Science.gov

Sample records for expert system technology

  1. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  2. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  3. Expert system technology as a data processing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The expert system technology is focused on as a data processing tool. Several existing applications are analyzed. Their original definition as pure expert systems is contrasted with their current status as integrated systems. The architectural requirements needed to support such a heterogeneous environment are given.

  4. Tools and technologies for expert systems: A human factors perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajaram, Navaratna S.

    1987-01-01

    It is widely recognized that technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), especially expert systems, can make significant contributions to the productivity and effectiveness of operations of information and knowledge intensive organizations such as NASA. At the same time, these being relatively new technologies, there is the problem of transfering technology to key personnel of such organizations. The problems of examining the potential of expert systems and of technology transfer is addressed in the context of human factors applications. One of the topics of interest was the investigation of the potential use of expert system building tools, particularly NEXPERT as a technology transfer medium. Two basic conclusions were reached in this regard. First, NEXPERT is an excellent tool for rapid prototyping of experimental expert systems, but not ideal as a delivery vehicle. Therefore, it is not a substitute for general purpose system implementation languages such a LISP or C. This assertion probably holds for nearly all such tools on the market today. Second, an effective technology transfer mechanism is to formulate and implement expert systems for problems which members of the organization in question can relate to. For this purpose, the LIghting EnGineering Expert (LIEGE) was implemented using NEXPERT as the tool for technology transfer and to illustrate the value of expert systems to the activities of the Man-System Division.

  5. Expert system technology for natural gas resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    Materials data are used in all aspects of the development of natural gas resources. Unconventional gas resources require special attention in their development and may benefit from heuristic assessments of the materials data, geological site conditions, and the knowledge base accumulated from previous unconventional site developments. Opportunities for using expert systems in the development of unconventional natural gas resources are discussed. A brief introduction to expert systems is provided in a context that emphasizes the practical nature of their service. The discussion then focuses on the development of unconventional gas reserves. Whenever possible, the likelihood of success in constructing useful expert systems for gas resource development is indicated by comparisons to existing expert systems that perform comparable functions in other industries. Significant opportunities are found for applications to site assessment, the interpretation of well log data, and the monitoring and optimization of gas processing in small-scale recovery operations.

  6. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  7. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  8. CLEAR: Automating control centers with expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource (CLEAR) is a fault-isolation expert system to be utilized in the operational environment of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission Operations Room (MOR). CLEAR will assist the COBE Flight Operations Team (FOT) during periods of real-time data acquisition by isolating faults in the spacecraft communication link with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), providing advice on how to correct them, and logging the events for post-pass evaluation. After a brief introduction to the problem domain, the system requirements, tool selection, development approach, system operation and lessons learned during the transformation of the system from the prototype to the delivered, operation system are described.

  9. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K.

    1997-09-01

    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.

  10. Expert Systems Technology and Its Implication for Archives. National Archives Technical Information Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Avra

    This report introduces archivists to the potential of expert systems for improving archives administration and alerts them to ways in which they can expect intelligent technologies to impact federal record-keeping systems and scholarly research methods. The report introduces the topic by describing expert systems used in three Fortune 500…

  11. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Robotics and expert systems. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a workshop on robotics and expert systems. Topics considered at the conference include: symbolic computation expert systems for software productivity; expert systems, practices; expert systems, methods; and, technology needs and productivity.

  13. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  14. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  15. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  16. An engineering approach to the use of expert systems technology in avionics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Brazee, M.; Brumbaugh, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of using a knowledge compiler to transform the knowledge base and inference mechanism of an expert system into a conventional program is presented. The need to accommodate real-time systems requirements in applications such as embedded avionics is outlined. Expert systems and a brief comparison of expert systems and conventional programs are reviewed. Avionics applications of expert systems are discussed before the discussions of applying the proposed concept to example systems using forward and backward chaining.

  17. True and False Dependence on Technology: Evaluation with an Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study which investigated the use of an expert system that leads to incorrect advice to identify whether novice or expert users (petroleum engineers) are able to tell when the system is producing erroneous results. Dysfunctional relationships between expert systems and users are discussed, and additional research is suggested. (37…

  18. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of…

  19. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  20. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  1. Expert systems - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

  2. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  3. Avionic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshani, Forouzan

    1988-01-01

    At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

  4. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  6. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system.

  7. An Assessment of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems Technology for Application to Management of Cockpit Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Space Technology, 40-92, Feb 17. 66 Y)hII I r1,t uIw I Iau111tiua;’t ( uIIuIIIIiiI h -It imh lutt wu’ti 1. lillul 111𔃻 mat ileut. CouiuIuuIulII It a I...since machines are not biological , they need not be constrained in their intellectual activity by what we know of as biological intelligence. New...correlating objects in the left and right images so that their disparity can be assessed. Exactly how a biological visual system does this is not

  8. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  9. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  10. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  11. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert

  13. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

  14. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  15. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  16. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  17. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  18. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  19. SENLEX: Sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  20. CLIPS: An expert system building tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 3,300 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as a basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  1. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-05-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  2. Prototype expert system for infusion pump maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mataban, B A

    1994-01-01

    With today's object-oriented software, knowledge-base building becomes simple. Using ServiceSoft's Service Power tools, an IMED PC-1 infusion pump prototype expert system was built. Approximately three man-weeks of work was expended to build the prototype expert system providing advice on repair to the board level. The prototype was demonstrated to the Department of Defense, and they are considering the inclusion of expert systems technology in medical equipment maintenance as one facet of their consolidation of logistic and administrative functions of the four military services' health care delivery.

  3. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  4. Expert system technologies for Space Shuttle decision support: Two case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Christopher J.; Hasan, David A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of integrating the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) into distributed data acquisition environments. In particular, it presents preliminary results of some ongoing software development projects aimed at exploiting CLIPS technology in the new mission control center (MCC) being built at NASA Johnson Space Center. One interesting aspect of the control center is its distributed architecture; it consists of networked workstations which acquire and share data through the NASA/JSC-developed information sharing protocol (ISP). This paper outlines some approaches taken to integrate CLIPS and ISP in order to permit the development of intelligent data analysis applications which can be used in the MCC. Three approaches to CLIPS/IPS integration are discussed. The initial approach involves clearly separating CLIPS from ISP using user-defined functions for gathering and sending data to and from a local storage buffer. Memory and performance drawbacks of this design are summarized. The second approach involves taking full advantage of CLIPS and the CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) by using objects to directly transmit data and state changes from ISP to COOL. Any changes within the object slots eliminate the need for both a data structure and external function call thus taking advantage of the object matching capabilities within CLIPS 6.0. The final approach is to treat CLIPS and ISP as peer toolkits. Neither is embedded in the other; rather the application interweaves calls to each directly in the application source code.

  5. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  6. Using graphics and expert system technologies to support satellite monitoring at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Shirah, Gregory W.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1994-01-01

    At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analysts Assistant (GenSAA), was developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. This paper describes GenSAA's capabilities and how it is supporting monitoring functions of current and future NASA missions for a variety of satellite monitoring applications ranging from subsystem health and safety to spacecraft attitude. Finally, this paper addresses efforts to generalize GenSAA's data interface for more widespread usage throughout the space and commercial industry.

  7. Modelling a Complex System: Using Novice-Expert Analysis for Developing an Effective Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to present the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment (Air Pollution Modeling Environment [APoME]) that was informed by a novice-expert analysis and to discuss high school students' development of modelling practices in the learning environment. APoME was designed to help high school students…

  8. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  9. Applying expertise to data in the Geologist's Assistant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Berkbigler, K.P.; Papcun, G.J.; Marusak, N.L.; Hutson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Geologist's Assistant combines expert system technology with numerical pattern-matching and online communication to a large database. This paper discusses the types of rules used for the expert system, the pattern-matching technique applied, and the implementation of the system using a commercial expert system development environment. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  11. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  12. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  13. SENLEX: sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A Theory-Based Methodology for Analyzing Domain Suitability for Expert Systems Technology Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS. Three or more symbols composing a collective whole. Examples: telephone numbers, words, stop lights (red stop, yellow - caution, green...forms to satisfy some requirement. Using several fruit and flower images, design different wallpaper patterns. 3. Inventing a number of complex objects...specified requirement. Updating a given symbol (i.e., a green aircraft) on a map to reflect its current status (changing the color from green to yellow to

  15. Coupling expert systems and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Hsieh, B. J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype coupled system called NESS (NASA Expert Simulation System) is described. NESS assists the user in running digital simulations of dynamic systems, interprets the output data to performance specifications, and recommends a suitable series compensator to be added to the simulation model.

  16. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-11-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  17. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  18. Expert systems in government symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on various applications of expert systems. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge-based reasoning, new directions in knowledge acquisition, software, programming languages, systems engineering, intelligent information retrieval, reactor safety assessment, medical applications, uncertainty management, algorithms, parallel processing, and artificial intelligence.

  19. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  20. Towards a science of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the field of AI are discussed. The components and applications of expert systems, which are computer systems designed to simulate the problem-solving behavior of a person expert in a narrow field, are examined. Two types of expert systems, shallow and deep, are described and examples are given. A logic programming system, rule-based system, and framed-based system are utilized as means of representing the expert system's data base. The limitations of expert systems are considered.

  1. EXPERT SYSTEMS SHOW PROMISE FOR CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  2. Robotic planner expert system (RPLANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, Ervin Oneal

    1987-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis of the Johnson Space Center has developed a prototype of an expert system for robotic planning. A robot is given a high level goal to perform an action (i.e., swap, adjust, or stow) on a component unit of an object such as a satellite and the Robotic Planner Expert System (RPLANES) generates the necessary goals for arm actions. RPLANES is designed using the Inference Corp. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) development tool. It resides on a SYMBOLICS 3670. RPLANES and its evolution are described.

  3. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  4. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) Ada, an Ada Expert system tool is described. ART-Ada allow applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  5. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in an increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. The Automated Reasoning Tool-Ada (ART-Ada), an Ada expert system tool, is explained. ART-Ada allows applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom program and the U.S. Air Force.

  6. An expert system for astronaut scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    A novel application of expert system technology is developed for real-time advice to an astronaut during the performance of a crew intensive experiment. The provision of an on-board computer expert, containing much of the reasoning base of the real Principal Investigator, will permit the astronaut to act more as a scientist co-worker in future Spacelab and Space Station missions. The long duration of flight increments and the large number of experiments envisioned for Space Station Freedom make the increase in astronaut productivity particularly valuable. A first version of the system was evaluated on the ground during the recent Spacelab SLS-1 flight.

  7. Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Gilstrap, Lewey; Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) provides an approach to developing expert system software. Because of the uncertainty associated with this process, an element of risk is involved. ESDM is designed to address the issue of risk and to acquire the information needed for this purpose in an evolutionary manner. ESDM presents a life cycle in which a prototype evolves through five stages of development. Each stage consists of five steps, leading to a prototype for that stage. Development may proceed to a conventional development methodology (CDM) at any time if enough has been learned about the problem to write requirements. ESDM produces requirements so that a product may be built with a CDM. ESDM is considered preliminary because is has not yet been applied to actual projects. It has been retrospectively evaluated by comparing the methods used in two ongoing expert system development projects that did not explicitly choose to use this methodology but which provided useful insights into actual expert system development practices and problems.

  8. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  9. Expert systems technology applied to instrument operation and data acquisition of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation covers the work done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by some computer programmers and analytical chemists specializing in mass spectrometry to develop an expert system for real-time tuning and optimization of operations of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). This capability is important to increase the sensitivity possible for selected compounds throughout the entire mass range of the instrument, rather than settling for the traditional normalized calibration which lowers sensitivity at both ends of the mass scale.

  10. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  11. Expert systems in agriculture and resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    This paper gives a description of some representative examples of expert systems applied to problems in agriculture and biological resource management. The discussion of agricultural expert systems focuses on several decision support systems for crop management, describing the systems themselves and the implementation efforts surrounding them. The examples of the application of expert systems to biological resource management focus on the integration of expert systems with geographic information systems. A description of some of the more recent developments in agricultural expert systems, still in the prototype stage, is then given, followed by a summary discussion of possible environmental implications of the use of expert systems in agriculture and resource management. 63 refs.

  12. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  13. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  14. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  15. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  16. Linking medical records to an expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Trace, David; Desouzaalmeida, Fabio

    1991-01-01

    This presentation will be done using the IMR-Entry (Intelligent Medical Record Entry) system. IMR-Entry is a software program developed as a front-end to our diagnostic consultant software MEDAS (Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System). MEDAS (the Medical Emergency Diagnostic Assistance System) is a diagnostic consultant system using a multimembership Bayesian design for its inference engine and relational database technology for its knowledge base maintenance. Research on MEDAS began at the University of Southern California and the Institute of Critical Care in the mid 1970's with support from NASA and NSF. The MEDAS project moved to Chicago in 1982; its current progress is due to collaboration between Illinois Institute of Technology, The Chicago Medical School, Lake Forest College and NASA at KSC. Since the purpose of an expert system is to derive a hypothesis, its communication vocabulary is limited to features used by its knowledge base. The development of a comprehensive problem based medical record entry system which could handshake with an expert system while creating an electronic medical record at the same time was studied. IMR-E is a computer based patient record that serves as a front end to the expert system MEDAS. IMR-E is a graphically oriented comprehensive medical record. The programs major components are demonstrated.

  17. Expert system for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Venoge, T.P. de; Stauffer, T.B.; Medina, M.; Jacobs, T.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous waste site remedial investigations and feasibility studies generally involve some degree of groundwater modeling. A plethora of models exist and most models are difficult to use. An expert system has been developed to lead the user to the appropriate model(s) based on responses to questions about site conditions and data availability. The system is menu driven, user friendly, and provides assistance in estimating input parameters where field measurements are lacking. The system contains twelve models, both analytical and numerical models, that are in the public domain. Some of the models included in the system are MOC, MODFLOW, BIOPLUME, RESSQ, TDAST and PLUME2D. Preprocessors and post processors have been written to permit easy data input and to provide understandable and interpretable data output. There are two versions of the expert system that are available. One version is a UNIX based system that works through the windows environment and provides excellent graphics capabilities. The other version is DOS based and will run on a 386 processor or higher system with 10 megabytes of available hard disk space.

  18. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  19. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  20. Expert system validation in prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  1. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  2. The power distance between users of information technology and experts and satisfaction with the information system: implication for cross cultural transfer of IT.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, S

    2001-01-01

    There is a need for research into Information Technology (IT) transfer from one culture to another. Two of the more important cultural factors which affects IT transfer are power distance and uncertainty avoidance. The IT expert, by virtue of specialized knowledge is in a position of power. The user of information technology may or may not accept the authority of the IT professional. When the user and the expert is in agreement on the issue of power-distance the IT systems provided will be viewed in a more positive light. This hypothesis is tested and confirmed in the present study. A list of twelve statements expressing special IT knowledge and authority was constructed and a sample of IT experts and users were asked to rate their level of agreement with these on a scale 0 to 5. The simple sum of respondent rating was used as a measure of acceptance of IT authority and power. Users were also asked to rate their level of satisfaction with the progress of a new Hospital Information System been implemented. The IT acceptance score of users who were satisfied with implementation progress did not differ from IT personnel but differed significantly from users who were not satisfied with progress. This study has implications for cross culture transfer of IT.

  3. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  4. Expert system requirements for power system restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. ); Milanicz, D.P. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper is one of series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration. Expert systems are being considered for restoring bulk power supplies. In general, there are three restoration periods following a major power disturbance: establishment of initial sources of power, re-integration of a skeleton of the bulk power supply, and minimization of the unserved loads. Expert systems together with analytical tools have the potential of addressing the restoration procedures over these three periods. This paper describes the expert system requirements from the point of view of the practicing power engineers with emphasis placed on the initial power sources and requirements. The paper draws on the previous reports by the Power System Restoration Working Group.

  5. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  6. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  7. System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

  8. Testing validation tools on CLIPS-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.; Combs, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system which was developed at the Lockheed Software Technology Center and Artificial Intelligence Center between 1986 and 1990. EVA is an integrated set of generic tools to validate any knowledge-based system written in any expert system shell such as C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), ART, OPS5, KEE, and others. Many validation tools have been built in the EVA system. In this paper, we describe the testing results of applying the EVA validation tools to the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Reconfiguration (FDIR) expert system, written in CLIPS, obtained from the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  9. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  10. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  11. SENLEX: a sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-06-25

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  12. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. )

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  13. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  14. Counseling, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems in counseling. Limitations are explored; candidates for counseling versus those for expert systems are discussed; programming considerations are reviewed; and techniques for dealing with rational, nonrational, and irrational thoughts and feelings are described. (Contains 46…

  15. Computerized Adaptive Mastery Tests as Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems and computerized adaptive tests describes two versions of EXSPRT, a new approach that combines uncertain inference in expert systems with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) stopping rules. Results of two studies comparing EXSPRT to adaptive mastery testing based on item response theory and SPRT approaches are…

  16. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Brudnoy, David M.; Englund, James M.; Loomis, Kent C.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  17. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.; Oppenlander, J.E.; Brudnoy, D.M.; Englund, J.M.; Loomis, K.C.

    1994-08-16

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner. 21 figs.

  18. Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence for Professional Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes expert systems which are computer programs which use inference schemes to apply generalized human expertise to the facts of a specific case. Basic concepts, potentials and implications are presented along with the issues involved in their development and use. A simple expert system, written in BASIC, is included to illustrate the…

  19. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Verification issues for rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Verification and validation of expert systems is very important for the future success of this technology. Software will never be used in non-trivial applications unless the program developers can assure both users and managers that the software is reliable and generally free from error. Therefore, verification and validation of expert systems must be done. The primary hindrance to effective verification and validation is the use of methodologies which do not produce testable requirements. An extension of the flight technique panels used in previous NASA programs should provide both documented requirements and very high levels of verification for expert systems.

  1. DISPO Advisor: Expert System for Psychiatric Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Patrick; Barta, Wendy

    1988-01-01

    An expert system was designed to assist psychiatric residents at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This microcomputer based decision support system helps residents find the proper disposition for patients who come to the emergency room. The system uses an inexpensive, commercially available expert system shell, VP-EXPERT by Paperback Software, to match patients with inpatient and outpatient resources appropriate to their needs. The inference engine uses both forward and backward chaining, and interfaces with data stored in DBase III files. The system is currently in daily use by residents.

  2. Multiple strategies of reasoning for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yuchuan; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    In expert systems the heuristics used for combining the weight of evidence can be based on probabilistic, fuzzy set, or subjective confidence factors. Although the underlying assumptions for each of the methods differ, it can be shown that there are correspondences between them and that it is possible to develop a model of expert reasoning for medical consultation using any one of the methods. The authors have developed a system for representing expert knowledge, called ESMES, which is an outgrowth of the expert scheme developed earlier at Rutgers. ESMES allows the use of alternative strategies in the solution of a consultation problem. The authors report on the performance of ESMES for a prototype glaucoma consultation model, using reasoning mechanisms similar to those of the expert, MYCIN, Internist I, and Prospector systems. 9 references.

  3. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  4. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  5. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  6. Validation and verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey

    1991-01-01

    Validation and verification (V&V) are procedures used to evaluate system structure or behavior with respect to a set of requirements. Although expert systems are often developed as a series of prototypes without requirements, it is not possible to perform V&V on any system for which requirements have not been prepared. In addition, there are special problems associated with the evaluation of expert systems that do not arise in the evaluation of conventional systems, such as verification of the completeness and accuracy of the knowledge base. The criticality of most NASA missions make it important to be able to certify the performance of the expert systems used to support these mission. Recommendations for the most appropriate method for integrating V&V into the Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) and suggestions for the most suitable approaches for each stage of ESDM development are presented.

  7. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  8. Fuzzy expert system for diagnosing diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani Katigari, Meysam; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Malek, Mojtaba; Kamkar Haghighi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    AIM To design a fuzzy expert system to help detect and diagnose the severity of diabetic neuropathy. METHODS The research was completed in 2014 and consisted of two main phases. In the first phase, the diagnostic parameters were determined based on the literature review and by investigating specialists’ perspectives (n = 8). In the second phase, 244 medical records related to the patients who were visited in an endocrinology and metabolism research centre during the first six months of 2014 and were primarily diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, were used to test the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the fuzzy expert system. RESULTS The final diagnostic parameters included the duration of diabetes, the score of a symptom examination based on the Michigan questionnaire, the score of a sign examination based on the Michigan questionnaire, the glycolysis haemoglobin level, fasting blood sugar, blood creatinine, and albuminuria. The output variable was the severity of diabetic neuropathy which was shown as a number between zero and 10, had been divided into four categories: absence of the disease, (the degree of severity) mild, moderate, and severe. The interface of the system was designed by ASP.Net (Active Server Pages Network Enabled Technology) and the system function was tested in terms of sensitivity (true positive rate) (89%), specificity (true negative rate) (98%), and accuracy (a proportion of true results, both positive and negative) (93%). CONCLUSION The system designed in this study can help specialists and general practitioners to diagnose the disease more quickly to improve the quality of care for patients. PMID:28265346

  9. Battery test expert systems. [spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of NIHBES (nickel-hydrogen battery expert system) are described, with attention also given to NICBES-2 (nickel-cadmium battery expert system-2). The nickel-hydrogen battery testbed is set up almost identically to the nickel-cadmium battery testbed, with the exceptions of no battery protection and reconditioning circuits (BPRCs) and the frequency of transmission of data. The Ni-H2 testbed has no BPRCs and the data are transmitted every 30 s instead of every minute. An expert system shell was chosen to develop this particular expert system. The GoldWorks expert system shell from Gold Hill Computers was chosen for the task. NIHBES will extract the desired data and return fault diagnosis, status and advice, and decision support. Expert systems have been proven to be viable tools in the control and monitoring of space power systems. Presently, the DDAS (digital data acquisition system) monitors and controls the orbit time, and is responsible for limit checking, data acquisition, and data summaries. It is concluded that in the future control of the Hubble Space Telescope breadboard will be passed to NIHBES. NIHBES will be more beneficial to the testbed than the DDAS alone due to the limitations of the DDAS. The DDAS cannot provide long-term trend analysis, plotting capability, fault diagnosis, or advice.

  10. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  11. [Current aspects of creation of expert systems in aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Stupakov, G P; Kukushkin, Iu A; Usov, V M; Danilov, S L

    1996-01-01

    Topical directions of developing the medical expert systems (MES) are considered. The problems to be solved by using programming and informational means as part of MES are discussed. A classification of the knowledge of expert physicians who directly deal with decision making is proposed. The characteristics of the developed MES well appreciated by the results of their operation are given. They show new trends associated with the update of medical knowledge and the developmental level of information technologies.

  12. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  13. A Combat Battle Damage Assessor Expert System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Next, the requirements should receive just enough repair to allow for the battle damage assessor software it to be flown to a rear area for complete are...R’ D-Ai48 898 A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM(U) AIR 1/i FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABS WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB ON D E NELSON MAY 84 SBI...8217.c.sw-x -: "--..... . .. .-. :;.-...... .............. .. . .. . . .. . .. . . r74 IV A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM DAL E. NELSON

  14. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  15. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  16. Expert System for Automated Design Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1987-01-01

    Expert-system computer program EXADS developed to aid users of Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general-purpose optimization program. EXADS aids engineer in determining best combination based on knowledge of specific problem and expert knowledge stored in knowledge base. Available in two interactive machine versions. IBM PC version (LAR-13687) written in IQ-LISP. DEC VAX version (LAR-13688) written in Franz-LISP.

  17. Optical Design Using an Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S A

    2003-08-01

    We present, as a different perspective on optimization, an expert system for optimization of optical systems that can be used in conjunction with damped least squared methods to find minima for specific design forms. Expert system optimization differs from global optimization in that it preserves the basic structure of the optical system and limits its search for a minima to a relatively small portion of the design space. In general, the high density of local minima obscures the general trend of the merit function in the region of interest for systems with a large number of variables and constraints. Surprisingly, there may be a potential decrease of an order a magnitude in the merit function for a region of solution space. While global optimization is well-suited to identifying design forms of interest, expert system optimization can be used for in-depth optimization of such forms. An expert system based upon such techniques was used to obtain the winning entry for the 2002 IODC lens design problem. The expert system used is discussed along with other design examples.

  18. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  19. Space Shuttle telemetry analysis by a real time expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1987-01-01

    During early manned spacecraft operations, the primary role of ground telemetry systems was data display to flight controllers. As manned spaceflights have increased in complexity, greater demands have been placed on flight controllers to simultaneously monitor systems and replan systems operations. This has led to interest in automated telemetry monitoring systems to decrease the workload on flight controllers. The Mission Operations Directorate at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center has developed a five layer model to integrate various monitoring and analysis technologies such as digital filtering, fault detection algorithms, and expert systems. The paper describes the five layer model and explains how it has been used to guide prototyping efforts at Mission Control. Results from some initial expert systems are presented. The paper also describes the integrated prototype currently under development which implements a real time expert system to assist flight controllers in the Mission Control Center in monitoring Space Shuttle communications systems.

  20. The diagnosis of microcytic anemia by a rule-based expert system using VP-Expert.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M L; McKinney, T

    1989-09-01

    We describe our experience in creating a rule-based expert system for the interpretation of microcytic anemia using the expert system development tool, VP-Expert, running on an IBM personal computer. VP-Expert processes data (complete blood cell count results, age, and sex) according to a set of user-written logic rules (our program) to reach conclusions as to the following causes of microcytic anemia: alpha- and beta-thalassemia trait, iron deficiency, and anemia of chronic disease. Our expert system was tested using previously interpreted complete blood cell count data. In most instances, there was good agreement between the expert system and its pathologist-author, but many discrepancies were found in the interpretation of anemia of chronic disease. We conclude that VP-Expert has a useful level of power and flexibility, yet is simple enough that individuals with modest programming experience can create their own expert systems. Limitations of such expert systems are discussed.

  1. Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Chet

    1990-01-01

    Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

  2. Feasibility of physician-developed expert systems.

    PubMed

    Tuhrim, S; Reggia, J A

    1986-01-01

    The authors developed an experimental domain-independent "expert system generator" intended for direct use by physicians. They then undertook a four-year study to determine whether physicians could use such a system effectively. During this period they taught the use of the expert system generator to 70 medical students, who utilized it to build two small medical expert systems. At the conclusion of the course, students were examined on decision-making concepts and completed anonymous questionnaires. Performance scores, a composite of test and project grades, were calculated for each student. There was no significant association between previous computer experience and performance score. Thirty-two of 47 students responding felt the expert system generator was easy to use; 15 felt it was of moderate difficulty. Forty-three of 47 thought it a useful teaching aid. These data support the conclusion that physicians can learn to use domain-independent software to implement medical expert systems directly, without a knowledge engineer as an intermediary.

  3. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  4. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  5. Estrogen receptor expert system overview and examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogen receptor expert system (ERES) is a rule-based system developed to prioritize chemicals based upon their potential for binding to the ER. The ERES was initially developed to predict ER affinity of chemicals from two specific EPA chemical inventories, antimicrobial pe...

  6. Expert Systems: Tutors, Tools, and Tutees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Renate C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current status, research, and practical implications of artificial intelligence and expert systems in education. Topics discussed include computer-assisted instruction; intelligent computer-assisted instruction; intelligent tutoring systems; instructional strategies involving the creation of knowledge bases; decision aids;…

  7. ROSIE: A Programming Environment for Expert Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    ence on Artificial Inteligence , Tbilisi, USSR, 1975. Fain, J., D. Gorlin, F. Hayes-Roth, S. Rosenschein, H. Sowizral, and D. Waterman, The ROSIE Language...gramming environment for artificial intelligence (AI) applications. It provides particular support for designing expert systems, systems that embody

  8. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  9. An Expert System Shell to Teach Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Renate C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of expert systems to teach problem-solving skills to students from grade 6 to college level. The role of computer technology in the future of education is considered, and the construction of knowledge bases is described, including an example for physics. (LRW)

  10. Enhanced algorithms for enterprise expert search system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokanov, Valentin; Romanov, Dmitry; Tsibulsky, Valentin

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of our enterprise expert search system application to the task introduced at the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) in 2007. The expert search system is based on analysis of content and communications topology in an enterprise information space. An optimal set of weighting coefficients for three query-candidate associating algorithms is selected for achieving the best search efficiency on the search collection. The obtained performance proved to be better than at most TREC participants. The hypothesis of additional efficiency improvement by means of query classification is proposed.

  11. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  12. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  13. Attacking the information access problem with expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, James M.; Orwig, Gary W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of applications research directed at finding an improved method of storing and accessing information are presented. Twelve microcomputer-based expert systems shells and five laser-optical formats have been studied, and the general and specific methods of interfacing these technologies are being tested in prototype systems. Shell features and interfacing capabilities are discussed, and results from the study of five laser-optical formats are recounted including the video laser, compact, and WORM disks, and laser cards and film. Interfacing, including laser disk device driver interfacing, is discussed and it is pointed out that in order to control the laser device from within the expert systems application, the expert systems shell must be able to access the device driver software. Potential integrated applications are investigated and an initial list is provided including consumer services, travel, law enforcement, human resources, marketing, and education and training.

  14. Quantifying the Effects of Expert Selection and Elicitation Design on Experts' Confidence in Their Judgments About Future Energy Technologies.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Gregory F; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Verdolini, Elena

    2016-03-31

    Expert elicitations are now frequently used to characterize uncertain future technology outcomes. However, their usefulness is limited, in part because: estimates across studies are not easily comparable; choices in survey design and expert selection may bias results; and overconfidence is a persistent problem. We provide quantitative evidence of how these choices affect experts' estimates. We standardize data from 16 elicitations, involving 169 experts, on the 2030 costs of five energy technologies: nuclear, biofuels, bioelectricity, solar, and carbon capture. We estimate determinants of experts' confidence using survey design, expert characteristics, and public R&D investment levels on which the elicited values are conditional. Our central finding is that when experts respond to elicitations in person (vs. online or mail) they ascribe lower confidence (larger uncertainty) to their estimates, but more optimistic assessments of best-case (10th percentile) outcomes. The effects of expert affiliation and country of residence vary by technology, but in general: academics and public-sector experts express lower confidence than private-sector experts; and E.U. experts are more confident than U.S. experts. Finally, extending previous technology-specific work, higher R&D spending increases experts' uncertainty rather than resolves it. We discuss ways in which these findings should be seriously considered in interpreting the results of existing elicitations and in designing new ones.

  15. Models Used to Select Strategic Planning Experts for High Technology Productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Grigorjeva, Antonina A.; Tseplit, Anna P.; Ozgogov, Evgenij V.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the problems and specific aspects in organizing works of experts involved in assessment of companies that manufacture complex high-technology products. A model is presented that is intended for evaluating competences of experts in individual functional areas of expertise. Experts are selected to build a group on the basis of tables used to determine a competence level. An expert selection model based on fuzzy logic is proposed and additional requirements for the expert group composition can be taken into account, with regard to the needed quality and competence related preferences of decision-makers. A Web-based information system model is developed for the interaction between experts and decision-makers when carrying out online examinations.

  16. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  17. Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, T.

    2011-01-01

    Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

  18. Prototype Expert System for Climate Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clay

    Many students find climate classification laborious and time-consuming, and through their lack of repetition fail to grasp the details of classification. This paper describes an expert system for climate classification that is being developed at Middle Tennessee State University. Topics include: (1) an introduction to the nature of classification,…

  19. An expert system for optimal gear design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    By properly developing the mathematical model, numerical optimization can be used to seek the best solution for a given set of geometric constraints. The process of determining the non-geometric design variables is automated by using symbolic computation. This gear-design system is built according to the AGMA standards and a survey of gear-design experts. The recommendations of gear designers and the information provided by AGMA standards are integrated into knowledge bases and data bases. By providing fast information retrieval and design guidelines, this expert system greatly streamlines the spur gear design process. The concept of separating the design space into geometric and non-geometric variables can also be applied to the design process for general mechanical elements. The expert-system techniques is used to simulate a human designer to optimize the process of determining non-geometric parameters, and the numerical optimization is used to identify for the best geometric solution. The combination of the expert-system technique with numerical optimization essentially eliminates the deficiencies of both methods and thus provides a better way of modeling the engineering design process.

  20. A Prototype Expert System for Fishway Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of a prototype expert system to recommend the most suitable type of fishway for given design conditions. Recommendations are provided on the basis of fishway hydraulics, fish passage performance, and cost requirements. An appendix provides an example consultation. (MDH)

  1. Genesis of an Electronic Database Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Wei; Cole, Timothy W.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the creation of a prototype, Web-based expert system that helps users better navigate library databases at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Discusses concerns that gave rise to the project. Summarizes previous work/research and common approaches in academic libraries today. Describes plans for testing the prototype,…

  2. An expert system for satellite control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzani, M.; Brindle, A.

    As on-board satellite systems develop increased sophistication and autonomous capabilities, failures become fewer, but the diagnosis of the remaining failures becomes more complex. In addition, autonomy requirements for space vehicles are being issued along with requirements for reduced staffing of ground stations. Thus successful ground-based fault handling in the future will require greatly increased automation of fault detection and diagnosis. This paper investigates the use of an expert system as a ground system component for diagnosis. The diagnostic cycle of the system is presented, along with requirements for its knowledge base. The results of implementing the design to diagnose part of a satellite attitude control system are given. Knowledge acquisition for this problem centered on the generation and analysis of terminal displays of telemetry which look much like strip charts. Correct diagnosis by the expert system derived from the use of extensive telemetry analysis, operations and satellite status database, and satellite modeling.

  3. Ground terminal expert (GTEX). Part 2: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A research effort was undertaken to investigate how expert system technology could be applied to a satellite communications system. The focus of the expert system is the satellite earth station. A proof of concept expert system called the Ground Terminal Expert (GTEX) was developed at the University of Akron in collaboration with the NASA Lewis Research Center. With the increasing demand for satellite earth stations, maintenance is becoming a vital issue. Vendors of such systems will be looking for cost effective means of maintaining such systems. The objective of GTEX is to aid in diagnosis of faults occurring with the digital earth station. GTEX was developed on a personal computer using the Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management (ART-IM) developed by the Inference Corporation. Developed for the Phase 2 digital earth station, GTEX is a part of the Systems Integration Test and Evaluation (SITE) facility located at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  4. Ground terminal expert (GTEX). Part 2: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-03-01

    A research effort was undertaken to investigate how expert system technology could be applied to a satellite communications system. The focus of the expert system is the satellite earth station. A proof of concept expert system called the Ground Terminal Expert (GTEX) was developed at the University of Akron in collaboration with the NASA Lewis Research Center. With the increasing demand for satellite earth stations, maintenance is becoming a vital issue. Vendors of such systems will be looking for cost effective means of maintaining such systems. The objective of GTEX is to aid in diagnosis of faults occurring with the digital earth station. GTEX was developed on a personal computer using the Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management (ART-IM) developed by the Inference Corporation. Developed for the Phase 2 digital earth station, GTEX is a part of the Systems Integration Test and Evaluation (SITE) facility located at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  5. Expert Systems for Civilian Personnel Administration,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    of them in a comparative mode, having an identical problem being solved using each system (see Hayes- Roth, Waterman and Douglas). There are several...This is fairly obvious. After a system is developed, certified expert, and placed in operation as a standardized system, identical ...results would be obtained given identical facts in all locations throughout Army. Although we do not like to admit it, human specialists do not always

  6. Diagnostic Expert Systems Use in the United States Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    expert system. A. DEFINITION What is meant by the term "expert system"? Some author- ities in the field have provided the following definitions. Mark ... Fox (Fox, 1990, p. 8) defines an expert system as a software program that: ... emulates the search behavior of human experts in solving a problem. A

  7. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

    Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

  8. Fault isolation detection expert (FIDEX). Part 1: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has recently completed the design of a Ka-band satellite transponder system, as part of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. To enhance the reliability of this satellite, NASA funded the University of Akron to explore the application of an expert system to provide the transponder with an autonomous diagnosis capability. The results of this research was the development of a prototype diagnosis expert system called FIDEX (fault-isolation and diagnosis expert). FIDEX is a frame-based expert system that was developed in the NEXPERT Object development environment by Neuron Data, Inc. It is a MicroSoft Windows version 3.0 application, and was designed to operate on an Intel i80386 based personal computer system.

  9. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  10. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-10-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  11. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  12. A distributed expert system for fault diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, E.; Talukdar, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel in a network of computers. Speeds sufficient for real-time applications can thereby be obtained.

  13. Exercise countermeasure protocol management expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L.; Chen, J. G.; Flores, L.; Tan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise will be used primarily to countermeasure against deconditioning on extended space flight. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of an expert system for exercise countermeasure protocol management. Currently, the system includes two major subsystems: baseline prescription and prescription adjustment. The baseline prescription subsystem is designed to provide initial exercise prescriptions while prescription adjustment subsystem is designed to modify the initial prescription based on the exercised progress. The system runs under three different environments: PC, SUN workstation, and Symbolic machine. The inference engine, baseline prescription module, prescription adjustment module and explanation module are developed under the Symbolic environment by using the ART (Automated Reasoning Tool) software. The Sun environment handles database management features and interfaces with PC environment to obtain physical and physiological data from exercise units on-board during the flight. Eight subjects' data have been used to evaluate the system performance by comparing the prescription of nine experienced exercise physiologists and the one prescribed by the expert system. The results of the validation test indicated that the performance of the expert system was acceptable.

  14. Youth As Community Science Experts in Green Energy Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Birmingham, Daniel; Sato, Takumi; Tan, Edna; Calabrese Barton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine what it means to become a community science expert (CSE) and why this goal is important for youth in afterschool environments. Using "Green Energy Technology in the City" (GET City) as a case study, they describe how this afterschool program nurtures youth as CSEs. They draw on data gathered in…

  15. Design of an expert-system flight status monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, V. A.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The modern advanced avionics in new high-performance aircraft strains the capability of current technology to safely monitor these systems for flight test prior to their generalized use. New techniques are needed to improve the ability of systems engineers to understand and analyze complex systems in the limited time available during crucial periods of the flight test. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is involved in the design and implementation of an expert system to provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer. The need for new techniques in monitoring flight systems and the conceptual design of an expert-system flight status monitor is discussed. The status of the current project and its goals are described.

  16. Quantitative knowledge acquisition for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    A common problem in the design of expert systems is the definition of rules from data obtained in system operation or simulation. While it is relatively easy to collect data and to log the comments of human operators engaged in experiments, generalizing such information to a set of rules has not previously been a direct task. A statistical method is presented for generating rule bases from numerical data, motivated by an example based on aircraft navigation with multiple sensors. The specific objective is to design an expert system that selects a satisfactory suite of measurements from a dissimilar, redundant set, given an arbitrary navigation geometry and possible sensor failures. The systematic development is described of a Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) Expert System from Kalman Filter convariance data. The method invokes two statistical techniques: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 Algorithm. The ANOVA technique indicates whether variations of problem parameters give statistically different covariance results, and the ID3 algorithms identifies the relationships between the problem parameters using probabilistic knowledge extracted from a simulation example set. Both are detailed.

  17. The Expert Project Management System (EPMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Diakite, Coty

    1986-01-01

    Successful project managers (PMs) have been shown to rely on 'intuition,' experience, and analogical reasoning heuristics. For new PMs to be trained and experienced PMs to avoid repeating others' mistakes, it is necessary to make the knowledge and heuristics of successful PMs more widely available. The preparers have evolved a model of PM thought processes over the last decade that is now ready to be implemented as a generic PM aid. This aid consists of a series of 'specialist' expert systems (CRITIC, LIBRARIAN, IDEA MAN, CRAFTSMAN, and WRITER) that communicate with each other via a 'blackboard' architecture. The various specialist expert systems are driven to support PM training and problem solving since any 'answers' they pass to the blackboard are subjected to conflict identification (AGENDA FORMULATOR) and GOAL SETTER inference engines.

  18. Expert system for LAN media selection

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Bratten, W.A.; Williams, J.M.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    A continued rise in interconnectivity requirements and a shortage of experienced system integrators characterize a growing need for access to data networking information. Telecommunications personnel must make complex decisions regarding transfer media and topology. Informed decision making can be aided by an expert system capturing network planning knowledge. The LAN system has a modular architecture. It contains information regarding the design of Local Area Networks, as well as cost and time considerations. In addition, by including information regarding local constraints (e.g., equipment and distance), the system can be tailored to a new organization. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Expert systems in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  20. Using expert systems to analyze ATE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.

  1. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    A study of intelligent guidance and control concepts for protecting against the adverse effects of wind shear during aircraft takeoffs and landings is being conducted, with current emphasis on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. Principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information , for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the manually controlled flight. The program has begun with the development of the WindShear Safety Advisor, an expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the FAA Windshear Training Aid; a two-volume manual that presents an overview , pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The WindShear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 200 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language.

  2. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  3. An expert systems approach to automated fault management in a regenerative life support subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, J. T.; Lance, N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes FIXER, a prototype expert system for automated fault management in a regenerative life support subsystem typical of Space Station applications. The development project provided an evaluation of the use of expert systems technology to enhance controller functions in space subsystems. The software development approach permitted evaluation of the effectiveness of direct involvement of the expert in design and development. The approach also permitted intensive observation of the knowledge and methods of the expert. This paper describes the development of the prototype expert system and presents results of the evaluation.

  4. EMMA (Expert Missile Maintenance Aid): The Expert System for Munition Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    CONCLUDED) Electonic Systems Division 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL (CONCLUDED) ESD/XRS 8c. ADDRESS (CONCLUDED) Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-5003 19. ABSTRACT (CONCLUDED...325th Equipment Maintenance Squadron formed by the knowledge engineer . Since (EMS) at Tyndall AFB, Florida for an eval- expert system development is...development. The knowl- edge engineer and the expert verify the The argument could be made that EMMA expert system and identify potential cor- should accurately

  5. The NASA personnel security processing expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Silberberg, D.; Thomas, R.

    1996-12-31

    The NASA Personnel Security Processing Expert System is a tool that automatically determines the appropriate personnel background investigation required for a civil servant or contractor occupying a position of national security or public trust. It also instructs the personnel security processing staff to perform special checks based on a specific position. The system is implemented using a rule-based expert system and a World Wide Web interface. The system design separates the user interface, knowledge base and control structure to simplify system evolution. When one subsystem is modified, the others are impacted minimally. This system provides many benefits to the NASA Personnel Security Program. First, it frees the agency personnel security specialist from trouble-shooting and correcting all investigative problems. It also provides a learning tool for security processing staff at each installation. The system ensures that each installation security office is in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and policies. Finally, eliminating overlapping, inappropriate and duplicative efforts to process employees saves many resources. The system was deployed less than a year ago. To date, it saved $1.2 million of the $1.5 million agency-wide personnel security budget.

  6. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  7. MARBLE: A system for executing expert systems in parallel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Leonard; Johnson, Coe; Johnson, Dean

    1990-01-01

    This paper details the MARBLE 2.0 system which provides a parallel environment for cooperating expert systems. The work has been done in conjunction with the development of an intelligent computer-aided design system, ICADS, by the CAD Research Unit of the Design Institute at California Polytechnic State University. MARBLE (Multiple Accessed Rete Blackboard Linked Experts) is a system of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) expert system tool. A copied blackboard is used for communication between the shells to establish an architecture which supports cooperating expert systems that execute in parallel. The design of MARBLE is simple, but it provides support for a rich variety of configurations, while making it relatively easy to demonstrate the correctness of its parallel execution features. In its most elementary configuration, individual CLIPS expert systems execute on their own processors and communicate with each other through a modified blackboard. Control of the system as a whole, and specifically of writing to the blackboard is provided by one of the CLIPS expert systems, an expert control system.

  8. Multiperspective analysis and testing of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Terry B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes a technique which the author developed for testing expert systems. The technique, which he calls multiperspective testing, can be applied during both the knowledge engineering phase and the acceptance testing phase of developing an exppert system. The first step in multiperspective testing is to define a group of performance measures ('perspectives') that focus on the behavior of the knowledge base. For each such measure, the results of testing are summarized in four scores, which the author calls 'expansion,' 'detection,' 'discrimination,' and 'comprehension.' These scores have the advantage of providing more specific information about how the knowledge base should be updated or corrected.

  9. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  10. FIDEX: An expert system for satellite diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Tallo, Donald; Petrik, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A Fault Isolation and Diagnostic Expert system (FIDEX) was developed for communication satellite diagnostics. It was designed specifically for the 30/20 GHz satellite transponder. The expert system was designed with a generic structure and features that make it applicable to other types of space systems. FIDEX is a frame based system that enjoys many of the inherent frame base features, such as hierarchy that describes the transponder's components, with other hierarchies that provide structural and fault information about the transponder. This architecture provides a flexible diagnostic structure and enhances maintenance of the system. FIDEX also includes an inexact reasoning technique and a primitive learning ability. Inexact reasoning was an important feature for this system due to the sparse number of sensors available to provide information on the transponder's performance. FIDEX can determine the most likely faulted component under the constraint of limited information. FIDEX learns about the most likely faults in the transponder by keeping a record of past established faults. FIDEX also has the ability to detect anomalies in the sensors that provide information on the transponders performance.

  11. A methodology for uncertainty quantification in quantitative technology valuation based on expert elicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Muhammad Farooq Bin

    The management of technology portfolios is an important element of aerospace system design. New technologies are often applied to new product designs to ensure their competitiveness at the time they are introduced to market. The future performance of yet-to- be designed components is inherently uncertain, necessitating subject matter expert knowledge, statistical methods and financial forecasting. Estimates of the appropriate parameter settings often come from disciplinary experts, who may disagree with each other because of varying experience and background. Due to inherent uncertain nature of expert elicitation in technology valuation process, appropriate uncertainty quantification and propagation is very critical. The uncertainty in defining the impact of an input on performance parameters of a system makes it difficult to use traditional probability theory. Often the available information is not enough to assign the appropriate probability distributions to uncertain inputs. Another problem faced during technology elicitation pertains to technology interactions in a portfolio. When multiple technologies are applied simultaneously on a system, often their cumulative impact is non-linear. Current methods assume that technologies are either incompatible or linearly independent. It is observed that in case of lack of knowledge about the problem, epistemic uncertainty is the most suitable representation of the process. It reduces the number of assumptions during the elicitation process, when experts are forced to assign probability distributions to their opinions without sufficient knowledge. Epistemic uncertainty can be quantified by many techniques. In present research it is proposed that interval analysis and Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence are better suited for quantification of epistemic uncertainty in technology valuation process. Proposed technique seeks to offset some of the problems faced by using deterministic or traditional probabilistic approaches for

  12. Expert systems help design cementing and acidizing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Onan, D.D.; Kulakofsky, D.; Van Domelen, M.S.; Ford, W.G.F. )

    1993-04-19

    Knowledge-based expert information systems can help train less-experienced designers and orient seasoned designers at new locations. These systems are playing an increased role in completion and production operations. Expert systems help: design treatments based on an accumulation of knowledge from experts; provide technical information and guidelines on the proper use of additives; and serve as a training tool for less-experienced personnel. The paper describes expert systems design; practical applications; and details about a cement job and acidizing.

  13. Expert-System Consultant To Operating Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Astrid E.; Pinkowski, Patrick P.; Adler, Richard M.; Hosken, R. Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence aids engineers and technicians in controlling and monitoring complicated systems. Operations Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA) software is developmental suite of expert-system computer programs helping engineers and technicians operating from number of computer workstations to control and monitor spacecraft during prelaunch and launch phases of operation. OPERA designed to serve as consultant to operating engineers and technicians. It preprocesses incoming data, using expertise collected from conglomerate of specialists in design and operation of various parts of system. Driven by menus and mouse-activated commands. Modified versions of OPERA used in chemical-processing plants, factories, banks, and other enterprises in which there are distributed-computer systems including computers that monitor or control other computers.

  14. Expert Systems--The New International Language of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondak, Norman E.; And Others

    A discussion of expert systems, computer programs designed to simulate human reasoning and expertise, begins with the assumption that few business educators understand the impact that expert systems will have on international business. The fundamental principles of the design and development of expert systems in business are outlined, with special…

  15. Development of an instructional expert system for hole drilling processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Mutawa, Souhaila; Srinivas, Vijay; Moon, Young Bai

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which captures the expertise of workshop technicians in the drilling domain was developed. The expert system is aimed at novice technicians who know how to operate the machines but have not acquired the decision making skills that are gained with experience. This paper describes the domain background and the stages of development of the expert system.

  16. Computer Guided Educational Diagnosis: A Prototype Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbourn, Marlene; McLeod, John

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews some recent literature pertaining to development and use of expert systems (automated consulting systems, which provide expert advice within particular domains). The design and implementation of an expert system developed to guide a teacher diagnostician through the various stages of diagnosing reading difficulities are…

  17. Techniques for capturing expert knowledge - An expert systems/hypertext approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafferty, Larry; Taylor, Greg; Schumann, Robin; Evans, Randy; Koller, Albert M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The knowledge-acquisition strategy developed for the Explosive Hazards Classification (EHC) Expert System is described in which expert systems and hypertext are combined, and broad applications are proposed. The EHC expert system is based on rapid prototyping in which primary knowledge acquisition from experts is not emphasized; the explosive hazards technical bulletin, technical guidance, and minimal interviewing are used to develop the knowledge-based system. Hypertext is used to capture the technical information with respect to four issues including procedural, materials, test, and classification issues. The hypertext display allows the integration of multiple knowlege representations such as clarifications or opinions, and thereby allows the performance of a broad range of tasks on a single machine. Among other recommendations, it is suggested that the integration of hypertext and expert systems makes the resulting synergistic system highly efficient.

  18. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  19. [Expert systems in risk assessment. Risk or opportunity?].

    PubMed

    Lohn, H

    1997-06-01

    Experts underwriting systems in the risk selection of individual life insurance have a high place value and are, in future, indispensable in the daily underwriting process. The chance to reduce drastically dual operations enables the insurance companies to make more cost-efficient underwriting decisions. The rapidly advancing technology develops not only new dimensions for individualism and for providing customer service but also for a fast underwriting process which is of great benefit to the insurers who are up against stiff competition. The qualified underwriter and the physician will be relieved of standard work and have more time in investing their knowledge and know-how in the underwriting process which calls for an absolutely individual reflection. New activities are inevitably ahead of this group of persons: Maintenance and attendance of the experts system! A task with which the quality of such a system stands and falls. We are expectant to see what the future has in store for this field.

  20. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  1. A rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state-of-the-art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the hydrogen-oxygen coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One-dimensional equilibrium chemistry was employed in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber and three-dimensional finite-difference analysis of the regenerative cooling channels was used to calculate the pressure drop along the channels and the coolant temperature as it exits the coolant circuit. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  2. A Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state of the art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the H2-O2 coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One dimensional equilibrium chemistry was used in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber. A 3-D conduction and/or 1-D advection analysis is used to predict heat transfer and coolant channel wall temperature distributions, in addition to coolant temperature and pressure drop. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  3. Explainable expert systems: A research program in information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Cecile L.

    1993-01-01

    Our work in Explainable Expert Systems (EES) had two goals: to extend and enhance the range of explanations that expert systems can offer, and to ease their maintenance and evolution. As suggested in our proposal, these goals are complementary because they place similar demands on the underlying architecture of the expert system: they both require the knowledge contained in a system to be explicitly represented, in a high-level declarative language and in a modular fashion. With these two goals in mind, the Explainable Expert Systems (EES) framework was designed to remedy limitations to explainability and evolvability that stem from related fundamental flaws in the underlying architecture of current expert systems.

  4. Expert system for first order inelastic analysis of transmission towers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Kempner, L. Jr. ); Mueller, W. III )

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an Expert System is not new. It has been around since the days of the early computers when scientists had dreams of robot automation to do everything from washing windows to automobile design. This paper discusses an application of an expert system and addresses software development issues and various levels of expert system development form a structural engineering viewpoint. An expert system designed to aid the structural engineer in first order inelastic analysis of latticed steel transmission powers is presented. The utilization of expert systems with large numerical analysis programs is discussed along with the software development of such a system.

  5. Expert systems built by the Expert: An evaluation of OPS5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Two expert systems were written in OPS5 by the expert, a Ph.D. astronomer with no prior experience in artificial intelligence or expert systems, without the use of a knowledge engineer. The first system was built from scratch and uses 146 rules to check for duplication of scientific information within a pool of prospective observations. The second system was grafted onto another expert system and uses 149 additional rules to estimate the spacecraft and ground resources consumed by a set of prospective observations. The small vocabulary, the IF this occurs THEN do that logical structure of OPS5, and the ability to follow program execution allowed the expert to design and implement these systems with only the data structures and rules of another OPS5 system as an example. The modularity of the rules in OPS5 allowed the second system to modify the rulebase of the system onto which it was grafted without changing the code or the operation of that system. These experiences show that experts are able to develop their own expert systems due to the ease of programming and code reusability in OPS5.

  6. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  7. Program for Experimentation With Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engle, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    CERBERUS is forward-chaining, knowledge-based system program useful for experimentation with expert systems. Inference-engine mechanism performs deductions according to user-supplied rule set. Information stored in intermediate area, and user interrogated only when no applicable data found in storage. Each assertion posed by CERBERUS answered with certainty ranging from 0 to 100 percent. Rule processor stops investigating applicable rules when goal reaches certainty of 95 percent or higher. Capable of operating for wide variety of domains. Sample rule files included for animal identification, pixel classification in image processing, and rudimentary car repair for novice mechanic. User supplies set of end goals or actions. System complexity decided by user's rule file. CERBERUS written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Real time AI expert system for robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follin, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A computer controlled multi-robot process cell to demonstrate advanced technologies for the demilitarization of obsolete chemical munitions was developed. The methods through which the vision system and other sensory inputs were used by the artificial intelligence to provide the information required to direct the robots to complete the desired task are discussed. The mechanisms that the expert system uses to solve problems (goals), the different rule data base, and the methods for adapting this control system to any device that can be controlled or programmed through a high level computer interface are discussed.

  9. Results from the First Interactive Scientific Expert System in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard J.; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We describe recent work on automation and support of science experiments on the Space Shuttle. PI-in-a-Box, the first interactive expert system for scientific support, was flown onboard STS-58 in October 1993. It was designed to help astronauts perform better science in space by providing expert-level advice in real-time. The system provides help with "technician" tasks such as data acquisition, data quality monitoring, and diagnostic, troubleshooting and repair. The system also performs "expert" reasoning on the scientific model and experiment steps scheduling. It can make scheduling recommendations based on hardware status, time available, and agreement between predictions and flight data. The system was successfully deployed and used throughout the mission. Most of the "technician" skills of the system were used with success. The scientific model study performed correctly, but we believe the results were not exploited by the astronauts because of Spacelab operational pressures. Also, portions of the system were designed around rigid schedule constraints that were essentially relaxed during the mission. This version was tailored to a specific vestibular experiment known as the "rotating dome". We are currently expanding our effort in various scientific (other life and microgravity sciences experiments) and technological directions (integrated telescience, astronaut science advisor, and autonomous control).

  10. Results From The First Interactive Scientific Expert System In Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard J.; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We describe recent work on automation and support of science experiments on the Space Shuttle. PI-in-a-Box, the first interactive expert system for scientific support, was flown onboard STS-58 in October 1993. It was designed to help astronauts perform better science in space by providing expert-level advice in real-time. The system provides help with 'technician' tasks such as data acquisition, data quality monitoring, and diagnostic, troubleshooting and repair. The system also performs 'expert' reasoning on the scientific model and experiment steps scheduling. It can make scheduling recommendations based on hardware status, time available, and agreement between predictions and flight data. The system was successfully deployed and used throughout the mission. Most of the 'technician' skills of the system were used with success. The scientific model study performed correctly, but we believe the results were not exploited by the astronauts because of Spacelab operational pressures. Also, portions of the system were designed around rigid schedule constraints that were essentially relaxed during the mission. This version was tailored to a specific vestibular experiment known as the 'rotating dome'. We are currently expanding our effort in various scientific (other life and microgravity sciences experiments) and technological directions (integrated telescience, astronaut science advisor, and autonomous control).

  11. Approaches to the verification of rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems are a highly useful spinoff of artificial intelligence research. One major stumbling block to extended use of expert systems is the lack of well-defined verification and validation (V and V) methodologies. Since expert systems are computer programs, the definitions of verification and validation from conventional software are applicable. The primary difficulty with expert systems is the use of development methodologies which do not support effective V and V. If proper techniques are used to document requirements, V and V of rule-based expert systems is possible, and may be easier than with conventional code. For NASA applications, the flight technique panels used in previous programs should provide an excellent way to verify the rules used in expert systems. There are, however, some inherent differences in expert systems that will affect V and V considerations.

  12. Howard University Energy Expert Systems Institute Summer Program (EESI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Chuku, Arunsi; Abban, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Howard University, under the auspices of the Center for Energy Systems and Controls runs the Energy Expert Systems Institute (EESI) summer outreach program for high school/pre-college minority students. The main objectives are to introduce precollege minority students to research in the power industry using modern state-of-the-art technology such as Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Neural Networks; to involve minority students in space power management, systems and failure diagnosis; to generate interest in career options in electrical engineering; and to experience problem-solving in a teamwork environment consisting of faculty, senior research associates and graduate students. For five weeks the students are exposed not only to the exciting experience of college life, but also to the inspiring field of engineering, especially electrical engineering. The program consists of lectures in the fundamentals of engineering, mathematics, communication skills and computer skills. The projects are divided into mini and major. Topics for the 1995 mini projects were Expert Systems for the Electric Bus and Breast Cancer Detection. Topics on the major projects include Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Solar Dynamics and Distribution Automation. On the final day, designated as 'EESI Day' the students did oral presentations of their projects and prizes were awarded to the best group. The program began in the summer of 1993. The reaction from the students has been very positive. The program also arranges field trips to special places of interest such as the NASA Goddard Space Center.

  13. Expanding the domain of a prototype expert system with an eye on future maintenance - The FIESTA case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steven G.

    1989-01-01

    The methods by which an expert system architecture can support such key elements of domain expansion and maintenance as knowledge acquisition, representation, addition, and modification, are presently illustrated by the Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA). FIESTA highlights such similarities between conventional software engineering and expert system development as the benefits that accrue to loose coupling, modularity, and documentation. A major difference, however, is the set of opportunities afforded automated end-user maintenance by expert system technology.

  14. Knowing for Nursing Practice: Patterns of Knowledge and Their Emulation in Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ivo L.; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of clinical knowledge in nursing, and the feasibility of emulating this knowledge into expert system technology. The perspective on patterns of knowing for nursing practice, advanced by Carper (1978), serves as point of departure. The four patterns of knowing -- empirics, esthetics, ethics, personal knowledge -- are evaluated as to the extent to which they can be emulated in clinical expert systems, given constraints imposed by the current technology of these systems.

  15. Meta-expert system for cargo container screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, David S.

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports upon improvements and extensions of rule-based expert systems and related technologies in the context of their application to the cargo container screening problem. These innovations have been incorporated into a system built for and deployed by U.S. Customs with funding provided by the DCI's Counter Narcotics Committee. Given the serious nature of the drug smuggling threat and the low probability of intercept, the ability to target the extremely limited inspectional resources available to U.S. Customs is a prerequisite for success in fighting the `Drug War.'

  16. DEASEL: An expert system for software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, J. D.; Raskin, A.

    1985-01-01

    For the past ten year, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been collecting data on software projects carried out in the Systems Development Branch of the Flight Dynamics Division at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Through a series of studies using this data, much knowledge has been gained on how software is developed within this environment. Two years ago work began on a software tool which would make this knowledge readily available to software managers. Ideally, the Dynamic Management Information Tool (DynaMITe) will aid managers in comparison across projects, prediction of a project's future, and assessment of a project's current state. This paper describes an effort to create the assessment portion of DynaMITe, called the DynaMITe Expert Advisor for the SEL (DEASEL).

  17. An Automatic Document Indexing System Based on Cooperating Expert Systems: Design and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuegraf, Ernst J.; van Bommel, Martin F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the design of an automatic indexing system that is based on statistical techniques and expert system technology. Highlights include system architecture; the derivation of topic indicators, including word frequency; experimental results using documents from ERIC; the effects of stemming; and the identification of characteristic…

  18. CLIPS: An expert system tool for delivery and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.; Lopez, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule-based language. The requirements necessary for an expert system tool which is used for development, delivery, and training are examined. Because of its high portability, low cost, and ease of integration with external systems, CLIPS has great potential as an expert system tool for delivery and training. In addition, its representation flexibility, debugging aids, and performance, along with its other strengths, make it a viable alternative for expert system development.

  19. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  20. Scientific Problem Solving by Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron

    1984-01-01

    Human expert problem-solving in science is defined and used to account for scientific discovery. These ideas are used to describe BACON.5, a machine expert problem solver that discovers scientific laws using data-driver heuristics and "expectations" such as symmetry. Implications of BACON.5 type research for traditional science education…

  1. Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

  2. Expert system for neurosurgical treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Chung, Sally S. Y.; Kwok, John C. K.

    1996-04-01

    A specially designed expert system is in development for neurosurgical treatment planning. The knowledge base contains knowledge and experiences on neurosurgical treatment planning from neurosurgeon consultants, who also determine the risks of different regions in human brains. When completed, the system can simulate the decision making process of neurosurgeons to determine the safest probing path for operation. The Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan images for each patient are grabbed as the input. The system also allows neurosurgeons to include for any particular patient the additional information, such as how the tumor affects its neighboring functional regions, which is also important for calculating the safest probing path. It can then consider all the relevant information and find the most suitable probing path on the patient's brain. A 3D brain model is constructed for each set of the CT/MRI scan images and is displayed real-time together with the possible probing paths found. The precise risk value of each path is shown as a number between 0 and 1, together with its possible damages in text. Neurosurgeons can view more than one possible path simultaneously, and make the final decision on the selected path for operation.

  3. SSME fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Norman, Arnold M.; Gupta, U. K.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system, called LEADER, has been designed and implemented for automatic learning, detection, identification, verification, and correction of anomalous propulsion system operations in real time. LEADER employs a set of sensors to monitor engine component performance and to detect, identify, and validate abnormalities with respect to varying engine dynamics and behavior. Two diagnostic approaches are adopted in the architecture of LEADER. In the first approach fault diagnosis is performed through learning and identifying engine behavior patterns. LEADER, utilizing this approach, generates few hypotheses about the possible abnormalities. These hypotheses are then validated based on the SSME design and functional knowledge. The second approach directs the processing of engine sensory data and performs reasoning based on the SSME design, functional knowledge, and the deep-level knowledge, i.e., the first principles (physics and mechanics) of SSME subsystems and components. This paper describes LEADER's architecture which integrates a design based reasoning approach with neural network-based fault pattern matching techniques. The fault diagnosis results obtained through the analyses of SSME ground test data are presented and discussed.

  4. The Advantages of Abstract Control Knowledge in Expert System Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    KNOWLEDGE IN EXPERT SYSTEM DESIGN William J. Clancey Department of Computer Science Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Ace e ~siofl For NTT~ c7 A& 177...and Shortliffe, E . H. Expert systems research. Science, 1983,220,261-268. Ennis, S. P. Expert systems: A user’s perspective of some current tools, in...Proceedings of the Second AAAI, pages 319-321, August, 1982. Feigenbaum, E . A. The art of artificial intelligence: I. Themes and case studies of

  5. TATR: A Prototype Expert System for Tactical Air Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    TATR: A Prototype Expert System for Tactical Air Targeting Monti Callero , Donald A. Waterman, James R. Kipps Report Documentation Page Form...8217Techniques. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Callero , Monti. TATR--a prototype expert system for tactical air targeting. "R-3096-ARPA...Prototype Expert System for Tactical Air Targeting Monti Callero , Donald A. Waterman, James R. Kipps August 1984 Prepared for the Defense

  6. Evaluating Expert System Tools; a Framework and Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    xi Section I. O V ER V IEW ................................ I II. EXPERT SYSTEMS AND EXPERT SYSTEM TOOLS .. 5 A Note on Terminology...a m 1HE )I. F\\ A, . \\ 1 N \\111 \\ \\ O 19 A relatively concrete example would be: A two-person-sear project is proposed to decelop an expert system...Massachusetts, 1983, pp. 127-167. Bundy, A. (ed.), Catalogue of Artificial Intelligence Tool,;, 2nd Rev. Ed., Springer- Verlag, New York, 1986. Callero

  7. Photolithography diagnostic expert systems: a systematic approach to problem solving in a wafer fabrication facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherwax Scott, Caroline; Tsareff, Christopher R.

    1990-06-01

    One of the main goals of process engineering in the semiconductor industry is to improve wafer fabrication productivity and throughput. Engineers must work continuously toward this goal in addition to performing sustaining and development tasks. To accomplish these objectives, managers must make efficient use of engineering resources. One of the tools being used to improve efficiency is the diagnostic expert system. Expert systems are knowledge based computer programs designed to lead the user through the analysis and solution of a problem. Several photolithography diagnostic expert systems have been implemented at the Hughes Technology Center to provide a systematic approach to process problem solving. This systematic approach was achieved by documenting cause and effect analyses for a wide variety of processing problems. This knowledge was organized in the form of IF-THEN rules, a common structure for knowledge representation in expert system technology. These rules form the knowledge base of the expert system which is stored in the computer. The systems also include the problem solving methodology used by the expert when addressing a problem in his area of expertise. Operators now use the expert systems to solve many process problems without engineering assistance. The systems also facilitate the collection of appropriate data to assist engineering in solving unanticipated problems. Currently, several expert systems have been implemented to cover all aspects of the photolithography process. The systems, which have been in use for over a year, include wafer surface preparation (HMDS), photoresist coat and softbake, align and expose on a wafer stepper, and develop inspection. These systems are part of a plan to implement an expert system diagnostic environment throughout the wafer fabrication facility. In this paper, the systems' construction is described, including knowledge acquisition, rule construction, knowledge refinement, testing, and evaluation. The roles

  8. Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

  9. The emergence of multi-user expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a set of problems for which the single user workstation is not a viable solution. In some cases, it may be necessary for the system to support numerous experts working on different aspects of a single logical activity concurrently. In others, the activity may extend over a prolonged period of time during which different experts will work on different phases of the project to produce a single integrated result. Another possibility is that the results produced by the expert system must be continuously available to some group other than that actively exercising the expert system. These are the types of applications which require multiuser expert systems. The nature of NASA tends to produce expert system domains which are inherently multiuser. It is these domains that this new class of expert systems has first been encountered. As expert systems move into the main stream of large scale engineering projects, these encounters will become more frequent. A need for expert system building tools which can accommodate the unique properties of these multiuser domains as they emerge is a problem which needs to be addressed as the current set of tools migrate to time sharing environments, and as new tools are developed.

  10. An expert system/ion trap mass spectrometry approach for life support systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Wong, Carla M.; Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Yates, Nathan A.; Story, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop sensor and control system technology to monitor air quality for life support have resulted in the development and preliminary testing of a concept based on expert systems and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). An ITMS instrument provides the capability to identify and quantitate a large number of suspected contaminants at trace levels through the use of a variety of multidimensional experiments. An expert system provides specialized knowledge for control, analysis, and decision making. The system is intended for real-time, on-line, autonomous monitoring of air quality. The key characteristics of the system, performance data and analytical capabilities of the ITMS instrument, the design and operation of the expert system, and results from preliminary testing of the system for trace contaminant monitoring are described.

  11. The Dark Side of CML: A Look at Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Dale C.

    The paper examines implications of the application of computer expert systems in the field of education, particularly special education. The development of expert systems in general is reviewed as are its applications in education as intelligent tutoring systems and in special education in the areas of student classification, teacher education,…

  12. Executing CLIPS expert systems in a distributed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James; Myers, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for running cooperating agents in a distributed environment to support the Intelligent Computer Aided Design System (ICADS), a project in progress at the CAD Research Unit of the Design Institute at the California Polytechnic State University. Currently, the systems aids an architectural designer in creating a floor plan that satisfies some general architectural constraints and project specific requirements. At the core of ICADS is the Blackboard Control System. Connected to the blackboard are any number of domain experts called Intelligent Design Tools (IDT). The Blackboard Control System monitors the evolving design as it is being drawn and helps resolve conflicts from the domain experts. The user serves as a partner in this system by manipulating the floor plan in the CAD system and validating recommendations made by the domain experts. The primary components of the Blackboard Control System are two expert systems executed by a modified CLIPS shell. The first is the Message Handler. The second is the Conflict Resolver. The Conflict Resolver synthesizes the suggestions made by the domain experts, which can be either CLIPS expert systems, or compiled C programs. In DEMO1, the current ICADS prototype, the CLIPS domain expert systems are Acoustics, Lighting, Structural, and Thermal; the compiled C domain experts are the CAD system and the User Interface.

  13. Artificial intelligence and the law: will expert systems replace expert lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The commercial availability of expert systems utilizing specially developed knowledge bases raises significant questions about their potential utility in the practice of law. These systems, built with the aid of recent developments in artificial intelligence research, may only prove useful in certain areas of legal practice. Counselling and interviewing are areas where expert systems are likely to effect marked changes in the practice of law. In contract, computerized legal research using a knowledge-based system is more difficult to envision. This is due to complexities presented by the multiplicity of sources of the law, and by conflicting opinions and interpretations in the common law. In the coming decade, use of expert systems in science and medicine will grow rapidly, and attempts will continue to be made to automate the legal reasoning process. As past research efforts have demonstrated, this will not be an easy task.

  14. MOORE: A prototype expert system for diagnosing spacecraft problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlin, Katherine; Weissert, Jerry; Krantz, Kerry

    1988-01-01

    MOORE is a rule-based, prototype expert system that assists in diagnosing operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) problems. It is intended to assist spacecraft engineers at the TDRS ground terminal in trouble shooting problems that are not readily solved with routine procedures, and without expert counsel. An additional goal of the prototype system is to develop in-house expert system and knowledge engineering skills. The prototype system diagnoses antenna pointing and earth pointing problems that may occur within the TDRS Attitude Control System (ACS). Plans include expansion to fault isolation of problems in the most critical subsystems of the TDRS spacecraft. Long term benefits are anticipated with use of an expert system during future TDRS programs with increased mission support time, reduced problem solving time, and retained expert knowledge and experience. Phase 2 of the project is intended to provide NASA the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite. Phase 2 also envisions addressing two unexplored applications for expert systems, spacecraft integration and tests (I and T) and support to launch activities. The concept, goals, domain, tools, knowledge acquisition, developmental approach, and design of the expert system. It will explain how NASA obtained the knowledge and capability to develop the system in-house without assistance from outside consultants. Future plans will also be presented.

  15. System of Experts for Intelligent Data Management (SEIDAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Iisaka, Joji; Fung, KO

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to conduct research and development on a system of expert systems for intelligent data management (SEIDAM). CCRS has much expertise in developing systems for integrating geographic information with space and aircraft remote sensing data and in managing large archives of remotely sensed data. SEIDAM will be composed of expert systems grouped in three levels. At the lowest level, the expert systems will manage and integrate data from diverse sources, taking account of symbolic representation differences and varying accuracies. Existing software can be controlled by these expert systems, without rewriting existing software into an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language. At the second level, SEIDAM will take the interpreted data (symbolic and numerical) and combine these with data models. At the top level, SEIDAM will respond to user goals for predictive outcomes given existing data. The SEIDAM Project will address the research areas of expert systems, data management, storage and retrieval, and user access and interfaces.

  16. System of experts for intelligent data management (SEIDAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Iisaka, Joji; Fung, KO

    1993-01-01

    A proposal to conduct research and development on a system of expert systems for intelligent data management (SEIDAM) is being developed. CCRS has much expertise in developing systems for integrating geographic information with space and aircraft remote sensing data and in managing large archives of remotely sensed data. SEIDAM will be composed of expert systems grouped in three levels. At the lowest level, the expert systems will manage and integrate data from diverse sources, taking account of symbolic representation differences and varying accuracies. Existing software can be controlled by these expert systems, without rewriting existing software into an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language. At the second level, SEIDAM will take the interpreted data (symbolic and numerical) and combine these with data models. at the top level, SEIDAM will respond to user goals for predictive outcomes given existing data. The SEIDAM Project will address the research areas of expert systems, data management, storage and retrieval, and user access and interfaces.

  17. TDAS: The Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS) data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Edmund C.; Healey, Kathleen J.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project, a thermal expert system (TEXSYS) is being developed. TEXSYS combines a fast real time control system, a sophisticated human interface for the user and several distinct artificial intelligence techniques in one system. TEXSYS is to provide real time control, operations advice and fault detection, isolation and recovery capabilities for the space station Thermal Test Bed (TTB). TEXSYS will be integrated with the TTB and act as an intelligent assistant to thermal engineers conducting TTB tests and experiments. The results are presented from connecting the real time controller to the knowledge based system thereby creating an integrated system. Special attention will be paid to the problem of filtering and interpreting the raw, real time data and placing the important values into the knowledge base of the expert system.

  18. Feasibility Of Expert Systems To Enhance Space Station Subsystem Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, J. T.; Lance, N., Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes results of a project to build a prototype expert system for automated fault isolation and correction of a regenerative CO2 removal device that is typical of functions of the air revitalization group in the Space Station environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). The software was developed using one of the powerful commercial knowledge engineering environments. The goal of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a software development environment to rapidly design, construct, test, and change expert system software. This paper discusses the use of expert systems to enhance automatic controllers, and the use of information on device design and on device troubleshooting and repair procedures in developing expert systems. This paper also describes the development of the prototype expert system and presents results of the evaluation.

  19. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  20. The BRIEFER project: using expert systems as theory construction tools.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, W J; de Shazer, S

    1991-06-01

    This article describes the development of BRIEFER I and BRIEFER II, expert systems that advise the therapist on selecting, designing, and developing an intervention at the end of the first therapy session. The process of developing expert systems has aided us in describing what brief therapists do, in modeling the intervention design process, and in training brief therapists.

  1. Toward the efficient implementation of expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the development of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert system applications for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force. Additional information is given on dynamic memory allocation.

  2. Distributed Expert-Based Information Systems: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Nicholas J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Based on an international workshop held at Rutgers University, this article discusses problems and issues in the design, research, and implementation of distributed expert-based information systems (DEBIS). Information needs of end users are stressed, architectures for expert information retrieval systems are explored, and prototype models are…

  3. Interfacing the expert: Characteristics and requirements for the user interface in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Because expert systems deal with new sets of problems presenting unique interface requirements, special issues requiring special attention are presented to user interface designers. External knowledge representation (how knowdedge is represented across the user interface), modes of user-system interdependence (advisory, cooperative, and autonomous), and management of uncertainty (deciding what actions to take or recommend based on incomplete evidence) are discussed.

  4. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  5. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  6. An Expert System for the Development of Efficient Parallel Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    We have built the prototype of an expert system to assist the user in the development of efficient parallel code. The system was integrated into the parallel programming environment that is currently being developed at NASA Ames. The expert system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. It uses static program structure information and performance data in order to automatically determine causes of poor performance and to make suggestions for improvements. In this paper we give an overview of our programming environment, describe the prototype implementation of our expert system, and demonstrate its usefulness with several case studies.

  7. An expert systems approach to automated fault diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Malin, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The implementation of the life support function on the Space Station will probably have to be based on regenerative life support techniques. It is essential that the regenerative subsystems operate with minimum attendance from the crew. However, the results of extensive testing show that uninterrupted subsystem operation over long periods of time (e.g., months) is not easy to achieve. In order to achieve longer periods of time on line for these subsystems, it is necessary that the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designers focus their attention on technologies which will permit both increasing the mean time between shutdowns and decreasing the time for which a subsystem is down for fault diagnosis and maintenance. With the aim to be able to perform the fault diagnosis on line rather than after the subsystem has shut down, an expert systems approach to automated fault diagnostics is considered. A description is given of a program, designated CS-1 'FIXER' for fault isolation expert to enhance reliability.

  8. An expert system based intelligent control scheme for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San, Ka-Yiu

    1988-01-01

    An expert system based intelligent control scheme is being developed for the effective control and full automation of bioreactor systems in space. The scheme developed will have the capability to capture information from various resources including heuristic information from process researchers and operators. The knowledge base of the expert system should contain enough expertise to perform on-line system identification and thus be able to adapt the controllers accordingly with minimal human supervision.

  9. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-11-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool.

  10. Expert systems identify fossils and manage large paleontological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Beightol, D.S. ); Conrad, M.A.

    1988-02-01

    EXPAL is a computer program permitting creation and maintenance of comprehensive databases in marine paleontology. It is designed to assist specialists and non-specialists. EXPAL includes a powerful expert system based on the morphological descriptors specific to a given group of fossils. The expert system may be used, for example, to describe and automatically identify an unknown specimen. EXPAL was first applied to Dasycladales (Calcareous green algae). Projects are under way for corresponding expert systems and databases on planktonic foraminifers and calpionellids. EXPAL runs on an IBM XT or compatible microcomputer.

  11. Development of a Spacecraft Materials Selector Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, G.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report contains a description of the knowledge base tool and examples of its use. A downloadable version of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base is available through the NASA Space Environments and Effects Program. The "Spacecraft Materials Selector" knowledge base is part of an electronic expert system. The expert system consists of an inference engine that contains the "decision-making" code and the knowledge base that contains the selected body of information. The inference engine is a software package previously developed at Boeing, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST) kit.

  12. Expert performance on a virtual reality simulation system.

    PubMed

    Wierinck, Els R; Puttemans, Veerle; Swinnen, Stephan P; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if the essence of expert performance could be captured on a virtual reality simulation system. Six experts in operative dentistry, six experts in periodontology, and six novice dental students performed a Class II tooth preparation task on the lower left second premolar. All subjects performed a pre-test to assess the basic skill level of each group. During the (limited) training component of the study, the three groups practiced three tooth preparations and received augmented feedback. At both a one-minute and one-day interval, subjects performed a final test in the absence of augmented feedback. All preparations were graded by the simulation system. The results showed at pre-test a significantly better performance of the experts in operative dentistry as compared to the novices. During the practice (acquisition) phase, the experts in operative dentistry outperformed both the periodontologists and novices, whereas the experts in periodontology performed more accurately than the novices. After one minute and one day following practice, similar results were obtained. Retention performance was most accurate after a one-day delay. Based on these results, the simulator appears to be a valid and reliable tool to capture expert performance. It is an effective screening device for assessing the level of expert performance.

  13. Living Expert System (LEXSYS). Volume 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-15

    34= iqAEXSYSTOO90 N E~xpert i i Syster m. ’’-~ARMY SENIOR LEADER DECISION MAKING TOOL FOR THE 90. SELECTE : AUGO 8 989 U- S . ARMY WAR COLLEGE , CARLISU... s GRA&I [C TAB 0] 16 Untitled Bill Mathews 74 1nnoTAB 0 ;tlf’ioation 17 Reaching Decision Points in LEXSYS Subnets Rich Pomager 78 -.tribut1on...the learning curve -- above... Did a staff study at CAS3 on the "best" training method( s ) for such a conference and now, I’m in the middle of a

  14. Toward an expert project management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Murray, Arthur; Diakite, Coty; Feggos, Kostas

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the research effort is to prescribe a generic reusable shell that any project office can install and customize for the purposes of advising, guiding, and supporting project managers in that office. The prescribed shell is intended to provide both: a component that generates prescriptive guidance for project planning and monitoring activities, and an analogy (intuition) component that generates descriptive insights of previous experience of successful project managers. The latter component is especially significant in that it has the potential to: retrieve insights, not just data, and provide a vehicle for expert PMs to easily transcribe their current experiences in the course of each new project managed.

  15. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  16. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an ''expert system'' which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the ''expert system'' remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the ''expert system''.

  17. Multiple neural network approaches to clinical expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Derek F.

    1990-08-01

    We briefly review the concept of computer aided medical diagnosis and more extensively review the the existing literature on neural network applications in the field. Neural networks can function as simple expert systems for diagnosis or prognosis. Using a public database we develop a neural network for the diagnosis of a major presenting symptom while discussing the development process and possible approaches. MEDICAL EXPERTS SYSTEMS COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS Biomedicine is an incredibly diverse and multidisciplinary field and it is not surprising that neural networks with their many applications are finding more and more applications in the highly non-linear field of biomedicine. I want to concentrate on neural networks as medical expert systems for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Expert Systems started out as a set of computerized " ifthen" rules. Everything was reduced to boolean logic and the promised land of computer experts was said to be in sight. It never came. Why? First the computer code explodes as the number of " ifs" increases. All the " ifs" have to interact. Second experts are not very good at reducing expertise to language. It turns out that experts recognize patterns and have non-verbal left-brain intuition decision processes. Third learning by example rather than learning by rule is the way natural brains works and making computers work by rule-learning is hideously labor intensive. Neural networks can learn from example. They learn the results

  18. Use of probabilistic inversion to model qualitative expert input when selecting a new nuclear reactor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Charles R., Jr.

    Complex investment decisions by corporate executives often require the comparison of dissimilar attributes and competing technologies. A technique to evaluate qualitative input from experts using a Multi-Criteria Decision Method (MCDM) is described to select a new reactor technology for a merchant nuclear generator. The high capital cost, risks from design, licensing and construction, reactor safety and security considerations are some of the diverse considerations when choosing a reactor design. Three next generation reactor technologies are examined: the Advanced Pressurized-1000 (AP-1000) from Westinghouse, Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) from General Electric, and the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) from AREVA. Recent developments in MCDM and decision support systems are described. The uncertainty inherent in experts' opinions for the attribute weighting in the MCDM is modeled through the use of probabilistic inversion. In probabilistic inversion, a function is inverted into a random variable within a defined range. Once the distribution is created, random samples based on the distribution are used to perform a sensitivity analysis on the decision results to verify the "strength" of the results. The decision results for the pool of experts identified the U.S. EPR as the optimal choice.

  19. 77 FR 6797 - Request for Nominations of Experts for EPA Science Advisory Board Scientific and Technological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Experts for EPA Science Advisory Board Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA... service on an SAB Committee to make recommendations on EPA's Scientific and Technological...

  20. The role of artificial intelligence and expert systems in increasing STS operations productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, C.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is discussed. A number of the computer technologies pioneered in the AI world can make significant contributions to increasing STS operations productivity. Application of expert systems, natural language, speech recognition, and other key technologies can reduce manpower while raising productivity. Many aspects of STS support lend themselves to this type of automation. The artificial intelligence section of the mission planning and analysis division has developed a number of functioning prototype systems which demonstrate the potential gains of applying AI technology.

  1. A middle man approach to knowledge acquisition in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Janice A.; Lin, Min-Jin; Mayer, Richard J.; Sterle, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    The Weed Control Advisor (WCA) is a robust expert system that has been successfully implemented on an IBM AT class microcomputer in CLIPS. The goal of the WCA was to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an economical, efficient, user friendly system through which Texas rice producers could obtain expert level knowledge regarding herbicide application for weed control. During the development phase of the WCA, an improved knowledge acquisition method which we call the Middle Man Approach (MMA) was applied to facilitate the communication process between the domain experts and the knowledge engineer. The MMA served to circumvent the problems associated with the more traditional forms of knowledge acquisition by placing the Middle Man, a semi-expert in the problem domain with some computer expertise, at the site of system development. The middle man was able to contribute to system development in two major ways. First, the Middle Man had experience working in rice production and could assume many of the responsibilities normally performed by the domain experts such as explaining the background of the problem domain and determining the important relations. Second, the Middle Man was familiar with computers and worked closely with the system developers to update the rules after the domain experts reviewed the prototype, contribute to the help menus and explanation portions of the expert system, conduct the testing that is required to insure that the expert system gives the expected results answer questions in a timely way, help the knowledge engineer structure the domain knowledge into a useable form, and provide insight into the end user's profile which helped in the development of the simple user friendly interface. The final results were not only that both time expended and costs were greatly reduced by using the MMA, but the quality of the system was improved. This papa will introduce the WCA system and then discuss traditional knowledge acquisition along with

  2. An Expert Systems Approach for PR Campaigns Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Glen T.; Curtin, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an expert system (the artificial intelligence program "Publics") that helps users identify key publics for public relations campaigns. Examines advantages and problems encountered in its use in public relations campaigns classrooms. (SR)

  3. Plexus (Phillips Laboratory Expert System-Assisted User Software)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    project to develop and distribute an expert system assisted software package of PL atmospheric effects models used in the design and development of electro...friendly, expert system assisted, GUI enhanced software suite of sophisticated atmospheric effects and backgrounds models (FASCODE, MODTRAN, LOWTRAN, SHARC...Celestial Backgrounds Model) developed by PL/GPO to determine the effects of the atmosphere on electro-optic sensor performance. Although a

  4. Evidential Reasoning in Expert Systems for Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    techniques to image analysis (IA). There is growing evidence that these techniques offer significant improvements in image analysis , particularly in the...2) to provide a common framework for analysis, (3) to structure the ER process for major expert-system tasks in image analysis , and (4) to identify...approaches to three important tasks for expert systems in the domain of image analysis . This segment concluded with an assessment of the strengths

  5. NASA ground terminal communication equipment automated fault isolation expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Y. K.; Wetzel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    The prototype expert systems are described that diagnose the Distribution and Switching System I and II (DSS1 and DSS2), Statistical Multiplexers (SM), and Multiplexer and Demultiplexer systems (MDM) at the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT). A system level fault isolation expert system monitors the activities of a selected data stream, verifies that the fault exists in the NGT and identifies the faulty equipment. Equipment level fault isolation expert systems are invoked to isolate the fault to a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) level. Input and sometimes output data stream activities for the equipment are available. The system level fault isolation expert system compares the equipment input and output status for a data stream and performs loopback tests (if necessary) to isolate the faulty equipment. The equipment level fault isolation system utilizes the process of elimination and/or the maintenance personnel's fault isolation experience stored in its knowledge base. The DSS1, DSS2 and SM fault isolation systems, using the knowledge of the current equipment configuration and the equipment circuitry issues a set of test connections according to the predefined rules. The faulty component or board can be identified by the expert system by analyzing the test results. The MDM fault isolation system correlates the failure symptoms with the faulty component based on maintenance personnel experience. The faulty component can be determined by knowing the failure symptoms. The DSS1, DSS2, SM, and MDM equipment simulators are implemented in PASCAL. The DSS1 fault isolation expert system was converted to C language from VP-Expert and integrated into the NGT automation software for offline switch diagnoses. Potentially, the NGT fault isolation algorithms can be used for the DSS1, SM, amd MDM located at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  6. An Expert System Approach to Large Space Systems Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    ISPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Of appil ,k) FOSR F49620-87- C --0105 8¢. ADDRESS (CRtY, Stat...oo...0 - An Expert System Approach To Large Space Systems Control Octobe 1988Accession For NTIS R& DTIC TAB C . GartrmII Unannounced E W...4.4.1 Case A: I Newton Harmonic Wave with a Frequency of 0.14 Hz 4-12 4.4.2 Case B: 1 Newton Impulse at x = 2.5 m 4-13 4.4.3 Case C : Traveling Wave with

  7. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW, were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystem. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base, and to assess the cooperation between the rule-bases. Each AUTOCREW subsystem is composed of several expert systems that perform specific tasks. AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR was analyzed in detail to understand the difficulties involved in designing the system and to identify tools and methodologies that ease development. The NAVIGATOR determines optimal navigation strategies from a set of available sensors. A Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) expert system was systematically designed from Kalman filter covariance data; four ground-based, a satellite-based, and two on-board INS-aiding sensors were modeled and simulated to aid an INS. The NSM Expert was developed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 algorithm. Navigation strategy selection is based on an RSS position error decision metric, which is computed from the covariance data. Results show that the NSM Expert predicts position error correctly between 45 and 100 percent of the time for a specified navaid configuration and aircraft trajectory. The NSM Expert adapts to new situations, and provides reasonable estimates of hybrid performance. The systematic nature of the ANOVA/ID3 method makes it broadly applicable to expert system design when experimental or simulation data is available.

  8. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  9. Expert evidence, the adversary system, and the jury.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions have been made about the competence of juries in dealing with expert evidence. I review the types of expert evidence that jurors hear and the impact of adversary legal procedure on the form and manner in which evidence is presented. Empirical research indicates that jurors understand the adversary process, that they do not automatically defer to the opinions of experts, and that their verdicts appear to be generally consistent with external criteria of performance. Conflicts between the American adversary system and changes in trial procedures that might assist the jury in its task are also considered here.

  10. YUCSA: A CLIPS expert database system to monitor academic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.

  11. Expert- Demonstrating Reentry Aerothermodinamics Phenomena From A System Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, F.; Passarelli, G.; Gavira-Izquierdo, J.; Ratti, F.

    2011-05-01

    EXPERT is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to provide the scientific community with quality data on critical aero-thermodynamic phenomena encountered during hypersonic flights as well as to provide industry with system experience of re-entry vehicle manufacturing and development of hypersonic instrumentation. EXPERT is equipped with 14 experiments provided by several scientific institutions all around Europe. The experiments address major aerothermodinamics phenomena: TPS material characterization, surface catalysis and oxidation, plasma spectroscopy, laminar to turbulent transition, flow separation and reattachment, shock-boundary layer interactions, base flow characteristic and aerodynamic characterization of flap control surfaces. The paper focus on the status of the EXPERT project: the design activities and the on going manufacturing, the main challenges and the expected flight data results. EXPERT will benefit future atmospheric re- entry activities ranging from cargo to human orbital transportation systems as well as re-usable launchers and scientific probes.

  12. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  13. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa R.; Kelly, Angelita C.

    1987-01-01

    The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) is an integral part of the Space Shuttle data network for missions that involve attached scientific payloads. Expert system prototypes were developed to aid in the performance of the quality assurance function of the Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads processed telemetry data. The Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS), two expert systems, were developed to determine their feasibility and potential in the quality assurance of processed telemetry data. The capabilities and performance of these systems are discussed.

  14. Implementation of an Expert System for Instructional Design, Phase 3. Design Document and Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; Li, Zhongmin

    Instructional Design Expert (ID Expert) is a prototype instructional design expert system which supports the instructional design phase of instructional system development. Phase 2 of ID Expert was implemented using S.1 expert system language on the VAX computer. The user interface was text-based, consisting of a question/answer dialogue primarily…

  15. Expert operator's associate: A knowledge based system for spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Grue, Klaus; Lecouat, Francois

    1991-01-01

    The Expert Operator's Associate (EOA) project is presented which studies the applicability of expert systems for day-to-day space operations. A prototype expert system is developed, which operates on-line with an existing spacecraft control system at the European Space Operations Centre, and functions as an 'operator's assistant' in controlling satellites. The prototype is demonstrated using an existing real-time simulation model of the MARECS-B2 telecommunication satellite. By developing a prototype system, the extent to which reliability and effectivens of operations can be enhanced by AI based support is examined. In addition the study examines the questions of acquisition and representation of the 'knowledge' for such systems, and the feasibility of 'migration' of some (currently) ground-based functions into future spaceborne autonomous systems.

  16. An evaluation of expert systems for software engineering management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Connie Loggia; Basili, Victor R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of four separate prototype expert systems to aid in software engineering management is described. Given the values for certain metrics, these systems provide interpretations which explain any abnormal patterns of these values during the development of a software project. The four expert systems, which solve the same problem, were built using two different approaches to knowledge acquisition, a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach, and two different expert system methods, rule-based deduction and frame-based abduction. In a comparison to see which methods might better suit the needs of this field, it was found that the bottom-up approach led to better results than did the top-down approach, and the rule-based deduction systems using simple rules provided more complete and correct solutions than did the frame-based abduction systems.

  17. An Expert System in C for Computer-Aided Digital Circuit Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    is reported in Wagner’s thesis (Wagner,87). 2 - 4 Current Technology The current technology available in the market is limited. Wagner pointed out two...suitable to be used in codification of an expert system. The commercial packages available in the market do not fill the needs of AFIT, due in part to...B.S.) degree and from ITA - Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica ( Aeronautical Institute of Technology), Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1983 with a B.S degree

  18. HAIM OMLET: An Expert System For Research In Orthomodular Lattices And Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankel, D. D.; Rodriguez, R. V.; Anger, F. D.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes research towards the construction of an expert system combining the brute force power of algorithmic computation and the inductive reasoning power of a rule-based inference engine in the mathematical area of discrete structures. Little research has been conducted on extending existing expert systems' technology to computationally complex areas. This research addresses the extension of expert systems into areas such as these, where the process of inference by itself will not produce the proper results. Additionally, the research will demonstrate the benefits of combining inference engines and mathematical algorithms to attack computationally complex problems. The specific aim is to produce an expert system which embodies expert level knowledge of orthomodular lattices, graphs, structure spaces, boolean algebras, incidence relations, and projective configurations. The resulting system, implemented on a micro-computer, will provide researchers a powerful and accessible tool for exploring these discrete structures. The system's "shell" will provide a structure for developing other expert systems with similar capabilities in such related areas as coding theory, categories, monoids, automata theory, and non-standard logics.

  19. Embedded expert system for space shuttle main engine maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pooley, J.; Thompson, W.; Homsley, T.; Teoh, W.; Jones, J.; Lewallen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The SPARTA Embedded Expert System (SEES) is an intelligent health monitoring system that directs analysis by placing confidence factors on possible engine status and then recommends a course of action to an engineer or engine controller. The technique can prevent catastropic failures or costly rocket engine down time because of false alarms. Further, the SEES has potential as an on-board flight monitor for reusable rocket engine systems. The SEES methodology synergistically integrates vibration analysis, pattern recognition and communications theory techniques with an artificial intelligence technique - the Embedded Expert System (EES).

  20. Automatic Interpretation Of Electroencephalograms By Means Of An Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Ben H.

    1985-12-01

    An overview is presented of an expert system approach to the automatic interpretation of recordings of the electrical activity of the brain (electroencephalogram, or EEG). The method consists of a quantification module and a rule-based expert system. Quantification is done by means of autoregressive spectral estimation. It was found that the rule-based system correctly classified 93% of EEGs taken from renal patients, and a 70% agree-ment was found between the system and an electroencephalographer in an experiment aimed at determining the depth of sleep in normal subjects. An indication of how this approach may be used for spectral pattern recognition concludes this paper.

  1. An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

  2. A framework for building real-time expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

  3. An expert system for spectroscopic analysis of rocket engine plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Greg; Valenti, Elizabeth; Alphonso, Keith; Holladay, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    The expert system described in this paper analyzes spectral emissions of rocket engine exhaust plumes and shows major promise for use in engine health diagnostics. Plume emission spectroscopy is an important tool for diagnosing engine anomalies, but it is time-consuming and requires highly skilled personnel. The expert system was created to alleviate such problems. The system accepts a spectral plot in the form of wavelength vs intensity pairs and finds the emission peaks in the spectrum, lists the elemental emitters present in the data and deduces the emitter that produced each peak. The system consists of a conventional language component and a commercially available inference engine that runs on an Apple Macintosh computer. The expert system has undergone limited preliminary testing. It detects elements well and significantly decreases analysis time.

  4. An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which tunes a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller online for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

  5. CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentea, Mariana

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

  6. Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

    Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

  7. Interactive Learning Using Expert System Quizzes on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a software system that allows teachers and students in practically any subject to make interactive expert systems of quizzes on the Internet. Discusses the design of the system, including building a database of questions and answers; integrating text files of questions and answers with JavaScript-HTML pages; and the JavaScript and HTML…

  8. Medical expert systems developed in j.MD, a Java based expert system shell: application in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Viviane; Wormek, Arno; Schleutermann, Sylvia; Schumacher, Theo; Lothaire, Olivier; Trendelenburg, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Growing complexity of diagnostic tests, combined with increased workload, stringent laboratory accreditation demands, continuous shortening of turn-around-time and budget restrictions have forced laboratories to automate most of their iterative tasks. Introduction of artificial intelligence by means of expert systems has gained an important place in this automation process. Different parts of clinical laboratory activity can benefit from their implementation and the present project deals with one aspect, namely the clinical interpretation of diagnostic tests. This paper describes how j.MD, a new Java based expert system shell, was used to reprogram the expert system for interpretation of amylase isoenzyme patterns that has been in use for many years in our laboratory, and that was originally programmed in Pro.MD, a Prolog based expert system shell. One of the most important advantages of the j.MD system is its bidirectional link with the laboratory information system. This project shows how expert systems for the interpretation of complex diagnostic tests that demand specific expertise can become an integrated part of the automated clinical chemistry lab.

  9. An expert system for culture-based infection control surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V. J.; Dunagan, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, the expert system design, and a predeployment performance evaluation. We then compare our system to other efforts in computer-based infection control. PMID:8130456

  10. Evaluation of Fuzzy Rulemaking for Expert Systems for Failure Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laritz, F.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    Computer aids in expert systems were proposed to diagnose failures in complex systems. It is shown that the fuzzy set theory of Zadeh offers a new perspective for modeling for humans thinking and language use. It is assumed that real expert human operators of aircraft, power plants and other systems do not think of their control tasks or failure diagnosis tasks in terms of control laws in differential equation form, but rather keep in mind a set of rules of thumb in fuzzy form. Fuzzy set experiments are described.

  11. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  12. An expert system for natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  13. Global Grid Telemedicine System: Expert Consult Manager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    system, and the Consult Broker has to use its knowledge of dental procedures to identify patients most 9 similar to the new consultation (case-based...contains a specific set of functionality that helps enable the GGTS to manage the communications network. 19 Forward Health Care Patient Movement...Form 513). The fields of the dentistry system contain patient demographic data, patient location, referring physician data and location, 37

  14. ESP: an expert system for poisoning diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa B; Bandojo, Diana A; Gatapia, M A Jaymee Krisette; Santos, Reggie Nicolo C; Marcelo, Alvin B; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Naval, Prospero C

    2010-03-01

    We describe a clinical decision support system (CDSS) designed to provide timely information germane to poisoning. The CDSS aids medical decision making through recommendations to clinicians for immediate evaluation. The system is implemented as a rule-based expert system with two major components: the knowledge base and the inference engine. The knowledge base serves as the database which contains relevant poisoning information and rules that are used by the inference engine in making decisions. This expert system accepts signs and symptoms observed from a patient as input and presents a list of possible poisoning types with the corresponding management procedures which may be considered in making the final diagnosis. A knowledge acquisition tool (KAT) that allows toxicological experts to update the knowledge base was also developed. This article describes the architecture of the fully featured system, the design of the CDSS and the KAT as web applications, the utilisation of the inferencing mechanism of C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), which is an expert system shell that helps the system in decision-making tasks, the methods used as well as problems encountered. We also present the results obtained after testing the system and propose some recommendations for future work.

  15. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    PubMed

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  16. Advancement of online systems in engineering by Expert TA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jeremy

    This dissertation introduces a new online system called Expert TA. The system was developed based on the hypothesis that expressions are key elements in engineering problems and that the treatment of expressions is critical to the advancement of online systems. This dissertation identifies ergonomic problems with expression entry that Expert TA overcomes through the use of a problem-customize integrated expression editor, called a palate. Then the dissertation shows, using an expression analyzer that operates in the background of Expert TA, that specific mathematical mistakes within an entered expression can now be located. Emulating standard instructional practices, detailed feedback pertaining to specific mistakes and grading on the basis of specific mistakes is now possible.

  17. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

  18. CLIPS/Ada: An Ada-based tool for building expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    Clips/Ada is a production system language and a development environment. It is functionally equivalent to the CLIPS tool. CLIPS/Ada was developed in order to provide a means of incorporating expert system technology into projects where the use of the Ada language had been mandated. A secondary purpose was to glean information about the Ada language and its compilers. Specifically, whether or not the language and compilers were mature enough to support AI applications. The CLIPS/Ada tool is coded entirely in Ada and is designed to be used by Ada systems that require expert reasoning.

  19. The Science of Computing: Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    The creative urge of human beings is coupled with tremendous reverence for logic. The idea that the ability to reason logically--to be rational--is closely tied to intelligence was clear in the writings of Plato. The search for greater understanding of human intelligence led to the development of mathematical logic, the study of methods of proving the truth of statements by manipulating the symbols in which they are written without regard to the meanings of those symbols. By the nineteenth century a search was under way for a universal system of logic, one capable of proving anything provable in any other system.

  20. CANSEARCH: An Expert Systems Approach to Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Describes CANSEARCH, an intermediary computer system incorporating fundamental features of the expert systems approach. Designed to provide access to information on cancer therapy in the MEDLINE database for doctors with no experience in document retrieval, search strategies are explained and menu selection from a touch terminal is illustrated.…

  1. Instructor's Plan: A Lesson Planning Expert System for School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Dennis A.; And Others

    The product of several years of research and development at Brigham Young University, Instructor's Plan (IP) is an expert system for rapid lesson design and authoring. Its primary audience is preservice and inservice school teachers. It will run on IBM PC, XT, AT, and PS/2 systems and compatibles with a color monitor and at least one floppy disk…

  2. Expert Maintenance Advisor Development for Navy Shipboard Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Society - Swedish Al Society SFrench Al Association - United Nations Industrial Development - IEEE Technical Committee on Organization ES Applications...Estoril (EDEN) Chair: Xavier Alaman, Instituto de Ingenieria del Conocimiento, SPAIN "A Model of Handling Uncertainty in Expert Systems," 01 Zhao...for Supervisory Process Control," Xavier Alaman, Instituto de Ingenieria del Conocimiento, SPAIN - (L) INTEGRATED KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS IN POWER

  3. A/C Interface: Expert Systems: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses working implementations of artificial intelligence systems for chemical laboratory applications. They include expert systems for liquid chromatography, spectral analysis, instrument control of a totally computerized triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, and the determination of the mineral constituents of a rock sample given the powder…

  4. Expert Students in Social Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avogadro, Paolo; Calegari, Silvia; Dominoni, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A social learning management system (social LMS) is a tool which favors social interactions and allows scholastic institutions to supervise and guide the learning process. The inclusion of the social feature to a "normal" LMS leads to the creation of educational social networks (EduSN), where the students interact and learn. The…

  5. An Expert System for Restructurable Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    theory to control system reconfiguration (ref. 2). Raza and Silverthorn have used the pseudoinverse of the control matrix and generalized input vectors to...National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, NAECON 1985, Vol. 1, IEEE, 1985, pp. 578-585. 3. Raza, S.J.; and Silverthorn , J.T.: Use of the Pseudo

  6. Development of an expert system for analysis of Shuttle atmospheric revitalization and pressure control subsystem anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafuse, Sharon A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the Shuttle Leak Management Expert System (SLMES), a preprototype expert system developed to enable the ECLSS subsystem manager to analyze subsystem anomalies and to formulate flight procedures based on flight data. The SLMES combines the rule-based expert system technology with the traditional FORTRAN-based software into an integrated system. SLMES analyzes the data using rules, and, when it detects a problem that requires simulation, it sets up the input for the FORTRAN-based simulation program ARPCS2AT2, which predicts the cabin total pressure and composition as a function of time. The program simulates the pressure control system, the crew oxygen masks, the airlock repress/depress valves, and the leakage. When the simulation has completed, other SLMES rules are triggered to examine the results of simulation contrary to flight data and to suggest methods for correcting the problem. Results are then presented in form of graphs and tables.

  7. Temporal and contextual knowledge in model-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth-Fejel, Tihamer; Heher, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    A basic paradigm that allows representation of physical systems with a focus on context and time is presented. Paragon provides the capability to quickly capture an expert's knowledge in a cognitively resonant manner. From that description, Paragon creates a simulation model in LISP, which when executed, verifies that the domain expert did not make any mistakes. The Achille's heel of rule-based systems has been the lack of a systematic methodology for testing, and Paragon's developers are certain that the model-based approach overcomes that problem. The reason this testing is now possible is that software, which is very difficult to test, has in essence been transformed into hardware.

  8. A local area computer network expert system framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

  9. An Expert-System Engine With Operative Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, N. E.; Palmer, M. T.; Wallace, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Program enables proof-of-concepts tests of expert systems under development. AESOP is rule-based inference engine for expert system, which makes decisions about particular situation given user-supplied hypotheses, rules, and answers to questions drawn from rules. If knowledge base containing hypotheses and rules governing environment is available to AESOP, almost any situation within that environment resolved by answering questions asked by AESOP. Questions answered with YES, NO, MAYBE, DON'T KNOW, DON'T CARE, or with probability factor ranging from 0 to 10. AESOP written in Franz LISP for interactive execution.

  10. Expert System Initiative in Logistic Readiness (EXSYN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    considered essential. This puts items such as those for food service, water supply , weapons used for protec- tion, masks, and detectors of various types...Ammo, GS. /. Quartermaster: (1) QMCo, POL (2) QM Co, Water Supply . m. Signal: (1) Signal Bn, Armor, Inf, or Mecfi Div. (2) Signal Bn, Abn or...lifts. Container handler and fork lifts. Fuel system supply point Water purification equipment and truck, tank, water . AN/GRC-142 RDO TT set and AN

  11. Expert Systems on Multiprocessor Architectures. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    automated and employ special-purpose hardware. 2.2. ELINTs Outputs The primary outputs of the ELINT system are periodic status reports about the tracks and...composition can be automated . The CARE library includes a component, the iterated-cell, which represents a template for the creation of composite...standard calculations (for example, moving averages) and then to forward the results to selected panels. In order to automate the composition of probes

  12. Evaluation of Expert Systems in Decisionmaking Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    control done by the inference engine . Fuzzy logic (Zadeh, 1965 and 1983. INTRODUCTION Whalen and Schott, 1983) is used to deal with uncertainty and...behavior of Knowledge Base, the Fact base, and the Inference Engine . the system. The Knowledge Base contains the set of information The Inference Engine is...rules are of the kind, A -> B, saying that, if A is model in which the knowledge is encoded in the form of valid, B can be deduced. The inference engine

  13. ANAPPRES: An expert system for interference well-test analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, V.M.; Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, J.; Schwarzblat, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present ANAPPRES V1.0, the first version of a computerized expert system capable of analyzing constant- and variable-flowrate interference tests, in which there is one active well and an arbitrary number of observation wells, in liquid-saturated homogeneous reservoirs. ANAPPRES successfully couples mathematical models, optimization techniques, heuristic knowledge and computerized graphics, a combination not often found in published expert systems. Its main advantages are that it is user friendly, requires essentially no experience on the part of the analyst, eliminates subjectivity associated with earlier techniques of analysis, can handle complex cases and large data sets, completes the analysis of even the most complex cases (including plotting the results) in one run, and is significantly faster than a human expert.

  14. Living Expert System (LEXSYS). Volume 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-15

    the AH-64, would have limited use unless your entire mission profile is Nap- Of-The- Earth (NOE). Marll/89 00:47 6:2) Jack Maher: I WOULD NOT SACRIFICE...threat now dictates that Army aircraft flying near and across the forward line of troops (FLOT) use nap-of-the- earth (NOE) techniques to survive. 19 This...problems. NOE / Cross FLOT communications Industry is currently working on fielding a Nap-Of-The Earth communications system that will have increased power

  15. Qualitative Reasoning in an Expert System Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    dependent on four forces: lift (L), thrust (T), drag (D), and weiSht (W). For level flight, dynamic equilibrium is defined as: L-V-0 (1.1) T -D -0 (1.2...of the physics. Acceleration usually changes in dynamic systems because one changes the applied force, although there are instances when the mass is...34 - .. . . . . . ..-. .- . . . ... - - - 27 trainee is apprenticed to a journeyman controller. He learns through on-the-job training and by solving training problems in the Dynamic

  16. Hypercube Expert System Shell - Applying Production Parallelism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    3 I~~i rst and foreino l AFA L un covered t h ough literatutre reviews that efforts to ap- plY traditional soft ware inienentation methods to...ogete via )ase o ie Aprac set o tAiN) fihe l ts. Tche k nownelg a.,; l Post Oce pfacitess foloe aei es o ilal fa on t ria hi i I sessions angnde...Systems." In Proceedings of the National Conftrcnc on Artificial lntdlligenc (To Appear), August 1988. 17. Gupta, Anoop, Milind Tambe, Dirk Kalp

  17. Operational aspects of a spacecraft planning/scheduling expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.; Littlefield, Ronald G.; Beyer, David S.

    1987-01-01

    Various operational aspects of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) are described. The ERBS-TDRSS Contract Planning System is an expert system which has been used operationally since June 1987 by the ERBS Flight Operations Team (FOT) at Goddard Space Flight Center to build weekly schedules of requests for service from the TDRSS. The basic operation of the system and significant enhancements and changes are discussed.

  18. Generative engineering databases - Toward expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasdorf, W. J.; Salley, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Engineering data management, incorporating concepts of optimization with data representation, is receiving increasing attention as the amount and complexity of information necessary for performing engineering operations increases and the need to coordinate its representation and use increases. Research in this area promises advantages for a wide variety of engineering applications, particularly those which seek to use data in innovative ways in the engineering process. This paper presents a framework for a comprehensive, relational database management system that combines a knowledge base of design constraints with a database of engineering data items in order to achieve a 'generative database' - one which automatically generates new engineering design data according to the design constraints stored in the knowledge base. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design and to accurately represent the interactions between constraints and the stored data while guaranteeing its integrity. The representation also requires a knowledge base that is able to store all the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process.

  19. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in PROLOG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11. A BASIC program running on a PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio, and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system.

  20. Development of an Expert System for Representing Procedural Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1985-01-01

    A high level of automation is of paramount importance in most space operations. It is critical for unmanned missions and greatly increases the effectiveness of manned missions. However, although many functions can be automated by using advanced engineering techniques, others require complex reasoning, sensing, and manipulatory capabilities that go beyond this technology. Automation of fault diagnosis and malfunction handling is a case in point. The military have long been interested in this problem, and have developed automatic test equipment to aid in the maintenance of complex military hardware. These systems are all based on conventional software and engineering techniques. However, the effectiveness of such test equipment is severely limited. The equipment is inflexible and unresponsive to the skill level of the technicians using it. The diagnostic procedures cannot be matched to the exigencies of the current situation nor can they cope with reconfiguration or modification of the items under test. The diagnosis cannot be guided by useful advice from technicians and, when a fault cannot be isolated, no explanation is given as to the cause of failure. Because these systems perform a prescribed sequence of tests, they cannot utilize knowledge of a particular situation to focus attention on more likely trouble spots. Consequently, real-time performance is highly unsatisfactory. Furthermore, the cost of developing test software is substantial and time to maturation is excessive. Significant advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have recently led to the development of powerful and flexible reasoning systems, known as expert or knowledge-based systems. We have devised a powerful and theoretically sound scheme for representing and reasoning about procedural knowledge.

  1. DELTA: An Expert System for Diesel Electric Locomotive Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    for Representing Procedural Knowledge. AD-P003 924 Failure Detection Processes by Pattern Recognition and Expert Systems. AD-P003 925’ GUIDON . AD-P003...3ENT, PART NOTICE (CON’T) AD#: TITLE: AD-P003 934 Artificial Intelligence Contributibnsto, Training and Maintenance. AD-P003 935 NAVATIR1 s (Naval Air...P003 947 On the Requirements of Expert Systens-for Fault Isolation. IAcce~Sslm For NTIS GRA&T DTIC TAB ’’A e;e~ s rind sale... ;’-,:i~’. . [ A7 7: DELTA

  2. Optimization of low gravity materials processing experiments using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Choudry, Amar

    1988-01-01

    The use of an expert system for the control of materials processing experiments in a facility such as the Space Station provides a number of attractive features for insuring that certain critical process parameters can be used to optimize the productivity of the materials processing experiments. The proposed approach to implementation of an expert system utilizes a knowledge base of desired process characteristics which will provide the desired results. The knowledge base for each experiment will be created in conjunction with the scientific investigator in charge of the experiment. Improvements to the knowledge base will be expanded to include self learning sessions in ground based experiments in order to teach the expert system how to respond to perturbations in the process and update the knowledge base on what process change should be implemented in order to reach the desired end product. Design considerations using an on-line real time expert system such as PICON is studied. The types of experiments evaluated include several types of solidification experiments which will be performed on the Space Station.

  3. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Processor has been developed on a Sun Sparc Station 4/470 using a commercial-off-the-shelf software development package called G2 by Gensym Corporation...size of the training data set. A prototype expert system CFAR Processor has been presented which applies artificial intelligence to CFAR detection

  4. An expert system based software sizing tool, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David

    1990-01-01

    A software tool was developed for predicting the size of a future computer program at an early stage in its development. The system is intended to enable a user who is not expert in Software Engineering to estimate software size in lines of source code with an accuracy similar to that of an expert, based on the program's functional specifications. The project was planned as a knowledge based system with a field prototype as the goal of Phase 2 and a commercial system planned for Phase 3. The researchers used techniques from Artificial Intelligence and knowledge from human experts and existing software from NASA's COSMIC database. They devised a classification scheme for the software specifications, and a small set of generic software components that represent complexity and apply to large classes of programs. The specifications are converted to generic components by a set of rules and the generic components are input to a nonlinear sizing function which makes the final prediction. The system developed for this project predicted code sizes from the database with a bias factor of 1.06 and a fluctuation factor of 1.77, an accuracy similar to that of human experts but without their significant optimistic bias.

  5. Strategic Planning for DFAS-Cleveland Expert Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    strategic planning. Our investigative approach utilizes questionnaires, coupled with an extensive literature review of current books, periodicals, articles ... telecomunication and data transfer protocols are needed for effective interfacing between micro and mainframe in order to convert stand alone micro...conferences continually stress a need for the ability to integrate expert systems into the business environment. However, few articles offer any description of

  6. EUREX D: An expert system for failure diagnosis and recovery in the TCS of the European retrievable carrier EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Belau, W.; Schielow, N.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosis and recovery of failures in the Freon cooling loop of the European retrievable experiment carrier EURECA is described. The system demonstrates the feasibility of a functional scope of expert diagnostic systems which appears to be essential for practical applications of such systems in space technology. The scope includes early warning and treatment of incomplete information, fault tolerance, identification of failure superpositions, intelligent reaction to unforeseen events, and detailed status display for optimal recovery action.

  7. An application of object-oriented knowledge representation to engineering expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, D. S.; Kamil, H.; Umaretiya, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes an object-oriented knowledge representation and its application to engineering expert systems. The object-oriented approach promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects and organized by defining relationships between the objects. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented as a tool for building and manipulating the object base. Rule-based knowledge representation is then used to simulate engineering design reasoning. Using a common object base, very large expert systems can be developed, comprised of small, individually processed, rule sets. The integration of these two schemes makes it easier to develop practical engineering expert systems. The general approach to applying this technology to the domain of the finite element analysis, design, and optimization of aerospace structures is discussed.

  8. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  9. An expert system for sensor data validation and malfunction detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S.; Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plant operation and monitoring in general is a complex task which requires a large number of sensors, alarms and displays. At any instant in time, the operator is required to make a judgment about the state of the plant and to react accordingly. During abnormal situations, operators are further burdened with time constraints. The possibility of an undetected faulty instrumentation line, adds to the complexity of operators' reasoning tasks. Failure of human operators to cope with the conceptual complexity of abnormal situations often leads to more serious malfunctions and further damages to plant (TMI-2 as an example). During these abnormalities, operators rely on the information provided by the plant sensors and associated alarms. Their usefulness however, is quickly diminished by their large number and the extremely difficult task of interpreting and comprehending the information provided by them. The need for an aid to assist the operator in interpreting the available data and diagnosis of problems is obvious. Recent work at the Ohio State University Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR) and the nuclear engineering program has concentrated on the problem of diagnostic expert systems performance and their applicability to the nuclear power plant domain. There has also been concern about the diagnostic expert systems performance when using potentially invalid sensor data. Because of this research, an expert system has been developed that can perform diagnostic problem solving despite the existence of some conflicting data in the domain. This work has resulted in enhancement of a programming tool, that allows domain experts to create a diagnostic system that will be to some degree, tolerant of bad data while performing diagnosis. This expert system is described here.

  10. Requirements specification for nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for performance, design, test, and qualification of a computer program identified as NICBES, Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System, is established. The specific spacecraft power system configuration selected was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed. Power for the HST comes from a system of 13 Solar Panel Arrays (SPAs) linked to 6 Nickel Cadmium Batteries which are connected to 3 Busses. An expert system, NICBES, will be developed at Martin Marietta Aerospace to recognize a testbed anomaly, identify the malfunctioning component and recommend a course of action. Besides fault diagnosis, NICBES will be able to evaluate battery status, give advice on battery status and provide decision support for the operator. These requirements are detailed.

  11. A scheduling and diagnostic system for scientific satellite GEOTAIL using expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, I; Hashimoto, M.; Mukai, T.; Obara, T.; Nishigori, N.

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Satellite Control Software (ISACS) for the geoMagnetic tail observation satellite named GEOTAIL (launched in July 1992) has been successfully developed. ISACS has made it possible by applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology including an expert system to autonomously generate a tracking schedule, which originally used to be conducted manually. Using ISACS, a satellite operator can generate a maximum four day period of stored command stream autonomously and can easily confirm its safety. The ISACS system has another function -- to diagnose satellite troubles and to suggest necessary remedies. The workload of satellite operators has drastically been reduced since ISACS has been introduced into the operations of GEOTAIL.

  12. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  13. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  14. Expert system shell to reason on large amounts of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuffrida, Gionanni

    1994-01-01

    The current data base management systems (DBMS's) do not provide a sophisticated environment to develop rule based expert systems applications. Some of the new DBMS's come with some sort of rule mechanism; these are active and deductive database systems. However, both of these are not featured enough to support full implementation based on rules. On the other hand, current expert system shells do not provide any link with external databases. That is, all the data are kept in the system working memory. Such working memory is maintained in main memory. For some applications the reduced size of the available working memory could represent a constraint for the development. Typically these are applications which require reasoning on huge amounts of data. All these data do not fit into the computer main memory. Moreover, in some cases these data can be already available in some database systems and continuously updated while the expert system is running. This paper proposes an architecture which employs knowledge discovering techniques to reduce the amount of data to be stored in the main memory; in this architecture a standard DBMS is coupled with a rule-based language. The data are stored into the DBMS. An interface between the two systems is responsible for inducing knowledge from the set of relations. Such induced knowledge is then transferred to the rule-based language working memory.

  15. Databases, data integration, and expert systems: new directions in mineral resource assessment and mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, Richard B.; Ramani, Raja V.; Mozumdar, Bijoy K.; Samaddar, Arun B.

    1994-01-01

    Overcoming future difficulties in searching for ore deposits deeper in the earth's crust will require closer attention to the collection and analysis of more diverse types of data and to more efficient use of current computer technologies. Computer technologies of greatest interest include methods of storage and retrieval of resource information, methods for integrating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data, and the introduction of advanced computer technologies such as expert systems, multivariate techniques, and neural networks. Much experience has been gained in the past few years in applying these technologies. More experience is needed if they are to be implemented for everyday use in future assessments and exploration.

  16. An expert system application for network intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Dubois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) differs in one respect from most intrusion detection systems. It tries to address the intrusion detection problem on a network, as opposed to a single operating system. NADIR design intent was to copy and improve the audit record review activities normally done by security auditors. We wished to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in user profiles, against expert rules that define network security policy, improper or suspicious network activities, and normal network and user activity. When it detects deviant (anomalous) behavior, NADIR alerts operators in near realtime, and provides tools to aid in the investigation of the anomalous event. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Bolted joints in a laminated composite strut design expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. M. L.

    A knowledge-based expert system for the design and analysis of composite laminated struts with bolted joints is described. This system is part of a Composite Design Expert System aimed at performing analysis and design of composite laminated plates and struts and at assessing designs. The system uses a minimum weight optimization that satisfies the failure criteria of local and overall buckling, and a stress/strain failure criterion. Emphasis is placed on the formulation for the minimum weight optimization of struts with bolted joints. Attention is also given to a procedure for optimizing a strut to be fitted in a given length of a gap and the assessment of competing strut designs.

  18. PVEX: An expert system for producibility/value engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chun S.; Moseley, Warren

    1991-01-01

    PVEX is described as an expert system that solves the problem of selection of the material and process in missile manufacturing. The producibility and the value problem has been deeply studied in the past years, and was written in dBase III and PROLOG before. A new approach is presented in that the solution is achieved by introducing hypothetical reasoning, heuristic criteria integrated with a simple hypertext system and shell programming. PVEX combines KMS with Unix scripts which graphically depicts decision trees. The decision trees convey high level qualitative problem solving knowledge to users, and a stand-alone help facility and technical documentation is available through KMS. The system developed is considerably less development costly than any other comparable expert system.

  19. MOM: A meteorological data checking expert system in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists have long faced the problem of verifying the data they use. Experience shows that there is a sizable number of errors in the data reported by meteorological observers. This is unacceptable for computer forecast models, which depend on accurate data for accurate results. Most errors that occur in meteorological data are obvious to the meteorologist, but time constraints prevent hand-checking. For this reason, it is necessary to have a 'front end' to the computer model to ensure the accuracy of input. Various approaches to automatic data quality control have been developed by several groups. MOM is a rule-based system implemented in CLIPS and utilizing 'consistency checks' and 'range checks'. The system is generic in the sense that it knows some meteorological principles, regardless of specific station characteristics. Specific constraints kept as CLIPS facts in a separate file provide for system flexibility. Preliminary results show that the expert system has detected some inconsistencies not noticed by a local expert.

  20. Sensor-based fault diagnosis in a flight expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Scharnhorst, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype of a knowledge-based flight expert system (FLES) has been developed to assist airplane pilots in monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing faults and to provide support in reducing the pilot's own mistakes. A sensor simulation model has been developed to provide FLES with the airplane status information during the diagnostic process. The simulator is based partly on the Advanced Concept System (ACS), a future-generation airplane, and partly on the Boeing 737, an existing airplane. The architecture of FLES contains several subsystems. One of the major subsystems performs fault diagnosis in the electrical system of the ACS. This paper describes the mechanism and functionality of the automatic diagnosis performed in this expert system.

  1. The psychiatric expert witness in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Paul E

    2010-07-01

    This essay examines the nature of being an expert witness as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. The critiques of the psychiatrist as expert in the criminal justice systems produced by Michel Foucault, and Robert Musil provide a starting point for this study. Today's mental health experts working in the criminal justice field have an increasing burden of responsibility as a result of their wider role, and potentially greater power to harm. This requires an awareness of the dangers of misusing that power in part from misunderstanding its source. The expert's legitimacy stems from the knowledge they mediate. In psychiatry, we have an important, but limited, body of relevant quantitative scientific data coupled to a mass of qualitative observations with which we fill the gaps and construct our professional narratives. Confusing the science with the poetry makes us foolish and even more open to manipulation by authorities pursuing legal, governmental and populist agenda. The choices that face us lie between being a 'forensicist', tied to the legal discourse, or a being a physician, committed to mediating medical science and clinical experience. The middle ground is a slippery slope in the direction of the power of the criminal justice system.

  2. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems (QUEST: Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    conceptuele overeenkomsten tussen gegevensbanken en kennisbanken. Ixnplicatie hiervan is het gebruik van Nijssens Infonnatie-Analyse Methode (NIAM) als...UNCLASSIFIED) 2 SAMENVATTING (ONGERUBRICEERD) 3 CONTENTS 4 INTRODUCTION 6 2 A QUALITY FRAMEWORK 12 2.1 Introduction 12 2.2 Problem analysis 12 2.3 A... management systems (RDBMSs) have benefited from this principle. In this study, therefore, expert system development will primarily be viewed as

  3. Microcomputer-Based Expert System for Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Donna L.; Estrin, Thelma

    1981-01-01

    A computerized rule-based expert system for chest pain analysis in the emergency room has been developed as a medical decision-making tool. The rules are based on a previously established criteria mapping procedure developed for evaluating emergency room decisions. The system is implemented in PASCAL, a standardized language, and hence is machine-independent, and also has modest memory requirements. The overall design permits usage by those unfamiliar with computers.

  4. An approach to articulating expert system rule bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Ken

    1988-01-01

    A rule-base generation procedure is developed for expert systems used to diagnose anomalies in the performance of mechanical plants and similar engineering systems. The method is based on construction of a failure-mode information-propagation model (FIPM). Details of the FIPM procedure are discussed and illustrated with diagrams; reference is made to a sample application involving the turbopump of the high-pressure oxidizer for the Space Shuttle main engine.

  5. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  6. PNNL Expert Doug McMakin Discusses Millimeter Wave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doug McMakin

    2011-10-01

    Electrical Engineer Doug McMakin discusses Millimeter Wave Holographic technology, which uses non-harmful, ultrahigh-frequency radio waves to penetrate clothing to detect and identify concealed objects, as well as obtain accurate body measurements.

  7. PNNL Expert Doug McMakin Discusses Millimeter Wave Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Doug McMakin

    2016-07-12

    Electrical Engineer Doug McMakin discusses Millimeter Wave Holographic technology, which uses non-harmful, ultrahigh-frequency radio waves to penetrate clothing to detect and identify concealed objects, as well as obtain accurate body measurements.

  8. Index : A Rule Based Expert System For Computer Network Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganty, Srinivas; Pitchai, Anandhi; Morgan, Thomas W.

    1988-03-01

    Communications is an expert intensive discipline. The application of expert systems for maintenance of large and complex networks, mainly as an aid in trouble shooting, can simplify the task of network management. The important steps involved in troubleshooting are fault detection, fault reporting, fault interpretation and fault isolation. At present, Network Maintenance Facilities are capable of detecting and reporting the faults to network personnel. Fault interpretation refers to the next step in the process, which involves coming up with reasons for the failure. Fault interpretation can be characterized in two ways. First, it involves such a diversity of facts that it is difficult to predict. Secondly, it embodies a wealth of knowledge in the form of network management personnel. The application of expert systems in these interpretive tasks is an important step towards automation of network maintenance. In this paper, INDEX (Intelligent Network Diagnosis Expediter), a rule based production system for computer network alarm interpretation is described. It acts as an intelligent filter for people analyzing network alarms. INDEX analyzes the alarms in the network and identifies proper maintenance action to be taken.The important feature of this production system is that it is data driven. Working memory is the principal data repository of production systems and its contents represent the current state of the problem. Control is based upon which productions match the constantly changing working memory elements. Implementation of the prototype is in OPS83. Major issues in rule based system development such as rule base organization, implementation and efficiency are discussed.

  9. An expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1992-01-01

    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool was designed for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies using an expert system. Expert systems provide an effective method for saving knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms, which allow approximate reasoning and inference and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defined. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. The environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The modularity of the expert system allows for easy updates and modifications. It not only provides scientists with needed risk analysis and confidence not found in algorithmic programs, but is also an effective learning tool, and the window implementation makes it very easy to use. The system currently runs on a Micro VAX II at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The inference engine used is NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  10. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up

  11. An expert system for prediction of aquatic toxicity of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Aldridge, Andrew J.; Passino, Dora R. May; Frank, Anthony M.; Hushon, Judith M.

    1990-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has developed an interactive computer program in muLISP that runs on an IBM-compatible microcomputer and uses a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) to predict acute toxicity to four representative aquatic species from the detailed structure of an organic molecule. Using the SMILES formalism for a chemical structure, the expert system identifies all structural components and uses a knowledge base of rules based on an LSER to generate four structure-related parameter values. A separate module then relates these values to toxicity. The system is designed for rapid screening of potential chemical hazards before laboratory or field investigations are conducted and can be operated by users with little toxicological background. This is the first expert system based on LSER, relying on the first comprehensive compilation of rules and values for the estimation of LSER parameters.

  12. On the development of an expert system for wheelchair selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madey, Gregory R.; Bhansin, Charlotte A.; Alaraini, Sulaiman A.; Nour, Mohamed A.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of wheelchairs for the Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients involves the examination of a number of complicated factors including ambulation status, length of diagnosis, and funding sources, to name a few. Consequently, only a few experts exist in this area. To aid medical therapists with the wheelchair selection decision, a prototype medical expert system (ES) was developed. This paper describes and discusses the steps of designing and developing the system, the experiences of the authors, and the lessons learned from working on this project. Wheelchair Advisor, programmed in CLIPS, serves as diagnosis, classification, prescription, and training tool in the MS field. Interviews, insurance letters, forms, and prototyping were used to gain knowledge regarding the wheelchair selection problem. Among the lessons learned are that evolutionary prototyping is superior to the conventional system development life-cycle (SDLC), the wheelchair selection is a good candidate for ES applications, and that ES can be applied to other similar medical subdomains.

  13. Xrays: A fuzzy expert system for qualitative XRD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.; Liu, C. L.; Stanley, D.; Chen, H. C.; Fang, J. H.

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a fuzzy expert system termed XRAYS for identification of minerals via X-ray diffractograms. The system emulates the well-known (manual) Hanawalt method, thus avoiding the black-box approach of most computer search/match programs. The mineral subfile of the JCPDS Powder Diffraction file is stored in a database, from which the Hanawalt groups are created by the program. The expert system then carries out "manual" search following the steps prescribed for the Hanawalt method. Fuzzy comparisons and fuzzy arithmetic operations are employed in searching for matches. A list of candidate minerals is output in decreasing order of confidence. Graphical comparisons between the unknown pattern and candidate patterns are displayed on the screen to allow the diffractionists to make visual comparison as to the degree of match. Several examples containing from two to six minerals are used for illustration.

  14. Debugging expert systems using a dynamically created hypertext network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Craig D. B.; Schuette, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The labor intensive nature of expert system writing and debugging motivated this study. The hypothesis is that a hypertext based debugging tool is easier and faster than one traditional tool, the graphical execution trace. HESDE (Hypertext Expert System Debugging Environment) uses Hypertext nodes and links to represent the objects and their relationships created during the execution of a rule based expert system. HESDE operates transparently on top of the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) rule based system environment and is used during the knowledge base debugging process. During the execution process HESDE builds an execution trace. Use of facts, rules, and their values are automatically stored in a Hypertext network for each execution cycle. After the execution process, the knowledge engineer may access the Hypertext network and browse the network created. The network may be viewed in terms of rules, facts, and values. An experiment was conducted to compare HESDE with a graphical debugging environment. Subjects were given representative tasks. For speed and accuracy, in eight of the eleven tasks given to subjects, HESDE was significantly better.

  15. Expert system for on-board satellite scheduling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, John M.; Sary, Charisse

    1988-01-01

    An Expert System is described which Rockwell Satellite and Space Electronics Division (S&SED) is developing to dynamically schedule the allocation of on-board satellite resources and activities. This expert system is the Satellite Controller. The resources to be scheduled include power, propellant and recording tape. The activities controlled include scheduling satellite functions such as sensor checkout and operation. The scheduling of these resources and activities is presently a labor intensive and time consuming ground operations task. Developing a schedule requires extensive knowledge of the system and subsystems operations, operational constraints, and satellite design and configuration. This scheduling process requires highly trained experts anywhere from several hours to several weeks to accomplish. The process is done through brute force, that is examining cryptic mnemonic data off line to interpret the health and status of the satellite. Then schedules are formulated either as the result of practical operator experience or heuristics - that is rules of thumb. Orbital operations must become more productive in the future to reduce life cycle costs and decrease dependence on ground control. This reduction is required to increase autonomy and survivability of future systems. The design of future satellites require that the scheduling function be transferred from ground to on board systems.

  16. Expert systems for automated correlation and interpretation of wireline logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    CORRELATOR is an interactive computer program for lithostratigraphic correlation of wireline logs able to store correlations in a data base with a consistency, accuracy, speed, and resolution that are difficult to obtain manually. The automatic determination of correlations is based on the maximization of a weighted correlation coefficient using two wireline logs per well. CORRELATOR has an expert system to scan and flag incongruous correlations in the data base. The user has the option to accept or disregard the advice offered by the system. The expert system represents knowledge through production rules. The inference system is goal-driven and uses backward chaining to scan through the rules. Work in progress is used to illustrate the potential that a second expert system with a similar architecture for interpreting dip diagrams could have to identify episodes-as those of interest in sequence stratigraphy and fault detection- and annotate them in the stratigraphic column. Several examples illustrate the presentation. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. Using Ada to implement the operations management system in a community of experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    An architecture is described for the Space Station Operations Management System (OMS), consisting of a distributed expert system framework implemented in Ada. The motivation for such a scheme is based on the desire to integrate the very diverse elements of the OMS while taking maximum advantage of knowledge based systems technology. Part of the foundation of an Ada based distributed expert system was accomplished in the form of a proof of concept prototype for the KNOMES project (Knowledge-based Maintenance Expert System). This prototype successfully used concurrently active experts to accomplish monitoring and diagnosis for the Remote Manipulator System. The basic concept of this software architecture is named ACTORS for Ada Cognitive Task ORganization Scheme. It is when one considers the overall problem of integrating all of the OMS elements into a cooperative system that the AI solution stands out. By utilizing a distributed knowledge based system as the framework for OMS, it is possible to integrate those components which need to share information in an intelligent manner.

  18. Developments in REDES: The rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) is being developed at the NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP, a nozzle design program named RAO, a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE, and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES is built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  19. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  20. Expert Systems Development Through Software Product Lines Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, María Eugenia; Ramos, Isidro

    This chapter deals with expert systems (ES) development as the final product of a software product line (SPL). We take into account software variability management in the ES domain. Two kinds of variability emerge: variability in the behavior as well as in the structure of such systems. Experts' knowledge is captured using domain conceptual models in order to manage the variability and functionality of the ES. The ES are constructed using our baseline-oriented modeling (BOM) approach. BOM is a framework that automatically generates software applications as PRISMA architectural models by using SPL techniques. We follow the model-driven architecture (MDA) initiative for building domain models, which are automatically transformed into executable applications.

  1. Expert systems and their use in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. |

    1990-12-31

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, great quantities of numeric, symbolic, and quantitative information are handled by the reactor operators even during routine operation. The sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which available raw data can be converted into, and assimilated as, meaningful knowledge. In operating a nuclear power plant, people are sometimes affected by fatigue, stress, emotion, and environmental factors that may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems provide a method of removing some of the uncertainty from operator decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. 74 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. F-111 Wing Commander: A Mprolog Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Go F-111 WING COMMANDER 0A Mprolog Expert System C04 byc4 4John T. Minor & Grant Wright I CSR-90-044 DTIC S FLCTEB21 t FEB 2? 5 1991 D. DISTPnr~hvTN...omo""~ IN W fItm".SO a~ *A id 0010M CwWaa 6"eba 00nd b.WIM of ong =ofM N 0704-018g0 ug , m4"& wig 1204 I. Am qw. T0• ,30-.4. 1=0 t e unage w 0" s ,.e...Technical 4. TE AND , S . FUNDONG NUMBERS F-111 Wing Commander - A Mprolog Expert System DAALO3-87-G-0004 John T. Minor and Grant Wright 7. rPERFOMIN ORGA

  3. Java Expert System Shell Version 6.0

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest

    2002-06-18

    Java Expert Shell System - Jess - is a rule engine and scripting environment written entirely in Sun's Java language, Jess was orginially inspired by the CLIPS expert system shell, but has grown int a complete, distinct JAVA-influenced environment of its own. Using Jess, you can build Java applets and applications that have the capacity to "reason" using knowledge you supply in the form of declarative rules. Jess is surprisingly fast, and for some problems is faster than CLIPS, in that many Jess scripts are valid CLIPS scripts and vice-versa. Like CLIPS, Jess uses the Rete algorithm to process rules, a very efficient mechanism for solving the difficult many-to-many matching problem. Jess adds many features to CLIPS, including backwards chaining and the ability to manipulate and directly reason about Java objects. Jess is also a powerful Java scripting environment, from which you can create Java objects and call Java methods without compiling any Java Code.

  4. FaSTR DNA: a new expert system for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Power, Timothy; McCabe, Brendan; Harbison, Sally Ann

    2008-06-01

    The automation of DNA profile analysis of reference and crime samples continues to gain pace driven in part by a realisation by the criminal justice system of the positive impact DNA technology can have in aiding in the solution of crime and the apprehension of suspects. Expert systems to automate the profile analysis component of the process are beginning to be developed. In this paper, we report the validation of a new expert system FaSTR DNA, an expert system suitable for the analysis of DNA profiles from single source reference samples and from crime samples. We compare the performance of FaSTR DNA with that of other equivalent systems, GeneMapper ID v3.2 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and FSS-i(3) v4 (The Forensic Science Service((R)) DNA expert System Suite FSS-i(3), Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, UK) with GeneScan Analysis v3.7/Genotyper v3.7 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) with manual review. We have shown that FaSTR DNA provides an alternative solution to automating DNA profile analysis and is appropriate for implementation into forensic laboratories. The FaSTR DNA system was demonstrated to be comparable in performance to that of GeneMapper ID v3.2 and superior to that of FSS-i(3) v4 for the analysis of DNA profiles from crime samples.

  5. Knowledge Acquisition Techniques for Expert Systems: Conceptual and Empirical Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-20

    will guard rivers, bec they expect you to come up there. so rivers are dangerous in hi threat conditions. but i like river valleys, if the danger isnt ...expert in figuring out likely spots for these guys, from your 22 years experience?) better areas for ambush include confined spaces , like narrow canyons...system for route planning, a divergent task, would best be served by a KAT like the ARK Method, which produces procedural knowledge, and information on

  6. Hematology Expert System (HES) For Tonsillectomy/Adenoidectomy Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzi, Nicolino J.; Kapoor, Sandhya; Gerrard, Jon M.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this expert system is to assess a predisposition to bleeding in a patient undergoing a tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy as may occur with patients who have certain blood conditions such as hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease. This goal is achieved by establishing a correlation between the patients' responses to a medical questionnaire and the relative quantities of blood lost during the operation.

  7. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  8. [Prediction of cerebral stroke using an expert system].

    PubMed

    Semak, A E; Borisov, A V; Churakov, A V; Lur'e, T V

    2006-01-01

    An expert system of cerebral stroke prediction (ESCSP) has been developed. The ESCSP is a Windows supported software based on Bayes formula applied for determination of probability of stroke as well as for estimation of a risk for different types of blood circulation disturbances (ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke). The prediction is possible according to three sets of risk factors: 15, 25 and 52. The study of patients with different types of cerebral stroke has demonstrated high accuracy of the developed ESCSP software.

  9. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  10. An Object-Based Architecture for Biomedical Expert Database Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Thierry

    1988-01-01

    Objects play a major role in both database and artificial intelligence research. In this paper, we present a novel architecture for expert database systems that introduces an object-based interface between relational databases and expert systems. We exploit a semantic model of the database structure to map relations automatically into object templates, where each template can be a complex combination of join and projection operations. Moreover, we arrange the templates into object networks that represent different views of the same database. Separate processes instantiate those templates using data from the base relations, cache the resulting instances in main memory, navigate through a given network's objects, and update the database according to changes made at the object layer. In the context of an immunologic-research application, we demonstrate the capabilities of a prototype implementation of the architecture. The resulting model provides enhanced tools for database structuring and manipulation. In addition, this architecture supports efficient bidirectional communication between database and expert systems through the shared object layer.

  11. LES: A General Expert System And Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, W. A.; Laffey, T. J.

    1984-06-01

    The Lockheed Expert System (LES) has been designed to help knowledge engineers quickly solve problems in diagnosing, monitoring, planning, designing, checking, guiding, and interpreting. In its first application, LES was used to guide less-experienced maintenance personnel in the fault diagnosis of a large signal-switching network containing Built-In Test Equipment (BITE). LES used not only the knowledge of the expert diagnostician (captured in the familiar form of "IF-THEN" rules), but also knowledge about the structure, function, and causal relations of the device under study to perform rapid isolation of the module causing the failure. In addition to aiding the engineer in troubleshooting an electronic device, LES can also explain its reasoning and actions to the user, and can provide extensive database retrieval and graphics capabilities. In this paper we show how both the structure of the device and the troubleshooting rules of the expert are conveniently represented using LES's case grammar format. Also, an actual troubleshooting session between a user and LES is presented. By adding goals, rules, database information, and a few special procedures to the general LES framework, we were able to have a working system in a much shorter time (four man-months) than would have been possible starting afresh. The current status of the system is that it has been fielded and is under evaluation. LES is now being applied in other domains which include design checking and photo-interpretation.

  12. Proceedings of the ROBEXS '86: The second annual workshop on robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a workshop on robots and expert systems. Topics include the following: Natural Language and Artificial Intelligence; Software engineering and expert systems; robots in space; artificial intelligence and the human interface; and Fuzzy Logic Systems.

  13. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  14. Popular discourse on expert systems: communication patterns in the acculturation of an A. I. innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Opt, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    This study offers an organicist, trialectical communication perspective for analyzing the assumed relationship between technology and society. Other persons who have examined this relationship primarily have construed it as one in which (1) technology drives social change or (2) society drives technological change. Unanswered, though, is: what drives the relationship. This becomes the focus of this study. The study argues that understanding communication patterns about a technology (1) shows the processes by which human beings constitute sense-making scenarios about a technology, (2) makes salient the scenarios' implications for human needs, relationships, and worldview, and (3) provides an alternative approach to thinking about intervention into and side effects arising from the symbolic constitution of the future. The technology considered as case study is expert systems, and, by extension, artificial intelligence. The study focuses on the communication system of AI researchers, business persons, critics, and writers and their roles in inventing pasts, presents, and futures for the technology. The study finds that participants in discourse constitute names for expert systems in relation to the overarching ideology - the American dream.

  15. Development of an expert planning system for OSSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groundwater, B.; Lembeck, M. F.; Sarsfield, L.; Diaz, Alphonso

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents concepts related to preliminary work for the development of an expert planning system for NASA's Office for Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The expert system will function as a planner's decision aid in preparing mission plans encompassing sets of proposed OSSA space science initiatives. These plans in turn will be checked against budgetary and technical constraints and tested for constraint violations. Appropriate advice will be generated by the system for making modifications to the plans to bring them in line with the constraints. The OSSA Planning Expert System (OPES) has been designed to function as an integral part of the OSSA mission planning process. It will be able to suggest a best plan, be able to accept and check a user-suggested strawman plan, and should provide a quick response to user request and actions. OPES will be written in the C programming language and have a transparent user interface running under Windows 386 on a Compaq 386/20 machine. The system's sorted knowledge and inference procedures will model the expertise of human planners familiar with the OSSA planning domain. Given mission priorities and budget guidelines, the system first sets the launch dates for each mission. It will check to make sure that planetary launch windows and precursor mission relationships are not violated. Additional levels of constraints will then be considered, checking such things as the availability of a suitable launch vehicle, total mission launch mass required vs. the identified launch mass capability, and the total power required by the payload at its destination vs. the actual power available. System output will be in the form of Gantt charts, spreadsheet hardcopy, and other presentation quality materials detailing the resulting OSSA mission plan.

  16. Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.

  17. Rule groupings: An approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge-based expert systems are playing an increasingly important role in NASA space and aircraft systems. However, many of NASA's software applications are life- or mission-critical and knowledge-based systems do not lend themselves to the traditional verification and validation techniques for highly reliable software. Rule-based systems lack the control abstractions found in procedural languages. Hence, it is difficult to verify or maintain such systems. Our goal is to automatically structure a rule-based system into a set of rule-groups having a well-defined interface to other rule-groups. Once a rule base is decomposed into such 'firewalled' units, studying the interactions between rules would become more tractable. Verification-aid tools can then be developed to test the behavior of each such rule-group. Furthermore, the interactions between rule-groups can be studied in a manner similar to integration testing. Such efforts will go a long way towards increasing our confidence in the expert-system software. Our research efforts address the feasibility of automating the identification of rule groups, in order to decompose the rule base into a number of meaningful units.

  18. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  19. A CLIPS expert system for maximizing alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, B. A.; Jones, D. D.; Rhykerd, R. L.; Rhykerd, L. M.; Rhykerd, C. L., Jr.; Rhykerd, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    An alfalfa management expert system originally developed by Purdue University agricultural scientists on the PC Plus expert system shell from Texas Instrument has been updated and successfully converted to CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System). This reduces the cost and legal restrictions associated with making the expert system available to agribusiness industries, extension personnel and farm managers and operators. The expert system includes recommendations concerning soil drainage, liming, P and K fertilization, weed control, variety selection and seeding rate including pure live seeds.

  20. Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC business and engineering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, James M.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA projects in the business/management and engineering domains are discussed. Business-related problems addressed include an assistant for simulating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment, and an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. Engineering problems treated include an expert system for detecting potential ignition sources in LOX and gaseous-oxygen transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas detection.

  1. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  2. Expert system verification and validation survey. Delivery 3: Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the state-of-the-practice in Verification and Validation (V and V) of Expert Systems (ESs) on current NASA and Industry applications. This is the first task of a series which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate ES V and V tools and techniques are available for Space Station Knowledge Based Systems development. The strategy for determining the state-of-the-practice is to check how well each of the known ES V and V issues are being addressed and to what extent they have impacted the development of ESs.

  3. Expert system verification and validation survey. Delivery 2: Survey results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the state-of-the-practice in Verification and Validation (V and V) of Expert Systems (ESs) on current NASA and industry applications. This is the first task of the series which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate ES V and V tools and techniques are available for Space Station Knowledge Based Systems development. The strategy for determining the state-of-the-practice is to check how well each of the known ES V and V issues are being addressed and to what extent they have impacted the development of ESs.

  4. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  5. Expert system verification and validation survey, delivery 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the state-of-the-practice in Verification and Validation (V and V) of Expert Systems (ESs) on current NASA and Industry applications. This is the first task of a series which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate ES V and V tools and techniques are available for Space Station Knowledge Based Systems development. The strategy for determining the state-of-the-practice is to check how well each of the known ES V and V issues are being addressed and to what extent they have impacted the development of ESs.

  6. Expert system verification and validation survey. Delivery 5: Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the state-of-the-practice in Verification and Validation (V and V) of Expert Systems (ESs) on current NASA and Industry applications. This is the first task of a series which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate ES V and V tools and techniques are available for Space Station Knowledge Based Systems development. The strategy for determining the state-of-the-practice is to check how well each of the known ES V and V issues are being addressed and to what extent they have impacted the development of ESs.

  7. End-user oriented language to develop knowledge-based expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, H.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the COMEX (compact knowledge based expert system) expert system language for application-domain users who want to develop a knowledge-based expert system by themselves. The COMEX system was written in FORTRAN and works on a microcomputer. COMEX is being used in several application domains such as medicine, education, and industry. 7 references.

  8. Overview of the System of Experts for Intelligent Data Management (SEIDAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Fung, KO; Iisaka, Joji

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the system of experts for intelligent data management (SEIDAM) are presented. Topics covered include: multiple data sources integration; SEIDAM structure; machine learning; user interface; spatial knowledge expert system; digital terrain model (DTM) and segmentation expert systems; system validation; and tasks and plans.

  9. Experiments with User Interfaces of an Expert System That Recommends Computer Access Devices for the Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Julia E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated interfaces (menu-driven, natural language, or hybrid) for using the Computer Access Technology-Knowledge Based Expert System (CAT-KBES), which assists in the selection of appropriate computer access technology for clients with severe visual disabilities. Users (n=19, including 12 with visual impairments) preferred the revised…

  10. NICBES2 - NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY EXPERT SYSTEM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Y. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) is a prototype diagnostic expert system for Nickel Cadmium Battery Health Management. NICBES2 is intended to support evaluation of the performance of Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft batteries, and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. To achieve this, NICBES2 provides a reasoning system supported by appropriate battery domain knowledge. NICBES2 oversees the status of the batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when the status so merits, raises an alarm and provides fault diagnosis as well as advice on the actions to be taken to remedy the particular alarm. In addition to diagnosis and advice, it provides status history of the batteries' health, and a graphical display capability to help in assimilation of the information by the operator. NICBES2 is composed of three cooperating processes driven by a program written in SunOS C. A serial port process gathers incoming data from an RS-232 connection and places it into a raw data pipe. The data handler processes read this information from the raw data pipe and perform statistical data reduction to generate a set of reduced data files per orbit. The expert system process starts the Quintus Prolog interpreter and the expert system and then uses the reduced data files for the generation of status and advice information. The expert system presents the user with an interface window composed of six subwindows: Battery Status, Advice Selection, Support, Battery Selection, Graphics, and Actions. The Battery status subwindow can provide a display of the current status of a battery. Similarly, advice on battery reconditioning, charging, and workload can be obtained from the Advice Selection subwindow. A display of trends for the last orbit and over a sequence of the last twelve orbits is available in the Graph subwindow. A WHY button is available to give the user an explanation of the rules that the expert system used in determining the current

  11. An expert system for monitoring dynamic aspects of RCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Robinson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    An expert system (ARC) based on the MIMIC(2) framework is being developed for assistance in monitoring the Space Shuttle reaction control system (RCS) and in training RCS mission controllers. ARC has four components: a hypothesis generator, a model-constructor, a model-simulator and a matcher. The hypothesis generator examines current readings of sensors to generate a set of hypotheses. The model constructor generates models from these hypotheses. The simulator predicts future behaviors of the system. The matcher validates hypotheses by testing the predicted states against real data. The hypothesis generator postulates faults using model-based reasoning (MBR), learned rules from real data, and expert-defined rules. The simulator uses a qualitative QSIM model of the RCS which can handle both nominal modes as well as a variety of fault models. This allows the simulator to simulate the system even when one or more components have degraded. Finally, the matcher is responsible for comparing readings against predictions and calculating confidence in a particular hypothesis.

  12. An Expert Vision System for Medical Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiuh-Yung J.; Lin, Wei-Chung; Chen, Chin-Tu

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, an expert vision system is proposed which integrates knowledge from diverse sources for tomographic image segmentation. The system miinicks the reasoning process of an expert to divide a tomographic brain image into semantically meaningful entities. These entities can then be related to the fundamental biomedical processes, both in health and in disease, that are of interest or of importance to health care research. The images under study include those acquired from x-ray CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and PET (Positron Emission Tomography). Given a set of three (correlated) images acquired from these three different modalities at the same slicing level and angle of a human brain, the proposed system performs image segmentation based on (1) knowledge about the characteristics of the three different sensors, (2) knowledge about the anatomic structures of human brains, (3) knowledge about brain diseases, and (4) knowledge about image processing and analysis tools. Since the problem domain is characterized by incomplete and uncertain information, the blackboard architecture which is an opportunistic reasoning model is adopted as the framework of the proposed system.

  13. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed.

  14. SFTYCHEF: A Consultative, Diagnostic Expert System for Trench Excavation Safety Analysis on Light Commercial Construction Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-30

    OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. I We approve the report of Thomas C. Nicholas 3 /2 /---- -----Date Engineering, Bernard Hankin Professor of...Safe Trench Excavation ...... 2 Applicability to Solution via Expert System. 3 Background: Expert Systems ..................... 4 Definition of an...43 3 . AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR TRENCH SAFETY: THE PROBLEM ........................................... 44 The Need For A Proper Analysis of Soil

  15. Rhetorical Consequences of the Computer Society: Expert Systems and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Expert systems are computer programs that solve selected problems by modelling domain-specific behaviors of human experts. These computer programs typically consist of an input/output system that feeds data into the computer and retrieves advice, an inference system using the reasoning and heuristic processes of human experts, and a knowledge…

  16. EXSPRT: An Expert Systems Approach to Computer-Based Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    Expert systems can be used to aid decision making. A computerized adaptive test (CAT) is one kind of expert system, although it is not commonly recognized as such. A new approach, termed EXSPRT, was devised that combines expert systems reasoning and sequential probability ratio test stopping rules. EXSPRT-R uses random selection of test items,…

  17. Development experience with a simple expert system demonstrator for pilot emergency procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, M.; Mackall, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Expert system techniques, a major application area of artificial intelligence (AI), are examined in the development of pilot associate to handle aircraft emergency procedures. The term pilot associate is used to describe research involving expert systems that can assist the pilot in the cockpit. The development of expert systems for the electrical system and flight control system emergency procedures are discussed. A simple, high-level expert system provides the means to choose which knowledge domain is needed. The expert systems were developed on a low-cost, FORTH-based package, using a personal computer.

  18. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system has been developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air-traffic-control schedule advisor are as follows: (1) for each new arrival, it develops an admisible flight plan for that aircraft; (2) as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the aircraft's flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule; and (3) if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programmed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and Fortran.

  19. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  20. Nowcasting system MeteoExpert at Irkutsk airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazlova, Tatiana; Bocharnikov, Nikolai; Solonin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Airport operations are significantly impacted by low visibility concerned with fog. Generation of accurate and timely nowcast products is a basis of early warning automated system providing information about significant weather conditions for decision-makers. Nowcasting system MeteoExpert has been developed that provides aviation forecasters with 0-6 hour nowcasts of the weather conditions including fog and low visibility. The system has been put into operation at the airport Irkutsk since August 2014. Aim is to increase an accuracy of fog forecasts, contributing to the airport safety, efficiency and capacity improvement. Designed for operational use numerical model of atmospheric boundary layer runs with a 10-minute update cycle. An important component of the system is the use of AWOS at the airdrome and three additional automatic weather stations at fogging sites in the vicinity of the airdrome. Nowcasts are visualized on a screen of forecaster's workstation and dedicated website. Nowcasts have been verified against actual observations.

  1. Using output to evaluate and refine rules in rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, D. C.; Bond, W. E.; Flachsbart, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques described provide an effective tool which knowledge engineers and domain experts can utilize to help in evaluating and refining rules. These techniques have been used successfully as learning mechanisms in a prototype adaptive diagnostic expert system and are applicable to other types of expert systems. The degree to which they constitute complete evaluation/refinement of an expert system depends on the thoroughness of their use.

  2. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  3. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  4. [An expert system neurology--possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Bickel, A; Grunewald, M

    2006-12-01

    We present an expert system Neurology, which was developed completely on basis of the commercial available data base program Filemaker-7.0. At present it covers approximately 400 diagnoses of neurological and psychiatric diseases. After the input of cardinal symptoms, course and localisation of the disease the program calculates a first set of possible differential diagnoses and asks for additional symptoms or the performance of apparative diagnostics to investigate the final diagnose. At first, the performance of the expert system was tested with 15 predetermined neurological case reports. Users with different previous knowledge of Neurology performed the input. In this test the program was able to identify the correct diagnose in nearly all cases and the diagnostic proposals were superior to those of the users with minor neurological training. In a second test with real patient data, the rate of correct diagnoses was approximately 80%. In summary, the used computer algorithms proved as appropriate for the aim of giving Neurological diagnoses. Possible additional applications could be student training or the use as interdisciplinary reference work.

  5. Reference manual for the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.

    1994-07-01

    This document provides technical information and programming guidance for the maintenance and future development of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk. Help Desk is an expert system that operates within the EXSYSTM expert system shell, and is used to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: (1) surface area required for a radiating surface, (2) equilibrium temperature of a surface, (3) enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, (4) enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit and, (5) selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure. The technical information includes the mathematical approach and analytical derivations used in the analyses such as: radiation heat balance, view factor calculation, and orbit determination with coordinate transformation. The programming guide for developers describes techniques for enhancement of Help Desk. Examples are provided showing the addition of new features, user interface development and enhancement, and external program interfaces.

  6. Reference manual for the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides technical information and programming guidance for the maintenance and future development of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk. Help Desk is an expert system that operates within the EXSYSTM expert system shell, and is used to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: (1) surface area required for a radiating surface, (2) equilibrium temperature of a surface, (3) enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, (4) enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit and, (5) selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure. The technical information includes the mathematical approach and analytical derivations used in the analyses such as: radiation heat balance, view factor calculation, and orbit determination with coordinate transformation. The programming guide for developers describes techniques for enhancement of Help Desk. Examples are provided showing the addition of new features, user interface development and enhancement, and external program interfaces.

  7. Expert system approach to design an automated guided vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraguru, Karthikeyan; Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an expert system to design the base of an automated guided vehicle. The components of the expert system include: (1) A user-friendly graphic user interface, where the user can enter specifications--like the environment used, application of the robot, etc.; (2) An engine that converts the managerial requirements into technical parameters and designs the robot--initially assuming some parameters and confirming its assumptions during the course of the design; when unable to do so, it iterates with different assumptions until they are met; the code also selects various materials to be used from a corresponding database; (3) A database of various materials from their manufacturers/suppliers; (4) The output data is interfaced with a CAD engine, which generates a 3D solid model of the vehicle; and (5) A `Bill of Materials' file is generated as the output and suggestions for how to assemble them are given. The method has been tested by designing a small mobile robot. The software provides an excellent tool to develop a mobile robot based on performance specifications. Modeling helps the user understand the constraints on the design of the robot and the bill of materials--along with the vendor address, helps the user buy the components needed to assemble the robot.

  8. Data explorer: a prototype expert system for statistical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Aliferis, C.; Chao, E.; Cooper, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    The inadequate analysis of medical research data, due mainly to the unavailability of local statistical expertise, seriously jeopardizes the quality of new medical knowledge. Data Explorer is a prototype Expert System that builds on the versatility and power of existing statistical software, to provide automatic analyses and interpretation of medical data. The system draws much of its power by using belief network methods in place of more traditional, but difficult to automate, classical multivariate statistical techniques. Data Explorer identifies statistically significant relationships among variables, and using power-size analysis, belief network inference/learning and various explanatory techniques helps the user understand the importance of the findings. Finally the system can be used as a tool for the automatic development of predictive/diagnostic models from patient databases. PMID:8130501

  9. An expert system for prediction of chemical toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Aldridge, Andrew J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1992-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center- Great Lakes has developed an interactive computer program that uses the structure of an organic molecule to predict its acute toxicity to four aquatic species. The expert system software, written in the muLISP language, identifies the skeletal structures and substituent groups of an organic molecule from a user-supplied standard chemical notation known as a SMILES string, and then generates values for four solvatochromic parameters. Multiple regression equations relate these parameters to the toxicities (expressed as log10LC50s and log10EC50s, along with 95% confidence intervals) for four species. The system is demonstrated by prediction of toxicity for anilide-type pesticides to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). This software is designed for use on an IBM-compatible personal computer by personnel with minimal toxicology background for rapid estimation of chemical toxicity. The system has numerous applications, with much potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry

  10. Application of expert systems in the Common Module electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Each Common Module (CM) of the Space Station must be capable of handling a 50 kW electricity supply, 25 kW for transmission and 25 kW for consumption. The power must be handled and managed by on-board systems, a necessity that dovetails with the objectives of Public Law 98-371, which mandates that the Space Station push the state of the art of automation and AI. Expert systems will be needed to handle the large data flow for the power system and to ensure that the system degrades gracefully. Features of the first expert systems expected for the power system, i.e., a dynamic load planner/scheduler and energy storage subsystem management, fault diagnosis/analysis, health status/trend analysis, and orbital replacement advisor expert systems, are described. Finally, growth Space Station expert systems applications are discussed.

  11. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  12. Development of expert systems for the design of a hot-forging process based on material workability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, R.; Prasad, Y. V. R. K.; Sarma, V. V. S.

    2003-12-01

    Most of the time (and cost) involved in planning hot forging process is related to activities strongly dependent on human expertise, intuition, and creativity, and also to iterative procedure involving extensive experimental work. In this paper, the development of an expert system for forging process design, which emphasizes materials’ workability, is discussed. Details of the forging process design expert system, its basic modules, design and implementation details, and deliverables are explained. The system uses the vast database available on the hot workability of more than 200 technologically important materials and the knowledge acquired from a materials’ expert. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) has been adopted to develop this expert system. The expert system can address three types of functions, namely, forging process design, materials information system, and forging defect analysis. The expert system will aid and prompt a novice engineer in designing a forging process by providing accurate information of the process parameters, lubricants, type of machine, die material, and type of process (isothermal versus non-isothermal) for a given material with a known specification or code and prior history.

  13. Expert operator preferences in remote manipulator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.; Woods, H.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes a survey of expert remote manipulator operators designed to identify features of control systems related to operator efficiency and comfort. It provides information for designing the control center for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS) Test Bed, described in a separate report. Research questions concerned preferred modes of control, optimum work sessions, sources of operator fatigue, importance of control system design features, and desired changes in control rooms. Participants comprised four expert remote manipulator operators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who individually have from 9 to 20 years of experience using teleoperators. The operators had all used rate and position control, and all preferred bilateral (force-reflecting) position control. They reported spending an average of 2.75 h in control of a teleoperator system during a typical shift. All were accustomed to working in a crew of two and alternating control and support roles in 2-h rotations in an 8-h shift. Operators reported that fatigue in using remote manipulator systems came mainly from watching TV monitors and making repetitive motions. Three of four experienced symptoms, including headaches and sore eyes, wrists, and back. Of 17 features of control rooms rated on importance, highest ratings went to comfort and support provided by the operator chair, location of controls, location of video monitors, video image clarity, types of controls, and control modes. When asked what they wanted to change, operators said work stations designed for comfort; simpler, lighter hand-controls; separate controls for each camera; better placement of remote camera; color monitors; and control room layouts that support crew interaction. Results of this small survey reinforced the importance of ergonomic factors in remote manipulation.

  14. Development of the Spacecraft Materials Selector Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A specific knowledge base to evaluate the on-orbit performance of selected materials on spacecraft is being developed under contract to the NASA SEE program. An artificial intelligence software package, the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST), contains an inference engine used to operate knowledge bases constructed to selectively recall and distribute information about materials performance in space applications. This same system is used to make estimates of the environmental exposures expected for a given space flight. The performance capabilities of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base are described in this paper. A case history for a planned flight experiment on ISS is shown as an example of the use of the SMS, and capabilities and limitations of the knowledge base are discussed.

  15. The INCO Expert System Project: CLIPS in Shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.

    1990-01-01

    The INCO (Integrated Communications Officer) Expert System Project (IESP) was undertaken in 1987 by the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to explore the use of advanced automation in the mission operations arena. One of MOD's primary responsibilities in the space shuttle program is the manning of the flight control positions in the Mission Control Center (MCC) at JSC. The MCC is the central hub for all ground support activities in support of Space Shuttle missions. Its responsibility extends from the moment of lift-off from the launch pad though the completion of landing. The flight controllers in the MCC are tasked with monitoring the health and status of all on-board systems and payloads, detecting and remedying errors and failures, and modifying flight activity plans accordingly.

  16. Expert System for Computer-assisted Annotation of MS/MS Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Nadin; Michalski, Annette; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    An important step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides by their fragment spectra. Regardless of the identification score achieved, almost all tandem-MS (MS/MS) spectra contain remaining peaks that are not assigned by the search engine. These peaks may be explainable by human experts but the scale of modern proteomics experiments makes this impractical. In computer science, Expert Systems are a mature technology to implement a list of rules generated by interviews with practitioners. We here develop such an Expert System, making use of literature knowledge as well as a large body of high mass accuracy and pure fragmentation spectra. Interestingly, we find that even with high mass accuracy data, rule sets can quickly become too complex, leading to over-annotation. Therefore we establish a rigorous false discovery rate, calculated by random insertion of peaks from a large collection of other MS/MS spectra, and use it to develop an optimized knowledge base. This rule set correctly annotates almost all peaks of medium or high abundance. For high resolution HCD data, median intensity coverage of fragment peaks in MS/MS spectra increases from 58% by search engine annotation alone to 86%. The resulting annotation performance surpasses a human expert, especially on complex spectra such as those of larger phosphorylated peptides. Our system is also applicable to high resolution collision-induced dissociation data. It is available both as a part of MaxQuant and via a webserver that only requires an MS/MS spectrum and the corresponding peptides sequence, and which outputs publication quality, annotated MS/MS spectra (www.biochem.mpg.de/mann/tools/). It provides expert knowledge to beginners in the field of MS-based proteomics and helps advanced users to focus on unusual and possibly novel types of fragment ions. PMID:22888147

  17. An Expert-System-Like Feedback Approach in the hp-Version of the Finite Element Method.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Institute for Physical Science and Technology AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 1...PAGE (When Doa Ende-) An Expert-System-Like Feedback Approach in the hp-Version of the Finite Element Method I. Babugkal Institute for Physical Science...and Technology University of Maryland Ernst Rank 2 Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland and Fachgebiet Elektronisches

  18. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

    PubMed

    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring <5.0 for all hazards except wind damage. In general, sanitation technologies were found to have low to medium resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning.

  19. Reliability and performance evaluation of systems containing embedded rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Robert M.; Adams, Milton B.; Harrison, James V. A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for evaluating the reliability of real-time systems containing embedded rule-based expert systems is proposed and investigated. It is a three stage technique that addresses the impact of knowledge-base uncertainties on the performance of expert systems. In the first stage, a Markov reliability model of the system is developed which identifies the key performance parameters of the expert system. In the second stage, the evaluation method is used to determine the values of the expert system's key performance parameters. The performance parameters can be evaluated directly by using a probabilistic model of uncertainties in the knowledge-base or by using sensitivity analyses. In the third and final state, the performance parameters of the expert system are combined with performance parameters for other system components and subsystems to evaluate the reliability and performance of the complete system. The evaluation method is demonstrated in the context of a simple expert system used to supervise the performances of an FDI algorithm associated with an aircraft longitudinal flight-control system.

  20. Enhancing Public Outreach Using A Web-Based Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenway, M.; Thomas, D. M.; Edwards, K.; Miyagi, K.

    2010-12-01

    An engineering analysis of the 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake on the Island of Hawaii showed that, of all the dwelling styles commonly used in the affected area, post-and-pier construction was by far the most vulnerable to damage by earthquake shaking. This is one of the most commonly used designs in Hawaii for residential dwellings and, hence, a large standing inventory of these homes is at risk from future earthquakes. In order to assist homeowners mitigate against damage from future strong earthquakes, a suite of engineered retrofits was developed that will enable residential structures to better resist the effects of ground shaking. The specific retrofit recommendations were designed to be suitable for a range of values for: gross square footage, post height, post spacing, structure configurations, and seismic hazard zone. However, depending on the specific values for each of these parameters for an individual dwelling, the homeowner was guided to one or more appropriate retrofit designs selected from an array of more than 2130 different possible recommendations. In order to assist a homeowner in making an appropriate selection, we developed a web-based expert system that asked the user to enter values for a few simple measurements on the structure and indicate the structure's location. With those values, the expert system returned no more than three recommended retrofit designs that were appropriate for the home configuration, size, and seismic hazard zone. If any of the values entered indicate that the home is outside of the design envelop for the recommended retrofits, the homeowner is presented with an advisory that consultation with a qualified structural engineer will be needed to determine an appropriate retrofit program for that dwelling. The program uses the values entered to also generate an estimated parts and fittings list for installation of the recommended retrofits. With the program output, a homeowner is able to use the design drawings and materials

  1. An expert system for processing sequence homology data

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnhammer, E.L.L.; Durbin, R.

    1994-12-31

    When confronted with the task of finding homology to large numbers of sequences, database searching tools such as Blast and Fasta generate prohibitively large amounts of information. An automatic way of making most of the decisions a trained sequence analyst would make was developed by means of a rule-based expert system combined with an algorithm to avoid non-informative biased residue composition matches. The results found relevant by the system are presented in a very concise and clear way, so that the homology can be assessed with minimum effort. The expert system, HSPcrunch, was implemented to process the output of the programs in the BLAST suite. HSPcrunch embodies rules on detecting distant similarities when pairs of weak matches are consistent with a larger gaped alignment, i.e. when Blast has broken a longer gaped alignment up into smaller ungaped ones. This way, more distant similarities can be detected with no or little side-effects of more spurious matches. The rules for how small the gaps must be to be considered significant have been derived empirically. Currently a set of rules are used that operate on two different scoring levels, one for very weak matches that have very small gaps and one for medium weak matches that have slightly larger gaps. This set of rules proved to be robust for most cases and gives high fidelity separation between real homologies and spurious matches, One of the most important rules for reducing the amount of output is to limit the number of overlapping matches to the same region of the query sequence. This way, a region with many high-scoring matches will not dominate the output and hide weaker but relevant matches to other regions. This is particularly valuable for multi-domain queries.

  2. Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.

  3. Study of onboard expert systems to augment space shuttle and space station autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, C. R.; Akin, D. L.; Kranzler, D.; Erlanson, E.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of onboard crew activity planning was examined. The use of expert systems technology to aid crewmembers in locating stowed equipment was also investigated. The crew activity planning problem, along with a summary of past and current research efforts, was discussed in detail. The requirements and specifications used to develop the crew activity planning system was also defined. The guidelines used to create, develop, and operate the MFIVE Crew Scheduler and Logistics Clerk were discussed. Also discussed is the mathematical algorithm, used by the MFIVE Scheduler, which was developed to aid in optimal crew activity planning.

  4. Expert systems for automated maintenance of a Mars oxygen production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Ho, Ming-Tsang; Ash, Robert L.

    1992-08-01

    Application of expert system concepts to a breadboard Mars oxygen processor unit have been studied and tested. The research was directed toward developing the methodology required to enable autonomous operation and control of these simple chemical processors at Mars. Failure detection and isolation was the key area of concern, and schemes using forward chaining, backward chaining, knowledge-based expert systems, and rule-based expert systems were examined. Tests and simulations were conducted that investigated self-health checkout, emergency shutdown, and fault detection, in addition to normal control activities. A dynamic system model was developed using the Bond-Graph technique. The dynamic model agreed well with tests involving sudden reductions in throughput. However, nonlinear effects were observed during tests that incorporated step function increases in flow variables. Computer simulations and experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of expert systems utilizing rule-based diagnosis and decision-making algorithms.

  5. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  6. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  7. Considerations in development of expert systems for real-time space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murugesan, S.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years, demand on space systems has increased tremendously and this trend will continue for the near future. Enhanced capabilities of space systems, however, can only be met with increased complexity and sophistication of onboard and ground systems. Artificial Intelligence and expert system techniques have great potential in space applications. Expert systems could facilitate autonomous decision making, improve in-orbit fault diagnosis and repair, enhance performance and reduce reliance on ground support. However, real-time expert systems, unlike conventional off-line consultative systems, have to satisfy certain special stringent requirements before they could be used for onboard space applications. Challenging and interesting new environments are faced while developing expert system space applications. This paper discusses the special characteristics, requirements and typical life cycle issues for onboard expert systems. Further, it also describes considerations in design, development, and implementation which are particularly important to real-time expert systems for space applications.

  8. Distributed Web-Based Expert System for Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The simulation and modeling of launch operations is based on a representation of the organization of the operations suitable to experiment of the physical, procedural, software, hardware and psychological aspects of space flight operations. The virtual test bed consists of a weather expert system to advice on the effect of weather to the launch operations. It also simulates toxic gas dispersion model, and the risk impact on human health. Since all modeling and simulation is based on the internet, it could reduce the cost of operations of launch and range safety by conducting extensive research before a particular launch. Each model has an independent decision making module to derive the best decision for launch.

  9. A critical review of expert systems for corrosion prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    The serious gap that exists between modern corrosion science and the real world, where a heavy toll is continuously paid to corrosion, is a clear indication that the present knowledge of corrosion mechanisms is not always translated into sound practices. The dichotomy between prevention principles discovered in a laboratory environment and their application on an industrial scale can often be felt at specialized conferences where scientists and operational engineers seem to be speaking different languages. The application of artificial intelligence to perform expert functions has opened new communication channels between various strata of corrosion knowledge holders. This paper reviews the efforts recently made public on the applications of the expert system technology to corrosion prevention and control.

  10. SPEEDS: An Approach to Support Programming Environments Using Expert Database Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    effective manner. The large volume of data that the expert uses gives the expert more possible combinations and options, thereby complicating his...use experts to make programming decisions use expert database systems to improve cost- effectiveness , save time and/or improve the quality of...parameters modified quickly without the snowball effect associated with traditional programming methods. Not all programming environments are conducive

  11. Hospital-based expert model for health technology procurement planning in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Cecconi, G; Frosini, F; Dori, F; Regolini, J; Iadanza, E; Biffi Gentili, G

    2014-01-01

    Although in the last years technology innovation in healthcare brought big improvements in care level and patient quality of life, hospital complexity and management cost became higher. For this reason, necessity of planning for medical equipment procurement within hospitals is getting more and more important in order to sustainable provide appropriate technology for both routine activity and innovative procedures. In order to support hospital decision makers for technology procurement planning, an expert model was designed as reported in the following paper. It combines the most widely used approaches for technology evaluation by taking into consideration Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Medical Equipment Replacement Model (MERM). The designing phases include a first definition of prioritization algorithms, then the weighting process through experts' interviews and a final step for the model validation that included both statistical testing and comparison with real decisions. In conclusion, the designed model was able to provide a semi-automated tool that through the use of multidisciplinary information is able to prioritize different requests of technology acquisition in hospitals. Validation outcomes improved the model accuracy and created different "user profiles" according to the specific needs of decision makers.

  12. Design of an Ada expert system shell for the VHSIC avionic modular flight processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, F. Jesse

    1992-01-01

    The Embedded Computer System Expert System Shell (ES Shell) is an Ada-based expert system shell developed at the Avionics Laboratory for use on the VHSIC Avionic Modular Processor (VAMP) running under the Ada Avionics Real-Time Software (AARTS) Operating System. The ES Shell provides the interface between the expert system and the avionics environment, and controls execution of the expert system. Testing of the ES Shell in the Avionics Laboratory's Integrated Test Bed (ITB) has demonstrated its ability to control a non-deterministic software application executing on the VAMP's which can control the ITB's real-time closed-loop aircraft simulation. The results of these tests and the conclusions reached in the design and development of the ES Shell have played an important role in the formulation of the requirements for a production-quality expert system inference engine, an ingredient necessary for the successful use of expert systems on the VAMP embedded avionic flight processor.

  13. SSME component assembly and life management expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Ferber, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The space shuttle utilizes several rocket engine systems, all of which must function with a high degree of reliability for successful mission completion. The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is by far the most complex of the rocket engine systems and is designed to be reusable. The reusability of spacecraft systems introduces many problems related to testing, reliability, and logistics. Components must be assembled from parts inventories in a manner which will most effectively utilize the available parts. Assembly must be scheduled to efficiently utilize available assembly benches while still maintaining flight schedules. Assembled components must be assigned to as many contiguous flights as possible, to minimize component changes. Each component must undergo a rigorous testing program prior to flight. In addition, testing and assembly of flight engines and components must be done in conjunction with the assembly and testing of developmental engines and components. The development, testing, manufacture, and flight assignments of the engine fleet involves the satisfaction of many logistical and operational requirements, subject to many constraints. The purpose of the SSME Component Assembly and Life Management Expert System (CALMES) is to assist the engine assembly and scheduling process, and to insure that these activities utilize available resources as efficiently as possible.

  14. Fuzzy logic applications to expert systems and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    A considerable amount of work on the development of fuzzy logic algorithms and application to space related control problems has been done at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) over the past few years. Particularly, guidance control systems for space vehicles during proximity operations, learning systems utilizing neural networks, control of data processing during rendezvous navigation, collision avoidance algorithms, camera tracking controllers, and tether controllers have been developed utilizing fuzzy logic technology. Several other areas in which fuzzy sets and related concepts are being considered at JSC are diagnostic systems, control of robot arms, pattern recognition, and image processing. It has become evident, based on the commercial applications of fuzzy technology in Japan and China during the last few years, that this technology should be exploited by the government as well as private industry for energy savings.

  15. Application Of The CSRL Language To The Design Of Diagnostic Expert Systems: The Moodis Experience, A Preliminary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravos, Angelo; Hill, Howard; Choca, James; Bresolin, Linda B.; Bresolin, Michael J.

    1986-03-01

    Computer technology is rapidly becoming an inseparable part of many health science specialties. Recently, a new area of computer technology, namely Artificial Intelligence, has been applied toward assisting the medical experts in their diagnostic and therapeutic decision making process. MOODIS is an experimental diagnostic expert system which assists Psychiatry specialists in diagnosing human Mood Disorders, better known as Affective Disorders. Its diagnostic methodology is patterned after MDX, a diagnostic expert system developed at LAIR (Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research) of Ohio State University. MOODIS is implemented in CSRL (Conceptual Structures Representation Language) also developed at LAIR. This paper describes MOODIS in terms of conceptualization and requirements, and discusses why the MDX approach and CSRL were chosen.

  16. Development of a coupled expert system for the spacecraft attitude control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Schaffer, J.; Hsieh, B.-J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguezmoscoso, J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K.

    1987-01-01

    A majority of the current expert systems focus on the symbolic-oriented logic and inference mechanisms of artificial intelligence (AI). Common rule-based systems employ empirical associations and are not well suited to deal with problems often arising in engineering. Described is a prototype expert system which combines both symbolic and numeric computing. The expert system's configuration is presented and its application to a spacecraft attitude control problem is discussed.

  17. Developmental validation of the DNAscan™ Rapid DNA Analysis™ instrument and expert system for reference sample processing.

    PubMed

    Della Manna, Angelo; Nye, Jeffrey V; Carney, Christopher; Hammons, Jennifer S; Mann, Michael; Al Shamali, Farida; Vallone, Peter M; Romsos, Erica L; Marne, Beth Ann; Tan, Eugene; Turingan, Rosemary S; Hogan, Catherine; Selden, Richard F; French, Julie L

    2016-11-01

    Since the implementation of forensic DNA typing in labs more than 20 years ago, the analysis procedures and data interpretation have always been conducted in a laboratory by highly trained and qualified scientific personnel. Rapid DNA technology has the potential to expand testing capabilities within forensic laboratories and to allow forensic STR analysis to be performed outside the physical boundaries of the traditional laboratory. The developmental validation of the DNAscan/ANDE Rapid DNA Analysis System was completed using a BioChipSet™ Cassette consumable designed for high DNA content samples, such as single source buccal swabs. A total of eight laboratories participated in the testing which totaled over 2300 swabs, and included nearly 1400 unique individuals. The goal of this extensive study was to obtain, document, analyze, and assess DNAscan and its internal Expert System to reliably genotype reference samples in a manner compliant with the FBI's Quality Assurance Standards (QAS) and the NDIS Operational Procedures. The DNAscan System provided high quality, concordant results for reference buccal swabs, including automated data analysis with an integrated Expert System. Seven external laboratories and NetBio, the developer of the technology, participated in the validation testing demonstrating the reproducibility and reliability of the system and its successful use in a variety of settings by numerous operators. The DNAscan System demonstrated limited cross reactivity with other species, was resilient in the presence of numerous inhibitors, and provided reproducible results for both buccal and purified DNA samples with sensitivity at a level appropriate for buccal swabs. The precision and resolution of the system met industry standards for detection of micro-variants and displayed single base resolution. PCR-based studies provided confidence that the system was robust and that the amplification reaction had been optimized to provide high quality results

  18. Electronic warfare situation analysis using a geographic information system/expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Sylvia; Brown, Richard

    1999-07-01

    Stressful working condition, large volume of data and complexity of the battlefield analysis process challenge even the most experienced situation analyst. An expert system tool called ExpertANALYST has previously been developed to help EW analysts process the large amount of information that current EW sensor systems collect. The expert system in the ExpertANALYST processes relatively low level data and does not consider many sources of information. In order for it to produce more sophisticated analysis, it must have access to the same information that is available to human analysts. The paper describes GIS/Expert System prototype software that extends the analysis capabilities of the expert system. The extension adds geo-spatial analysis capability through the interaction with a commercial GIS. This tool allows testing analyst- supplied hypothesis using knowledge defined in the rule base and the GIS data. Preliminary results are promising; however, the limited availability of fuzzy geo-spatial data prompts for further investigation on the use of fuzzy set- based techniques in situation analysis.

  19. The validity of the EASE expert system for inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cherrie, John W; Hughson, Graeme W

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is a computerized expert system developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive to facilitate exposure assessments in the absence of exposure measurements. The system uses a number of rules to predict a range of likely exposures or an 'end-point' for a given work situation. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of inhalation exposure measurements covering a wide range of end-points in the EASE system to compare with the predicted exposures. Occupational exposure data sets were identified from previous research projects or from consultancy work. Available information for each set of measurements was retrieved from archive storage and reviewed to ensure that it was adequate to enable EASE (version 2) predictions to be obtained. Exposure measurements and other relevant contextual data were abstracted and entered into a computer spreadsheet. EASE predictions were then obtained for each task or job and entered into the spreadsheet. In addition, we generated a random exposure range for each data set for comparison with the EASE predictions. Finally, we produced exposure assessments for a subset of the data using a structured subjective assessment method. We were able to identify approximately 4000 inhalation exposure measurements covering 52 different scenarios and 28 EASE end-points. The data included measurements of solvent vapours, non-fibrous dusts and fibres. In 62% of the end-points the EASE predictions were generally greater than the exposure measurements and in 30% of the end-points the EASE estimates were comparable with the measurements. The random allocation of exposure ranges was, as expected, less reliable than EASE, although there were still about one-third of the cases where the randomly generated exposure ranges generally agreed with the measurements. The structured subjective assessments undertaken by a human expert produced exposure estimates in better agreement with the measurements

  20. A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.

  1. Development and implementation of a power system fault diagnosis expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Minakawa, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kunugi, M.; Wada, N.; Shimada, K.; Utsunomiya, M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a fault diagnosis expert system installed at the tohoku Electric Power Company. The main features of this system are careful selection of the inferencing input data, rapid inferencing, integration of the expert system with other systems in a practical structure, and the adoption of a domain shell. This system aims for improved practicability by using time-tagged data from circuit breakers, protective relays, and automatic reclosing relays in addition to the input data used in earlier systems. Furthermore, this system also uses data from fault detection systems that locate fault points within electric stations. This system uses an AI-specific back-end processor to perform inferencing rapidly. Additionally, this fault diagnosis expert system is interfaced and integrated with a restorative operations expert system, an intelligent alarm processing system, and a protective relay setting and management system. Authors developed and adopted a power system fault diagnosis domain shell to ease system development, and used the protective relay operation simulation function of a protective relay setting and management system for system verification.

  2. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  3. LinkFinder: An expert system that constructs phylogenic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglehart, James; Nelson, Peter C.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) that automates the process of constructing DNA sequence based phylogenies (trees or lineages) that indicate evolutionary relationships. LinkFinder takes as input homologous DNA sequences from distinct individual organisms. It measures variations between the sequences, selects appropriate proportionality constants, and estimates the time that has passed since each pair of organisms diverged from a common ancestor. It then designs and outputs a phylogenic map summarizing these results. LinkFinder can find genetic relationships between different species, and between individuals of the same species, including humans. It was designed to take advantage of the vast amount of sequence data being produced by the Genome Project, and should be of value to evolution theorists who wish to utilize this data, but who have no formal training in molecular genetics. Evolutionary theory holds that distinct organisms carrying a common gene inherited that gene from a common ancestor. Homologous genes vary from individual to individual and species to species, and the amount of variation is now believed to be directly proportional to the time that has passed since divergence from a common ancestor. The proportionality constant must be determined experimentally; it varies considerably with the types of organisms and DNA molecules under study. Given an appropriate constant, and the variation between two DNA sequences, a simple linear equation gives the divergence time.

  4. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  5. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  6. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  7. Distance Education and the Use of Computers as Instructional Tools for Systems Development Projects: A Case Study of the Construction of Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Renee M.; Gupta, Jatinder N. D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the technological development of expert systems can be achieved successfully by students in distance instruction, and differences between distance learning and traditional campus education. Results suggest that not only can successful systems development be achieved but that the hands-on aspect of systems development contributes…

  8. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    CONSIDERATIONS, CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS, OR NOTICE ON A SPECIFIC DOCUMENT. DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE. THE COPY...System Assessment Methodology 2- 11 2.3.1.1 Methodology Overview 2- 11 2.3.1.2 Approach 2- 11 2.3.1.3 Defmitions of Attributes 2- 12 2.3.2 Assessment...how the use of knowledge-based systems can help increase autonomy. A design approach to this degree of autonomy will be demonstrated in Phase 2 (ADP

  9. Expert Systems and Command, Control, and Communication System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Systems and Command, Control, and Communicaton System Acquisition 12 Personal Author(s) James E. Minnema 13a Type of Report 13b Time Covered 14 Date...no]. ttcr-9: msg-ques2-tt =[’’,nl]. ttcr-3: question(ques3-tt)=’Is the transition plan only required in the contract and is not viewed as a corporate ...Transition plan may be limited in scope. ESCAPES: Review and approve transition plan at corporate level. BENEFITS: Corporate resources will be available to

  10. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Survey and documentation of expert system verification and validation methodologies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Groundwater, E.H.; Miller, L.A.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report is the third volume in the final report for the Expert System Verification and Validation (V&V) project which was jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. The purpose of this activity was to survey and document techniques presently in use for expert system V&V. The survey effort included an extensive telephone interviewing program, site visits, and a thorough bibliographic search and compilation. The major finding was that V&V of expert systems is not nearly as established or prevalent as V&V of conventional software systems. When V&V was used for expert systems, it was almost always at the system validation stage after full implementation and integration usually employing the non-systematic dynamic method of {open_quotes}ad hoc testing.{close_quotes} There were few examples of employing V&V in the early phases of development and only weak sporadic mention of the possibilities in the literature. There is, however, a very active research area concerning the development of methods and tools to detect problems with, particularly, rule-based expert systems. Four such static-testing methods were identified which were not discovered in a comprehensive review of conventional V&V methods in an earlier task.

  11. 20 CFR 405.10 - Medical and Vocational Expert System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 405.10 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR... and Vocational Expert Unit and a national network of qualified medical, psychological, and vocational... network will assist Federal reviewing officials and administrative law judges in deciding claims....

  12. 20 CFR 405.10 - Medical and Vocational Expert System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 405.10 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR... and Vocational Expert Unit and a national network of qualified medical, psychological, and vocational... network will assist Federal reviewing officials and administrative law judges in deciding claims....

  13. Getting expert systems off the ground: Lessons learned from integrating model-based diagnostics with prototype flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Amy; Erikson, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    As an initial attempt to introduce expert system technology into an onboard environment, a model based diagnostic system using the TRW MARPLE software tool was integrated with prototype flight hardware and its corresponding control software. Because this experiment was designed primarily to test the effectiveness of the model based reasoning technique used, the expert system ran on a separate hardware platform, and interactions between the control software and the model based diagnostics were limited. While this project met its objective of showing that model based reasoning can effectively isolate failures in flight hardware, it also identified the need for an integrated development path for expert system and control software for onboard applications. In developing expert systems that are ready for flight, artificial intelligence techniques must be evaluated to determine whether they offer a real advantage onboard, identify which diagnostic functions should be performed by the expert systems and which are better left to the procedural software, and work closely with both the hardware and the software developers from the beginning of a project to produce a well designed and thoroughly integrated application.

  14. Hybrid Intelligent Perception System: Intelligent perception through combining Artificial Neural Networks and an Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, C.W.; Spelt, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a report of work-in-progress on a project to combine Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Expert Systems (ESs) into a hybrid, self-improving pattern recognition system. The purpose of this project is to explore methods of combining multiple classifiers into a Hybrid Intelligent Perception (HIP) System. The central research issue to be addressed for a multiclassifier hybrid system is whether such a system can perform better than the two classifiers taken by themselves. ANNs and ESs have different strengths and weaknesses, which are being exploited in this project in such a way that they are complementary to each other: Strengths in one system make up for weaknesses in the other, and vice versa. There is presently considerable interest in the AI community in ways to exploit the strengths of these methodologies to produce an intelligent system which is more robust and flexible than one using either technology alone. Perception, which involves both data-driven (bottom-up) and concept-driven (top-down) processing, is a process which seems especially well-suited to displaying the capabilities of such a hybrid system. This work has been funded for the past six months by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory seed grant, and most of the system components are operating in both the PC and the hypercube computer environments. Here we report on the efforts to develop the low-level ANNs and a graphic representation of their knowledge, and discuss ways of using an ES to integrate and supervise the entire system. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Bayesian Islamic medication expert system (B-IMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Jung, Low Tan; Zaida, Shahnaz

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses on the development of an expert system (ES) that applies Bayesian Probability concept for Islamic Medication practice that is made available on web platform. This ES allows user to choose sickness such as headache, stomachache, toothache and etc that he/she may have and list of symptoms related to the sickness will appear for the user to choose. Once symptom(s) is/are chosen the diagnosis is being carried out to suggest percentage of possible specific sickness such as classic migraine, common migraine, tension headache and etc if headache was chosen. This diagnosis is being carried out using Bayes' Theorem and the ES will suggest the treatments or therapy that he/she needs to perform in reference to Muslim Holy Quran and Hadith. This ES was developed to preserve Islamic medication and to create awareness among the young generation and make it accessible at anytime and anywhere and to save users time to meet Islamic Medication practitioners who are not easily available in Malaysia and other parts of the world.

  16. An Expert System Interfaced with a Database System to Perform Troubleshooting of Aircraft Carrier Piping Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    expert system power • memory requirements • speed * connection of software The following sections describe the evolution of the initial concept and...of software routines which would perform some DBMS functions were identified but not used because of the limitations on the nature of queries and...of the large database. This meant that some operator involvement was accepted to allow more complex DBMS queries to be made. C. SOFTWARE D-base III was

  17. Computer-Aided Decisions in Human Services: Expert Systems and Multivariate Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicoly, Fiore

    1989-01-01

    This comparison of two approaches to the development of computerized supports for decision making--expert systems and multivariate models--focuses on computerized systems that assist professionals with tasks related to diagnosis or classification in human services. Validation of both expert systems and statistical models is emphasized. (39…

  18. Automating a spacecraft electrical power system using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    Since Skylab, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recognized the need for large electrical power systems (EPS's) in upcoming Spacecraft. The operation of the spacecraft depends on the EPS. Therefore, it must be efficient, safe, and reliable. In 1978, as a consequence of having to supply a large number of EPS personnel to monitor and control Skylab, the Electrical power Branch of MSFC began the autonomously managed power system (AMPS) project. This project resulted in the assembly of a 25-kW high-voltage dc test facility and provided the means of getting man out of the loop as much as possible. AMPS includes several embedded controllers which allow a significant level of autonomous operation. More recently, the Electrical Division at MSFC has developed the space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard to investigate managing and distributing power in the Space Station Freedom habitation and laboratory modules. Again, the requirement for a high level of autonomy for the efficient operation over the lifetime of the station and for the benefits of enhanced safety has been demonstrated. This paper describes the two breadboards and the hierarchical approach to automation which was developed through these projects.

  19. The Pacor 2 expert system: A case-based reasoning approach to troubleshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse

    1994-01-01

    The Packet Processor 2 (Pacor 2) Data Capture Facility (DCF) acquires, captures, and performs level-zero processing of packet telemetry for spaceflight missions that adhere to communication services recommendations established by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). A major goal of this project is to reduce life-cycle costs. One way to achieve this goal is to increase automation. Through automation, using expert systems, and other technologies, staffing requirements will remain static, which will enable the same number of analysts to support more missions. Analysts provide packet telemetry data evaluation and analysis services for all data received. Data that passes this evaluation is forwarded to the Data Distribution Facility (DDF) and released to scientists. Through troubleshooting, data that fails this evaluation is dumped and analyzed to determine if its quality can be improved before it is released. This paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype that troubleshoots data quality problems. The Pacor 2 expert system prototype uses the case-based reasoning (CBR) approach to development, an alternative to a rule-based approach. Because Pacor 2 is not operational, the prototype has been developed using cases that describe existing troubleshooting experience from currently operating missions. Through CBR, this experience will be available to analysts when Pacor 2 becomes operational. As Pacor 2 unique experience is gained, analysts will update the case base. In essence, analysts are training the system as they learn. Once the system has learned the cases most likely to recur, it can serve as an aide to inexperienced analysts, a refresher to experienced analysts for infrequently occurring problems, or a training tool for new analysts. The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) is being used to guide development.

  20. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  1. Validation of an expert system intended for research in distributed artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossner, C.; Lyons, J.; Radhakrishnan, T.

    1991-01-01

    The expert system discussed in this paper is designed to function as a testbed for research on cooperating expert systems. Cooperating expert systems are members of an organization which dictates the manner in which the expert systems will interact when solving a problem. The Blackbox Expert described in this paper has been constructed using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), C++, and X windowing environment. CLIPS is embedded in a C++ program which provides objects that are used to maintain the state of the Blackbox puzzle. These objects are accessed by CLIPS rules through user-defined functions calls. The performance of the Blackbox Expert is validated by experimentation. A group of people are asked to solve a set of test cases for the Blackbox puzzle. A metric has been devised which evaluates the 'correctness' of a solution proposed for a test case of Blackbox. Using this metric and the solutions proposed by the humans, each person receives a rating for their ability to solve the Blackbox puzzle. The Blackbox Expert solves the same set of test cases and is assigned a rating for its ability. Then the rating obtained by the Blackbox Expert is compared with the ratings of the people, thus establishing the skill level of our expert system.

  2. A Spacelab Expert System for Remote Engineering and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groleau, Nick; Colombano, Silvano; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's space science program is based on strictly pre-planned activities. This approach does not always result in the best science. We describe an existing computer system that enables space science to be conducted in a more reactive manner through advanced automation techniques that have recently been used in SLS-2 October 1993 space shuttle flight. Advanced computing techniques, usually developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, allow large portions of the scientific investigator's knowledge to be "packaged" in a portable computer to present advice to the astronaut operator. We strongly believe that this technology has wide applicability to other forms of remote science/engineering. In this brief article, we present the technology of remote science/engineering assistance as implemented for the SLS-2 space shuttle flight. We begin with a logical overview of the system (paying particular attention to the implementation details relevant to the use of the embedded knowledge for system reasoning), then describe its use and success in space, and conclude with ideas about possible earth uses of the technology in the life and medical sciences.

  3. Implementation of an Expert System for Instructional Design: Phase 2. Design Document & Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; Li, Zhongmin

    The purpose of this project was to develop a prototype expert instructional design system (ID Expert) which would demonstrate the feasibility of a consultation system for use by inexperienced instructional designers. The prototype gathers information from the designer and then makes recommendations for instructional design decisions. The output of…

  4. Expert Systems for Automatic Cataloging Based on AACR2: A Survey of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Roy, III; Wittig, Glenn R.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly explains the principles and uses of expert systems, and reviews the research literature on the use of expert systems for descriptive cataloging. Problems with automatic cataloging are identified and implications for current cataloging rules are discussed. (21 notes with references) (Author/CLB)

  5. Using Vector and Extended Boolean Matching in an Expert System for Selecting Foster Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Winett, Sheila G.

    1990-01-01

    Describes FOCES (Foster Care Expert System), a prototype expert system for choosing foster care placements for children which integrates information retrieval techniques with artificial intelligence. The use of prototypes and queries in Prolog routines, extended Boolean matching, and vector correlation are explained, as well as evaluation by…

  6. Avionics systems integration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stech, George; Williams, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A very dramatic and continuing explosion in digital electronics technology has been taking place in the last decade. The prudent and timely application of this technology will provide Army aviation the capability to prevail against a numerically superior enemy threat. The Army and NASA have exploited this technology explosion in the development and application of avionics systems integration technology for new and future aviation systems. A few selected Army avionics integration technology base efforts are discussed. Also discussed is the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) that NASA has established at Langley for research into the integration and validation of avionics systems, and evaluation of advanced technology in a total systems context.

  7. Choose and Book: a sociological analysis of 'resistance' to an expert system.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the English Department of Health introduced a technology (Choose and Book) designed to help general practitioners and patients book hospital outpatient appointments. It was anticipated that remote booking would become standard practice once technical challenges were overcome. But despite political pressure and financial incentives, Choose and Book remained unpopular and was generally used reluctantly if at all. Policymakers framed this as a problem of 'clinician resistance'. We considered Choose and Book from a sociological perspective. Our dataset, drawn from a qualitative study of computer use in general practice, comprised background documents, field notes, interviews, clinical consultations (directly observed and videotaped) and naturally occurring talk relating to referral to hospital in four general practices. We used strong structuration theory, Giddens' conceptualisation of expert systems, and sensitivity to other sociological perspectives on technology, institutions and professional values to examine the relationship between the external environment, the evolving technology and actions of human agents (GPs, administrators, managers and patients). Choose and Book had the characteristics of an expert system. It served to 'empty out' the content of the consultation as the abstract knowledge it contained was assumed to have universal validity and to over-ride the clinician's application of local knowledge and practical wisdom. Sick patients were incorrectly assumed to behave as rational choosers, able and willing to decide between potential options using abstracted codified information. Our analysis revealed four foci of resistance: to the policy of choice that Choose and Book symbolised and purported to deliver; to accommodating the technology's socio-material constraints; to interference with doctors' contextual judgements; and to adjusting to the altered social relations consequent on its use. We conclude that 'resistance' is a complex phenomenon

  8. CLIPS: A tool for the development and delivery of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule-based language developed by the Software Technology Branch at the Johnson Space Center. CLIPS provides a complete environment for the construction of rule-based expert systems. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high probability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. Other key features of CLIPS include a powerful rule syntax, an interactive development environment, high performance, extensibility, a verification/validation tool, extensive documentation, and source code availability. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2,500 users throughout the public and private community including: all NASA sites and branches of the military, numerous Federal bureaus, government contractors, 140 universities, and many companies.

  9. Internet based expert system for the management of gallstones, renal, ureteric and bladder calculi.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, S; Kumaravel, N

    2003-01-01

    An Internet based expert system for the management of gallstones, Renal, Ureteric and bladder calculi based on ultrasound images is presented in this paper. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and Uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, Ureter or in Urinary bladder and also in gall bladder. The expert system is designed to assist the physician to detect, extract, classify and diagnose calculi with greater accuracy. It also helps physicians in the management of calculi based on the etiological analysis of calculi. The Expert system takes an ultrasound image as input along with the symptoms of the patients. The expert system extracts the renal calculi and analyzes it using different image processing techniques to extract the image features like size, location and texture. These image features along with the clinical data of the patient enable the expert system to provide the decisions to decide the future course of treatment with more accuracy.

  10. A CLIPS-based expert system for the evaluation and selection of robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nour, Mohamed A.; Offodile, Felix O.; Madey, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype expert system for intelligent selection of robots for manufacturing operations. The paper first develops a comprehensive, three-stage process to model the robot selection problem. The decisions involved in this model easily lend themselves to an expert system application. A rule-based system, based on the selection model, is developed using the CLIPS expert system shell. Data about actual robots is used to test the performance of the prototype system. Further extensions to the rule-based system for data handling and interfacing capabilities are suggested.

  11. Practical Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems at NAVSEA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-03

    Design Engineering Section Reliability and Maintainability Engineering Branch Materials and Assurance Engineering Office 3 April 1987 Approved for Public...rules out astrology . and probably selecting stock portfolios, * Rule out those problems where the experts always argue about whether the answer is

  12. An expert system for probabilistic description of loads on space propulsion system structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    LDEXPT, an expert system that generates probabilistic characterizations of the loads spectra borne by spacecraft propulsion systems' structural components, is found by recent experience at NASA-Lewis to be useful in the cases of components representative of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's turbopumps and fluid transfer ducting. LDEXPT is composed of a knowledge base management system and a rule base management system. The ANLOAD load-modeling module of LDEXPT encompasses three independent probabilistic analysis techniques.

  13. Potential impacts of artificial intelligence expert systems on geothermal well drilling costs:

    SciTech Connect

    Satrape, J.V.

    1987-11-24

    The Geothermal research Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as one of its goals to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells by 25 percent. To attain this goal, DOE continuously evaluates new technologies to determine their potential in contributing to the Program. One such technology is artifical intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science that, in recent years, has begun to impact the marketplace in a number of fields. Expert systems techniques can (and in some cases, already have) been applied to develop computer-based ''advisors'' to assist drilling personnel in areas such as designing mud systems, casing plans, and cement programs, optimizing drill bit selection and bottom hole asssembly (BHA) design, and alleviating lost circulation, stuck pipe, fishing, and cement problems. Intelligent machines with sensor and/or robotic directly linked to AI systems, have potential applications in areas of bit control, rig hydraulics, pipe handling, and pipe inspection. Using a well costing spreadsheet, the potential savings that could be attributed to each of these systems was calculated for three base cases: a dry steam well at The Geysers, a medium-depth Imerial Valley well, and a deep Imperial Valley well. Based on the average potential savings to be realized, expert systems for handling lost circulations problems and for BHA design are the most likely to produce significant results. Automated bit control and rig hydraulics also exhibit high potential savings, but these savings are extremely sensitive to the assumptions of improved drilling efficiency and the cost of these sytems at the rig. 50 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma

    2000-01-01

    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  15. Expert system development methodology and the transition from prototyping to operations - Fiesta, a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Carlisle, Candace

    1989-01-01

    A major barrier in taking expert systems from prototype to operational status involves instilling end user confidence in the operational system. The software of different life cycle models is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each when applied to expert system development are explored. The Fault Isolation Expert System for Tracking and data relay satellite system Applications (FIESTA) is presented as a case study of development of an expert system. The end user confidence necessary for operational use of this system is accentuated by the fact that it will handle real-time data in a secure environment, allowing little tolerance for errors. How FIESTA is dealing with transition problems as it moves from an off-line standalone prototype to an on-line real-time system is discussed.

  16. Expert system development methodology and the transition from prototyping to operations: FIESTA, a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Carlisle, Candace

    1989-01-01

    A major barrier in taking expert systems from prototype to operational status involves instilling end user confidence in the operational system. The software of different life cycle models is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each when applied to expert system development are explored. The Fault Isolation Expert System for Tracking and data relay satellite system Applications (FIESTA) is presented as a case study of development of an expert system. The end user confidence necessary for operational use of this system is accentuated by the fact that it will handle real-time data in a secure environment, allowing little tolerance for errors. How FIESTA is dealing with transition problems as it moves from an off-line standalone prototype to an on-line real-time system is discussed.

  17. The CBT Advisor: An Expert System Program for Making Decisions about CBT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structure, credibility, and use of the Computer Based Training (CBT) Advisor, an expert system designed to help managers make judgements about course selection, system selection, cost/benefits, development effort, and probable success of CBT projects. (MBR)

  18. Students' Refinement of Knowledge during the Development of Knowledge Bases for Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Renate; Finley, Fred

    The refinement of the cognitive knowledge base was studied through exploration of the transition from novice to expert and the use of an instructional strategy called novice knowledge engineering. Six college freshmen, who were enrolled in an honors physics course, used an expert system to create questions, decisions, rules, and explanations…

  19. Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

  20. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  1. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  2. Using a CLIPS expert system to automatically manage TCP/IP networks and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faul, Ben M.

    1991-01-01

    A expert system that can directly manage networks components on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network is described. Previous expert systems for managing networks have focused on managing network faults after they occur. However, this proactive expert system can monitor and control network components in near real time. The ability to directly manage network elements from the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is accomplished by the integration of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and a Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) parser into the CLIPS artificial intelligence language.

  3. Combining experts' risk judgments on technology performance of phytoremediation: self-confidence ratings, averaging procedures, and formative consensus building.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Roland W; Hansmann, Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Expert panels and averaging procedures are common means for coping with the uncertainty of effects of technology application in complex environments. We investigate the connection between confidence and the validity of expert judgment. Moreover, a formative consensus building procedure (FCB) is introduced that generates probability statements on the performance of technologies, and we compare different algorithms for the statistical aggregation of individual judgments. The case study refers to an expert panel of 10 environmental scientists assessing the performance of a soil cleanup technology that uses the capability of certain plants to accumulate heavy metals from the soil in the plant body (phytoremediation). The panel members first provided individual statements on the effectiveness of a phytoremediation. Such statements can support policymakers, answering the questions concerning the expected performance of the new technology in contaminated areas. The present study reviews (1) the steps of the FCB, (2) the constraints of technology application (contaminants, soil structure, etc.), (3) the measurement of expert knowledge, (4) the statistical averaging and the discursive agreement procedures, and (5) the boundaries of application for the FCB method. The quantitative statement oriented part of FCB generates terms such as: "The probability that the concentration of soil contamination will be reduced by at least 50% is 0.8." The data suggest that taking the median of the individual expert estimates provides the most accurate aggregated estimate. The discursive agreement procedure of FCB appears suitable for deriving politically relevant singular statements rather than for obtaining comprehensive information about uncertainties as represented by probability distributions.

  4. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  5. Technology reviews: Shading systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends. Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  6. A Survey of Algorithms and Systems for Expert Location in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappas, Theodoros; Liu, Kun; Terzi, Evimaria

    Given a particular task and a set of candidates, one often wants to identify the right expert (or set of experts) that can perform the given task. We call this problem the expert-location problem and we survey its different aspects as they arise in practice. For example, given the activities of candidates within a context (e.g., authoring a document, answering a question), we first describe methods for evaluating the level of expertise for each of them. Often, experts are organized in networks that correspond to social networks or organizational structures of companies. We next devote part of the chapter for describing algorithms that compute the expertise level of individuals by taking into account their position in such a network. Finally, complex tasks often require the collective expertise of more than one experts. In such cases, it is more realistic to require a team of experts that can collaborate towards a common goal. We describe algorithms that identify effective expert teams within a network of experts. The chapter is a survey of different algorithms for expertise evaluation and team identification. We highlight the basic algorithmic problems and give some indicative algorithms that have been developed in the literature. We conclude the chapter by providing a comprehensive overview of real-life systems for expert location.

  7. Tracking and data relay satellite fault isolation and correction using PACES: Power and attitude control expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erikson, Carol-Lee; Hooker, Peggy

    1989-01-01

    The Power and Attitude Control Expert System (PACES) is an object oriented and rule based expert system which provides spacecraft engineers with assistance in isolating and correcting problems within the Power and Attitude Control Subsystems of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). PACES is designed to act in a consultant role. It will not interface to telemetry data, thus preserving full operator control over spacecraft operations. The spacecraft engineer will input requested information. This information will include telemetry data, action being performed, problem characteristics, spectral characteristics, and judgments of spacecraft functioning. Questions are answered either by clicking on appropriate responses (for text), or entering numeric values. A context sensitive help facility allows access to additional information when the user has difficulty understanding a question or deciding on an answer. The major functionality of PACES is to act as a knowledge rich system which includes block diagrams, text, and graphics, linked using hypermedia techniques. This allows easy movement among pieces of the knowledge. Considerable documentation of the spacecraft Power and Attitude Control Subsystems is embedded within PACES. The development phase of TDRSS expert system technology is intended to provide NASA with the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Program.

  8. ARGES: an Expert System for Fault Diagnosis Within Space-Based ECLS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachura, David W.; Suleiman, Salem A.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    ARGES (Atmospheric Revitalization Group Expert System) is a demonstration prototype expert system for fault management for the Solid Amine, Water Desorbed (SAWD) CO2 removal assembly, associated with the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System. ARGES monitors and reduces data in real time from either the SAWD controller or a simulation of the SAWD assembly. It can detect gradual degradations or predict failures. This allows graceful shutdown and scheduled maintenance, which reduces crew maintenance overhead. Status and fault information is presented in a user interface that simulates what would be seen by a crewperson. The user interface employs animated color graphics and an object oriented approach to provide detailed status information, fault identification, and explanation of reasoning in a rapidly assimulated manner. In addition, ARGES recommends possible courses of action for predicted and actual faults. ARGES is seen as a forerunner of AI-based fault management systems for manned space systems.

  9. Expert systems for automated maintenance of a Mars oxygen production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Ho, Ming-Tsang

    1989-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for maintaining autonomous operation of a Mars oxygen production system. Normal operation conditions and failure modes according to certain desired criteria are tested and identified. Several schemes for failure detection and isolation using forward chaining, backward chaining, knowledge-based and rule-based are devised to perform several housekeeping functions. These functions include self-health checkout, an emergency shut down program, fault detection and conventional control activities. An effort was made to derive the dynamic model of the system using Bond-Graph technique in order to develop the model-based failure detection and isolation scheme by estimation method. Finally, computer simulations and experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the expert system and a preliminary reliability analysis for the oxygen production system is also provided.

  10. Manned systems technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  11. A machine independent expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolincik, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies, the EnviroNET expert system, was developed. Expert systems provide an effective method for storing knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms which allow approximate reasoning and inference, and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defines. The EviroNET expert system knowledge base currently contains over two hundred rules, and links to databases which include past environmental data, satellite data, and previous known anomalies. The environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose.

  12. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  13. Arkansas Technology Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan; Parette, Howard P., Jr.

    The Arkansas Technology Information System (ARTIS) was developed to fill a significant void in existing systems of technical support to Arkansans with disabilities by creating and maintaining a consumer-responsive statewide system of data storage and retrieval regarding assistive technology and services. ARTIS goals also include establishment of a…

  14. The construction of meaning by experts and would-be parents in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Machado, Helena

    2011-09-01

    This article explores the construction of meaning regarding assisted reproductive technology by legal framers, medical practitioners and would-be parents, through the concept of ecology of knowledge. It is argued that these inter-relationships between experts and lay people can be understood in terms of the formation of a social structure of ecology of knowledge, which depends on local and emotional knowledge co-produced by medical doctors, jurists and lay people in dynamic ways without compromising the autonomy of medical, legal and lay knowledge and skills. The assessment of the benefits and risks of assisted reproductive technology partially represents negotiations of knowledge between these social and professional groups, aiming to reproduce existing relations and practices, particularly the social power of medicine and technology, the dominant perceptions about women's and men's bodies and the geneticisation of genealogy. These negotiations of knowledge generate new rights, new social actors, new scientific fields and new ways of thinking and talking about individual and institutional responsibilities. Ecology of knowledge comes imbued with hope, trust, power, credibility of institutions and moralisation whereby some citizens' rights may be weakened.

  15. Research on an expert system for database operation of simulation-emulation math models. Volume 2, Phase 1: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G. O.; Schaffer, J. D.; Hsieh, B. J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    A reference manual is provided for NESS, a simulation expert system. This manual gives user information regarding starting and operating NASA expert simulation system (NESS). This expert system provides an intelligent interface to a generic simulation program for spacecraft attitude control problems. A menu of the functions the system can perform is provided. Control repeated returns to this menu after executing each user request.

  16. Evaluation of Medical Expert Systems: A Case Study in Performance Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reggia, James A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of methods for critically evaluating the performance of medical expert systems in practice are surveyed. To illustrate the concepts involved, clinical evaluation of the performance of a computer-based decision aid for patients having transient ischemic attacks is discussed in some detail. Two factors are identified as crucial in the rapid development and testing of this system: the availability of a domain-independent expert system generator, and the existence of a database of relevant patient records.

  17. Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS): Systems autonomy demonstration project, volume 2. Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP) produced a knowledge-based real-time control system for control and fault detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) of a prototype two-phase Space Station Freedom external active thermal control system (EATCS). The Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS) was demonstrated in recent tests to be capable of reliable fault anticipation and detection, as well as ordinary control of the thermal bus. Performance requirements were addressed by adopting a hierarchical symbolic control approach-layering model-based expert system software on a conventional, numerical data acquisition and control system. The model-based reasoning capabilities of TEXSYS were shown to be advantageous over typical rule-based expert systems, particularly for detection of unforeseen faults and sensor failures. Volume 1 gives a project overview and testing highlights. Volume 2 provides detail on the EATCS testbed, test operations, and online test results. Appendix A is a test archive, while Appendix B is a compendium of design and user manuals for the TEXSYS software.

  18. Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS): Systems automony demonstration project, volume 1. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP) produced a knowledge-based real-time control system for control and fault detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) of a prototype two-phase Space Station Freedom external active thermal control system (EATCS). The Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS) was demonstrated in recent tests to be capable of reliable fault anticipation and detection, as well as ordinary control of the thermal bus. Performance requirements were addressed by adopting a hierarchical symbolic control approach-layering model-based expert system software on a conventional, numerical data acquisition and control system. The model-based reasoning capabilities of TEXSYS were shown to be advantageous over typical rule-based expert systems, particularly for detection of unforeseen faults and sensor failures. Volume 1 gives a project overview and testing highlights. Volume 2 provides detail on the EATCS test bed, test operations, and online test results. Appendix A is a test archive, while Appendix B is a compendium of design and user manuals for the TEXSYS software.

  19. An expert system for setting time steps in dynamic finite element programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Martin R.; Belytschko, Ted

    1989-01-01

    An expert system, ETUDES - Expert Time integration control Using Deep and Surface Knowledge System, which addresses the determination of the timestep for time integration of linear structural dynamic equations is described. This timestep may also be applicable for a moderately nonlinear simulation of the same structure. The program also determines whether an explicit or implicit method is most efficient for the particular simulation. A production rule programming system written in OPS5 is used for the implementation of this prototype expert system. Issues relating to the expert system architecture for this application, such as knowledge representation and structure, as well as domain knowledge are discussed. The prototype is evaluated by measuring its performance in various benchmark model problems.

  20. Rule groupings: A software engineering approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Currently, most expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify and almost impossible to verify or validate. Partitioning rule based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert system software. Attempts were made to semiautomatically structure a CLIPS rule base into groups of related rules that carry the same type of information. Different distance metrics that capture relevant information from the rules for grouping are discussed. Two clustering algorithms that partition the rule base into groups of related rules are given. Two independent evaluation criteria are developed to measure the effectiveness of the grouping strategies. Results of the experiment with three sample rule bases are presented.

  1. Developing a Web-Based Advisory Expert System for Implementing Traffic Calming Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Falamarzi, Amir; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lack of traffic safety has become a serious issue in residential areas. In this paper, a web-based advisory expert system for the purpose of applying traffic calming strategies on residential streets is described because there currently lacks a structured framework for the implementation of such strategies. Developing an expert system can assist and advise engineers for dealing with traffic safety problems. This expert system is developed to fill the gap between the traffic safety experts and people who seek to employ traffic calming strategies including decision makers, engineers, and students. In order to build the expert system, examining sources related to traffic calming studies as well as interviewing with domain experts have been carried out. The system includes above 150 rules and 200 images for different types of measures. The system has three main functions including classifying traffic calming measures, prioritizing traffic calming strategies, and presenting solutions for different traffic safety problems. Verifying, validating processes, and comparing the system with similar works have shown that the system is consistent and acceptable for practical uses. Finally, some recommendations for improving the system are presented. PMID:25276861

  2. STEMing the tide: using ingroup experts to inoculate women's self-concept in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

    PubMed

    Stout, Jane G; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Hunsinger, Matthew; McManus, Melissa A

    2011-02-01

    Three studies tested a stereotype inoculation model, which proposed that contact with same-sex experts (advanced peers, professionals, professors) in academic environments involving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enhances women's self-concept in STEM, attitudes toward STEM, and motivation to pursue STEM careers. Two cross-sectional controlled experiments and 1 longitudinal naturalistic study in a calculus class revealed that exposure to female STEM experts promoted positive implicit attitudes and stronger implicit identification with STEM (Studies 1-3), greater self-efficacy in STEM (Study 3), and more effort on STEM tests (Study 1). Studies 2 and 3 suggested that the benefit of seeing same-sex experts is driven by greater subjective identification and connectedness with these individuals, which in turn predicts enhanced self-efficacy, domain identification, and commitment to pursue STEM careers. Importantly, women's own self-concept benefited from contact with female experts even though negative stereotypes about their gender and STEM remained active.

  3. [The logic of diagnoses used in expert systems. II. Applications in virology].

    PubMed

    Cristea, A; Zaharia, C N

    1988-01-01

    Inference capacity of different clinical or paraclinical examinations are analyzed, whose results allow to establish the definitive diagnosis through gradual integrations. The knowledge of the inference capacity is very useful for the expert systems applied in virology.

  4. Software that plays hardball. Expert clinical systems fend off forgetfulness, mistakes, and fraud investigators.

    PubMed

    Menduno, M

    1998-05-20

    One executive calls expert software the most leveraged investment imaginable. Tapping into data banks holding thousands of patient records, the systems look for trouble--alerting doctors about allergies, drug interactions, or departures from best practices.

  5. Integrated Communications, Navigation, Identification, Avionics (ICNIA) Expert System for Fault Tolerant Avionics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    within ICNIA so that real-time fault detection and isolation can be achieved. The objective of the expert system within ICNIA is to detect and isolate faults in near real-time and minimize the false alarm rate.

  6. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  7. Development of an expert system for assessing trumpeter swan breeding habitat in the Northern Rocky Mountains.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sojda, Richard S.; Cornely, John E.; Howe, Adele E.

    2002-01-01

    A decision support system for the management of the Rocky Mountain Population of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinators) is being developed. As part of this, three expert systems are also in development: one for assessing the quality of Trumpeter Swan breeding habitat; one for making water level recommendations in montane, palustrine wetlands; and one for assessing the contribution a particular site can make towards meeting objectives from as flyway perspective. The focus of this paper is the development of the breeding habitat expert system, which currently consists of 157 rules. Out purpose is to provide decision support for issues that appear to be beyond the capability of a single persons to conceptualize and solve. We propose that by involving multiple experts in the development and use of the systems, management will be significantly improved. The knowledge base for the expert system has been developed using standard knowledge engineering techniques with a small team of ecological experts. Knowledge was then coded using production rules organized in decision trees using a commercial expert system development shell. The final system has been deployed on the world wide web.

  8. A Comparison of an Expert Systems Approach to Computerized Adaptive Testing and an Item Response Theory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    Expert systems can be used to aid decisionmaking. A computerized adaptive test is one kind of expert system, although not commonly recognized as such. A new approach, termed EXSPRT, was devised that combines expert systems reasoning and sequential probability ratio test stopping rules. Two versions of EXSPRT were developed, one with random…

  9. Avionics technology - system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Huntoon, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Avionics System Concepts to meet technology needs of advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are identified. Specific avionics system concepts which should be conducted and/or support by NASA to most effectively aid industry in advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are also identified. Candidate Missions and Mission Requirements to meet technology needs are considered.

  10. A Value-Theoretic Expert System for Evaluating Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David A.; Lehmann, Harold P.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    Multiattribute Value Theory (MVT) provides a formal approach to evaluating populations of similar alternatives. In this paper, we illustrate the employment of MVT in the context of medical expert systems by describing RCTE, a prototype application for performing comparative analyses of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RCTE employs MVT to evaluate RCTs and implements techniques from Interpretive Value Analysis to explain such evaluations automatically. Although experimental, our approach suggests that MVT provides a basis for evaluating similar alternatives in selected medical expert systems.

  11. Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Rafael; González, Luis Carlos; Martín, Francisco Jesús

    2009-11-01

    Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine (SATD) from an expert system (SE) rule-based which communicates with the SATD. The SE has been designed as an inference engine with an algorithm for effective action, using a modus ponens rule model of goal-oriented rules.The pilot test demonstrated that it is possible to govern in real time the machining process based on rules contained in a SE. The tests have been done with approximated rules. Future work includes an exhaustive collection of data with different tool materials and geometries in a database to extract more precise rules.

  12. Real-time expert system diagnostics and monitoring for the High Resolution Microwave Survey Targeted Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macalou, A.; Glass, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    An automated monitoring and diagnostics system (MDS) using virtual real-time software was developed for NASA's High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Targeted Search System (TSS). The four main tasks required of the MDS were monitoring and recording system health, alerting operators of problems, diagnosing poor system performance, and performing an emergency system shutdown. The MDS was implemented using commercial expert system software tools in addition to interface hardware and software developed on site. The expert system used objects, rules, and schematics in its TSS knowledge representation. The MDS was successfully integrated into the HRMS computer environment, and its performance met or exceeded its requirements.

  13. Testing and Evaluating C3I Systems That Employ AI. Volume 1. Handbook for Testing Expert Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-31

    Lctween the helpful concern of the physician and the chemical effects of the medication. Similarly, if one considers an expert system as analogous to a new ... medication , is the positive effect of a expert system the result of the DSS or the helpful concern of senior-level management? If it’s the lat’er

  14. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems.

  15. Knowledge Requirements and Management in Expert Decision Support Systems for (Military) Situation Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    system (now named CADUCKUS) for internal medicine (8], the PROSPECTOR system for S. .7.77...77 9. -3- mineral exploration [9] and the MEDAS system for...Hart, Model Design in the PROSPECTOR Consultant System for Mineral Exploration , in Expert Systems in the Microelectronic A (ed. D. Michie), Edinburgh

  16. WELDSMART: A vision-based expert system for quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, Kristinn; Barnett, Robert Joel; Springfield, James F.; Cook, George E.

    1992-01-01

    This work was aimed at exploring means for utilizing computer technology in quality inspection and evaluation. Inspection of metallic welds was selected as the main application for this development and primary emphasis was placed on visual inspection, as opposed to other inspection methods, such as radiographic techniques. Emphasis was placed on methodologies with the potential for use in real-time quality control systems. Because quality evaluation is somewhat subjective, despite various efforts to classify discontinuities and standardize inspection methods, the task of using a computer for both inspection and evaluation was not trivial. The work started out with a review of the various inspection techniques that are used for quality control in welding. Among other observations from this review was the finding that most weld defects result in abnormalities that may be seen by visual inspection. This supports the approach of emphasizing visual inspection for this work. Quality control consists of two phases: (1) identification of weld discontinuities (some of which may be severe enough to be classified as defects), and (2) assessment or evaluation of the weld based on the observed discontinuities. Usually the latter phase results in a pass/fail judgement for the inspected piece. It is the conclusion of this work that the first of the above tasks, identification of discontinuities, is the most challenging one. It calls for sophisticated image processing and image analysis techniques, and frequently ad hoc methods have to be developed to identify specific features in the weld image. The difficulty of this task is generally not due to limited computing power. In most cases it was found that a modest personal computer or workstation could carry out most computations in a reasonably short time period. Rather, the algorithms and methods necessary for identifying weld discontinuities were in some cases limited. The fact that specific techniques were finally developed and

  17. An Expert System Model of Organizational Climate and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SECURITY CL ASSIFICAT ION OF THIS PAE(When D tered)FL c , flflII&~LIA~lfLI AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONS* REPORT DOJC.UpIEflhILFPAG BEFORE COMPLETING FOR M...State University; M.S., Air Force Institute of Technology Chairman of Advisory Comnqittee: Dr. James K. Hennigan Application of computer technology has...x I d IRUCTI ON: RESEARCH OVERVIEW .... ............... . . I Ndture of the problem ....... ................ . .. Research purpose

  18. Data management system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Harry F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on data management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: systems technology area needs; storage technology area needs; processor technology area needs; communications technology area needs; software system technology area needs; human interface technology area needs; software development and verification; and onboard communications.

  19. Essential Concepts of Nanoscale Science and Technology for High School Students Based on a Delphi Study by the Expert Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology (NST) is an important new field in modern science. In the current study, we seek to answer the question: "What are the essential concepts of NST that should be taught in high school"? A 3-round Delphi study methodology was applied based on 2 communities of experts in nanotechnology research and science…

  20. A hierarchically distributed architecture for fault isolation expert systems on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miksell, Steve; Coffer, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Axiomatic Fault Isolating Expert Systems (SAFTIES) system deals with the hierarchical distribution of control and knowledge among independent expert systems doing fault isolation and scheduling of Space Station subsystems. On its lower level, fault isolation is performed on individual subsystems. These fault isolation expert systems contain knowledge about the performance requirements of their particular subsystem and corrective procedures which may be involved in repsonse to certain performance errors. They can control the functions of equipment in their system and coordinate system task schedules. On a higher level, the Executive contains knowledge of all resources, task schedules for all systems, and the relative priority of all resources and tasks. The executive can override any subsystem task schedule in order to resolve use conflicts or resolve errors that require resources from multiple subsystems. Interprocessor communication is implemented using the SAFTIES Communications Interface (SCI). The SCI is an application layer protocol which supports the SAFTIES distributed multi-level architecture.