated that there were no such data sets in the search area. Consequently, a ground vertical gravity acquisition program for the chosen site at Kauring was arranged by the Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA), Geoscience Australia (GA), and Rio Tinto Exploration. To support AG system tests, a 150 by 150 km area was covered with a maximum station spacing of 2 by 2 km, and the central area of 20 by 20 km was covered with a maximum station spacing of 0.5 by 0.5 km. These data are freely available from GSWA and GA. To support AGG system tests, the core 5 by 5 km area would need to have stations with much closer spacing (e.g., 100 by 100 m). A variety of publicly available digital terrain data sets are available (e.g., SRTM 3-second data (~90 m), ASTER GDEM 1-second data (~30 m), GEODATA 9-second data (~300 m), etc.). Acquisition of a LIDAR-based high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) for the central 20 by 20 km area is being considered. A DTM of this nature for the core 5 by 5 km area

  11. Soil health research in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed Long-Term Agroecosystem Research site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) is located in the Central Claypan Region in NE Missouri. Within GCEW, a field and plot research site has been operated by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit since 1991. The GCEW site joined t...

  12. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 392: Spill Sites and Construction Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2002-02-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities that were conducted to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 392--Spill Sites and Construction Materials located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 392 is listed on in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the NTS: CAS 05-17-02 Construction Materials/Lead Bricks; CAS 06-17-03 Cement Mud Pit; CAS 06-1 9-01 Cable Pile; Powder Piles (3); CAS 06-44-02 Paint Spill; CAS 06-44-03 Plaster Spill; CAS 06-44-04 Cutting Fluid Discharge Ditch. Closure activities were performed in two phases. Phase 1 activities consisted of collecting waste characterization samples of soil and material present on-site, and where appropriate, performing radiological screening of debris at the six CASs. Results were used to determine how waste generated during closure activities would be handled and disposed of, i.e., as nonhazardous sanitary or hazardous waste, etc. Phase 2 activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or soil, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each CAS was clean closed by visual inspection and/or by the collecting soil verification samples for laboratory analysis. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix A. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each of the six CASs are included in Appendix 8. Appendix C contains a copy of the Bechtel Nevada (BN) On-site Waste Transport Manifest for the hazardous waste generated during closure of CAS 06-44-02.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was

  16. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities.

  17. An adaptive atmospheric transport model for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.; Randerson, D.

    1998-12-31

    The need to accurately calculate the transport of hazardous material is paramount to environmental safety and health activities, as well as to establish a sound emergency response capability, in the western United States and at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Current efforts are under way at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory in Las Vegas to develop a state-of-the-art atmospheric flow and species transport model that will accurately calculate wind fields and atmospheric particulate transport over complex terrain. In addition, research efforts are needed to improve predictive capabilities for catastrophic events, e.g., volcanic eruptions, thunderstorms, heavy rains and floods, and dust storms. The model has a wide range of environmental, safety, and health applications as required by the US Department of Energy for NTS programs, including those activities associated with emergency response, the Hazard Material Spill Center, and site restoration and remediation.

  18. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 395: AREA 19 SPILL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 395, Area 19 Spill Sites, consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site. Closure activities performed at each CAS include: (1) CAS 19-19-04, Concrete Spill: A concrete spill could not be located at the site. Therefore, no further action was taken. (2) CAS 19-25-03, Oil Spills: Approximately five cubic yards of hydrocarbon-impacted soil and various used oil filters were removed from the site and transported to the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 19-44-02, Fuel Spill: Less than 0.5 cubic feet of hydrocarbon-impacted soil was removed from a concrete pad and transported to the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 19-44-04, U-19bk Drill Site Release: Approximately four cubic yards of hydrocarbon-impacted soil were removed from the site and transported to the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill for disposal. (5) CAS 19-44-05, U-19bh Drill Site Release: Evidence of an oil spill could not be found at the site. Therefore, no further action was taken. (6) CAS 19-99-05, Pile; Unknown Material: Based on previous sampling activities by International Technology (IT) Corporation the material was determined to be non-hazardous. Due to the remote location of the material and the determination that removal of the material would constitute an unnecessary ground disturbance as defined in the Sectored Housekeeping Work Plan, the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) agreed that the site would be closed by taking no further action. (7) CAS 19-99-07, Cement Spill: Based on previous sampling activities by IT Corporation the material was determined to be non-hazardous. Due to the remote location of the material and the determination that removal of the material would constitute an unnecessary ground disturbance as defined in the Sectored Housekeeping Work Plan, the NNSA/NSO and

  19. Experimental testing and computational modeling of flat oval duct deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Smolinski, P.J.; Palmer, G.S.

    1998-10-01

    The deflection characteristics of spiral seam flat oval HVAC duct are examined in this study, and the effects of duct size, wall thickness, and the size spacing, and type of external reinforcement on the duct deformation are investigated. A duct test setup and a deflection measurement frame were developed for measuring the deformation of flat oval duct, and experimental testing was performed on a variety of duct configurations to measure the duct deflections at various positive and negative internal pressures. Finite element computer models of the ducts were developed to predict the deflections. The correlation between the predictions of the computer model and the data from the experimental testing is highly variable with differences ranging from a few percent to several hundred percent. In general, it was found that there was closer agreement between the finite element results and the experimental measurements for smaller duct and at locations of type 2 external reinforcements. This may be due to the fact that the finite element model assumed the idealized flat oval shape and this shape was better matched by smaller ducts and near the external reinforcement. It was also found that in some cases, unreinforced duct could achieve higher pressures than type 1 reinforced duct before exceeding the deflection limits. Sources of error include the uneven surface of the mastic in the measurement of the duct joint deflection and the variance of the actual duct shape from the idealized shape used in the finite element model. This study did not examine the variability of the experimental results due to differences in duct shape or manufacture.

  20. Modeling and experimental testing of a smart composite bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhara, K.; Nanni, Antonio; Watkins, Steve E.; Kumar, Prakash

    2003-10-01

    An all composite bridge with integral sensor network has been designed and built at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). An extensive experimental study and finite element analysis were carried out to obtain and compare properties (stiffness, strength, failure modes) of 76 mm (3 in) square hollow pultruded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) tubes and their assemblies. Tube assemblies were used in the fabrication of bridge deck designed for H-20 truckloads as specified by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The bridge is 9.14 m (30 ft) long and is 2.74 m (9 ft) wide. All the coupons were tested under three- or four-point bending. Experimental results show excellent linear elastic behavior up to failure and are in good agreement with finite element solutions. A quarter portion of the full-sized bridge deck was then tested for its structural performance under design and fatigue loading and also for ultimate load capacity to evaluate the bridge response. The characteristics of the full-size bridge deck were determined by analyzing the performed tests. The test sample showed almost no reduction in stiffness or strength after 2 million cycles of fatigue loading in excess of the design load. The bridge was installed at the UMR campus in July 2000. The bridge is equipped with fiber optic sensors, and the response of the bridge will be remotely monitored.

  1. The FENIX (Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental) test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Chaplin, M.R.; Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1989-08-30

    The Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental Magnet Facility (FENIX), under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a significant step forward in meeting the testing requirements necessary for the development of superconductor for large-scale, superconducting magnets. A 14-T, transverse field over a test volume of 150 {times} 60 {times} 150 mm in length will be capable of testing conductors the size of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Proposed conductors for ITER measure {approximately}35 mm on one side and will operate at currents of up to 40 kA at fields of {approximately}14 T. The testing of conductors and associated components, such as joints, will require large-bore, high-field magnet facilities. FENIX is being constructed using the existing A{sub 2o} and A{sub 2i} magnets from the idle MFTF. The east and west A{sub 2} pairs will be mounted together to form a split-pair solenoid. The pairs of magnets will be installed in a 4.0-m cryostat vessel located in the HFTF building at LLNL. Each magnet is enclosed in its own cryostat, the existing 4.0-m vessel serving only as a vacuum chamber. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  3. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

  4. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Profile 2, (fig. 1), located in the northern Yucca Flat area. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  5. Magnetotelluric Data, Across Quartzite Ridge, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT soundings across Quartzite Ridge, Profiles 5, 6a, and 6b, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  6. Magnetotelluric Data, North Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for north central Yucca Flat, Profile 7, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  7. Experimental study on subaperture testing with iterative triangulation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lisong; Wang, Xiaokun; Zheng, Ligong; Zeng, Xuefeng; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Xuejun

    2013-09-23

    Applying the iterative triangulation stitching algorithm, we provide an experimental demonstration by testing a Φ120 mm flat mirror, a Φ1450 mm off-axis parabolic mirror and a convex hyperboloid mirror. By comparing the stitching results with the self-examine subaperture, it shows that the reconstruction results are in consistent with that of the subaperture testing. As all the experiments are conducted with a 5-dof adjustment platform with big adjustment errors, it proves that using the above mentioned algorithm, the subaperture stitching can be easily performed without a precise positioning system. In addition, with the algorithm, we accomplish the coordinate unification between the testing and processing that makes it possible to guide the processing by the stitching result.

  8. CSI Flight Computer System and experimental test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Peri, F., Jr.; Schuler, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the CSI Computer System (CCS) and the experimental tests performed to validate its functionality. This system is comprised of two major components: the space flight qualified Excitation and Damping Subsystem (EDS) which performs controls calculations; and the Remote Interface Unit (RIU) which is used for data acquisition, transmission, and filtering. The flight-like RIU is the interface between the EDS and the sensors and actuators positioned on the particular structure under control. The EDS and RIU communicate over the MIL-STD-1553B, a space flight qualified bus. To test the CCS under realistic conditions, it was connected to the Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) at NASA Langley Research Center. The following schematic shows how the CCS is connected to the CEM. Various tests were performed which validated the ability of the system to perform control/structures experiments.

  9. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  10. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  11. Evaluation of Mapping Methodologies at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Roback, R. C.; Kelley, R. E.; Drellack, S.; Reed, D.; Miller, E.; Cooper, D. I.; Sandoval, M.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    On June 12th, 1985, a nuclear test with an announced yield between 20-150kt was detonated in rhyolitic lava in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface. This test did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather resulted in a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation, providing an opportunity to evaluate the site using a number of surface mapping methodologies. The site was investigated over a two-year time span by several mapping teams. In order to determine the most time efficient and accurate approach for mapping post-shot surface features at a legacy test site, a number of different techniques were employed. The site was initially divided into four quarters, with teams applying various methodologies, techniques, and instrumentations to each quarter. Early methods included transect lines and site gridding with a Brunton pocket transit, flagging tape, measuring tape, and stakes; surveying using a hand-held personal GPS to locate observed features with an accuracy of × 5-10m; and extensive photo-documentation. More recent methods have incorporated the use of near survey grade GPS devices to allow careful location and mapping of surface features. Initially, gridding was employed along with the high resolution GPS surveys, but this was found to be time consuming and of little observational value. Raw visual observation (VOB) data included GPS coordinates for artifacts or features of interest, field notes, and photographs. A categorization system was used to organize the myriad of items, in order to aid in database searches and for visual presentation of findings. The collected data set was imported into a geographic information system (GIS) as points, lines, or polygons and overlain onto a digital color orthophoto map of the test site. Once these data were mapped, spectral data were collected using a high resolution field spectrometer. In addition to geo-locating the field observations with 10cm

  12. Site study plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Wells called Deep Hydronest Wells will be installed at six locations at the Deaf Smith County Site to characterize hydraulic parameters in the geologic column between the top of the San Andres Formation and the base of Pennsylvanian System. Three hydronests will be drilled during early stages of site characterization to provide data for performance assessment modeling. Four wells are proposed for each of these 3 nests. Results of drilling, testing, and preliminary modeling will direct drilling and testing activities at the last 3 nests. Two wells are proposed at each of the last 3 nests for a total of 18 wells. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which this program will operate. Drilling and hydrologic testing of the first Deep Hydronest will begin early in the Surface Investigation Program. Drilling and testing of the first three Deep Hydronests will require about 18 months. After 12 months of evaluating and analyzing data from the first three hydronests, the remaining three hydronests will be drilled during a 12-month period. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be used to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 36 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ping; Snelson, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Coblentz, David D.; Corbell, Robert; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Carrigan, Charles R.; Bradley, Christopher R.; Patton, Howard J.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Sweeney, Jerry J.; Brunish, Wendee M.; Hawkins, Ward L.; Antoun,Tarabay H.; Wohletz, Kenneth H.; Zucca, John Jay

    2010-10-01

    The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters such as p- and s-wave arrivals from simple one-dimensional models for the teleseismic case to somewhat more complicated enhanced two-dimensional models for the regional case. Likewise, radionuclide experts rely on empirical results from a handful of limited experiments to determine the radiological source terms present at the surface after an underground test. To make the next step in the advancement of the science of monitoring we need to transform these fields to enable predictive, physics-based modeling and analysis. The Nevada Test Site Source Physics Experiments (N-SPE) provide a unique opportunity to gather precise data from well-designed experiments to improve physics-based modeling capability. In the seismic experiments, data collection will include time domain reflectometry to measure explosive performance and yield, free-field accelerometers, extensive seismic arrays, and infrasound and acoustic measurements. The improved modeling capability that we will develop using this data should enable important advances in our ability to monitor worldwide for nuclear testing. The first of a series of source physics experiments will be conducted in the granite of Climax Stock at the NTS, near the locations of the HARD HAT and PILE DRIVER nuclear tests. This site not only provides a fairly homogeneous and well-documented geology, but also an opportunity to improve our understanding of how fractures, joints, and faults affect seismic wave generation and propagation. The Climax Stock experiments will consist of a 220

  14. Deep resistivity structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Wallin, Erin L.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian - Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault

  15. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large

  16. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-27

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-08-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites. CAU 346 is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8 and 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): (1) CAS 08-22-04: Drums (2); (2) CAS 08-22-11: Drums; Bucket; (3) CAS 08-24-02: Battery; (4) CAS 10-14-01: Transformer; (5) CAS 10-22-06: Drum (Gas Block); (6) CAS 10-22-10: Drum (Gas Block); (7) CAS 10-22-12: Drum (Gas Block); (8) CAS 10-22-13: Drum (Gas Block); (9) CAS 10-22-16: Drum (Gas Block); (10) CAS 10-22-22: Drum; (11) CAS 10-22-25: Drum; (12) CAS 10-22-36: Paint Can; (13) CAS 10-22-37: Gas Block; and (14) CAS 10-24-11: Battery. Closure activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or material, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or laboratory analysis of soil verification samples.

  19. Loch Linnhe `94: Test operations description and on-site analysis, US activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    A field experiment named Loch Linnhe `94 (LL94) is described. This experiment was conducted in upper Loch Linnhe, Scotland, in September 1994, as an exercise involving UK and US investigators, under the Joint UK/US Radar Ocean Imaging Program. This experiment involved a dual-frequency, dual-polarization hillside real aperture radar operated by the UK, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) current meter array (CMA), in-water hydrodynamic sensors, and meteorological measurements. The primary measurements involved imaging ship-generated and ambient internal waves by the radar and the CMA. This report documents test operations from a US perspective and presents on-site analysis results derived by US investigators. The rationale underlying complementary radar and CMA measurements is described. Descriptions of the test site, platforms, and major US instrument systems are given. A summary of test operations and examples of radar, CMA, water column profile, and meteorological data are provided. A description of the rather extensive analysis of these data performed at the LL94 test site is presented. The products of this analysis are presented and some implications for further analysis and future experiments are discussed. All experimental objectives were either fully or partially met. Powerful on-site analysis capabilities generated many useful products and helped improve subsequent data collection. Significant further data analysis is planned.

  20. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack.

  1. Chemistry and movement of ground water, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, S.L.; Moore, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    Three chemical types of ground water are distinguished at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. A sodium-potassium water is related to tuff (in part zeolitized) and to alluvium containing detrital tuff. A calcium-magnesium water is related to limestone and dolomite, or to alluvium containing detritus of these rock types. A mixed chemical type, containing about as much sodium and potassium as calcium and magnesium, may result from the addition of one of the first two types of water to the other; to passage of water first through tuff and then through carbonate rock, or vice versa; and to ion-exchange during water travel. Consideration of the distribution of these water types, together with the distribution of sodium in the water and progressive changes in the dissolved solids, suggests that the ground water in the Nevada Test Site probably moves toward the Amargosa Desert, not into Indian Spring Valley and thence southeastward toward Las Vegas. The low dissolved solids content of ground-water reservoirs in alluvium and tuff of the enclosed basins indicates that recharge is local in origin.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 537: Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Envirornmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 537 is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 as Waste Sites. CAU 537 is located in Areas 3 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-23-06, Bucket; Yellow Tagged Bags; and CAS 19-19-01, Trash Pit. CAU 537 closure activities were conducted in April 2007 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003). At CAS 03-23-06, closure activities included removal and disposal of a 15-foot (ft) by 15-ft by 8-ft tall wooden shed containing wood and metal debris and a 5-gallon plastic bucket containing deteriorated plastic bags with yellow radioactive contamination tape. The debris was transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal after being screened for radiological contamination according to the ''NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). At CAS 19-19-01, closure activities included segregation, removal, and disposal of non-friable, non-regulated asbestos-containing material (ACM) and construction debris. The ACM was determined to be non-friable by waste characterization samples collected prior to closure activities. The ACM was removed and double-bagged by licensed, trained asbestos workers and transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Construction debris was transported in end-dump trucks to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Closure activities generated sanitary waste/construction debris and ACM. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste characterization sample results are included as Appendix A of this report, and waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix B of this report. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure

  3. Flood Assessment Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-07-01

    A flood assessment was conducted at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The study area encompasses the watershed of Yucca Flat, a closed basin approximately 780 square kilometers (km2) (300 square miles) in size. The focus of this effort was on a drainage area of approximately 94 km2 (36 mi2), determined from review of topographic maps and aerial photographs to be the only part of the Yucca Flat watershed that could directly impact the Area 3 RWMS. This smaller area encompasses portions of the Halfpint Range, including Paiute Ridge, Jangle Ridge, Carbonate Ridge, Slanted Buttes, Cockeyed Ridge, and Banded Mountain. The Area 3 RWMS is located on coalescing alluvial fans emanating from this drainage area.

  4. Partial discharge in a high voltage experimental test assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, R.J.; Brainard, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated when a new type of breakdown occurred in a high voltage experimental test assembly. An anomalous current pulse was observed, which indicated partial discharges, some leading to total breakdowns. High voltage insulator defects are shown along with their effect on the electrostatic fields in the breakdown region. OPERA electromagnetic field modeling software is used to calculate the fields and present a cause for the discharge. Several design modifications are investigated and one of the simplest resulted in a 25% decrease in the field at the discharge surface.

  5. Survey of Experimental Tests of the IBA Model

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of experimental tests of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) Model is presented covering even and odd mass nuclei in the region from A ≈ 80 to A ≈ 230. Both positive and negative parity states with both high and low spin are discussed. Topics included concern energy levels, electromagnetic transition rates, two nucleon transfer and inelastic scattering. Special attention is given to nuclear symmetries and transitional regions. Comparison with other models is made where appropriate. The distinction between IBA-1 and IBA-2 is discussed including their respective areas of applicability.

  6. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  7. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  8. Quantum chemical tests of water-water potential for interaction site water models.

    PubMed

    Huš, Matej; Urbič, Tomaž

    2012-09-01

    Accuracy of different simple interaction site water models was tested. Instead of assessing their quality through the calculations of various water physical properties (dipole moment, dielectric constant, phase-equilibria diagrams, etc.) and comparison with experimental values, we calculated water-water potential and compared it with the potential from quantum chemical calculations. Using density functional theory (DFT) water-water potential was calculated for different positions of two water molecules, which was compared with the interaction used in water models. Different simple interaction site water models were then evaluated and assessed. Special emphasis is placed on angle and distance dependence of water-water potential around minima in the potential. Among three-, four-and five-site electrostatic water models, TIP3P, TIP4P/2005 and TIP5P were found to be the most accurate.

  9. The Cambric Ditch at the Nevada Test Site as a Long-term Vadose Zone Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompson, A. F.; Hunt, J. R.; Hudson, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    suited for further experimental investigations and the development and testing of transport models at spatial and temporal scales typical of contaminated, arid vadose zone sites. Data from this site has been useful in model development and additional field studies are suggested to further guide the application of models to contaminant migration in other deep vadose zones. Portions of this work were conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. Experimental Spin Testing of Integrally Damped Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John

    1998-01-01

    The experimental behavior of spinning laminated composite pretwisted plates (turbo-fan blade-like) with small (less than 10% by volume) integral viscoelastic damping patches was investigated at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Ten different plate sets were experimentally spin tested and the resulting data was analyzed. The first-four plate sets investigated tailoring patch locations and definitions to damp specific modes on spinning flat graphite/epoxy plates as a function of rotational speed. The remaining six plate sets investigated damping patch size and location on specific modes of pretwisted (30 degrees) graphite/epoxy plates. The results reveal that: (1) significant amount of damping can be added using a small amount of damping material, (2) the damped plates experienced no failures up to the tested 28,000 g's and 750,000 cycles, (3) centrifugal loads caused an increase in bending frequencies and corresponding reductions in bending damping levels that are proportional to the bending stiffness increase, and (4) the centrifugal loads caused a decrease in torsion natural frequency and increase in damping levels of pretwisted composite plates.

  11. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  13. MAC Europe 1991 campaign: AIRSAR/AVIRIS data integration for agricultural test site classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangiovanni, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiumara, A.

    1993-01-01

    During summer 1991, multi-sensor data were acquired over the Italian test site 'Otrepo Pavese', an agricultural flat area in Northern Italy. This area has been the Telespazio pilot test site for experimental activities related to agriculture applications. The aim of the investigation described in the following paper is to assess the amount of information contained in the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) and AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data, and to evaluate classification results obtained from each sensor data separately and from the combined dataset. All classifications are examined by means of the resulting confusion matrices and Khat coefficients. Improvements of the classification results obtained by using the integrated dataset are finally evaluated.

  14. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G.J. ); Thompson, J.L. )

    1992-06-22

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration.

  15. Preliminary gravity investigations of the Wahmonie Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.

    1981-12-31

    A gravity survey of the southwest corner of the Nevada Test Site was completed during 1979 to 1980 as part of an effort to characterize a possible radioactive waste storage site in granitic rocks. The survey outlined a large, broad, and flat gravity high centered near Wahmonie Site. Combined geophysical data indicate that the anomalous area is underlain by a dense, magnetic, and possibly intrusive body. Gravity data show a +15 milligal Bouguer anomaly coincident with a large positive aeromagnetic anomaly. The data reveal a prominent fault at the west edge of the inferred intrusive. Both gravity and magnetic anomalous highs extend NNE over a horst composed predominantly of rhyodacite of the Tertiary Salyer Formation. Local aeromagnetic highs are closely associated with two granodiorite exposures on the eastern edge of the horst. A local gravity high of about +2 milligal is centered directly over the southern granodiorite exposure and another high is centered over the northern exposure. A steep gravity gradient outlining the gravity high coincides with the outer edge of a zone of hydrothermal alteration which surrounds the horst. The gravity gradient probably marks the approximate limit of an intrusive body.

  16. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  17. Classification of groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater occurring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been classified according to the ``Guidelines for Ground-Water Classification Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ground-Water Protection Strategy`` (June 1988). All of the groundwater units at the NTS are Class II, groundwater currently (IIA) or potentially (IIB) a source of drinking water. The Classification Review Area (CRA) for the NTS is defined as the standard two-mile distance from the facility boundary recommended by EPA. The possibility of expanding the CRA was evaluated, but the two-mile distance encompasses the area expected to be impacted by contaminant transport during a 10-year period (EPA,s suggested limit), should a release occur. The CRA is very large as a consequence of the large size of the NTS and the decision to classify the entire site, not individual areas of activity. Because most activities are located many miles hydraulically upgradient of the NTS boundary, the CRA generally provides much more than the usual two-mile buffer required by EPA. The CRA is considered sufficiently large to allow confident determination of the use and value of groundwater and identification of potentially affected users. The size and complex hydrogeology of the NTS are inconsistent with the EPA guideline assumption of a high degree of hydrologic interconnection throughout the review area. To more realistically depict the site hydrogeology, the CRA is subdivided into eight groundwater units. Two main aquifer systems are recognized: the lower carbonate aquifer system and the Cenozoic aquifer system (consisting of aquifers in Quaternary valley fill and Tertiary volcanics). These aquifer systems are further divided geographically based on the location of low permeability boundaries.

  18. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hand, Willard Thomas, Frank Sciacca, Manny Negrete, Susan Kelley

    2008-05-08

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if “equivalent safety” to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfer’s packaging and its contents.

  19. Integrated Geophysical Analysis at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Mellors, R. J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We integrate magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), gravity, and seismic data to develop a unified and consistent model of the subsurface at the U20ak site on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada National Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The 1985 test, conducted in tuff at a depth of approximately 600 m did not collapse to the surface or produce a crater. The purpose of the geophysical measurements is to characterize the subsurface above and around the presumed explosion cavity. The magnetic data are used to locate steel borehole casings and pipes and are correlated with surface observations. The EM data show variation in lithology at depth and clear signatures from borehole casings and surface cables. The gravity survey detects a clear gravity low in the area of the explosion. The seismic data indicates shallow low velocity zone and indications of a deeper low velocity zones. In this study, we conduct 2D inversion of EM data for better characterization of site geology and use a common 3D density model to jointly interpret both the seismic and gravity data along with constraints on lithology boundaries from the EM. The integration of disparate geophysical datasets allows improved understanding of the non-prompt physical signatures of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). LLNL Release Number: LLNL-ABS-675677. The authors express their gratitude to the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, and the Comprehensive Inspection Technologies and UNESE working group, a multi-institutional and interdisciplinary group of scientists and engineers. This work was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory under award number DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  20. Coda Spectral Peaking for Nevada Nuclear Test Site Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K R; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R

    2007-09-10

    We have applied the regional S-wave coda calibration technique of Mayeda et al. (2003) to earthquake data in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) using 4 regional broadband stations from the LLNL seismic network. We applied the same path and site corrections to tamped nuclear explosion data and averaged the source spectra over the four stations. Narrowband coda amplitudes from the spectra were then regressed against inferred yield based on the regional m{sub b}(Pn) magnitude of Denny et al. (1987), along with the yield formulation of Vergino and Mensing (1990). We find the following: (1) The coda-derived spectra show a peak which is dependent upon emplacement depth, not event size; (2) Source size estimates are stable for the coda and show a dependence upon the near-source strength and gas porosity; (3) For explosions with the same m{sub b}(Pn) or inferred yield, those in weaker material have lower coda amplitudes at 1-3 Hz.

  1. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne; Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  2. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  3. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  4. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  5. Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

    2001-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed.

  6. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

    2000-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed.

  7. Relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1993-12-31

    Seven hundred fifty-nine transects having a total length of 1,191 km were walked during 1981--1986 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The abundance of tortoises on NTS was low to very low relative to other populations in the Mojave Desert. Sign of tortoises was found from 880 to 1,570 m elevation and was more abundant above 1,200 m than has been reported previously for Nevada. Tortoises were more abundant on NTS on the upper alluvial fans and slopes of mountains than in valley bottoms. They also were more common on or near limestone and dolomite mountains than on mountains of volcanic origin.

  8. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1999-10-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Programs conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this tenth combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations.

  9. Nevada Test Site Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Grossman, R.F.

    2000-10-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this eleventh combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  11. Experimental analysis of bubble growth, departure and interactions during pool boiling on artificial nucleation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Siedel, S.; Cioulachtjian, S.; Bonjour, J.

    2008-09-15

    The present work describes experimental results of pentane pool boiling, simplified to the cases of boiling on a single or on two adjacent nucleation sites. Bubbles growths have been recorded by a high speed camera under various wall superheat conditions. Bubble volume has been plotted as a function of time, and an experimental growth law has been proposed. Oscillations were observed during growth, showing the interaction of one bubble with the preceding bubble released from the same nucleation site. Lateral coalescence has been visualized and the images have brought to the fore the capillary effects on the distortion of the interface. (author)

  12. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  13. Initial basalt target site selection evaluation for the Mars penetrator drop test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Quaide, W. L.; Polkowski, G.

    1976-01-01

    Potential basalt target sites for an air drop penetrator test were described and the criteria involved in site selection were discussed. A summary of the background field geology and recommendations for optimum sites are also presented.

  14. Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km{sup 2} of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model Tr-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Lindsey, Charles R.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research. In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations, located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in northern Yucca Flat basin. That work was done to better determine the extent and thickness of the UCCU near

  16. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackie M. Williams; Erin L. Wallin; Brian D. Rodriguez; Charles R. Lindsay; and Jay A. Sampson

    2007-08-15

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006), located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs]) were

  18. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I. |

    1992-09-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users` facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF`s experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year.

  19. Spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades: Model predictions and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Fang; Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary and very small eye movements during fixation. Recently, the microsaccade-related neural dynamics have been extensively investigated both in experiments and by constructing neural network models. Experimentally, microsaccades also exhibit many behavioral properties. It’s well known that the behavior properties imply the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms, and so are determined by neural dynamics. The behavioral properties resulted from neural responses to microsaccades, however, are not yet understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Linking neural dynamics to behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. In this paper, we provide behavior predictions on spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades according to microsaccade-induced neural dynamics in a cascading network model, which includes both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. We also successfully give experimental tests in the statistical sense. Our results provide the first behavior description of microsaccades based on neural dynamics induced by behaving activity, and so firstly link neural dynamics to behavior of microsaccades. These results indicate strongly that the cascading adaptations play an important role in the study of microsaccades. Our work may be useful for further investigations of the microsaccadic behavioral properties and of the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms responsible for the behavioral properties.

  20. Spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades: Model predictions and experimental tests

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Fang; Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary and very small eye movements during fixation. Recently, the microsaccade-related neural dynamics have been extensively investigated both in experiments and by constructing neural network models. Experimentally, microsaccades also exhibit many behavioral properties. It’s well known that the behavior properties imply the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms, and so are determined by neural dynamics. The behavioral properties resulted from neural responses to microsaccades, however, are not yet understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Linking neural dynamics to behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. In this paper, we provide behavior predictions on spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades according to microsaccade-induced neural dynamics in a cascading network model, which includes both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. We also successfully give experimental tests in the statistical sense. Our results provide the first behavior description of microsaccades based on neural dynamics induced by behaving activity, and so firstly link neural dynamics to behavior of microsaccades. These results indicate strongly that the cascading adaptations play an important role in the study of microsaccades. Our work may be useful for further investigations of the microsaccadic behavioral properties and of the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms responsible for the behavioral properties. PMID:27739541

  1. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I. State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year.

  2. Hydrogeology and results of injection tests at waste-injection test sites in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Potential benefits or hazards to freshwater resources could result from subsurface injection of treated wastewater. Recognizing this, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County and the city of St. Petersburg, undertook an evaluation of the hydrogeology and injection of wastewater at proposed test sites on the Pinellas peninsula. The injection sites are underlain by sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Lower Eocene carbonate rocks were penetrated to a maximum depth of 3,504 feet and were found to have relatively low water yields. The most permeable part of the investigated section was in rocks of middle Eocene age within the Floridan aquifer. At the injection sites, the Floridan aquifer was subdivided into four permeable zones and three semiconfining beds. The test injection zone is within the Avon Park Limestone, the most productive of the identified permeable zones, with a transmissivity of about 1,000,000 feet squared per day. Two semiconfining beds are above the injection zone in the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and have vertical hydraulic conductivities estimated to range from about 0.1 to 1 foot per day where these beds do not contain clay. Limited fresh ground-water supplies exist in the Floridan aquifer within the Pinellas peninsula. At all test sites, chloride concentration in the injection zone ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter. Injection tests ranging in duration from 3 to 91.1 days were run at three different sites. Pressure buildup occurred in permeable zones above and below the injection zone during these tests. Calculated pressure buildup in observation wells close to and at some distance from the test wells was typically less than 1 pound per square inch. Injection and formation water will probably move slowly through the semiconfining bed overlying the injection zone, and long-term injection tests will be needed to determine the effectiveness of these beds to retard flow. The

  3. In situ geomechanics: Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Patrick, W.C.; De la Cruz, R.V.; Voss, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    The in situ modulus of the Climax granite in the Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) area of the Nevada Test Site was estimated using six different approaches. Our best estimate of field modulus as E/sub f/ = 26 GPa was obtained from a comparison of the various approaches. A best estimate of laboratory modulus acquired by comparing three different sources was E/sub l/ = 70 GPa. Therefore, the modulus reduction factor for the Climax granite appears to be E/sub f//E/sub l/ = 0.37. In turn, our estimate of in situ rock-mass deformability was used to back-calculate in situ values for the normal stiffness of the granite joints. Our analysis of former stress measurements by the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the horizontal stresses in the vicinity of SFT-C vary greatly with azimuth. An unexplained feature of the stresses at SFT-C is the fact that the vertical stress appears to be only 65 to 75% of the calculated lithostatic burden. From the three-dimensional stress ellipsoid at mid-length in the tunnels, assuming a plane strain condition, we were able to estimate an in situ Poisson`s ratio of the rock mass as {nu} = 0.246. Two other techniques were applied in an attempt to measure the stresses around the SFT-C heater and canister drifts: the undercoring method and the borehole jack fracturing approach. The former technique appears to have given reasonable estimates of tangential stresses in the roof of the heater drifts; the latter appears to give low results for stresses in the pillars. Specific recommendations are made for future tests to further characterize the mechanical properties of the Climax granite and the in situ stresses at SFT-C.

  4. Experimental testing of spray dryer for control of incineration emissions.

    PubMed

    Wey, M Y; Wu, H Y; Tseng, H H; Chen, J C

    2003-05-01

    The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results showed that CaO could be used as an alternative sorbent in the spray dryer at an optimal initial particle size distribution of spraying droplet. In the spray dryer, Ca-based sorbents provided a lot of sites for heavy metals and PAHs condensing and calcium and alkalinity to react with metals to form merged species. As a result, heavy metals and PAHs could be removed from the flue gas simultaneously by condensation and adsorption. The additions of additives NaHCO3, SiO2, and KMnO4 were also found to be effective in improving the removal efficiency of these air pollutants.

  5. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  6. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    SciTech Connect

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  7. Nevada Test Site 2007 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from three monitoring wells located near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for calendar year 2007. The NTS is an approximately 3,561 square kilometer (1,375 square mile) restricted-access federal installation located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). Pilot wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are used to monitor the groundwater at the Area 5 RWMS (Figure 2). In addition to groundwater monitoring results, this report includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 RWMS. The disposal of low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste at the Area 5 RWMS is regulated by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The disposal of mixed low-level radioactive waste is also regulated by the state of Nevada under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities' (CFR, 1999). The format of this report was requested by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 12, 1997. The appearance and arrangement of this document have been modified slightly since that date to provide additional information and to facilitate the readability of the document. The objective of this report is to satisfy any Area 5 RWMS reporting agreements between DOE and NDEP.

  8. 78 FR 18576 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Experimental Sites Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Experimental Sites Data Collection Instrument... information collection requirements and provide the requested data in the desired format. ED is soliciting... collection instrument will be used to collect specific information/performance data for analysis of...

  9. 78 FR 73518 - Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... and academic success, result in shorter time to degree, and reduce student loan indebtedness. Based on... reduce reliance on student loans. Subject to the statutory restrictions and limitations of the Secretary... Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...

  10. Testing the FOCUS model PEARL in an Italian site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    2003-04-01

    Pesticides are integral part of the modern agricultural production system . The use of pesticide has soared during the post war period, and now the consumption of pesticide has been reducing in Europe. However, the reduction is difficult to attribute to one specific factor since the application of pesticide is highly variable and linked to climatic, out-breaks of diseases, etc. Furthermore, new molecules are being produced which are more efficient and require a lower dosage. In the EU, the placing on the market of Plant Protection Products (PPP) is regulated at the Community Level by the Council Directive (91/414/EEC). The PPP stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. In this context, European Commission set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project with one major objective being the validation and improvement of existing pesticide fate models. The research presented here focuses on the validation of the PEARL model in an Italian site. The PEARL model, which is one of the FOCUS model, is actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure. The test site is located near Bologna (Italy). The 35 months long experiment was conducted on a 107m by 28m plot with a loamy soil for . The experiment involved the application of KBr as a tracer and two applications of ethoprophos and three applications of Aclonifen. A sequential approach was used for the Bologna site. During this exercise only the measured soil physical parameters were used. The simulation with the PEARL model yielded negative values for both soil moisture profile and pesticide content. In a second step, the water transport module was calibrated, using measured soil moisture profile. This improved greatly the prediction of the soil water balance. Information relative to pesticide degradation and sorption where then included. This allowed a good

  11. Experimental results of the European HELINOISE aeroacoustic rotor test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Niesl, G.; Cenedese, F.; Nitti, F.; Papanikas, D. G.

    1995-04-01

    In a cooperative research program between eight European partners, a 40% geometrically and dynamically scaled and highly instrumented model of the ECD (formerly MBB) BO 105 helicopter main rotor was tested in the open-jet anechoic test section of the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) in the Netherlands. The primary objectives of this experimental study were to: (1) to improve the physical unsderstanding of the impulsive rotor noise sources by correlating blade pressure and acoustic character- istics, and (2) to provide an extensive airload and acoustic database for code validation purposes. Consequently, a compressive set of simultaneous acoustic and aerodynamic blade surface pressure data as well as blade dynamic and performance data were measured for the standard rotor with rectangular blade tips. In addition, initial quantitative information of the blade-vortex miss distance during blade-vortex interaction (BVI) was obtained. This paper describes the model and summarizes the aeroacoustic key results. The blade pressure chracteristics are examined to identify with the corresponding characteristics of the radiated sound pressure fields provide improved insight into the physics of the impulsive noise mechanisms. For descent flight, the strong change of BVI noise directivity and level with descent condition is illustrated, and the importance of the blade-vortex miss distance shown.

  12. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  13. Permeability, geochemical, and water quality tests in support of an aquifer thermal energy storage site in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S.C.; Deutsch, W.J.; Mitchell, P.J.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the Underground Energy Storage Program's efforts to characterize physicochemical processes at DOE's ATES Field Test Facility (FTF) located on the University of Minnesota campus at St. Paul, Minnesota. Experimental efforts include: field tests at the St. Paul FTF to characterize fluid injectability and to evaluate the effectiveness of fluid-conditioning equipment, geochemical studies to investigate chemical reactions resulting from alterations to the aquifer's thermal regime, and laboratory tests on sandstone core from the site. Each experimental area is discussed and results obtained thus far are reported. 23 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Analyst variability in labeling of unsupervised classifications. [test sites for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgwire, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyst variability in the labeling of unsupervised classifications is tested for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image products covering two test sites in southern California. The accuracy of results are tested using samples from a photo interpreted base map of the area. The significance of differences between analysts is indicated by comparing Kappa statistics derived from error matrices. Analyst variability is found to be statistically significant in most cases. Certain analysts provided consistently better results for a given study area or degree of training. This work demonstrates the potential influence of analyst bias on what would otherwise seem to be a fairly objective method and suggests that controls for this subjectivity should be factored into experimental designs.

  15. The competition plot: a simple test of whether two reactions occur at the same active site.

    PubMed Central

    Chevillard, C; Cárdenas, M L; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1993-01-01

    The competition plot is a method for determining whether or not two enzyme-catalysed reactions occur at the same active site. It is a plot of total rate against p, where p varies from 0 to 1 and specifies the concentrations (1-p)a0 and pb0 of two substrates in terms of reference concentrations a0 and b0 chosen so as to give the same rates at p = 0 and p = 1. If the two substrates react at the same site, the competition plot gives a horizontal straight line, i.e. the total rate is independent of p. Independent reactions at two separate sites give a curve with a maximum; separate reactions with cross-inhibition generate curves with either maxima or minima according to whether the Michaelis constants of the two substrates are smaller or larger than their inhibition constants in the other reactions. Although ambiguous results can sometimes arise, experimental strategies exist for avoiding them, for example working as close as possible to the lower of the two limiting rates. When tested with yeast hexokinase, the plot indicated phosphorylation of glucose and fructose at the same site. Conversely, with a mixture of yeast hexokinase and galactokinase it indicated phosphorylation of glucose and galactose at different sites. In both cases the observed behaviour agreed with the known properties of the enzymes. A slight modification to the definition of this plot allows it to be applied also to enzymes that deviate from Michaelis-Menten kinetics. PMID:8424801

  16. InChIKey collision resistance: an experimental testing.

    PubMed

    Pletnev, Igor; Erin, Andrey; McNaught, Alan; Blinov, Kirill; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii; Heller, Steve

    2012-01-01

    InChIKey is a 27-character compacted (hashed) version of InChI which is intended for Internet and database searching/indexing and is based on an SHA-256 hash of the InChI character string. The first block of InChIKey encodes molecular skeleton while the second block represents various kinds of isomerism (stereo, tautomeric, etc.). InChIKey is designed to be a nearly unique substitute for the parent InChI. However, a single InChIKey may occasionally map to two or more InChI strings (collision). The appearance of collision itself does not compromise the signature as collision-free hashing is impossible; the only viable approach is to set and keep a reasonable level of collision resistance which is sufficient for typical applications.We tested, in computational experiments, how well the real-life InChIKey collision resistance corresponds to the theoretical estimates expected by design. For this purpose, we analyzed the statistical characteristics of InChIKey for datasets of variable size in comparison to the theoretical statistical frequencies. For the relatively short second block, an exhaustive direct testing was performed. We computed and compared to theory the numbers of collisions for the stereoisomers of Spongistatin I (using the whole set of 67,108,864 isomers and its subsets). For the longer first block, we generated, using custom-made software, InChIKeys for more than 3 × 1010 chemical structures. The statistical behavior of this block was tested by comparison of experimental and theoretical frequencies for the various four-letter sequences which may appear in the first block body.From the results of our computational experiments we conclude that the observed characteristics of InChIKey collision resistance are in good agreement with theoretical expectations. PMID:23256896

  17. Tracing long-term vadose zone processes at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James R.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear weapons testing programme of the USA has released radionuclides to the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site. One of these tests has been used to study the hydrological transport of radionuclides for over 25 years in groundwater and the deep unsaturated zone. Ten years after the weapon’s test, a 16 year groundwater pumping experiment was initiated to study the mobility of radionuclides from that test in an alluvial aquifer. The continuously pumped groundwater was released into an unlined ditch where some of the water infiltrated into the 200 m deep vadose zone. The pumped groundwater had well-characterized tritium activities that were utilized to trace water migration in the shallow and deep vadose zones. Within the near-surface vadose zone, tritium levels in the soil water are modelled by a simple one-dimensional, analytical wetting front model. In the case of the near-surface soils at the Cambric Ditch experimental site, water flow and salt accumulation appear to be dominated by rooted vegetation, a mechanism not included within the wetting front model. Simulation results from a two-dimensional vadose groundwater flow model illustrate the dominance of vertical flow in the vadose zone and the recharge of the aquifer with the pumped groundwater. The long-time series of hydrological data provides opportunities to understand contaminant transport processes better in the vadose zone with an appropriate level of modelling. PMID:21785525

  18. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Juha M; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness. The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change. PMID:26670681

  19. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    PubMed Central

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness. The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change. PMID:26670681

  20. Particle-Size-Distribution of Nevada Test Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G; Ray-Maitra, A

    2007-09-17

    The amount of each size particle in a given soil is called the particle-size distribution (PSD), and the way it feels to the touch is called the soil texture. Sand, silt, and clay are the three particle sizes of mineral material found in soils. Sand is the largest sized particle and it feels gritty; silt is medium sized and it feels floury; and clay is the smallest and if feels sticky. Knowing the particle-size distribution of a soil sample helps to understand many soil properties such as how much water, heat, and nutrients the soil will hold, how fast water and heat will move through the soil, and what kind of structure, bulk density and consistence the soil will have. Furthermore, the native particle-size distribution of the soil in the vicinity of ground zero of a nuclear detonation plays a major role in nuclear fallout. For soils that have a high-sand content, the near-range fallout will be relatively high and the far-range fallout will be relatively light. Whereas, for soils that have a high-silt and high-clay content, the near-range fallout will be significantly lower and the far-range fallout will be significantly higher. As part of a program funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has recently measured the PSDs from the various major areas at the Nevada Test Site where atmospheric detonations and/or nuclear weapon safety tests were performed back in the 50s and 60s. The purpose of this report is to document those results.

  1. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Repackaging at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Di Sanza; G. Pyles; J. Ciucci; P. Arnold

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the activities required to modify a facility and the process of characterizing, repackaging, and preparing for shipment the Nevada Test Site’s (NTS) legacy transuranic (TRU) waste in 58 oversize boxes (OSB). The waste, generated at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites and shipped to the NTS between 1974 and 1990, requires size-reduction for off-site shipment and disposal. The waste processing approach was tailored to reduce the volume of TRU waste by employing decontamination and non-destructive assay. As a result, the low-level waste (LLW) generated by this process was packaged, with minimal size reduction, in large sea-land containers for disposal at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining TRU waste was repackaged and sent to the Idaho National Laboratory Consolidation Site for additional characterization in preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the NTS Management and Operating (M&O) contractor, NSTec, successfully partnered to modify and upgrade an existing facility, the Visual Examination and Repackaging Building (VERB). The VERB modifications, including a new ventilation system and modified containment structure, required an approved Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis prior to project procurement and construction. Upgrade of the VERB from a radiological facility to a Hazard Category 3 Nuclear Facility required new rigor in the design and construction areas and was executed on an aggressive schedule. The facility Documented Safety Analysis required that OSBs be vented prior to introduction into the VERB. Box venting was safely completed after developing and implementing two types of custom venting systems for the heavy gauge box construction. A remotely operated punching process was used on boxes with wall thickness of up to 3.05 mm (0.120 in) to insert aluminum

  2. Technical safety appraisal of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of one of a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of Department of Energy (DOE) operations (nuclear and non-nuclear) by the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H), Office of Safety Appraisals. These TSAs are one of the initiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE`s environment, safety, and health program. This TSA report focuses on the safety and health operations of the Nevada Operations Office (NV) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which was conducted concurrently, with and supporting a Tiger Team Assessment. The total effort of all the Tiger Team assessment, including environmental and manager evaluations, is reported in the Tiger Team Report, issued January 1990. The assessment of the NTS began November 5, 1989 with the briefing of the Tiger Team in Las Vegas at the Nevada Operations Office. The TSA team evaluation was conducted November 6--17, and November 26--December 1, 1989 at the NTS.

  3. Superposed fold-thrust events at the Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cashman, Patricia H.; Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), in southern Nye County, Nevada, straddles significant pre-Tertiary structural and stratigraphic boundaries. Detailed stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic section delineates the regional trust sheets and constrains their burial histories. The Paleozoic rocks record three phases of contractional deformation, overprinted by strike-slip faulting. These occured in the folloing order: (1) foreland-vergant folding and imbricate thrusting in the footwall of the Belted Range thrust; (2) hinterland-vergent folding and thrusting; and (3) north-vergant folding that we interpret as footwall deformation below a third major thrust system. Sinistral slip, typically accompanied by minor east-west shortening, has occured along a series of north-northeast--north-northwest--striking faults around Yucca Flat. This strike-slip faulting postdates both foreland-vergent and hinterland-vergent deformation, and predates the Cretaceous Climax stock; its age relative to the north-vergent folding and thrusting is unknown. Our new understanding of the geometry of these structures provides new insights into the correlation and interpretation of regional structural features. Field trip stops will examine: (1) the stratigraphic differences that allow us to distinguish the regional thrust sheets and constrain their burial histories; and (2) the field relationships that document the kinematics and relative ages of the penetrative deformational events.

  4. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  5. Recent Solar Measurements Results at the Parabolic Dish Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    After the Mexican volcanic eruptions of March 28, April 3 and 4, 1982, the question of its effect on insolation levels at the Parabolic Dish Test Site (PDTS) naturally arose. Clearly, the answer to the original question is that the Mexican volcanic explosion had a significant impact on energy and insolation levels at the PDTS and, furthermore, it has been quite long lasting. The first really significant decrease in energy and insolation levels occurred in June 1982 when the energy level decreased by 19.7% while the peak insolation levels went down by 4.0%. June of 1982 was also the first month (of 13 consecutive months) when peak insolation levels did not equal or exceed 1,000 W/sq m. Signs of a recovery from the effects of the volcanic explosion began to appear in May of 1983, when the energy level exceeded that of May 1981 as well as May 1982. It would appear that energy and insolation levels are improving at the PDTS, but have not quite reached normal or pre-volcanic levels. At this time the data would seem to suggest a return to normal energy and insolation levels will occur in the very near future.

  6. Recharge from a subsidence crater at the Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, G. V.; Ely, D.M.; Hokett, S. L.; Gillespie, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Current recharge through the alluvial fans of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is considered to be negligible, but the impact of more than 400 nuclear subsidence craters on recharge is uncertain. Many of the craters contain a playa region, but the impact of these playas has not been addressed. It was hypothesized that a crater playa would focus infiltration through the surrounding coarser-grained material, thereby increasing recharge. Crater U5a was selected because it represented a worst case for runoff into craters. A borehole was instrumented for neutron logging beneath the playa center and immediately outside the crater. Physical and hydraulic properties were measured along a transect in the crater and outside the crater. Particle-size analysis of the 14.6 m of sediment in the crater and morphological features of the crater suggest that a large ponding event of ≈63000 m3 had occurred since crater formation. Water flow simulations with HYDRUS-2D, which were corroborated by the measured water contents, suggest that the wetting front advanced initially by as much as 30 m yr−1 with a recharge rate 32 yr after the event of 2.5 m yr−1Simulations based on the measured properties of the sediments suggest that infiltration will occur preferentially around the playa perimeter. However, these sediments were shown to effectively restrict future recharge by storing water until removal by evapotranspiration (ET). This work demonstrated that subsidence craters may be self-healing.

  7. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Thermodynamic testing of experimental hornfels formation in metapelites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropper, Peter

    2016-04-01

    pseudosection calculations. This discrepancy varies between 30°C and 110°C and could be due to minor F and/or Cl contents in the micas which we did not analyse. Major mineral chemical trends could also satisfactorely be reproduced except for Ti-contents in biotite. Overall the results indicate actually satisfactorial agreement between the observed and thermodynamically stable mineral assemblages but some discrepancies still occur which are mostly due to kinetical reasons (complete old garnet resorption did not take place, inhibited growth of andalusite). Nonetheless these whole-rock experiments provide valuable information concerning the textural evolution of the natural hornfelses and thermodynamic testing not only helps to constrain equilibrium assemblages but also helps identifying certain non-equilibrium features in the experiments otherwise not detected (e.g. garnet, muscovite stability). The ultimate goal in constraining the metamorphic evolution of these high-grade hornfelses is to reconcile the experimental- and thermodynamic data with field- and petrographic observations. Only this comprehensive approach allows then drawing firm conclusions about the evolution of these high-grade metamorphic rocks. De Capitani, C. & Petrakakis, K. (2010): American Mineralogist, 95, 1006-1016. Holland, T. J. B. & Powell, R. (1998): Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 8, 89-124. White, R.W., Powell, R. & Holland, T.J.B. (2007): Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 25, 511-527. White, R.W., Powell, R. & Holland, T.J.B. (2001): Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 19, 139-153. Wyhlidal, S. et al. (2012): Mineralogy and Petrology, 106, 173-191. Zöll, K. (2014): Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Innsbruck.

  9. Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information.

    PubMed

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Cotton, James A; Zardoya, Rafael; Wilkinson, Mark; Massingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Taxon and character sampling are central to phylogenetic experimental design; yet, we lack general rules. Goldman introduced a method to construct efficient sampling designs in phylogenetics, based on the calculation of expected Fisher information given a probabilistic model of sequence evolution. The considerable potential of this approach remains largely unexplored. In an earlier study, we applied Goldman's method to a problem in the phylogenetics of caecilian amphibians and made an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of which taxon additions would increase information about a particular weakly supported branch of the caecilian phylogeny by the greatest amount. We have now gathered mitogenomic and rag1 sequences (some newly determined for this study) from additional caecilian species and studied how information (both expected and observed) and bootstrap support vary as each new taxon is individually added to our previous data set. This provides the first empirical test of specific predictions made using Goldman's method for phylogenetic experimental design. Our results empirically validate the top 3 (more intuitive) taxon addition predictions made in our previous study, but only information results validate unambiguously the 4th (less intuitive) prediction. This highlights a complex relationship between information and support, reflecting that each measures different things: Information is related to the ability to estimate branch length accurately and support to the ability to estimate the tree topology accurately. Thus, an increase in information may be correlated with but does not necessitate an increase in support. Our results also provide the first empirical validation of the widely held intuition that additional taxa that join the tree proximal to poorly supported internal branches are more informative and enhance support more than additional taxa that join the tree more distally. Our work supports the view that adding more data for a single (well

  10. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance.

  11. An experimental test of whether habitat corridors affect pollen transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Patricia A.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2005-02-01

    Abstract. Negative effects of habitat fragmentation are thought to be diminished when habitat patches are joined by a corridor. A key assumption is that corridors facilitate exchange rates of organisms between otherwise isolated patches. If the organisms are pollinators, corridors may be important for maintaining genetically viable populations of the plants that they pollinate. We tested the hypothesis that corridors increase the movement of insect pollinators into patches of habitat and thereby increase pollen transfer for two species of plants, one pollinated by butterflies (Lantana camara) and the other by bees and wasps (Rudbeckia hirta). We worked in an experimental landscape consisting of 40 greater than or equal to 1-ha patches of early-successional habitat in a matrix of forest. Within each of eight experimental units, two patches were connected by a corridor (150 X 25 m), and three were not. Patch shape varied to control for the area added by the presence of a corridor. Differences in patch shape also allowed us to test alternative hypotheses of how corridors might function. The Traditional Corridor Hypothesis posits that corridors increase immigration and emigration by functioning as movement conduits between patches. The Drift Fence Hypothesis posits that corridors function by ‘‘capturing’’ organisms dispersing through the matrix, redirecting them into associated habitat patches. Using fluorescent powder to track pollen, we found that pollen transfer by butterflies between patches connected by a corridor was significantly higher than between unconnected patches (all values mean plus or minus 1 SE: 59% plus or minus 9.2% vs. 25% plus or minus 5.2% of flowers receiving pollen). Likewise, pollen transfer by bees and wasps was significantly higher between connected patches than between unconnected patches (30% plus or minus 4.2% vs. 14.5% plus or minus 2.2%). These results support the Traditional Corridor Hypothesis. There was little support, however

  12. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.

    2013-12-01

    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  13. Environmental testing of an experimental digital safety channel

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Tanaka, T.J.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the NRC-sponsored Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (W) System program. The objective of this study is to investigate failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies when subjected to environmental stressors. The study contributes to the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I&C systems. The EDSC employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) or for retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMYRFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied over ranges that were considerably higher than what the channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified.

  14. Experimental designs for testing differences in survival among salmonid populations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.; Busack, C.; Knudsen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is a supplementation plan for enhancing salmon runs in the Yakima River basin. It is presumed that inadequate spawning and rearing, habitat are limiting, factors to population abundance of spring chinook salmon. Therefore, the supplementation effort for spring chinook salmon is focused on introducing hatchery-raised smolts into the basin to compensate for the lack of spawning habitat. However, based on empirical evidence in the Yakima basin, hatchery-reared salmon have survived poorly compared to wild salmon. Therefore, the YFP has proposed to alter the optimal conventional treatment (OCT), which is the state-of-the-art hatchery rearing method, to a new innovative treatment (NIT). The NIT is intended to produce hatchery fish that mimic wild fish and thereby to enhance their survival over that of OCT fish. A limited application of the NIT (LNIT) has also been proposed to reduce the cost of applying the new treatment, yet retain the benefits of increased survival. This research was conducted to test whether the uncertainty using the experimental design was within the limits specified by the Planning Status Report (PSR).

  15. Experimental tests of a hybrid pixellated detector for gamma imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, O.; Mikulec, B.; Million, M.

    2001-03-01

    In the framework of the MEDIPIX Collaboration, a hybrid pixel detector has been developed primarily for X-ray radiography. This detector consists of a 64×64 pixel photon counting chip (PCC), bump bonded to a 200 μm thick GaAs substrate. The PCC is optimised for energy depositions in the range of a few keV to a few tens of keV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detector for applications in decommissioning of nuclear power plants where typical sources have energies in range of a few hundred keV. Tests were realised using a 137Cs gamma source (660 keV). At this energy, Monte-Carlo simulations predict that, on average, for more than 60% of primary interactions, there is at least one pixel on which the deposited energy exceeds 100 keV. Simulations also allow modelling of the spatial energy spreading. The comparison of the simulation results with experimental data should indicate if there is a significant contribution of electrical cross-coupling between pixels to the cluster size of the detected hits. The results obtained demonstrate promising perspectives for this kind of detector towards gamma imaging applications.

  16. Experimental Tests of the Hvbk Equations for he II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, H. A.

    2008-03-01

    We generally accept the HVBK equations as those governing the motion of He II. The simplest test that involves all terms significantly is the prediction of the onset of instability for rotating Couette flow. The calculations show that the critical Reynolds number and the wave number rapidly approach zero as the temperature decreases below the lambda point. The wavelength is longer than most apparatus below T = 2.07 K. All the experimental data, by six different groups, show breaks in the slope of the attenuation of second sound vs. rotation at all temperatures investigated. A large amount of data is available above the break points but the theory to analyze this information is lacking. We present an analysis of standing waves of second sound in an annular cavity when the stationary flow is the Couette regime. We show how the flow due to Taylor cells affects standing waves. Most of the nonrotating normal modes of the cavity are degenerate. The Couette flow couples all the normal modes to the excited mode and splits the degenerate modes. The attenuation is due to the mutual friction force. Errors arise in analyzing the data if we neglect the energy flow to coupled modes.

  17. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  18. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a

  19. CEOS database of worldwide calibration facilities and validation test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James J.; Wanchoo, Lalit; Le, Truong

    2001-02-01

    12 Since 1995, the CEOS Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) Database has provided the international Earth remote sensing science community with a) a central repository for information on current and planned Calibration/Validation activities and b) a means to foster collaboration on common Cal/Val issues. The Cal/Val Database uses an ORACLE relation database management system to store the data and is accessed via the World Wide Web (WWW) using PERL scripts to search and query the database. The search queries are structured such that users can define any combination of fields, either through selection of valids, or by directly typing the information. All query results are displayed in the text form. The text displays are interactive allowing the user to point and click to access more detailed information. System functionality provides an on-line form of all of the three questionnaires for submitting new information and allows a user with the assigned password to edit archived information for their facility. This functionality allows users to update information, as it becomes available. In 2000, the Cal/Val database was updated through a process of additional surveying of existing and planned Cal/Val capabilities to support the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and other international Earth observing missions. A set of three updated questionnaires was prepared: one for calibration laboratories, one for test sites, and one for field instruments. The information requested included: a description of the facility, instruments available, instrument characteristics, types of measurements performed, programs/projects that have used the facility, etc. These questionnaires with cover letter were mailed to over 250 research groups that included CEOS members and facilities within the USA. The information collected from worldwide facilities was used to construct and update this on-line database for use not only by the CEOS members, but also the broader international Earth

  20. New hydrogeophysical methods examined at the test-site Schillerslage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosch, Raphael; Holland, Raphael; Holzhauer, Julia; Günther, Thomas; Yaramanci, Ugur

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods have proved to yield valuable information to characterise aquifers. However, in order to obtain reliable hydraulic properties such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity (kf), new methods need to be applied and improved. Among them, spectral induced polarisation (SIP) and magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) are promising, since the data are directly related to pore geometry and therefore storage properties. However, they are susceptible to noise and need methodological improvements. These methods are evaluated at the new LIAG test site Schillerslage. The subsurface consists of two shallow quaternary aquifers (1-12m and 16-22m depth) separated by a till layer over cretaceous marls as typical in northern Germany. The subsurface structure was investigated by GPR and seismic surveys as well as drilling and borehole geophysics. Kf and porosity values are obtained by pumping tests to access field scale properties; lab kf measurements and grain size analyses to yield these parameters on a small scale. Laboratory NMR and SIP measurements on core samples can be directly compared to hydrological data. Both methods provide relaxation spectra that are connected to the pore size distribution. With these pore size estimations coarse and fine grained parts of the aquifer can qualitatively be distinguished. For quantification, different approaches for estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation times and measured SIP phases are applied. All values are in similar order of the magnitude compared to the directly measured. However, variations of unidentified origin occur too. Field measurements using MRS and SIP soundings have been carried out in the vicinity of the main borehole. Their inversion reveals the expected general layering. However, there is significant ambiguity in the inversion results that can only be diminished by additional information as known layer boundaries. The calculated porosities are 20-30% by SIP and 25-33% by NMR for the upper

  1. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1998-10-01

    Monitoring and surveillance, on and around the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1997, indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of liquid effluents, or resuspension of soil was not detectable offsite, and exposure above existing background to members of the offsite population was not measured by the offsite monitoring program. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Clean Air Package 1988 (CAP88)-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions and environmental monitoring data, the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.089 mrem. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities.

  2. Nevada test site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1995 indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable federal and DOE regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of effluents, or resuspension was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water effluents and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Cooperation with other agencies has resulted in seven different consent orders and agreements. Support facilities at off-NTS locations complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits.

  3. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  4. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Diffusion of 14C into Nevada Test Site Carbonate Aquifer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Hershey; William Howcroft; Paul W. Reimus

    2003-03-01

    Determination of groundwater flow velocities at the Nevada Test Site is important since groundwater is the principal transport medium of underground radionuclides. However, 14C-based groundwater velocities in the carbonate aquifers of the Nevada Test Site are several orders of magnitude slower than velocities derived from the Underground Test Area regional numerical model. This discrepancy has been attributed to the loss or retardation of 14C from groundwater into the surrounding aquifer matrix making 14C-based groundwater ages appear much older. Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the retardation of 14C in the carbonate aquifers at the Nevada Test Site. Three sets of experiments were conducted evaluating the diffusion of 14C into the carbonate aquifer matrix, adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the pore surfaces of the carbonate matrix, and adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the fracture surfaces of the carbonate aquifer. Experimental results a nd published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities from the Lower Carbonate Aquifer were applied to a 14C retardation model. The model produced an extremely wide range of retardation factors because of the wide range of published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities (over three orders of magnitude). Large retardation factors suggest that groundwater with very little measured 14C activity may actually be very young if matrix porosity is large relative to the fracture porosity. Groundwater samples collected from highly fractured aquifers with large effective fracture porosities may have relatively small correction factors, while samples from aquifers with a few widely spaced fractures may have very large correction factors. These retardation factors were then used to calculate groundwater velocities from a proposed flow path at the Nevada Test Site. The upper end of the range of 14C correction factors estimated groundwater velocities that appear to be at least an order of magnitude too high compared

  5. Evaluation of a site-specific criterion using outdoor experimental streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hedtke, S.F.; Arthur, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    An overview of a study to evaluate a site-specific water quality criteria for pentachlorophenol (PCP) in outdoor experimental streams is presented. The site-specific criterion was calculated from acute toxicity results for eight resident species and the relationship between acute and chronic toxicity of PCP. The PCP concentration expected to protect aquatic life (30-day average criterion concentration) was less than or equal to 48 micrograms/l. Outdoor experimental streams were subsequently dosed continuously for 84 days at 48, 144, and 432 micrograms PCP/l. Measurements of the biological structure and ecosystem processes within the exposure streams were compared to a control system. Effects on snails were found only at 432 micrograms/l, but effects on fish, periphyton, and system metabolism were found at 432, 144, and 48 micrograms/l. The small differences between the criterion-dosed stream (48 micrograms/l) and the control stream may have been caused by PCP or interstream variation.

  6. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    PubMed

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out. PMID:26964352

  7. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    PubMed

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out.

  8. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  9. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan, ecological test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of seasonal changes at the ecological test site of Raco, Michigan, located south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The image is centered at about 46 degrees north latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10th, 1994, and on October 1, 1994. The areas shown in red correspond to the April 10th data; the areas in blue correspond to data acquired on October 1, 1994; green indicates the ratio of data acquired on April 10 and October 1, 1994. The area shown is 22.7 kilometers by 53 kilometers (14 miles by 33 miles). Lake Superior in the upper right was frozen in April and had small waves (ripples) on its surface in October. The land area contains mostly forests and, to a lesser extent, agricultural regions. In April the area was covered in wet snow. By October, there agricultural areas were covered with grass. Vegetation and soils were moist due to rainfalls three days before the data was acquired on October 1, 1994. The bright light green/yellow tones in the lower half of the image show the stronger reflections of the snow-covered agricultural fields. The pinkish color corresponds to the coniferous and deciduous forests. The green area represents red pines. These trees are smaller than the surrounding forest cover and allow more radar penetration. The area is green because the radar is sensing the surface, which undergoes great change from snow to grass and fern undergrowth between April and October. The bright green triangle in the upper half of the image is an old airstrip, while the modern airport can be seen on the bottom right side of the image. The Raco site is an important location for monitoring seasonal changes and future global change because it is situated at the ecological transition zone between the boreal forests and the northern temperate forests. This transitional zone is expected to be ecologically sensitive to anticipated

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-30

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose.

  11. Structure refinement using precession electron diffraction tomography and dynamical diffraction: tests on experimental data.

    PubMed

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Corrêa, Cinthia Antunes; Steciuk, Gwladys; Jacob, Damien; Roussel, Pascal; Boullay, Philippe; Klementová, Mariana; Gemmi, Mauro; Kopeček, Jaromír; Domeneghetti, M Chiara; Cámara, Fernando; Petříček, Václav

    2015-12-01

    The recently published method for the structure refinement from three-dimensional precession electron diffraction data using dynamical diffraction theory [Palatinus et al. (2015). Acta Cryst. A71, 235-244] has been applied to a set of experimental data sets from five different samples - Ni2Si, PrVO3, kaolinite, orthopyroxene and mayenite. The data were measured on different instruments and with variable precession angles. For each sample a reliable reference structure was available. A large series of tests revealed that the method provides structure models with an average error in atomic positions typically between 0.01 and 0.02 Å. The obtained structure models are significantly more accurate than models obtained by refinement using kinematical approximation for the calculation of model intensities. The method also allows a reliable determination of site occupancies and determination of absolute structure. Based on the extensive tests, an optimal set of the parameters for the method is proposed.

  12. Closure report for housekeeping category, Corrective Action Unit 349, Area 12, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report summarizes the corrective actions which were completed at the Corrective Action Sites within Corrective Action Unit 349 Area 12 at the Nevada Test Site. Current site descriptions, observations and identification of wastes removed are included on FFACO Corrective Action Site housekeeping closure verification forms.

  13. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  14. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough. PMID:1611233

  15. The Las Cruces Trench Site: Characterization, Experimental Results, and One-Dimensional Flow Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierenga, P. J.; Hills, R. G.; Hudson, D. B.

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive field trench study was conducted in a semiarid area of southern New Mexico to provide data to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. A 4 m by 9 m area was irrigated with water containing a tracer using a carefully controlled drip irrigation system. The area was heavily instrumented with tensiometers and neutron probe access tubes to monitor water movement and with suction tubes to monitor solute transport. Approximately 600 disturbed and 600 core samples of soil were taken to support deterministic and stochastic characterization of the soil water hydraulic parameters. The core sample-based saturated hydraulic conductivities ranged from 1.4 to 6731 cm/d with a mean of 533 cm/d and a standard deviation of 647 cm/d, indicating significant spatial variability. However, visual observation of the wetting front on the trench wall shows no indication of preferential flow or water flow through visible root channels and cracks. The tensiometer readings and the neutron probe measurements also suggest that the wetting front moves in a fairly homogeneous fashion despite the significant spatial variability of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. In addition to the description of the experiment and the presentation of the experimental results, predictions of simple one-dimensional uniform and layered soil deterministic models for infiltration are presented and compared to field observations. These models are presented here to provide a base case against which more sophisticated deterministic and stochastic models can be compared in the future. The results indicate that the simple models give adequate predictions of the overall movement of the wetting front through the soil during infiltration. However, the models give poor predictions of point values for water content due to the spatial variability of the soil. Comparisons between the one-dimensional infiltration model predictions and field observations show that the use of

  16. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  17. The peel test in experimental adhesive fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Several testing methods have been proposed for obtaining critical energy release rate or adhesive fracture energy in bond systems. These tests include blister, cone, lap shear, and peel tests. Peel tests have been used for many years to compare relative strengths of different adhesives, different surface preparation techniques, etc. The present work demonstrates the potential use of the peel test for obtaining adhesive fracture energy values.

  18. Role of Groundwater Monitoring for Closure of Underground Nuclear Tests on the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, J. B.; Pohlmann, K.; Pohll, G.; Russell, C.

    2009-12-01

    Over 800 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in a variety of hydrogeologic environments. As of the 1996 Environmental Impact Statement for the site, more than 100 million curies of radioactivity remained in the subsurface from these tests, much of it near or below the water table. The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program is implementing a closure strategy for these sites that anticipates closure-in-place, natural attenuation, and institutional controls. Groundwater monitoring is a key component of this strategy, but its role is significantly evolved from that of a detection- or compliance-based monitoring concept. Indeed, monitoring is part of the integrated closure process itself, not an activity confined to a static post-closure period. The reasons for this evolution derive from the complex hydrogeologic conditions, the long time-frames of concern, and recognition that a significant degree of uncertainty is irreducible. The hundreds of test locations are grouped into Corrective Action Units that measure over 100 km2 in area and extend to depths in excess of 1000 m. Despite concerted data collection efforts, the technical basis for closure of these large regions relies heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport. The inherent uncertainties in these models present challenges for reaching regulatory acceptance of closure, and challenges for confidently locating monitoring wells. The solution now being pursued for the NTS is to integrate model evaluation and monitoring. In addition to standard goals of contaminant detection and protection of human health, an explicit monitoring objective is to increase confidence in model results by assessing the reliability of model forecasts. The initial monitoring network is expected to eventually transition to a long-term closure design, with less emphasis on confidence-building as uncertainty in forecasts is reduced. The methodology for this iterative process of

  19. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1997-10-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1996 indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of liquid effluents, or resuspension of soil was not detectable offsite, and exposure above background to members of the offsite population was not measured by the offsite monitoring program. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Clean Air Package 1988 (CAP88)PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions and environmental monitoring data, the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.11 mrem. This value is less than 2 percent of the federal dose limit prescribed for radionuclide air emissions. Any person receiving this dose would also have received 144 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water effluents and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Cooperation with other agencies has resulted in seven different consent orders and agreements. Support facilities at off-NTS locations have complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits as mandated for each location.

  20. Experimental pelvic pain facilitates pain provocation tests and causes regional hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The extra-articular sacroiliac joint (SIJ) structure is a potential source for low back and pelvic pain. This study hypothesised that experimental pain induced in a superficial pelvic ligament causes (1) hyperalgesia to pressure, (2) distinct pain referral, and (3) an increased frequency of positive pain provocation tests of the SIJ complex. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females) participated in this study designed as a randomised crossover trial. Pain was induced in the long posterior sacroiliac ligament by injection of hypertonic saline, with the contralateral ligament injected with isotonic saline as control. Pain intensity was assessed on an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and pain provocation tests were assessed on 3 occasions: at baseline, after injection, and when pain had subsided. PPT sites were located bilaterally at the injection site, lateral to spinous processes of S2 and L5, and at the gluteus medius and gastrocnemius muscles. Hypertonic saline caused significantly higher VAS scores and more extended pain referral than isotonic saline (P<0.001). PPTs at the injection site and lateral to S2 were significantly reduced after hypertonic saline compared with baseline and isotonic saline (P<0.002). Significantly more subjects had positive pain provocation tests after hypertonic (67% of subjects) compared with isotonic saline (20%; P<0.001). These data demonstrate that the extra-articular SIJ structure accommodates nociceptors that are capable of inducing pain referral and regional hyperalgesia sensitive to manual pain provocation tests similar to what previously have been found in pelvic girdle pain patients.

  1. Safer Work Plan for CAUs 452, 454, 456, and 464 Closure of Historical UST Release Sites Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Bonn

    1997-08-01

    This plan addresses characterization and closure of nine underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2, 9, 12, 23, and 25. The underground storage tanks associated with the release sites and addressed by this plan were closed between 1990 and 1996 by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. One underground storage tank was closed in place (23-111-1) while the remaining eight were closed by removal. Hydrocarbon releases were identified at each of the sites based upon laboratory analytical data samples collected below the tank bottoms. The objective of this plan is to provide a method for implementing characterization and closure of historical underground storage tank hydrocarbon release sites.

  2. Experimentally Testing the Mulitverse/Many-Worlds Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Many-Worlds quantum mechanics is NOT experimentally equivalent to standard quantum mechanics. I shall demonstrate this fact and investigate its consequences. I first show the Schrödinger equation is a special case of the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation, with |Ψ|2 being most naturally interpreted as a quantity proportional to the density of universes in the multiverse. I then show that with this interpretation for |Ψ|2, we can test the multiverse theory, because in the multiverse theory, the Born Interpretation is derived from this assumption, not merely assumed as in standard quantum theory, and the derivation gives us a means of computing how fast |Ψ|2 will build up from individual particles in an experiment, a computation I shall show cannot be done in standard quantum mechanics. In some types of experiments, the observed pattern will approach the final Born pattern as 1/N1/2, and in other types of experiments, the approach will be as 1/N, where N is the number of observed “particles.” The multiverse meaning of has other advantages over the standard probability amplitude meaning, because if is a universe density amplitude, need not be restricted to being a Hilbert space function. In particular, delta functions and plane waves are NOT functions in any Hilbert space, but they are both used extensively in quantum mechanics, though disallowed by the axioms of standard quantum mechanics. Finally, I shall show that multiverse experiments have important implications for cosmology. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for quantum gravity, applied to a spatially closed Friedman radiation universe in conformal time, is mathematically the Schrödinger equation for a simple harmonic oscillator. I show that if the wave function of the universe were a delta function at the initial singularity — I show that the universes being exactly classical now implies such a universal wave function — then we are overwhelmingly likely to find ourselves in a closed universe that is

  3. Site-city interaction: theoretical, numerical and experimental crossed-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, L.; Boutin, C.; Padrón, L. A.; Dietz, M. S.; Bard, P.-Y.; Taylor, C.

    2016-05-01

    The collective excitation of city structures by a seismic wavefield and the subsequent multiple Structure-Soil-Structure Interactions (SSSIs) between the buildings are usually disregarded in conventional seismology and earthquake engineering practice. The objective here is to qualify and quantify these complex multiple SSSIs through the design of an elementary study case, which serves as a benchmark for theoretical, numerical and experimental crossed-analysis. The experimental specimen consists of an idealized site-city setup with up to 37 anisotropic resonant structures arranged at the top surface of an elastic layer and in co-resonance with it. The experimental data from shaking table measurements is compared with the theoretical and numerical results provided respectively by an equivalent city-impedance model derived analytically from homogenization in the long-wavelength approximation and a model based on boundary elements. The signatures of the site-city interactions are identified in the frequency, time and space domain, and in particular consist of a frequency-dependent free/rigid switch in the surface condition at the city resonance, beatings in the records and the depolarization of the wavefield. A parametric study on the city density shows that multiple SSSIs among the city structures (five are sufficient) can have significant effects on both the seismic response of its implantation site and that of the buildings. Key parameters are provided to assess site-city interactions in the low seismic frequency range: They involve the mass and rigidity of the city compared to those of the soil and the damping of the building.

  4. Launch site payload test configurations for Space Shuttle scientific payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.; Mayer, Maynette S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the test configurations which are utilized in prelaunch testing at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for those scientific payloads which are flown in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle. A generalized view of the payload prelaunch processing is provided and the major types of payload configurations are described. The majority of the prelaunch test activity involves the verification of experiment functions, compatibility of experiment-to-carrier interfaces and payload-to-orbiter interfaces. The Shuttle's avionics system is presented as it relates to payloads. The testing of Spacelab experiments and the experiment-to-Spacelab compatibility verification is described as is the test activity for partial payloads and their experiments. Test operations which involve simulated orbiter interface verification and actual payload-to-orbiter testing are discussed. An overview of the Space Station payload processing concept is presented.

  5. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test AGENCY: U.S. Census..., reducing the need for more costly enumerator-administered options. The 2014 Census Site Test will allow the... under consideration for the 2020 Census. To improve self- response, the Census Bureau plans to test...

  6. Experimental test plan: USDOE/JAERI collaborative program for the coated particle fuel performance test

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, M.J.; Fukuda, K.

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the coated-particle fuel performance test agreed to under Annex 2 of the arrangement between the US Department of Energy and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on cooperation in research and development regarding high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The test will evaluate the behavior of reference fuel compacts containing coated-particle fuels fabricated according to the specifications for the US Modular HTGR and the Japanese High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) concepts. Two experimental capsules, HRB-21 and HRB-22, are being tested. Capsule HRB-21 contains only US reference fuel, and HRB-22 contains only JAERI reference fuel. Both capsules will be irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Capsule HRB-21 will be operated at a mean volumetric fuel temperature of 975{degrees}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) and a fast fluence of {le}4.5 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. Capsule HRB-22 will be operated at a mean centerline fuel temperature of 1250 to 1300{degrees}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 5.5% FIMA and a fast fluence of 1.7 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. Performance of the fuels during irradiation will be closely monitored using on-line fission gas surveillance. Following irradiation, both capsules will undergo detailed examinations and core heatup simulation testing. Results from in-reactor monitoring and postirradiation testing will be analyzed to comparatively assess US and Japanese coated-particle fuel performance. 3 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Testing Local Adaptation in a Natural Great Tit-Malaria System: An Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Tania; Delhaye, Jessica; Christe, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Finding out whether Plasmodium spp. are coevolving with their vertebrate hosts is of both theoretical and applied interest and can influence our understanding of the effects and dynamics of malaria infection. In this study, we tested for local adaptation as a signature of coevolution between malaria blood parasites, Plasmodium spp. and its host, the great tit, Parus major. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment of birds in the field, where we exposed birds from two populations to Plasmodium parasites. This experimental set-up also provided a unique opportunity to study the natural history of malaria infection in the wild and to assess the effects of primary malaria infection on juvenile birds. We present three main findings: i) there was no support for local adaptation; ii) there was a male-biased infection rate; iii) infection occurred towards the end of the summer and differed between sites. There were also site-specific effects of malaria infection on the hosts. Taken together, we present one of the few experimental studies of parasite-host local adaptation in a natural malaria system, and our results shed light on the effects of avian malaria infection in the wild. PMID:26555892

  8. Preliminary Interpretation of a Radionuclide and Colloid Tracer Test in a Granodiorite Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul W.

    2012-08-30

    In February and March 2012, a tracer test involving the injection of a radionuclide-colloid cocktail was conducted in the MI shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, as part of the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) project. The colloids were derived from FEBEX bentonite, which is mined in Spain and is being considered as a potential waste package backfill in a Spanish nuclear waste repository. The tracer test, designated test 12-02 (second test in 2012), involved the injection of the tracer cocktail into borehole CFM 06.002i2 and extraction from the Pinkel surface packer at the main access tunnel wall approximately 6.1 m from the injection interval. The test configuration is depicted in Figure 1. This configuration has been used in several conservative tracer tests and two colloid-homologue tracer tests since 2007, and it is will be employed in an upcoming test involving the emplacement of a radionuclide-doped bentonite plug into CFM 06.002i2 to evaluate the swelling and erosion of the bentonite and the transport of bentonite colloids and radionuclides from the source to the extraction point at the tunnel wall. Interpretive analyses of several of the previous tracer tests, from 09-01 through 12-02 were provided in two previous Used Fuel Disposition Program milestone reports (Arnold et al., 2011; Kersting et al., 2012). However, only the data for the conservative tracer Amino-G Acid was previously analyzed from test 12-02 because the other tracer data from this test were not available at the time. This report documents the first attempt to quantitatively analyze the radionuclide and colloid breakthrough curves from CFM test 12-02. This report was originally intended to also include an experimental assessment of colloid-facilitated transport of uranium by bentonite colloids in the Grimsel system, but this assessment was not conducted because it was reported by German collaborators at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) that neither uranium nor

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. {sm_bullet} CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2){sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a{sm_bullet} CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site{sm_bullet} CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil{sm_bullet} CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10{sm_bullet} CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  10. Path Length Fluctuations Derived from Site Testing Interferometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate possible sites for NASA's proposed Ka-band antenna array, the NASA Glenn Research Center has constructed atmospheric phase monitors (APM) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability. These instruments observe an unmodulated 20.2 GHz beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. Two APM's have been deployed, one at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California, and the other at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Two station-years of atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone since operations commenced in May 2007 and 0.5 station-years of data have been collected at White Sands since operations began February 2009. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability at the two sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric path length fluctuations over 10 min blocks. Correlation between surface wind speed and relative humidity with interferometer phase are discussed. For 2 years, the path length fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, California, have been better than 757 micrometer (with reference to a 300 m baseline and to Zenith) for 90 percent of the time. For the 6 months of data collected at White Sands, New Mexico, the path length fluctuations have been better than 830 micrometers (with reference to a 300 m baseline and to Zenith) for 90 percent of the time. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.), will be used to determine the suitability of both sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band using an array of antennas.

  11. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  13. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  14. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 536: AREA 3 RELEASE SITE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    CAU 536 consists of CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, located in Area 3 of the NTS. The site was characterized in 2004 according to the approved CAIP and the site characterization results are reported in the CAU 536 CADD. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved CAU 536 CADD.

  15. Stability Tests with Actual Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    solutions in two laboratory experiments. The first experiment tested four waste solutions for supersaturation of aluminum by monitoring the aluminum concentration after seeding with gibbsite. The second experiment tested two waste samples for precipitation of aluminosilicates by heating the solutions to accelerate solids formation. The results of the experiments with actual waste solutions are supported in this report.

  16. [An experimental tool essential for the evaluation of insecticides: the testing huts].

    PubMed

    Darriet, F; N'Guessan, R; Hougard, J M; Traoré-Lamizana, M; Carnevale, P

    2002-11-01

    The following study analyses the potentialities of the experimental huts built in M'be Valley (Côte d'Ivoire) where the evaluations of the insecticide products have been carried out for many years in line with the WHOPES protocol on the methodology of stage 2 assays. Starting a testing station first requires a good knowledge of the sensitivity of Anopheles gambiae to the main insecticide families. Then thanks to the experimental huts the efficacy of the various means of treatment can be compared with the one in untreated huts; this study focuses on house spraying using 100 mg a.i./m2 and bednets impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin at a dose of 15 mg a.i./m2. The fipronil used in house spraying doesn't show any repellent effect, however it does have an irritating effect that increases the natural exophily of An. gambiae females entering the testing huts. The blood-feeding rate recorded in the treated huts was reduced to 24% and to 38% mortality rate consisting mainly of a 24 hours delayed mortality. The bednets treated with lambda-cyhalothrin have greatly reduced the contact between man and vector since the entry rate of An. gambiae females was cut down by 68% compared to the control. The exophily of this anopheles was twofold greater with the impregnated bednets and the blood-feeding rate reduced to 47%. Finally the global mortality rate, two thirds of immediate mortality, one third of delayed mortality, reached 35%. The experimental huts in the M'be Valley therefore provide essential information regarding the selection of the most efficacious insecticides against An. gambiae. This experimental method must be extended to other sites in order to finalize ever more selective and appropriate means of control against nuisance and disease-vector mosquitoes.

  17. Zernike test. I - Analytical aspects. II - Experimental aspects. [interferometric phase error test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Zernike phenomenon is interpreted in general interferometric terms to gain insight into the optimum design of disks suitable for a particular experimental situation. The design of Zernike disks for measuring small low-order aberrations is considered and evaluated; optimum parameters for disks 2, 3, 4, and 5 microns in radius are determined for an f/12 large-space-telescope system with an obscuration ratio of 0.4 at 0.6 micron. It is shown that optimization in this case provides sensitivities of better than one hundredth of a wavelength for the measurement of low-order aberrations. The procedure for manufacturing a Zernike disk is then described in detail, and results are reported for tests of a laboratory Zernike figure sensor containing a disk manufactured according to this procedure. In the tests, a laboratory wavefront-error simulator was used to introduce small aberration ranges, measurements of the changes in reimaged pupil intensity introduced by the disk were made for several aberration settings, and the measured changes were compared with the values predicted by the interferometric theory of Zernike tests. The results are found to agree within an error of one two-hundredth of a wavelength.

  18. Experimental Applications of Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; McCartney, Patrick; Gorringe, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe challenging use-cases for Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML), and evaluate solutions. The first case uses ATML Test Results to deliver active features to support test procedure development and test flow, and bridging mixed software development environments. The second case examines adding attributes to Systems Modelling Language (SysML) to create a linkage for deriving information from a model to fill in an ATML document set. Both cases are outside the original concept of operations for ATML but are typical when integrating large heterogeneous systems with modular contributions from multiple disciplines.

  19. Experimental testing of quantum mechanical predictions of mutagenicity: aminopyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Leach, Andrew G; McCoull, William; Bailey, Andrew; Barton, Peter; Mee, Christine; Rosevere, Eleanor

    2013-05-20

    A computational method for predicting the likelihood of aromatic amines being active in the Ames test for mutagenicity was trialed on a set of aminopyrazoles. A virtual array of compounds was generated from the available sets of hydrazines and α-cyanoaldehydes (or ketones) and quantum mechanical calculations used to compute a probability of being active in the Ames test. The compounds selected for synthesis and testing were not based on the predictions and so spanned the range of predicted probabilities. The subsequently generated results of the Ames test were in good correspondence with the predictions and confirm this approach as a useful means of predicting likely mutagenic risk. PMID:23541044

  20. Prediction of glutathionylation sites in proteins using minimal sequence information and their experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Debojyoti; Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Mukesh; Sandur, Santosh K

    2016-09-01

    S-glutathionylation of proteins plays an important role in various biological processes and is known to be protective modification during oxidative stress. Since, experimental detection of S-glutathionylation is labor intensive and time consuming, bioinformatics based approach is a viable alternative. Available methods require relatively longer sequence information, which may prevent prediction if sequence information is incomplete. Here, we present a model to predict glutathionylation sites from pentapeptide sequences. It is based upon differential association of amino acids with glutathionylated and non-glutathionylated cysteines from a database of experimentally verified sequences. This data was used to calculate position dependent F-scores, which measure how a particular amino acid at a particular position may affect the likelihood of glutathionylation event. Glutathionylation-score (G-score), indicating propensity of a sequence to undergo glutathionylation, was calculated using position-dependent F-scores for each amino-acid. Cut-off values were used for prediction. Our model returned an accuracy of 58% with Matthew's correlation-coefficient (MCC) value of 0.165. On an independent dataset, our model outperformed the currently available model, in spite of needing much less sequence information. Pentapeptide motifs having high abundance among glutathionylated proteins were identified. A list of potential glutathionylation hotspot sequences were obtained by assigning G-scores and subsequent Protein-BLAST analysis revealed a total of 254 putative glutathionable proteins, a number of which were already known to be glutathionylated. Our model predicted glutathionylation sites in 93.93% of experimentally verified glutathionylated proteins. Outcome of this study may assist in discovering novel glutathionylation sites and finding candidate proteins for glutathionylation. PMID:27454891

  1. 76 FR 2930 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Gift Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test... Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental product in accordance with statutory...) that it will begin a market test of its ``Gift Cards'' experimental product on or around May 1,...

  2. 75 FR 16874 - Market Test of “Samples Co-Op Box” Experimental Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test...: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental product in accordance with...) that it will begin a market test of its ``Samples Co-Op Box'' experimental product on May 1, 2010....

  3. 77 FR 64366 - Market Test of Experimental Product-Metro Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test... Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental product in accordance with statutory requirements... 39 U.S.C. 3641(c)(1), it will begin a market test of its Metro Post experimental product on or...

  4. Accurate metal-site structures in proteins obtained by combining experimental data and quantum chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ryde, Ulf

    2007-02-14

    The use of molecular mechanics calculations to supplement experimental data in standard X-ray crystallography and NMR refinements is discussed and it is shown that structures can be locally improved by the use of quantum chemical calculations. Such calculations can also be used to interpret the structures, e.g. to decide the protonation state of metal-bound ligands. They have shown that metal sites in crystal structures are frequently photoreduced or disordered, which makes the interpretation of the structures hard. Similar methods can be used for EXAFS refinements to obtain a full atomic structure, rather than a set of metal-ligand distances.

  5. Visual Testing: An Experimental Assessment of the Encoding Specificity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMelo, Hermes T.; And Others

    This study of 96 high school biology students investigates the effectiveness of visual instruction composed of simple line drawings and printed words as compared to printed-words-only instruction, visual tests, and the interaction between visual or non-visual mode of instruction and mode of testing. The subjects were randomly assigned to be given…

  6. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    existing data sets. The first data set used laboratory generated Np sorption data as a function of concentration (three orders of magnitude) and as a function of pH (four orders of magnitude of proton concentration). In this modeling exercise, a very simple solution was identified by assuming that all sorption occurred only to the iron oxides in the sediment and that all the added NpO{sub 4}{sup -} remained in the oxidized state and was not reduced to the Np(IV) state (as occurs rapidly with Pu(V)). With rather limited input data, very good agreement between experimental and modeling results was observed. This modeling approach would be easy to add to the PA with little additional data requirements. This model would be useful in a system where pH is expected to change greatly, such as directly beneath a grout or concrete structure. The second model discussed in the report was to derive strontium K{sub d} values from data collected in an 11-year-old field transport study. In this controlled lysimeter study, a sensitivity analysis was conducted of hydrological and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport, including diffusion coefficients, seepage velocity, and K{sub d} value. The best overall K{sub d} derived from the model fit to the data was 32 L kg{sup -1}, which was the same value that was previously measured in traditional laboratory batch sorption studies. This was an unexpected result given the differences in experimental conditions between the batch test and the lysimeter flow through test, in particular the differences between strontium adsorption and desorption processes occurring in the latter test and not in the former. There were some trends in the lysimeter strontium data that were not predicted by the K{sub d} model, which suggest that other geochemical processes are likely also controlling strontium transport. Strontium release and cation exchange are being evaluated. These results suggest that future modeling efforts (e.g., PAs) could be

  7. Solar Energy Research Institute Validation Test House Site Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Wortman, D.; Judkoff, R.; Hunn, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Validation Test House at the Solar Energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado, is being used to collect performance data for analysis/design tool validation as part of the DOE Passive Solar Class A Performance Evaluation Program.

  8. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  9. Test and evaluation of Japanese GPR-EMI dual sensor systems at Benkovac test site in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Furuta, K.; Pavković, Nikola

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental design and the evaluation result of a trial that were carried out from 1 February to 9 March 2006 using real PMA-1A and PMA-2 landmines at the Benkovac test site in Croatia. The objective of the Croatia- Japan joint trial is to evaluate dual sensor systems, which use both ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductive (EMI) sensors. A comparative trial was also carried out by Croatian deminers using an existing EMI sensor, i.e., a metal detector (MD). The trial aims at evaluating differences in performance between dual sensors and MDs, especially in terms of discrimination of landmines from metal fragments and extension of detectable range in the depth direction. Devices evaluated here are 4 prototypes of anti-personnel landmine detection systems developed under a project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the supervising authority of which is the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The prototypes provide operators with subsurface images, and final decision whether a shadow in the image is a real landmine or not is left to the operator. This is similar to the way that medical doctors find cancer by reading CT images. Since operators' pre-knowledge of locations of buried targets significantly influences the test result, three test lanes, which have 3 different kinds of soils, have been designed to be suitable for blind tests. The result showed that the dual sensor systems have a potential to discriminate landmines from metal fragments and that probability of detection for small targets in mineralized soils can be improved by using GPR.

  10. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  11. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these.

  12. Hydrogeologic data for the South Cross Bayou test injection site, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.

    1978-01-01

    One exploratory hole, a test injection well, and nine monitor wells were constructed at the South Cross Bayou test-injection site between January 1973 and October 1975. At the test site, the first 125 feet below land surface is predominantly limestone and clay; from 125 to 3,280 feet it is mostly limestone and dolomite. Gypsum is also present below 1,260 feet. Wells within about a 1-mi radius of the test injection site were sampled and analyzed to provide water-quality background data prior to anticipated long-term injection at the test site. Locations of the wells sampled are shown, reported construction data are given, and the chemical analyses of water from these wells are tabulated. Chloride concentration of water from the wells near the test site ranged between 9.8 to 290 mg/L. Reported depth of these wells ranged from 25 to 302 ft. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Experimental and theoretical characterization of Cu adsorption sites on the Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutombo, P.; Shukrinov, P.; Cháb, V.

    2005-06-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments were used to study Cu adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7. The experimental results suggest that Cu atoms appear as dark spots while Si adatoms adjacent to them are imaged as gray or bright protrusions in the filled states images. We observed a mutual contrast reversal in the empty states between these bright and gray spots. Based on these experimental findings, we propose that Cu is located below the Si adatom layer. In order to verify this hypothesis, we performed total energy calculations and simulated STM maps by means of Density Functional Calculations. We tested different chemisorption geometries of Cu on the Si surface: on top of a rest atom and a corner adatom, at the so-called T 4 and H 3 sites as well as at positions situated halfway between the above adsorption positions. The theoretical results lead to the conclusion that Cu is located between the T 4 and H 3 adsorption sites.

  14. Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Alan K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

  15. Pattern recognition of native plant communities: Manitou Colorado test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information about 11 vegetation classes and two nonvegetation classes at the Manitou Experimental Forest. Intensive preprocessing of the scanner signals was required to eliminate a serious scan angle effect. Final processing of the normalized data provided acceptable recognition results of generalized plant community types. Serious errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within upland grassland areas. The consideration of the convex mixtures concept (effects of amounts of live plant cover, exposed soil, and plant litter cover on apparent scene radiances) significantly improved the classification of some of the grassland classes.

  16. Survey and Experimental Testing of Nongravimetric Mass Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Lorenz, R.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation presented describes the design, testing, and evaluation of an accelerated gravimetric balance, a low mass air bearing oscillator of the spring-mass type, and a centrifugal device for liquid mass measurement. A direct mass readout method was developed to replace the oscillation period readout method which required manual calculations to determine mass. A protoype 25 gram capacity micro mass measurement device was developed and tested.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 461: Joint Test Assembly Sites and Corrective Action Unit 495: Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Smith

    1998-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan addresses the action necessary for the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit 461 (Test Area Joint Test Assembly Sites) and Corrective Action Unit 495 (Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites). The Corrective Action Units are located at the Tonopah Test Range in south central Nevada. Closure for these sites will be completed by excavating and evaluating the condition of each artillery round (if found); detonating the rounds (if necessary); excavating the impacted soil and debris; collecting verification samples; backfilling the excavations; disposing of the impacted soil and debris at an approved low-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

  18. Neptunium Transport Behavior in the Vicinity of Underground Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Williams, R W; Kersting, A B

    2010-12-03

    We used short lived {sup 239}Np as a yield tracer and state of the art magnetic sector ICP-MS to measure ultra low levels of {sup 237}Np in a number of 'hot wells' at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The results indicate that {sup 237}Np concentrations at the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire and Chancellor sites, are in the range of 3 x 10{sup -5} to 7 x 10{sup -2} pCi/L and well below the MCL for alpha emitting radionuclides (15 pCi/L) (EPA, 2009). Thus, while Np transport is believed to occur at the NNSS, activities are expected to be well below the regulatory limits for alpha-emitting radionuclides. We also compared {sup 237}Np concentration data to other radionuclides, including tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and plutonium, to evaluate the relative {sup 237}Np transport behavior. Based on isotope ratios relative to published unclassified Radiologic Source Terms (Bowen et al., 1999) and taking into consideration radionuclide distribution between melt glass, rubble and groundwater (IAEA, 1998), {sup 237}Np appears to be substantially less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides, as expected. However, this analysis also suggests that {sup 237}Np mobility is surprisingly similar to that of plutonium. The similar transport behavior of Np and Pu can be explained by one of two possibilities: (1) Np(IV) and Pu(IV) oxidation states dominate under mildly reducing NNSS groundwater conditions resulting in similar transport behavior or (2) apparent Np transport is the result of transport of its parent {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes and subsequent decay to {sup 237}Np. Finally, measured {sup 237}Np concentrations were compared to recent Hydrologic Source Term (HST) models. The 237Np data collected from three wells in Frenchman Flat (RNM-1, RNM-2S, and UE-5n) are in good agreement with recent HST transport model predictions (Carle et al., 2005). The agreement provides

  19. Optimizing an experimental design for a CSEM experiment: methodology and synthetic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, E.; Garcia, X.

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing an experimental design is a compromise between maximizing information we get about the target and limiting the cost of the experiment, providing a wide range of constraints. We present a statistical algorithm for experiment design that combines the use of linearized inverse theory and stochastic optimization technique. Linearized inverse theory is used to quantify the quality of one given experiment design while genetic algorithm (GA) enables us to examine a wide range of possible surveys. The particularity of our algorithm is the use of the multi-objective GA NSGA II that searches designs that fit several objective functions (OFs) simultaneously. This ability of NSGA II is helping us in defining an experiment design that focuses on a specified target area. We present a test of our algorithm using a 1-D electrical subsurface structure. The model we use represents a simple but realistic scenario in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study. Our first synthetic test using a single OF shows that a limited number of well-distributed observations from a chosen design have the potential to resolve the given model. This synthetic test also points out the importance of a well-chosen OF, depending on our target. In order to improve these results, we show how the combination of two OFs using a multi-objective GA enables us to determine an experimental design that maximizes information about the reservoir layer. Finally, we present several tests of our statistical algorithm in more challenging environments by exploring the influence of noise, specific site characteristics or its potential for reservoir monitoring.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  1. Site testing for submillimetre astronomy at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.; Minier, V.; Schneider, N.; Durand, G. Al.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Lawrence, J. S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Durand, G. An.; Reinert, Y.; Veyssiere, C.; Walter, C.; Ade, P.; Calisse, P. G.; Challita, Z.; Fossat, E.; Sabbatini, L.; Pellegrini, A.; Ricaud, P.; Urban, J.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: Over the past few years a major effort has been put into the exploration of potential sites for the deployment of submillimetre astronomical facilities. Amongst the most important sites are Dome C and Dome A on the Antarctic Plateau, and the Chajnantor area in Chile. In this context, we report on measurements of the sky opacity at 200 μm over a period of three years at the French-Italian station, Concordia, at Dome C, Antarctica. We also present some solutions to the challenges of operating in the harsh polar environment. Methods: The 200-μm atmospheric opacity was measured with a tipper. The forward atmospheric model MOLIERE (Microwave Observation LIne Estimation and REtrieval) was used to calculate the atmospheric transmission and to evaluate the precipitable water vapour content (PWV) from the observed sky opacity. These results have been compared with satellite measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Metop-A, with balloon humidity sondes and with results obtained by a ground-based microwave radiometer (HAMSTRAD). In addition, a series of experiments has been designed to study frost formation on surfaces, and the temporal and spatial evolution of thermal gradients in the low atmosphere. Results: Dome C offers exceptional conditions in terms of absolute atmospheric transmission and stability for submillimetre astronomy. Over the austral winter the PWV exhibits long periods during which it is stable and at a very low level (0.1 to 0.3 mm). Higher values (0.2 to 0.8 mm) of PWV are observed during the short summer period. Based on observations over three years, a transmission of around 50% at 350 μm is achieved for 75% of the time. The 200-μm window opens with a typical transmission of 10% to 15% for 25% of the time. Conclusions: Dome C is one of the best accessible sites on Earth for submillimetre astronomy. Observations at 350 or 450 μm are possible all year round, and the 200-μm window opens long enough and with a

  2. Complete Bouguer gravity map of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, D.L.; Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1987-12-31

    About 15,000 gravity stations were used to create the gravity map. Gravity studies at the Nevada Test Site were undertaken to help locate geologically favorable areas for underground nuclear tests and to help characterize potential high-level nuclear waste storage sites. 48 refs. (TEM)

  3. Effects of effluent spray irrigation on ground water at a test site near Tarpon Springs, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Secondary-treated effluent was applied to a 7.2-acre test site near Tarpon Springs, Fla., for about 1 year at an average rate of 0.06 million gallons per day and 3 years at 0.11 million gallons per day. Chemical fertilizer was applied periodically to the test site and adjacent areas. Periodic mounding of the water table occurred due to effluent irrigation, inducing radial flow from the test site. Physical, geochemical, biochemical processes effectively reduced total nitrogen concentration 90% and total phosphorous concentration more than 95% in the ground water of the surficial aquifer about 300 feet downgradient from the test site from that of the applied effluent. Downgradient, total nitrogen averaged 2.4 milligrams per liter and total phosphorus averaged 0.17 milligrams per liter. Substantial increases in total phosphorus were observed when the pH of the ground water increased. Total coliform bacteria in the ground water of the surficial aquifer were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters. Fecal coliform bacteria were generally less than 25 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site and were not detected downgradient or near the test site. Fecal streptococcal bacteria were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site, but were detected on three occasions near the test site. (USGS)

  4. Evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test conducted at the project Gnome Underground Nuclear Test Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    A radionuclide tracer test was conducted in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Project Gnome underground nuclear test site, approximately 40 km southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The tracer study was carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to study the transport behavior of radionuclides in fractured rock aquifers. The Culebra Dolomite was chosen for the test because it was considered to be a reasonable analogue of the fractured carbonate aquifer at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal location of U.S. underground nuclear tests. Project Gnome was one of a small number of underground nuclear tests conducted by the AEC at sites distant from the NTS. The Gnome device was detonated on December 10, 1961 in an evaporate unit at a depth of 360 m below ground surface. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close these offsite nuclear test areas. An early step in this process is performance of a preliminary risk analysis of the hazard posed by each site. The Desert Research Institute has performed preliminary hydrologic risk evaluations for the groundwater transport pathway at Gnome. That evaluation included the radioactive tracer test as a possible source because the test introduced radionuclides directly into the Culebra Dolomite, which is the only aquifer at the site. This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test as a source for radionuclide migration in the Culebra Dolomite. The results of this study will assist in planning site characterization activities and refining estimates of the radionuclide source for comprehensive models of groundwater transport st the Gnome site.

  5. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  6. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  7. Experimental Test of the Spin Mixing Interface Conductivity Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Mathias; Althammer, Matthias; Schreier, Michael; Lotze, Johannes; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Meyer, Sibylle; Huebl, Hans; Gross, Rudolf; Kamra, Akashdeep; Xiao, Jiang; Chen, Yan-Ting; Jiao, HuJun; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a quantitative, comparative study of the spin pumping, spin Seebeck, and spin Hall magnetoresistance effects, all detected via the inverse spin Hall effect in a series of over 20yttriumirongarnet/Pt samples. Our experimental results fully support present, exclusively spin current-based, theoretical models using a single set of plausible parameters for spin mixing conductance, spin Hall angle, and spin diffusion length. Our findings establish the purely spintronic nature of the aforementioned effects and provide a quantitative description, in particular, of the spin Seebeck effect.

  8. Histochemical changes in the testes of lead induced experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A R; Rao, R V; Gautam, A K

    1986-01-01

    The experiments were performed on mature male rats divided in five groups, one control and four experimental in which the animals received 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 6 mg/kg body weight lead acetate intraperitoneally respectively, over a period of 30 days. ALA-D and lead was estimated in the blood by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer and ATP-ase, AMP-ase, Alk-ase were histochemically localized. Significant increase in blood and testis of lead levels along with decrease of ALA-D levels were observed. Changes in the testicular tissue were encountered. Other details concerned with the damage of the testicular tissue are discussed.

  9. Gravity and magnetic evidence for a granitic intrusion near Wahmonie Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.

    1984-10-10

    Gravity and magnetic data outline a broad anomaly near Wahmonie Site, Nye County, Nevada. A positive 15-mGal gravity anomaly with a steep western gradient and a broad magnetic anomaly coincident with the gravity high characterize the area. Two-dimensional computer models of the gravity data were made using magnetic, seismic, and electric data as independent constraints. The models indicate the presence of a shallow, relatively high density body of 2.65 kg m{sup -3} buried near Wahmonie Site. Aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data also indicate the presence of a large, shallow body. Two smaller local magnetic highs that occur along a magnetic prominence extending northward from the broad anomaly directly correlate to granodiorite outcrops. This indicates that the main anomaly is produced by a large shallow intrusion.

  10. The rf experimental program in the Fermilab mucool test area

    SciTech Connect

    J. Norem; R. Sandstrom; A. Bross; A. Moretti; Z. Qian; Y. Torun; R. Rimmer; D. Li; M. Zisman; R. Johnson

    2005-05-16

    The rf R&D program for high gradient, low frequency cavities to be used in muon cooling systems is underway in the Fermilab MUCOOL Test Area. Cavities at 805 and 201 MHz are used for tests of conditioning techniques, surface modification and breakdown studies. This work has the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as its immediate goal and efficient muon cooling systems for neutrino sources and muon colliders as the long term goal. We study breakdown, and dark current production under a variety of conditions.

  11. The rf experimental program in the fermilab mucool test area

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Sandstrom, R.; Bross, A.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Torun, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Li, D.; Zisman, M.S.; Johnson, R.

    2005-05-20

    The rf R&D program for high-gradient, low frequency cavities to be used in muon cooling systems is underway in the Fermilab MUCOOL Test Area. Cavities at 805 and 201 MHz are used for tests of conditioning techniques, surface modification and breakdown studies. This work has the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as its immediate goal and efficient muon cooling systems for neutrino sources and muon colliders as the long term goal. We study breakdown and dark current production under a variety of conditions.

  12. Geohydrologic and drill-hole data for test well USW H-1, adjacent to Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rush, F. Eugene; Thordarson, William; Bruckheimer, Laura

    1983-01-01

    This report presents data collected to determine the hydraulic characteristics of rocks penetrated in test well USW H-1. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in a program conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify suitable sites for storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Data on drilling operations, lithology, borehole geophysics, hydrologic monitoring, core analysis, ground-water chemistry and pumping and injection tests for well USW H-1 are contained in this report.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 340: NTS Pesticide Release Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Obi

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999) and consisted of clean closure by excavation and disposal. The Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 was formerly used for storage of farm supplies including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. The Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 was formerly used to clean pesticide and herbicide equipment. Steam-cleaning rinsate and sink drainage occasionally overflowed a sump into adjoining drainage ditches. One ditch flows south and is referred to as the quonset hut ditch. The other ditch flows southeast and is referred to as the inner drainage ditch. The Area 23 Skid Huts were formerly used for storing and mixing pesticide and herbicide solutions. Excess solutions were released directly to the ground near the skid huts. The skid huts were moved to a nearby location prior to the site characterization performed in 1998 and reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1998). The vicinity and site plans of the Area 23 sites are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  14. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  15. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements. PMID:21087992

  16. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  17. Controls on water drop volume at speleothem drip sites: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collister, Christopher; Mattey, David

    2008-09-01

    SummaryThe growth of speleothem under cave drip sites is closely related to local climate events and provides an increasingly important means of deciphering past climate change. Since calcite precipitation rates depend on the water discharge at the drip site, the drip rate and mass of water drops detaching from stalactites are fundamental controls on speleothem growth and we have investigated factors that control the volume of water drops in this environment. The classical investigations on the volume of falling water drops are reviewed but there have been no measurements of the volume of drops detaching from curved surfaces equivalent to tips of stalactites. In this study we have used an acoustic drop counting method to measure the variation of the mass of water drops detaching from tubes (representing 'soda straw' stalactites) and artificial stalactites with spherical terminations (representing massive stalactites) as a function of tube radius or surface curvature and the drip rate. The experimental method corroborates classical measurements of drop mass detaching from tubes and, for massive stalactites, we derive a simple empirical relationship between drop mass and radius of curvature of a spherical surface, based on 100,000 drop counts from artificial stalactites with 19 different radii ranging from 3.6 mm to 500 mm. The results of this study allow discharge to be calculated from drip interval measurements and provide a quantitative basis for theoretical modelling of speleothem growth from drip sites.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    A. T. Urbon

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO of 1996), and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operation Office [NNSA/NV], 2001). CAU 330 consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 06-02-04, 22-99-06, 23-01-02, and 23-25-05 (Figure 1).

  19. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  20. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

  1. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices: Preliminary results of testing program at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, H. ); Verebelyi, D. Clemson Univ., SC )

    1991-05-30

    The properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} superconducting tapes designed and fabricated into SAFIRE-type, encapsulated, grounding links by the Ceramic Engineering Department at Clemson University are under investigation. Testing at the Savannah River Site will include gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The gamma irradiation portion of testing has been completed. The long-term testing began in January and will continue. The vibration test has yet to be started.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-10-01

    CAU 104 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C • 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 • 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site • 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a • 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) • 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) • 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) • 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) • 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) • 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth • 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 • 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b • 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax These 15 CASs include releases from 30 atmospheric tests conducted in the approximately 1 square mile of CAU 104. Because releases associated with the CASs included in this CAU overlap and are not separate and distinguishable, these CASs are addressed jointly at the CAU level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives (CAAs), provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 104. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 4, 2011, through May 3, 2012, as set forth in the CAU 104 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  3. Single Component Sorption-Desorption Test Experimental Design Approach Discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Phil WInston

    2011-09-01

    A task was identified within the fission-product-transport work package to develop a path forward for doing testing to determine behavior of volatile fission products behavior and to engage members of the NGNP community to advise and dissent on the approach. The following document is a summary of the discussions and the specific approaches suggested for components of the testing. Included in the summary isare the minutes of the conference call that was held with INL and external interested parties to elicit comments on the approaches brought forward by the INL participants. The conclusion was that an initial non-radioactive, single component test will be useful to establish the limits of currently available chemical detection methods, and to evaluated source-dispersion uniformity. In parallel, development of a real-time low-concentration monitoring method is believed to be useful in detecting rapid dispersion as well as desorption phenomena. Ultimately, the test cycle is expected to progress to the use of radio-traced species, simply because this method will allow the lowest possible detection limits. The consensus of the conference call was that there is no need for an in-core test because the duct and heat exchanger surfaces that will be the sorption target will be outside the main neutron flux and will not be affected by irradiation. Participants in the discussion and contributors to the INL approach were Jeffrey Berg, Pattrick Calderoni, Gary Groenewold, Paul Humrickhouse, Brad Merrill, and Phil Winston. Participants from outside the INL included David Hanson of General Atomics, Todd Allen, Tyler Gerczak, and Izabela Szlufarska of the University of Wisconsin, Gary Was, of the University of Michigan, Sudarshan Loyalka and Tushar Ghosh of the University of Missouri, and Robert Morris of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  5. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of Al6063 duralumin using Taylor impact test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, L.; Anaszewicz, Ł.; Janiszewski, J.; Grązka, M.

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents results of experimental and numerical analysis of dynamic behaviour Al6063 duralumin. Dynamical experiments were made using Taylor impact test. Experimental results at next step of study were used in numerical analyses of dynamic yield stress of tested material and model parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation. The main aim of this analysis is to find out dynamical properties of Al6063 duralumin tested in Taylor impact test.

  7. Experimental plan and construction guidance for Hanford Protective Barrier Test at Hill AFB, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are needed to fully isolate buried waste materials for long periods of time from the general environment. Multi-layer surface barriers that use natural earthen materials overlying bio-intrusion layers of rock and/or asphalt are expected to reduce infiltration or deep percolation to less than 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) of water. The layering also reduces root penetration, preventing uptake and translocation of hazardous materials to the surface vegetation. The opportunity exists to test the Hanford Barrier in a wetter, colder climate at an existing lysimeter facility located at Hill Air Force Base near Salt Lake, Utah. The use of an existing lysimeter facility simplifies the construction effort and allows comparison of the Hanford Protective Barrier with an existing US Environmental Protection Agency-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act clay cap already undergoing tests at the lysimeter site. This document presents the experimental plan for testing the Hanford Protective Barrier in a wetter, colder climate.

  8. Fabrication and test of experimental automotive friction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberstadt, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Three classes of experimental ingredients having good high temperature stability were substituted, singly and in combination, for corresponding ingredients in a standard friction material. The effects of substitution were evaluated by physical and chemical analysis, and principally by determination of friction and wear properties as a function of temperature on a sample drag dynamometer. The major finding was the demonstration of the potential of potassium titanate fiber for the improvement of a friction material of the secondary lining type. For example, the maintenance of a mean friction coefficient of 0.35 between 232 and 343 C (450 and 650 F) was achieved in the presence of the titanate fiber, as opposed to a value of 0.30 in its absence. Wear improvement of the order of 30 to 40% also becomes possible by proper adjustment of resin content and potassium titanate fiber-to-asbestos ratio.

  9. Histochemical changes in the testes of lead induced experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A R; Rao, R V; Gautam, A K

    1986-01-01

    The experiments were performed on mature male rats divided in five groups, one control and four experimental in which the animals received 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 6 mg/kg body weight lead acetate intraperitoneally respectively, over a period of 30 days. ALA-D and lead was estimated in the blood by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer and ATP-ase, AMP-ase, Alk-ase were histochemically localized. Significant increase in blood and testis of lead levels along with decrease of ALA-D levels were observed. Changes in the testicular tissue were encountered. Other details concerned with the damage of the testicular tissue are discussed. PMID:3030829

  10. Ejaculate economics: an experimental test in a moth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spermatogenesis is costly. As a consequence, males should optimize the use of their sperm to maximize their reproductive outputs in their lifetime. However, experimental evidence on this prediction is largely lacking. Here, we examine how a male moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) responds to the presence of rivals or additional mates and how such response influences his lifetime reproductive fitness. We show that when rival males are present around a copulating pair, the male ejaculates more sperm to win a sperm competition battle but in such an environment he inseminates fewer females, sires fewer offspring and lives shorter. The opposite is the case when additional females are present during copulation. These findings reveal that elevated reproductive expenditure owing to sperm competition intensity is made at the expense of longevity and future reproduction.

  11. Numerical modeling and experimental testing of a solar grill

    SciTech Connect

    Olwi, I.; Khalifa, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The sun provides a free, nonpolluting and everlasting source of energy. Considerable research has been carried out to utilize solar energy for purposes such as water heating, high temperature ovens, and conversion to electrical energy. One of the interesting forms for utilizing solar energy is cooking. The main disadvantage of solar energy systems has been the low efficiency attained in most of its practical applications. It is expected, however, that due to continuing decreases in the availability of other energy sources such as oil and coal, along with the safety problems associated with nuclear energy, man's need for utilization of solar energy will increase, thus leading him to find the ways and means to develop adequate and efficient solar-powered systems. In camps, where tents are used to accommodate people, cooking is done via conventional gas stoves. This usually takes place in extremely crowded areas which become highly fireprone. Solar oven cookers seem to be a viable alternative considering both economy and safety. Among the various forms of solar cookers, the oven-type solar cooker is known to be the best in terms of efficiency. One of the most practical and efficient forms of solar oven cookers is the outdoor portable solar grill (Bar-B-Q), developed by Khalifa et al. The solar grill is a light and portable unit that utilizes solar energy to grill meat. One of the best types of grilling with this cooker is the well-known Shish Kebab or Bar-B-Q. A detailed description for the design of the solar grill is provided as follows. This paper is aimed at providing experimental results and formulating a numerical model for the solar grill. Results of the two approaches are then compared to verify the validity of the numerical simulation. An experimental and theoretical investigation was conducted on the solar grill in order to study the factors that affect its design and performance.

  12. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, A.C.; Hamilton, T.F.

    1999-09-09

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option.

  13. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  14. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1.

  15. Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

  16. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  17. Experimental testing of hollow clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D. ); Bennett, R.M.; Barclay, G.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-02-27

    A common building construction of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is structural steel framing with infilled unreinforced hollow clay tile walls. A comprehensive program is underway to evaluate the resistance of this construction to natural phenomena loadings, particularly earthquake. This paper presents the results of the first series of large-scale infilled frame tests which were statically loaded in-plane to failure. Varying frame to infill stiffness was examined within the range of actual building construction.

  18. Experimental investigations on an X-ray preionizer test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes a small X-ray preionizer test bed designed for tests on the performance of various types of cathode and anode materials, together with the results obtained on these materials, which included carbon fiber (in the form of woven cloth), hacksaw blade, and Metglass strip cold cathodes and a coronal plasma cathode, and Cu, Au, W, and uncoated Al anode materials. Both the carbon fiber cold cathode and the corona plasma cathode could generate electron densities of higher than 10 to the 8th/cu cm in 1 atm N2 and higher than 10 to the 9th/cu cm in 1 atm Ar. Factors affecting the high repetition rate operation of both cathodes were examined. Among the anode materials tested as transmitting targets, W was found to be most efficient. However, calculations based on the ratio of the target's Z values and the measured X-ray outputs showed that, compared to the Cu and Al targets, both the Au and W targets had significant losses. The effect of thickness of the transmitting target on X-ray output was investigated.

  19. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-28

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  20. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  1. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  2. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  3. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  4. Status report on the spent fuel test-Climax, Nevada Test Site: A test of dry storage of spent fuel in a deep granite location

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-12-31

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The test array contains 11 canistered PWR fuel assemblies, plus associated electrical simulators and electrical heaters. There are nearly 900 channels of thermal, radiation, stress, displacement, and test control instrumentation.

  5. Experimental Test of New Technique to Overcome Spin Depolarizing Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Ganshvili, A.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stockhorst, H.; Welsch, D.; Hinterberger, F.; Kondratenko, A. M.

    2009-08-04

    We recently tested a new spin resonance crossing technique, Kondratenko Crossing (KC) by sweeping an rf solenoid's frequency through an rf-induced spin resonance with both the KC an traditional Fast Crossing (FC) patterns. Using both rf bunched and unbunched 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuterons stored in COSY, we varied the parameters of both crossing patterns. Compared to FC with the same crossing speed, KC reduced the depolarization by measured factors of 4.7+-0.3 and 19+-{sub 5}{sup 12} for unbunched and bunched beams, respectively. This clearly showed the large potential benefit of Kondratenko Crossing over Fast Crossing.

  6. Experimental testing of the noise-canceling processor.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael D; Baer, Ralph N; Simpson, Harry J

    2011-09-01

    Signal-processing techniques for localizing an acoustic source buried in noise are tested in a tank experiment. Noise is generated using a discrete source, a bubble generator, and a sprinkler. The experiment has essential elements of a realistic scenario in matched-field processing, including complex source and noise time series in a waveguide with water, sediment, and multipath propagation. The noise-canceling processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor and provide the correct source range for signal-to-noise ratios below -10 dB. The multivalued Bartlett processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor but not the noise-canceling processor.

  7. Experimental test of the SCA/FEL external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haar, P.; Schwettman, H. A.; Smith, T. I.

    1993-07-01

    An external cavity driven by the optical pulse train of the SCA/FEL has been installed and tested. The external cavity provides an opportunity to enhance the micropulse energy available for experiment and can be used as an FEL diagnostic. We have demonstrated optical energy storage which is the theoretical maximum for a cavity Q of 15. The temporal behavior of the optical pulse in the external cavity has been compared to calculations of the dynamics, allowing us to infer the stability of our system. We have used our results to plan improvements to the external cavity.

  8. An experimental test of a fundamental food web motif.

    PubMed

    Rip, Jason M K; McCann, Kevin S; Lynn, Denis H; Fawcett, Sonia

    2010-06-01

    Large-scale changes to the world's ecosystem are resulting in the deterioration of biostructure-the complex web of species interactions that make up ecological communities. A difficult, yet crucial task is to identify food web structures, or food web motifs, that are the building blocks of this baroque network of interactions. Once identified, these food web motifs can then be examined through experiments and theory to provide mechanistic explanations for how structure governs ecosystem stability. Here, we synthesize recent ecological research to show that generalist consumers coupling resources with different interaction strengths, is one such motif. This motif amazingly occurs across an enormous range of spatial scales, and so acts to distribute coupled weak and strong interactions throughout food webs. We then perform an experiment that illustrates the importance of this motif to ecological stability. We find that weak interactions coupled to strong interactions by generalist consumers dampen strong interaction strengths and increase community stability. This study takes a critical step by isolating a common food web motif and through clear, experimental manipulation, identifies the fundamental stabilizing consequences of this structure for ecological communities. PMID:20129988

  9. An experimental test of a fundamental food web motif

    PubMed Central

    Rip, Jason M. K.; McCann, Kevin S.; Lynn, Denis H.; Fawcett, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale changes to the world's ecosystem are resulting in the deterioration of biostructure—the complex web of species interactions that make up ecological communities. A difficult, yet crucial task is to identify food web structures, or food web motifs, that are the building blocks of this baroque network of interactions. Once identified, these food web motifs can then be examined through experiments and theory to provide mechanistic explanations for how structure governs ecosystem stability. Here, we synthesize recent ecological research to show that generalist consumers coupling resources with different interaction strengths, is one such motif. This motif amazingly occurs across an enormous range of spatial scales, and so acts to distribute coupled weak and strong interactions throughout food webs. We then perform an experiment that illustrates the importance of this motif to ecological stability. We find that weak interactions coupled to strong interactions by generalist consumers dampen strong interaction strengths and increase community stability. This study takes a critical step by isolating a common food web motif and through clear, experimental manipulation, identifies the fundamental stabilizing consequences of this structure for ecological communities. PMID:20129988

  10. Sexual selection's impacts on ecological specialization: an experimental test

    PubMed Central

    Pfennig, Karin S.; Pfennig, David W.; Porter, Cody; Martin, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    In many species, individuals specialize on different resources, thereby reducing competition. Such ecological specialization can promote the evolution of alternative ecomorphs—distinct phenotypes adapted for particular resources. Elucidating whether and how this process is influenced by sexual selection is crucial for understanding how ecological specialization promotes the evolution of novel traits and, potentially, speciation between ecomorphs. We evaluated the population-level effects of sexual selection (as mediated by mate choice) on ecological specialization in spadefoot toad tadpoles that express alternative ecomorphs. We manipulated whether sexual selection was present or reversed by mating females to their preferred versus non-preferred males, respectively. We then exposed their tadpoles to resource competition in experimental mesocosms. The resulting distribution of ecomorphs was similar between treatments, but sexual selection generated poorer trait integration in, and lower fitness of, the more specialized carnivore morph. Moreover, disruptive and directional natural selection were weaker in the sexual selection present treatment. Nevertheless, this effect on disruptive selection was smaller than previously documented effects of ecological opportunity and competitor density. Thus, sexual selection can inhibit adaptation to resource competition and thereby hinder ecological specialization, particularly when females obtain fitness benefits from mate choice that offset the cost of producing competitively inferior offspring. PMID:25925102

  11. Dendrite growth under forced convection: analysis methods and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Galenko, P. K.

    2014-08-01

    An analysis is given of the nonisothermal growth of a dendrite crystal under forced fluid flow in a binary system. The theoretical model utilized employs a free moving crystal-liquid interface and makes use of the Oseen approximation for the equations of motion of the liquid. A criterion for the stable growth of two-dimensional and three-dimensional parabolic dendrites is derived under the assumption of an anisotropic surface tension at the crystal-liquid interface, which generalizes the previous known results for the stable growth of a dendrite with convection in a one-component fluid and for the growth of a dendrite in a two-component system at rest. The criterion obtained within the Oseen hydrodynamic approximation is extended to arbitrary Peclet numbers and dendrite growth with convection in a nonisothermal multicomponent system. Model predictions are compared with experimental data on crystal growth kinetics in droplets processed in electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation facilities. Theoretical and simulation methods currently being developed are applied to crystallization processes under earthly and reduced gravity conditions.

  12. Experimental Test of the Polarization Persistence in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didelez, J. P.; Deutsch, C.; Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2016-03-01

    The complete deuteron and triton polarization in the DT fusion increases the reactivity by 50%. For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), due to the dynamics of the fusion reaction process, the fusion rate could even be further increased. It has been argued that the polarization would survive as well in magnetic as in inertial confinements. Recently, we have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a powerful laser hitting a polarized HD target.The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse. The corresponding reaction is: D + D → 3He + n. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are signatures to estimate the polarization persistency. A proposal to test the persistence of the polarization in ICF has been accepted at ILE: the POLAF project (POlarization in LAser Fusion Process). It uses the polarized HD targets produced at RCNP and the powerful ILE lasers, as well as the neutron detectors existing there. Both institutions are on the same campus at Osaka University. The description of the POLAF experiment and of the corresponding set-up is given.

  13. Using eDNA to experimentally test ungulate browsing preferences.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Ruth V; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Spong, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Large herbivores may affect ecosystem processes and states, but such effects can be difficult to quantify, especially within multispecies assemblages. To better understand such processes and improve our predictive ability of systems undergoing change, herbivore diets can be studied using controlled feeding trials (or cafeteria tests). With some wildlife, such as large herbivores, it is impractical to empirically verify these findings, because it requires visually observing animals in forested environments, which can disturb them from their natural behaviors. Yet, in field-based cafeteria trials it is nearly impossible to differentiate selection between herbivore species that forage on similar plants and make very similar bite marks. However, during browsing ungulates leave saliva residue which includes some buccal cells and DNA that can be extracted for species identification. Here we used a newly developed eDNA-based method (biteDNA) to test the browsing preferences of four sympatric ungulate species in the wild. Overall, food preferences varied between species, but all species strongly preferred deciduous over coniferous species. Our method allows the study of plant-animal interactions in multispecies assemblages at very fine detail. PMID:26380165

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  15. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 340, Pesticide Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. As required by the FFACO (1996), this document provides or references all of the specific information for planning investigation activities associated with three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These CASs are collectively known as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 340, Pesticide Release Sites. According to the FFACO, CASs are sites that may require corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. These sites are CAS 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 (Q800) Pesticide Release Ditch; CAS 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and CAS 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage (Q15-11). The purpose of this CAIP for CAU 340 is to direct and guide the investigation for the evaluation of the nature and extent of pesticides, herbicides, and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) that were stored, mixed, and/or disposed of at each of the CASs.

  16. Study of the Nevada Test Site using Landsat satellite imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.D.

    1993-07-01

    In the period covered by the purchase order CSIS has obtained one Landsat image and determined that two images previously supplied to the principal investigator under a subcontract with George Washington University were inherently defective. We have negotiated with EOSAT over the reprocessing of those scenes and anticipate final delivery within the next few weeks. A critical early purchase during the subcontract period was of an EXABYTE tape drive, Adaptec SCSI interface, and the appropriate software with which to read Landsat images at CSIS. This gives us the capability of reading and manipulating imagery in house without reliance on outside services which have not proven satisfactory. In addition to obtaining imagery for the study, we have also performed considerable analytic work on the newly and previously purchased images. A technique developed under an earlier subcontract for identifying underground nuclear tests at Pahute Mesa has been significantly refined, and similar techniques were applied to the summit of Rainier Mesa and to the Yucca Flats area. An entirely new technique for enhancing the spectral signatures of different regions of NTS was recently developed, and appears to have great promise of success.

  17. Experimental test of a missing spectral link in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Pinaki; Kellay, Hamid; Tran, Tuan; Goldburg, Walter; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Gioia, Gustavo

    2012-11-01

    Although the cardinal attribute of turbulence is the velocity fluctuations, these fluctuations have been ignored in theories of the frictional drag of turbulent flows. Our goal is to test a new theory that links the frictional drag to the spectral exponent α, a property of the velocity fluctuations in a flow. We use a soap-film channel wherein for the first time the value of α can be switched between 3 and 5/3, the two theoretically possible values in soap-film flows. Remarkably, the new theory holds in both soap-film flows and ordinary pipe flows, even though these types of flow are governed by different equations. We conclude that even where the governing equations are unknown and α can take anomalous values (as in sediment-laden rivers and polymer-doped oil pipelines), the frictional drag might be estimated from simple measurements of α.

  18. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    PubMed

    Croak, Benjamin M; Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features). Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed) sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major) preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii) preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  19. Habitat Selection in a Rocky Landscape: Experimentally Decoupling the Influence of Retreat Site Attributes from That of Landscape Features

    PubMed Central

    Croak, Benjamin M.; Pike, David A.; Webb, Jonathan K.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features). Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed) sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major) preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii) preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats. PMID:22701592

  20. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  1. Development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, James; Jensen, Brian

    2009-06-01

    Past fundamental work at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) U1a complex has been performed using explosively-driven flyer plates which provide high-pressure loading at the expense of some shock. In contrast, plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocity for impact experiments at NTS. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt. This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results of the qualification testing of the large-bore gun, the confinement system, and the explosively driven valve will be presented.

  2. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  3. Experimental testing of flexible barriers for containment of debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeNatale, Jay S.; Iverson, Richard M.; Major, Jon J.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Fliegel, Gregg L.; Duffy, John D.

    1999-01-01

    In June 1996, six experiments conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey Debris Flow Flume demonstrated that flexible, vertical barriers constructed of wire rope netting can stop small debris flows. All experimental debris flows consisted of water-saturated gravelly sand with less than two percent finer sediment by weight. All debris flows had volumes of about 10 cubic meters, masses of about 20 metre tons, and impact velocities of 5 to 9 meters per second. In four experiments, the debris flow impacted pristine, unreformed barriers of varying design; in the other two experiments, the debris flow impacted barriers already loaded with sediment from a previous flow. Differences in barrier design led to differences in barrier performance. Experiments were conducted with barriers constructed of square-mesh wire-rope netting with 30centimeter, 20centimeter, and 15 centimeter mesh openings as well as 30centimeter diameter interlocking steel rings. In all cases, sediment cascading downslope at the leading edge of the debris flows tended to spray through the nets. Nets fitted with finer-mesh chain link or chicken wire liners contained more sediment than did unlined nets, and a ring net fitted with a synthetic silt screen liner contained nearly 100 percent of the sediment. Irreversible net displacements of up to 2 meters and friction brake engagement on the support and anchor cables dissipated some of the impact energy. However, substantial forces developed in the steel support columns and the lateral and tie-back anchor cables attached to these columns. As predicted by elementary mechanics, the anchor cables experienced larger tensile forces when the support columns were hinged at the base rather than bolted rigidly to the foundation. Measured loads in the lateral anchor cables exceeded those in the tie-back anchor cables and the load cell capacity of 45 kilo-Newtons. Measurements also indicated that the peak loads in the tie- back anchors were highly transient and occurred at

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

  5. Sustain: An experimental test bed for building energy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Donald; Pratt, Kevin; Hencey, Brandon; Jones, Nathaniel; Schumann, Lars; Dobbs, Justin; Dong, Zhao; Bosworth, David; Walter, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    Current building energy simulation technology requires extensive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, substantial computational time for accurate simulations, and generates data in formats that make results difficult to interpret. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. This paper describes a novel test bed environment which offers an interactive graphical interface, provides access to simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphic visualization methods for the interpretation of simulation results. Its modular structure makes it suitable for use in early stage building design, for use as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and for use as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are illustrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules.

  6. The adaptive bleaching hypothesis: experimental tests of critical assumptions.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, R A; Takayama, M; Santos, S R; Coffroth, M A

    2001-02-01

    Coral bleaching, the loss of color due to loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae or their pigment, appears to be increasing in intensity and geographic extent, perhaps related to increasing sea surface temperatures. The adaptive bleaching hypothesis (ABH) posits that when environmental circumstances change, the loss of one or more kinds of zooxanthellae is rapidly, sometimes unnoticeably, followed by formation of a new symbiotic consortium with different zooxanthellae that are more suited to the new conditions in the host's habitat. Fundamental assumptions of the ABH include (1) different types of zooxanthellae respond differently to environmental conditions, specifically temperature, and (2) bleached adults can secondarily acquire zooxanthellae from the environment. We present simple tests of these assumptions and show that (1) genetically different strains of zooxanthellae exhibit different responses to elevated temperature, (2) bleached adult hosts can acquire algal symbionts with an apparently dose-dependent relationship between the concentration of zooxanthellae and the rate of establishment of the symbiosis, (3) and finally, bleached adult hosts can acquire symbionts from the water column.

  7. [Experimental research of gaits based on young plantar pressure test].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyun; Tan, Shili; Yu, Hongliu; Shen, Lixing; Zhuang, Jianhai; Wang, Jinwu

    2014-10-01

    The present paper is to study the center line of the plantar pressure of normal young people, and to find the relation between center line of the plantar pressure and gait stability and balance. The paper gives the testing principle and calculating methods for geometric center of plantar pressure distribution and the center of pressure due to the techniques of footprint frame. The calculating formulas in both x direction and y direction are also deduced in the paper. In the experiments carried out in our laboratory, the gait parameters of 131 young subjects walking as usual speed were acquired, and 14 young subjects of the total were specially analyzed. We then provided reference data for the walking gait database of young people, including time parameters, space parameters and plantar pressure parameters. We also obtained the line of geometry center and pressure center under the foot. We found that the differences existed in normal people's geometric center line and the pressure center line. The center of pressure trajectory revealed foot movement stability. The length and lateral changes of the center line of the plantar pressure could be applied to analysis of the plantar pressure of all kinds of people. The results in this paper are useful in clinical foot disease diagnosis and evaluation of surgical effect.

  8. Semantic Memory Redux: An Experimental Test of Hierarchical Category Representation

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Hampton, James A.; Milovanovic, Goran S.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the classic issue in semantic memory of whether people organize categorical information in hierarchies and use inference to retrieve information from them, as proposed by Collins & Quillian (1969). Past evidence has focused on RT to confirm sentences such as “All birds are animals” or “Canaries breathe.” However, confounding variables such as familiarity and associations between the terms have led to contradictory results. Our experiments avoided such problems by teaching subjects novel materials. Experiment 1 tested an implicit hierarchical structure in the features of a set of studied objects (e.g., all brown objects were large). Experiment 2 taught subjects nested categories of artificial bugs. In Experiment 3, subjects learned a tree structure of novel category hierarchies. In all three, the results differed from the predictions of the hierarchical inference model. In Experiment 4, subjects learned a hierarchy by means of paired associates of novel category names. Here we finally found the RT signature of hierarchical inference. We conclude that it is possible to store information in a hierarchy and retrieve it via inference, but it is difficult and avoided whenever possible. The results are more consistent with feature comparison models than hierarchical models of semantic memory. PMID:23243336

  9. Experimental testing of spanwise morphing trailing edge concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankonien, Alexander; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    Aircraft wings with smooth, hinge-less morphing ailerons exhibit increased chordwise aerodynamic efficiency over conventional hinged ailerons. Ideally, the wing would also use these morphing ailerons to smoothly vary its airfoil shape between spanwise stations to optimize the lift distribution and further increase aerodynamic efficiency. However, the mechanical complexity or added weight of achieving such a design has traditionally exceeded the potential aerodynamic gains. By expanding upon the previously developed cascading bimorph concept, this work uses embedded Macro-Fiber Composites and a flexure box mechanism, created using multi-material 3D printing, to achieve the Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge (SMTE) concept. The morphing actuators are spaced spanwise along the wing with an elastomer spanning the gaps between them, which allows for optimization of the spanwise lift distribution while maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the morphing trailing edge. The concept is implemented in a representative section of a UAV wing with a 305 mm chord. A novel honeycomb skin is created from an elastomeric material using a 3D printer. The actuation capabilities of the concept are evaluated with and without spanning material on a test stand, free of aerodynamic loads. In addition, the actuation restrictions of the spanning elastomer, necessary in adapting the morphing concept from 2D to 3D, are characterized. Initial aerodynamic results from the 1'×1' wind-tunnel also show the effects of aerodynamic loading on the actuation range of the SMTE concept for uniform morphing.

  10. Geology, physical properties, and surface effects at Discus Thrower Site, Yucca Flat, Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Wilfred James; Miller, C.H.; Dodge, Harry W.

    1975-01-01

    Geologic studies in connection with Project Discus Thrower have furnished detailed stratigraphic and structural information about northwestern Yucca Flat. The Paleozoic rocks consist of a lower carbonate sequence, argillite of the Eleana Formation, and an upper carbonate sequence. The distribution of these rocks suggests that both top and bottom of the Eleana are structural contacts, probably thrusts or reverse faults. The overlying tuff includes several units recognized in the subsurface, such as the Fraction Tuff and tuff of Redrock Valley. Other units recognized include bedded tuff associated with the Grouse Canyon Member of Belted Range Tuff, and the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members of the Timber Mountain Tuff. The Timber Mountain and Grouse Canyon are extensively altered to montmorillonite (a swelling clay), possibly as a result of ponding of alkaline water. The overlying alluvium locally contains at the base a clayey, tuffaceous sandstone. Geophysical logs were used as an aid in locating geologic contacts and determining in situ physical properties. Graphic logs are presented that show the correlation of lithology and geophysical logs. Many of the rock units have characteristic log responses, but alteration within rock units affects the logs strikingly in some drill holes. The most significant surface effect of the experiment was the formation of a 4-foot fault scarp northwest of the site.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC-1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538, Spill Sites, located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 538 are located within Areas 2, 3, 6, 12, and 23 of the NTS. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation for the absence of contamination or that the closure objectives have been met for each CAS within CAU 538.

  12. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test Site, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Rulison site in west-central Colorado was the location of an underground detonation of a 40-kiloton nuclear device in 1969. The test took place 2,568 m below ground surface in the Mesaverde Formation. Though located below the regional water table, none of the bedrock formations at the site yielded water during hydraulic tests, indicating extremely low permeability conditions. The scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Mesaverde Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, with transport of strontium and cesium also sensitive to the sorption coefficient.

  13. Signal power distribution in time delay in Tokyo City experimental sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, M.; Katz, D.; Blaunstein, N.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents experiments carried out in the city of Tokyo in two types of built-up environments. One environment is characterized by a straight-crossing street plan with buildings randomly lining the streets and the terminal antennas located at the line of sight (LOS) and quasi-LOS conditions along the streets. The second built-up area is characterized by straight-crossing streets with non-LOS (NLOS) conditions caused by the railway station and administrative buildings surrounding the terminal antennas. The time delay signal strength distributions obtained experimentally are presented for both multipath urban channels These test experiments are used to study whether any propagation modeling can predict the time delay distribution of signal power. Our theoretical framework is based on the corresponding crossing-street waveguide model taking into account the Poisson statistics for buildings randomly lining each street. The proposed analytical formulas are analyzed for different parameters of the built-up terrain, such as the street width, the average height of buildings, the terminal antenna heights with respect to the rooftops of buildings lining a street, and the gaps (slits) between the buildings. Then a comparison between the proposed theoretical model and experimental data is presented, which indicates a satisfactory agreement between the theoretical and experimental prediction of signal power distribution in the time delay domain. So, our modeling can be used as a promising predictor for the time delay distribution in the microcellular propagation environment.

  14. Evaluation of Site Effects Using Numerical and Experimental Analyses In Cittas Di Castello (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergalani, F.; de Franco, R.; Compagnoni, M.; Caielli, G.

    In the paper the results of the numerical and experimental analyses, in a site of the Umbria Region (Città di Castello - PG), finalized to the evaluations of site effects are shown. The aim of the work was to compare the two type of analyses, to give some methodologies that may be used at the level of urban planning, to consider these as- pects. Therefore a series of geologic, geomorphologic (1:5.000 scale), geotechnic and seismic analyses have been carried out, to identify the areas affected to local effects and to characterize the lithotechnic units. The expected seismic inputs are been indi- viduated and 2D (Quad4M, Hudson et al., 1993) numerical analyses have been done. An experimental analysis, using the registrations of small events, has been done. The results, for the two approaches, were performed in terms of elastic pseudo-acceleration spectra and amplification factors, as a ratio between spectral intensity (Housner, 1952), calculated using the pseudo-velocity spectra, in the periods of 0.1-0.5 s and 0.1-2.5 s of output and input. The results have been analyzed and compared, to give a method- ology that may be exhaustive and precise. The conclusions can be summarized in the following points: u° the results of the two approaches are coherent; u° the differences between the two approaches are: the use of the numerical analysis is easy and quick but, in this case, the use of 2D analysis produces a simplification of real geometry; the use of experimental analysis allows to consider the 3D conditions, but, in this case, the registrations of events characterized by low energy, do not allow to consider the non linear behavior of materials, moreover it is necessary to perform the registrations for a period depending from the seismicity of the region (1 month - two years); u° the possi- bility of integration of the two methodologies allows to perform a complete analysis, using the advantages of the two methods. Housner G.W., Spectrum Intensities of strong

  15. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects.

  16. On-site inspection: A brief overview and bibliography of techniques pertinent to assessing suspected nuclear test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview and bibliography of those techniques that may have application for the evaluation of a site to determine if a high energy release event is nuclear in nature. This effort is motivated by recognition of the changing world political climate and the perception that low yield and non-proliferation issues will grow in importance as countries become increasingly involved as signators to treaties that are intended to limit the development and testing of nuclear weapons. Along with an increasing interest in such issues is the awareness of the need to implement improved capabilities for treaty monitoring programs that must deal with assessing suspicious occurrences of high energy release events. In preparing this report, it is recognized that monitoring can take two main forms. The first involves the resolution of unidentified events detected by seismic and satellite National Technical Means. Events of an indeterminate nature could occur world-wide and could induce tension in neighboring countries. If an on-site measurement capability were available, a monitoring team could be sent to the suspected site of an event to take measurements that could confirm or disprove the occurrence of a clandestine nuclear test. The second monitoring form is the confirmation that a clandestine event is not masked by a declared event. For example, a large mining explosion could mask a decoupled nuclear explosion. On-site measurements before and during the test could confirm that a clandestine event did not occur and could provide assurance that the party carrying out the explosion is not taking advantage of clandestine testing opportunities. 48 refs.

  17. [Assessment of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" (Balapan Site, Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan)].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Umarov, M A; Sergeeva, I Iu; Sergeev, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Results on estimation of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" based on large-scale cartographic studies (1:25000) of a test area (4 km2) are presented. Maximum gamma-irradiation doses were observed at bulk of ground surrounded a crater and at radioactive fall-outs extended to the North-East and to the SouthWest from the crater. Based on data on artificial radionuclide specific activity most part of soil samples were attributed to radioactive wastes according to IAEA (1996) and OSPORB (1999). Natural decrease of soil radioactivity up to safety level due to 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, 154Eu radioactive decay and 241Am accumulation-decay will not take place within the next 60 years at the studied area.

  18. Interpretations of magnetic anomalies at a potential repository site located in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bath, G.D.; Jahren, C.E.

    1984-12-31

    In the Yucca Mountain area near the southwestern border of the Nevada Test Site, studies of the relation of magnetic properties to geologic features have provided structural information at and near a potential site for storage or radioactive waste. Interpreted features include a tabular mass of magnetized sedimentary rock beneath thick deposits of volcanic rock, and 11 major faults that strike generally northward and displace magnetized volcanic rock. A positive anomaly in a high-altitude aeromagnetic survey over exposures of strongly magnetized argillite of the Eleana Formation extends westward 20 km into the site area where interpretations indicate an argillite thickness of 800 m at a depth of 2.25 km. The high magnetite content of the argillite is not typical of the region, and was probably introduced by the heating effects of an underlying pluton. The basis for mapping traces of faults, and identifying their upthrown sides, was developed elsewhere at Yucca fault in the relatively simple volcanic terrains of Yucca Flat. In the site area, analyses of aeromagnetic anomalies from a low-altitude east-west aeromagnetic survey show the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff as the primary source of anomalies from faulted sequences of volcanic rock. Faults related to belts of positive and negative anomalies surrounding the site have been identified. The possibility that an east-west pattern of anomalies is related to structure crossing the site was investigated by a recent aeromagnetic survey flown at low altitude in north-south directions. A significant reduction in amplitude of these anomalies resulted when effects of the deeply buried argillite were removed. The remaining anomalies over the site can be explained by a change in lateral extent, or magnetic properties, of volcanic units beneath the Topopah Spring Member. 37 references, 22 figures, 1 table.

  19. Status report on the Spent-Fuel Test-Climax, Nevada Test Site: a test of dry storage of spent fuel in a deep granite location

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-03-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The test array contains 11 canistered PWR fuel assemblies, plus associated electrical simulators and electrical heaters. There are nearly 900 channels of thermal, radiation, stress, displacement, and test control instrumentation. This paper is a general status report on the test, which started in May 1980.

  20. Downhole monitoring of biogenic gas production at the Maguelone shallow injection experimental site (Languedoc coastline, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghafour, H.; Brondolo, F.; Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The controllability of CO2 geological storage can ensure the integrity of storage operations, requiring a precise monitoring of reservoir fluids and properties during injection and over time. In this context, deep saline aquifers offer a large capacity of storing CO2, but the accessibility to long term behavior studies remains limited until now. The Maguelone shallow experimental site located near Montpellier (Languedoc, France) provides such an opportunity for the understanding and accuracy of hydrogeophysical monitoring methods. The geology, petrophysic and hydrology of this site have been studied in details in previous studies, revealing the presence of a thin saline aquifer at 13-16 m depth surrounded by clay-rich materials. The site as a whole provides a natural laboratory to study CO2 injection at field scale, shallow depth, hence reasonable costs. The monitoring setup is composed of a series of hydrogeophysical and geochemical methods offering measurements of fluid pore pressure, electrical resistivity, acoustic velocities as well as pH and fluid properties and chemistry. To assess the response of the reservoir during CO2 injection, all measurements need to be compared to a representative baseline. Long after a series of gas injection experiments at Maguelone, fluctuations overtime of reservoir fluids and properties (such as pore fluid pH) were discovered at steady state, demonstrating the natural variability of the site in terms of biogenic gas (H2S, CH4, CO2) production and transfer. For this, a new resistivity baseline had to be constructed for all observatories. From this, the downhole gas saturation was determined versus depth and time from time-lapse resistivity logs analysed on the basis of other logs and laboratory measurements. The Waxman and Smits model (1968) for electrical properties of sand-clay formations was modified to estimate the gas saturation in 4D, to account for surface conductivity and pore connectivity. High frequency logging and

  1. Card-Sorting Usability Tests of the WMU Libraries' Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whang, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…

  2. 78 FR 18932 - Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12259), Docket No. FAA-2013-0061. In that document... operation of unmanned aircraft systems within the test site program (78 FR 12259). The proposed privacy... at http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/uas/ when all details are finalized. This Web site will...

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 210: Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 210, Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, is identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. This Corrective Action Unit consists of four Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 10, 12, and 15 of the Nevada Test Site. This report documents that the closure activities conducted meet the approved closure standards.

  4. Technology Demonstration Summary Technology Evaluation Report, Site Demonstration Test, Hazcon Solidification, Douglassville, Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of the HAZCON Solidification SITE Program Demonstration Test was to develop reliable performance and cost information. The demonstration occurred at a 50-acre site of a former oil reprocessing plant at Douglassville, PA containing a wide range of organic...

  5. Annual Report - FY 1998, Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes waste shipments to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Sites at Area 3 and Area 5 during fiscal year 1998. In addition this report provides a summary evaluation of each shipping campaign by source (waste generator) which identifies observable incidents, if any, associated with the actual waste shipments.

  6. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  7. An inventory of long-lived radionuclides residual from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada test site, 1951-1992.

    PubMed

    Smith, D K; Finnegan, D L; Bowen, S M

    2003-01-01

    An inventory of long-lived radionuclides produced by 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada test site (NTS) from 1951 to 1992 includes residual tritium, fission products, actinides, and activation products. Recently, the US Department of Energy approved the declassification of the NTS radionuclide inventory by principal geographic test centers. This permits unclassified publication of radionuclide totals for the Yucca Flat, Pahute Mesa-Area 19, Pahute Mesa-Area 20, Frenchman Flat, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain testing locations. Activities are reported as of September 23, 1992, the date of the last underground nuclear test conducted at the NTS, and September 23, 2492, after 500 years of radioactive decay. The availability of these data affords an opportunity for the analysis of the radiologic source term within the boundaries of local hydrogeologic units and provides insight to where radionuclides are sited relative to potential exposure pathways. PMID:12634000

  8. Quantitative relationship between reflectance and transpiration of phreatophytes, Gila River test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culler, R. C.; Jones, J. E.; Turner, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The use of IR aerial photographs for determining the dynamic characteristics of evapotranspiration at the Gila River Test Site is discussed. Evapotranspiration was measured as a function of plant volume, surface conditions, soil moisture storage, and ground water levels.

  9. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  10. Calendar year 2003 : annual site enviromental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2003. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2003) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg 2., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  11. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  12. Mechanisms for surface contamination of soils and bottom sediments in the Shagan River zone within former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    PubMed

    Aidarkhanov, A O; Lukashenko, S N; Lyakhova, O N; Subbotin, S B; Yakovenko, Yu Yu; Genova, S V; Aidarkhanova, A K

    2013-10-01

    The Shagan River is the only surface watercourse within the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). Research in the valley of the Shagan River was carried out to study the possible migration of artificial radionuclides with surface waters over considerable distances, with the possibility these radionuclides may have entered the Irtysh River. The investigations revealed that radioactive contamination of soil was primarily caused by the first underground nuclear test with soil outburst conducted at the "Balapan" site in Borehole 1004. The surface nuclear tests carried out at the "Experimental Field" site and global fallout made insignificant contributions to contamination. The most polluted is the area in the immediate vicinity of the "Atomic" Lake crater. Contamination at the site is spatial. The total area of contamination is limited to 10-12 km from the crater piles. The ratio of plutonium isotopes was useful to determine the source of soil contamination. There was virtual absence of artificial radionuclide migration with surface waters, and possible cross-border transfer of radionuclides with the waters of Shagan and Irtysh rivers was not confirmed. PMID:23811126

  13. Mechanisms for surface contamination of soils and bottom sediments in the Shagan River zone within former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    PubMed

    Aidarkhanov, A O; Lukashenko, S N; Lyakhova, O N; Subbotin, S B; Yakovenko, Yu Yu; Genova, S V; Aidarkhanova, A K

    2013-10-01

    The Shagan River is the only surface watercourse within the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). Research in the valley of the Shagan River was carried out to study the possible migration of artificial radionuclides with surface waters over considerable distances, with the possibility these radionuclides may have entered the Irtysh River. The investigations revealed that radioactive contamination of soil was primarily caused by the first underground nuclear test with soil outburst conducted at the "Balapan" site in Borehole 1004. The surface nuclear tests carried out at the "Experimental Field" site and global fallout made insignificant contributions to contamination. The most polluted is the area in the immediate vicinity of the "Atomic" Lake crater. Contamination at the site is spatial. The total area of contamination is limited to 10-12 km from the crater piles. The ratio of plutonium isotopes was useful to determine the source of soil contamination. There was virtual absence of artificial radionuclide migration with surface waters, and possible cross-border transfer of radionuclides with the waters of Shagan and Irtysh rivers was not confirmed.

  14. NASA/Pratt and Whitney experimental clean combustor program: Engine test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) combustor and associated fuel system components were successfully tested in an experimental JT9D engine at steady-state and transient operating conditions, using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Full-scale JT9D experimental engine tests were conducted in a phase three aircraft experimental clean combustor program. The low-pollution combustor, fuel system, and fuel control concepts were derived from phase one and phase two programs in which several combustor concepts were evaluated, refined, and optimized in a component test rig. Significant pollution reductions were achieved with the combustor which meets the performance, operating, and installation requirements of the engine.

  15. 76 FR 71087 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “First-Class Tracer”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test...: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental product in accordance with... 39 U.S.C. 3641(c)(1) that it will begin a market test of its ``First-Class Tracer''...

  16. The Aural Music Project: An Exploration of the Usefulness of An Experimental Listening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Betty J.; Pitcher, Barbara

    The GRE Advanced Music Test and an experimental Aural Supplement (a listening test designed to measure music students'"hearing ability") were taken by 334 senior music students as part of a project conducted in 1964. The Advanced Music Test consists of 200 5-choice questions on the fundamentals of music, history and literature, theory,…

  17. 77 FR 64566 - Market Test of Experimental Product-Metro Post

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Market Test of Experimental Product--Metro Post AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a market test involving the product called Metro Post. This document describes the proposed test, addresses...

  18. Supervised fully polarimetric classification of the Black Forest test site: From MAESTROI to MAC Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degrandi, G.; Lavalle, C.; Degroof, H.; Sieber, A.

    1992-01-01

    A study on the performance of a supervised fully polarimetric maximum likelihood classifier for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data when applied to a specific classification context: forest classification based on age classes and in the presence of a sloping terrain is presented. For the experimental part, the polarimetric AIRSAR data at P, L, and C-band, acquired over the German Black Forest near Freiburg in the frame of the 1989 MAESTRO-1 campaign and the 1991 MAC Europe campaign was used, MAESTRO-1 with an ESA/JRC sponsored campaign, and MAC Europe (Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaign); in both cases the multi-frequency polarimetric JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) radar was flown over a number of European test sites. The study is structured as follows. At first, the general characteristics of the classifier and the dependencies from some parameters, like frequency bands, feature vector, calibration, using test areas lying on a flat terrain are investigated. Once it is determined the optimal conditions for the classifier performance, we then move on to the study of the slope effect. The bulk of this work is performed using the Maestrol data set. Next the classifier performance with the MAC Europe data is considered. The study is divided into two stages: first some of the tests done on the Maestro data are repeated, to highlight the improvements due to the new processing scheme that delivers 16 look data. Second we experiment with multi images classification with two goals: to assess the possibility of using a training set measured from one image to classify areas in different images; and to classify areas on critical slopes using different viewing angles. The main points of the study are listed and some of the results obtained so far are highlighted.

  19. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  20. On-site fuel cell field test support program. Annual report Jul 81-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Staniunas, J.W.; Merten, G.P.

    1982-09-01

    United continued this past year to assist the utilities and the Gas Research Institute in the review and selection of sites for data monitoring. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation continued to show that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.