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Sample records for experts texte court

  1. The physician expert witness and the U.S. Supreme court--an epidemiologic approach.

    PubMed

    Norton, Martin L

    2002-01-01

    It is a fact of life that the physician is occasionally called upon to provide Expert Witness evidence. This is clearly distinct from evidence of a participatory nature where the physician is a party to the act by virtue of the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this presentation is to alert the physician to new criteria, imposed by the court, for acceptance of Expert Testimony. Prior to March 23, 1999, expert witness testimony fell into three categories, Scientific, technical, and other specialized knowledge. Scientific knowledge included the conclusions that could be subjected to analysis of a statistical nature, or could be validated by methodology such as epidemiologic criteria. Technical knowledge was based on factors such as mechanical or stress analysis utilized in engineering. Other "specialized knowledge" could be based on experiential data and information not necessarily subject to epidemiologic or other scientific analysis. Therefore, the physician presented his reasoning often based on years of professional practice and publication in journals of clinical practice. On March 23rd 1999, the Supreme Court of the United States changed the criteria for all categories stating that there is "no relevant distinction between 'scientific' knowledge' and 'technical' or 'other specialized knowledge' in Federal Rule of Evidence 702. This momentous decision [Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, (97-1709), 131 F.3d 1433) reversed.] referred back to a previous case [Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 509 US. 579,589], which established four criteria based on methods of analysis for t he courts, and was now extended for all expert evidence. Thus the area of expert witness evidence was changed by this momentous act placing the judge as arbiter of all expert evidence, including that of the physician. This paper will offer a brief review and an analysis of the significance of this for the professional involved in the legal system as an expert witness.

  2. Frame-Analysis of Argumentation in Court Opinion Texts: Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilingaryan, Kamo; Lutskovskaya, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on practical experiment on perception of argumentative nature of court opinions by non-native speakers. Several argumentative frames most frequently used in the texts of court opinions are identified and described in the article. The article also aims at analyzing the distribution characteristics of the identified frames. Text…

  3. Text of the Supreme Court's Opinion in the Selective Service System Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The texts are presented of the Supreme Court opinions in the case of the Selective Service System vs. Minnesota Public Interest Research Group, which upheld a federal law requiring college students to register for the draft before receiving federal student aid. Included are the majority opinion by Chief Justice Warren E. Burger and dissenting…

  4. Defining 'reasonable medical certainty' in court: What does it mean to medical experts in child abuse cases?

    PubMed

    Dias, Mark S; Boehmer, Susan; Johnston-Walsh, Lucy; Levi, Benjamin H

    2015-12-01

    Physicians and others who provide expert testimony in court cases involving alleged child abuse may be instructed to state their conclusions within a 'reasonable medical certainty' (RMC). However, neither judges nor jurors knows what degree of probability constitutes RMC for a given expert, nor whether different experts use different standards to formulate their opinions. We sought to better understand how experts define RMC in the context of court cases. An email survey was sent to members of six list-serves, representing four specialties, whose members testify in child abuse cases. Respondents were asked to define how RMC corresponded to (1) the numerical probability that abuse occurred, (2) the ordinal probability, and (3) how their determinations relate to common legal standards ('preponderance of the evidence', 'clear and convincing', and 'beyond a reasonable doubt'). Participants were also asked how comfortable they were in defining RMC; whether their definition changed according to the charges or type of proceeding; and how they would apply RMC to several hypothetical cases. The 294 list-serve participants who responded included child abuse pediatricians (46%), forensic pathologists (21%), pediatric neurosurgeons (15%), pediatric ophthalmologists (12%), and others (6%). Though 95% of respondents had testified in court, only 45% had received training in the definition of RMC. Only 37% were comfortable defining RMC. Although many responses were highly clustered and paired comparisons showed that 95% of participants' responses were internally consistent, there was variability in respondents' definitions of RMC. There is some variability in how child abuse expert witnesses define and use the term RMC; we provide suggestions about how to more accurately and transparently define RMC to ensure justice in these cases.

  5. [Characteristics of murder and attempted murder in Cameroon. Study based on expert psychiatric court reports].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first

  6. Numerical Algorithms for the Analysis of Expert Opinions Elicited in Text Format

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    applied to subject matter expert text data elicited through carefully constructed decision support workshops. In the main these workshops address...various stake-holder groups. These workshops are carefully designed to address specific defence questions and to elicit, record and analyse expert...each of these topics. • Differential Analysis: Differential analysis concerns identifying and quantifying the differences between subsets of text, where

  7. 'What on earth can this possibly mean'? French reentry courts and experts' risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Herzog-Evans, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of ten years of punitive criminal justice policies, the number of cases in which risk assessments by psychiatrist experts are mandatory has considerably increased in France. Because of complex and deeply ingrained cultural factors, most experts and academics oppose the use of actuarial or other structured judgement tools, which they assimilate to these policy changes. Parallel to this, the reentry judges in charge of making release and other community sentence decisions have maintained a strong rehabilitative and desistance-focused culture. Drawing on interviews with these judges and experts, the author wanted to assess the judges' expectations of experts' reports, their opinion on actuarial tools, and how they perceived experts and their aptitude to assess risk. The study showed that French reentry judges manage to keep experts' conclusions at bay when they do not fit with their desistance goals, as they can draw upon their own expertise and that of probation services. They do not have much faith in the professionalism and methodology of experts, and would like them to better demonstrate how they reach their conclusions. Moreover, criminogenic needs assessment would be much more useful to them than static risk assessment, which raises the issue as to why this is not the French probation services' role. Reentry judges who never encountered a report which uses a structured tool are influenced by the French ideological debate; those who have read such reports are unanimously in favour of such tools. It thus seems clear that they would like experts to be more strongly guided by science, but are not yet fully aware of what this entails.

  8. [Role of experts in forensic medicine in opinioning for courts and insurance agencies].

    PubMed

    Berent, Jarosław

    2005-01-01

    Forensic medicine belongs to a group of medical specialties which are listed as basic specialties according to the Ministry of Health. As indicated already by the specialist program, the aim of such studies involves mastering of abilities which permit the medical doctor to provide competent opinions for courts and other organs in the administration of justice, consistent with the current medical knowledge, forensic experience and requirements of the law. Therefore, obtaining specialist qualifications in forensic medicine the doctor is expected to be prepared for forensic certification in penal, civil and insurance matters on the basis of a medical examination and/or court files. It should be explained that forensic medicine practiced in Poland and in some European countries represents a much broader specialty than forensic pathology practiced in the USA and some English-speaking countries. In the latter countries the specialty represents a part of broadly understood pathology. The situation of a forensic physician in organization of the execution of justice in the USA, his/ her competencies and range of activities are completely distinct to those characterizing a forensic physician in Poland. In its range accepted in Poland, forensic medicine has a broader scope. It deals not only with the narrow range of penal proceedings but also pertains the entire problems of certification for the courts and other organs which deal with implementation of justice, as well as for other institutions such as various insurance companies. One of the reasons for separation of forensic medicine from other specialties was the fact that appropriate forensic opinioning requires more than encompassing respective medical knowledge. Also needed is the ability to understand intentions and aims of justice execution and the capacity to formulate opinions in such a range and in such a way that it will be perceived by the addressee in an unbiased form.

  9. Dangerous Liaisons? Psychiatry and Law in the Court of Protection-Expert Discourses of 'Insight' (and 'Compliance').

    PubMed

    Case, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A finding that 'P' (as the person who is subject to Court of Protection proceedings is known) lacks mental capacity is the trigger for exposing them to decision-making by others and the powers of the Court of Protection (CoP) which, in the words of Justice Hedley, can be 'invasive and draconian' (Hedley J in PC v City of York Council cited in [2013] EWCA Civ 478 [13]). Whilst the law asserts the upper hand in the assessment of mental capacity for persons who come before the CoP, it is the discipline of psychiatry, which dominates expert witness testimony in these proceedings. There are a number of implications of allowing psychiatry to dominate this terrain, not least that, as will be argued in this article, clinical discourse, which makes reference to non-statutory terminology such as 'lack of insight' and 'non-compliance' are imported into the business of capacity assessment. This terminology, if used lazily and without clear reference to the statutory criteria, has the potential to muddy the waters of assessing P's capacity. At its worst, it can mask value judgements, which threaten to undermine the law's 'autonomy promoting' provisions set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Whilst it is not intended to discredit 'insight' as a concept in psychiatry, this article concludes that it has a proper context and that in the mental capacity context, decision-makers, lawyers, and advocates should exercise careful scrutiny of its use, and CoP judgments should carefully interrogate the language imported by expert witnesses.

  10. [Professional and ethical medical expert quality].

    PubMed

    Iveković, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons.

  11. [Opinions issued by an expert appointed by a court in civil cases from the point of view of the defendant insurance company].

    PubMed

    Truszkiewicz, Waldemar; Pałka, Janusz; Maciejczak, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses problems which are encountered by an insurance company in connection with the opinions issued by experts appointed by a court in civil cases and concerning the evaluation of the results of accidents or damages in civil liability insurance. Every year, the group of physicians employed by the Office of Medical Services of Insurance at the PZU Zycie SA and PZU SA, issues opinions for about 3000 appeal and complicated cases from all over Poland. In some of the cases, an individual holding an accident insurance policy or an injured person in the case of civil liability insurance disagrees with the findings of the insurance company and brings the case to a civil court. About 7% of the opinions issued by the Office in 2005 were polemics with court experts, concerning their manner of classifying the results of an accident or an event which resulted in damage to an individual. Among the 200 opinions, there are several important and recurring problems, which are presented in the paper. The main doubts concern: 1. insufficient analysis of the circumstances of an event and drawing hasty conclusions about the cause-and-effect relationship, 2. claiming the certain occurrence of a cause-and-effect relationship, despite substantial doubts, 3. absence of analysis of general conditions of insurance, which in voluntary insurance may contain various exemptions and restrictions, 4. insufficient analysis of medical documentation containing information about some deviations before the event, 5. determining by the experts the degree of permanent loss of health despite the absence of functional impairment revealed in an examination, 6. determining permanent results of an accident based solely on unverifiable subjective complaints, 7. deciding about the percentage of permanent detriment to health in most cases on a slightly higher level than was decided by a physician who took such a decision for the insurance agency.

  12. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  13. Dangerous Liaisons? Psychiatry and Law in the Court of Protection—Expert Discourses of ‘Insight’ (and ‘Compliance’)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A finding that ‘P’ (as the person who is subject to Court of Protection proceedings is known) lacks mental capacity is the trigger for exposing them to decision-making by others and the powers of the Court of Protection (CoP) which, in the words of Justice Hedley, can be ‘invasive and draconian’ (Hedley J in PC v City of York Council cited in [2013] EWCA Civ 478 [13]). Whilst the law asserts the upper hand in the assessment of mental capacity for persons who come before the CoP, it is the discipline of psychiatry, which dominates expert witness testimony in these proceedings. There are a number of implications of allowing psychiatry to dominate this terrain, not least that, as will be argued in this article, clinical discourse, which makes reference to non-statutory terminology such as ‘lack of insight’ and ‘non-compliance’ are imported into the business of capacity assessment. This terminology, if used lazily and without clear reference to the statutory criteria, has the potential to muddy the waters of assessing P’s capacity. At its worst, it can mask value judgements, which threaten to undermine the law’s ‘autonomy promoting’ provisions set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Whilst it is not intended to discredit ‘insight’ as a concept in psychiatry, this article concludes that it has a proper context and that in the mental capacity context, decision-makers, lawyers, and advocates should exercise careful scrutiny of its use, and CoP judgments should carefully interrogate the language imported by expert witnesses. PMID:28007808

  14. [Using attachment measures in the context of providing expert witness through psychiatric assessment in family court proceedings].

    PubMed

    Besier, Tanja; Ziegenhain, Ute; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Prognostic evaluation of child development in the context of his/her actual family situation plays an important role in family law disputes. However, there is a lack of empirically validated instruments to assess socio-emotional development in very young children. Attachment research provides instruments which could be utilized in clinical practice. At this, the focus should be on assessing the quality of parent-child-relationship and the occurrence of risky parenting behaviour. The article illustrates the use of attachment measures in the context of a family court proceeding according to subsection 1666 German Civil Code. Risk assessment is carried out through direct observation of the quality of interaction between mother and ten months old infant as well as through evaluation of the attachment representations of both parent caregivers. Instruments used are the Strange Situation Test (to assess infant attachment), the CARE-Index (to assess parental sensitivity), the Adult Attachment Interview, and the Adult Attachment Projective (to assess parental attachment representations).

  15. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I.; Good, Benjamin M.; Furlong, Laura I.

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects. Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V PMID:27307137

  16. Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Approaches for Automatic Categorization of Lay Requests to Web-Based Expert Forums

    PubMed Central

    Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Background Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called “ask the doctor” services. Objective To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. Methods We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website “Rund ums Baby” (“Everything about Babies”) into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions (“subject matter” and “expectations”). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer’s V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. Results According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category “in vitro fertilization (IVF),” 81 (8%) into the category “ovulation,” 79 (8%) into “cycle,” and 57 (6%) into “semen analysis.” These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as “general information” and 351 (36%) as a wish for “treatment recommendations.” The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer’s V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other

  17. Court Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nankivell, R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents court briefs for three separate constitutional issues: the individual right to die as tested in the "Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health" case; constitutional rights and drunk driving; and student religious clubs' right to meet at public schools in accordance with the Equal Access Act of 1984. Analyzes court opinions and…

  18. Cutting Crime: Drug Courts in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    Drug courts depart from traditional criminal justice practice by directing nonviolent drug abusing offenders to intensive court-supervised drug treatment instead of to prison. An examination of drug courts is offered in this booklet. The text is based on extensive interviews with judges, prosecutors, public defenders, court administrators, police…

  19. The Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibine, Alex

    1980-01-01

    Overview of some of the most important Indian court cases of the last decade, including ones regarding treaty rights, tribal jurisdiction and sovereignty, tax jurisdiction, land claims, and hunting and fishing rights. (DS)

  20. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F.; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C.; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining–based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining–aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  1. At the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…

  2. Understanding the Federal Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses the workings of the federal courts and supports six law-related lesson plans. It is divided into the following sections: "The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary"; "The Federal Courts in American Government" ("The Federal Courts and Congress"; "The Federal Courts and the Executive…

  3. Order in the Court!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, Madeline

    2005-01-01

    This fall teachers will have the infrequent, but valuable opportunity to teach children about the Supreme Court and its confirmation process. The appointment of a new Justice lets students witness the Court's role and how the three branches of government work together. Teachers also report that the Court is a favorite topic because children can…

  4. How lawyers view psychiatric experts.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H; Skip Simpson, J D

    2012-11-01

    Good lawyers look for integrity in their expert consultants and expert witnesses. They need truthful, accurate information to help them assess and frame cases, win or settle them favorably, and/or withdraw when the case has little merit. Experts should be well qualified to review, interpret, and eventually testify credibly about their portions of the case. They should be able to work with lawyers in the lawyers' own arenas (e.g., courts, hearings) and to convey their opinions to others, such as juries, clearly and without unnecessary distractions.

  5. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  6. CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search Jiepu Jiang1, Wei Lu1, Haozhen Zhao2 1 Center for Studies of...AND SUBTITLE CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...15. J. Jiang, W. Lu, D. Liu. CSIR at TREC 2007. In Proceedings of the 16th Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), 2007. 16. J. Jiang, W. Lu. IR

  7. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at various cases of the Supreme Court's most recent term. In contrast to the 2006-2007 term when the Supreme Court was regularly split 5-4, during this last term, the justices have formed surprising coalitions in cases considered highly controversial. For example, it was the so-called liberal bloc's Justice Stevens who wrote the…

  8. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  9. Insurers lose court battle

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-09-28

    Recent court disputes concerning insurance coverage of Superfund costs have resulted in the retrial of a proinsurer ruling on environmental cleanup costs for potentially responsible parties. The court rejected the insurance industry`s pollution exclusion clause by Aetna and two nonchemical companies. Supposedly this is good news for the chemical industry, because there will be more access to insurance money in Superfund cleanups.

  10. Genetics in the courts

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  11. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the Supreme Court's preview. As the 2005 term neared its June 30 end date, the Supreme Court, still adjusting to its first membership change in 11 years, had yet to decide dozens of cases that had defied quick resolution throughout the term. But with the last-minute release of seriously fractured decisions in many of the…

  12. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that the 2010 Supreme Court term was without the "fireworks" of recent years and, therefore, this year the Court garnered limited media attention and national interest. Contributing to this limited attention was the fact that the term ended with no retirements or looming confirmation battles. In addition, the term's…

  13. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  14. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  15. Court Disallows Damage Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomson, Bernard; Coplan, Norman

    1976-01-01

    In rejecting claims for damages, the Court finds that contract's "increase or decrease of cost" language is not applicable to added overhead costs and loss of labor efficiency resulting from delays over which the contractor has no control. (Author)

  16. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  17. People Power in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes seven activities for teaching secondary social studies students about court juries. Students observe and discuss the actual selection of a jury, play shadow-jury in an actual court case, interview jurors, research student courts, and survey and discuss student opinions on jury-related issues and court decisions. (AM)

  18. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  19. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  20. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  1. English Professor as Public Figure: My Days in Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    The author has twice spent a full day in court, as an expert witness; rather an odd task for an English professor, one might think. Each time involved a matter of considerable importance: an obscenity prosecution of a classic novel during the 1960s, and then, about twenty years later, a financial crisis at a community college involving dozens of…

  2. Courts and Kids: Pursuing Educational Equity through the State Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past thirty-five years, federal courts have dramatically retreated from actively promoting school desegregation. In the meantime, state courts have taken up the mantle of promoting the vision of educational equity originally articulated in "Brown v. Board of Education". "Courts and Kids" is the first detailed analysis…

  3. Greenhouse Gas Court Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the June 26, 2012, U.S. Court of Appeals- D.C. Circuit's decision to uphold EPA's Endangerment Finding and greenhouse gas regulations issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for passenger vehicles and CAA permitting for stationary sources.

  4. Court-ordered caesareans.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Elizabeth; Lomri, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Court-ordered caesarean sections are in the news after a number of recent legal decisions authorising surgery for women who lack mental capacity to consent. The decisions have not always been based on good evidence and they raise serious concerns about the protection of the rights of mentally ill women. The authors explain the legal process and question the wisdom of recent judgements.

  5. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.; Hawke, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Of the three branches of government, the Supreme Court usually receives the least national attention. Not so this year. In addition to another changing of the guard with the retirement of Justice Stevens and the nomination of Elena Kagan, the 2009-2010 term generated a great deal of controversy. And in a number of instances, the public's keen…

  6. Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    It was late on Election Day 2010 and Vander Plaats, a Sioux City, Iowa, businessman and leader of a campaign to oust three Iowa Supreme Court justices, had just gotten word that he and his team had pulled it off. The voters had rejected the three justices up for a retention vote: David Baker, Michael Streit, and Chief Justice Marsha Ternus.…

  7. State Court Organization, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for State Courts, Williamsburg, VA.

    Information on state court organization as of January 1, 1980, in the 50 states, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands is provided. Data were collected from published sources and through questionnaires. There are two major parts. Part I consists of 36 tables containing comparative data from all the…

  8. Supreme Court Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    Reactions to the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and debate over the president's replacement nomination, Judge John Roberts, Jr., of the D.C. Circuit, dominated this summer's Supreme Court recess. Subsequently, after Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005, President Bush nominated Roberts for the chief justice…

  9. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 2008-2009 term, Justice David Souter's decision to return to New Hampshire and President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to replace him on the bench had taken over the Supreme Court news cycle. In the end, the consensus has been that, with the possible exception of criminal justice issues, swapping out Souter for Sotomayor…

  10. National Youth Court Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Tracy M.

    Youth courts provide communities with an opportunity to impose immediate consequences for first time youthful offenders, while providing a peer operated disposition mechanism that constructively allows young people to take responsibility, be held accountable, and make amends for violating the law. Dispositions hold youth accountable in part…

  11. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  12. Rodriguez: The State Courts Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 16 state court decisions in 15 states concerning equity in statewide school finance systems, in the aftermath of the Supreme Court's San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" decision. Finds that some state legislatures and courts reformed their finance systems, while others let inequalities continue. (RW)

  13. Supreme Court Ruling on Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents the text of a unanimous Supreme Court opinion delivered by Justice Douglas, as well as two separate concurring opinions, which granted non-English speaking Chinese students' petition for relief from unequal and unconstitutional educational opportunities resulting from an absence of English language instruction. (Author/SF)

  14. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  15. Tennis Courts: A Construction and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This manual addresses court design and planning; the construction process; court surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor tennis court design and renovation; care and maintenance tips; and court repair, reconstruction, and renovation. General and membership information is provided on the U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Association…

  16. [Remarks about the position of the medico-legal expert in imperative regulations in the Penal and Civil Codes].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.

  17. 20 CFR 243.3 - Payments pursuant to court decree or court-approved property settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments pursuant to court decree or court... to court decree or court-approved property settlement. Certain annuity components are subject to division pursuant to a court decree or to a court-approved property settlement incident to any such...

  18. Juvenile Court: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether juveniles who commit criminal law violations should be tried in the same courts as adults. Addresses the issue of transfers that is a legal mechanism used to move youth to criminal court. Considers alternative proposals for handling youth brought to the judicial system and the role of the federal government. (CMK)

  19. Supreme Court Term in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…

  20. The Supreme Court and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the facts and state and federal constitutional law related to "Zelman v. Simons-Harris," a Cleveland school-voucher case before the United States Supreme Court. Argues that the Court will likely uphold the constitutionality of the Cleveland voucher program, finding that it does not advance religion in violation of the First…

  1. Court Cases about Teacher Insubordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Cory Shawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine court cases about adverse employment actions against public educators for insubordination, in an effort to understand what courts consider to be "insubordination." This study represents qualitative document-based research that was based upon the analysis of case law. The research sources were…

  2. Intervention of the Courts in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)

  3. European courts and old people.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  4. [Urology facing the courts. The basis of professional responsibility].

    PubMed

    Haertig, A; Haillot, O; Chopin, G

    1989-01-01

    The liability of the urologist can be involved according to 3 procedures: The civil procedure is that of the Tribunal de Grande Instance (High Court) then the Cour d'Appel (Court of Appeal). Financial compensations are claimed from the surgeon for not respecting the medical contact. This contract is tacit, oral and carries obligations for the surgeon. The administrative procedure is that of the Tribunal Administratif (Administrative Court) then the Conseil d'Etat (Council of State). This only concerns the salaried surgeon in his salaried activities. The penal procedure is that of the Tribunal Correctionnel (Criminal Court) then the Cour d'Appel (Court of Appeal). The surgeon is then charged with a crime, usually unintensional injuries or through negligence. Although the harlm is easy to prove, the reality of the fault of the surgeon and the relation between fault and damage are far less so. It is the plaintiff (Civil Course, Administrative Cours) or the State Prosecutor (Penal Course) who must prove the fault and causality by the help of an expert's report. So, the responsibility of the surgeon can be committed. However, the development of the insurance system has allowed more widespread compensation without any fault found on the surgeon's part and increasingly frequent conciliatory procedures.

  5. Autism spectrum disorder: forensic issues and challenges for mental health professionals and courts.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2013-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as defined in DSM-V, can be relevant in a variety of ways to decision-making by courts and tribunals. This includes the family, disciplinary, discrimination and criminal law contexts. By reviewing decisions made by superior courts in a number of common law jurisdictions, this article identifies a pivotal role for mental health professionals closely familiar with both the disorder and forensic exigencies to educate courts about the inner world of those with ASD. Highlighting areas of criminality that court decisions have dealt with, especially in relation to persons with Asperger's Disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, it calls for further research on the connection between ASD, on the one hand, and conduct, capacities and skills, on the other hand. It urges enhancement of awareness of the forensic repercussions of the disorder so that expert evidence can assist the courts more humanely and informedly to make criminal justice and other decisions.

  6. From expert witness to defendant: abolition of expert witness protection and its implications.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    In Jones v Kaney [2011] 2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.

  7. First Year at Somerset Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgar, Sybil

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-three autistic adolescents are currently being provided with individualized programs of education, social and work experience at Somerset Court, the first British residential center of its kind. (LH)

  8. The Rehnquist Court Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the actions and effects of the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist. Considers Court decisions written in 1988-1989, commenting on the Court's growing self-confidence and strength. Concludes that the Rehnquist Court could be one of the most lasting legacies of the Reagan era. (LS)

  9. Citizen Court Watching: The Consumer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth; And Others

    The document presents a state-of-the-art review of citizen court watching projects. It examines two particularly well-documented projects, and offers guidelines for citizen effort in court improvement. Citizen court watching is interpreted to include unofficial court monitoring, observation, and recommendation for reform by citizen groups and…

  10. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  11. The Nevada mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays.

  12. Expert witnesses in dentistry: a comparison between Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana

    2012-11-30

    A dentist is frequently required to translate dental trauma into monetary value, for example after car accidents and/or work-related injuries. When called to act in this capacity a dentist should combine his/her biological and technical knowledge with a quality medico-legal knowledge. Calculation of economic (pecuniary) damages and non-economic (non-pecuniary) damages requires specific training in medico-legal matters and awareness of the inherent pitfalls. Expert Witnesses registered in Court are usually asked to perform this duty. Nevertheless, European countries have differences regarding dental damage evaluations as well as significant differences in the conditions required for registration as an Expert Witness in Court. A dental Expert Witness has precise responsibilities and is subject to civil or criminal proceedings (depending on the judicial system) if found wanting. In forensic/legal dentistry a medico-legal doctor should not work in isolation from a dentist in dental cases nor is it wise for a dentist to work in the courts without having had specific training regarding judicial disciplines relating to dental damages. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the principal differences in the judicial systems regarding the appointment of Expert Witnesses in both Italian and Croatian courts. The next step will expand this investigation through to European countries in order to marshal knowledge towards harmonization, best practice and a common ground for dental evaluation and claim compensations (in accordance with the Council of Europe Resolution 75 – 7 Compensation for physical injury or death).

  13. Attorney beliefs concerning scientific evidence and expert witness credibility.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Hayley J; Kehn, Andre; Wise, Richard A; Cramer, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Expert witnesses play a pivotal role in offering a variety of scientific evidence at trial. Although judges are the ultimate gatekeepers of what constitutes valid scientific evidence, attorneys play an important part in determining what evidence is presented to the court. Employing experimental and descriptive analyses, the present study sought to address gaps in the attorney/expert witness literature by addressing three questions: One) To what extent do attorneys prefer forensic or social scientific evidence and experts?, Two) How knowledgeable are attorneys concerning empirically-supported indicators of expert credibility?, Three) What do attorneys believe concerning the frequency and nature of expert errors in their own trials relative to others? Results showed that attorneys prefer forensic science evidence and experts compared to social/psychological counterparts. Moreover, attorneys displayed considerable knowledge of factors that will impact perceived expert credibility. In particular, attorneys value perceived expert trustworthiness, communication skills, content of testimony/reports, perceived expert knowledge, and years and type of expert experience. Finally, attorneys displayed a consistent and strong self-serving bias pattern, such that they believe expert errors occur more much frequently in other attorneys' cases compared to their own. Implications are discussed with respect to vetting expert witnesses, scientific evidence/errors and wrongful conviction, and training for attorneys.

  14. Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, L; Daynard, R

    2007-01-01

    The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that “everybody knew, nobody knows”. Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not “hired guns”. The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID

  15. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  16. The expert witness. Neither Frye nor Daubert solved the problem: what can be done?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H H

    2001-01-01

    Flawed expert scientific testimony has compromised truth finding in American litigation, including in medical malpractice and in product liability cases. The Federal Rules of Evidence and the Supreme Court in Daubert and other cases have established standards for testimony that include reliability and relevance, and established judges as gatekeepers. However, because of lack of understanding of scientific issues, judges have problems with this role, and juries have difficulties with scientific evidence. Professionals and the judiciary have made some advances, but a better system involving the court's use of neutral experts and a mechanism to hold experts accountable for improprieties is needed.

  17. Texas Court's Ruling in Bonfire Case Widens Liability Worries for College Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A Texas court's recent ruling that allowed a negligence lawsuit to proceed against 12 former administrators at Texas A&M University has some higher-education legal experts concerned about campus officials' liability in a variety of situations, including fraternity initiations, housing accidents, and student suicides. The decision was in favor…

  18. Children's knowledge of court proceedings.

    PubMed

    Flin, R H; Stevenson, Y; Davies, G M

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes a study of children's legal vocabulary and their knowledge of criminal court procedures. Subjects (aged six, eight, 10 years and adults) were also asked about their feelings regarding a hypothetical court appearance as a witness. All subjects, children and adults, performed best on a vocabulary recognition section, with descriptions and concepts proving more difficult. Observed developmental trends in both legal vocabulary and conceptual appreciation of criminal law replicates previous work from Australia and America and supports the contention that children younger than 10 years are not well informed about the legal system. Results indicated clear deficits in knowledge as well as frequent misconceptions regarding legal personnel and procedures.

  19. [Consequences of the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court on the fighting dog problem].

    PubMed

    Hülsenbusch, M

    2005-03-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court decided with its "Dangerous dog-judgment" about the constitutional complaint of 53 dog breeders on the federal act combating dangerous dogs. This judgment was a so-called Pyrrhic Victory for the appellants. The Court declared the legislative competence of the federal level in this issue for null and void. But the statutory prohibition for breeding Pitbull-Terrier-, American Staffordshire-Terrier-, Staffordshire-Bullterrier-, Bullterrier-races and cross breeding out of this dogs will be governed in police laws by the Laender finally. The Standing Conference of the Ministers for Internal Affairs declared an appropriate recommendation. The use of the category "race" was refused by experts in discussions as completely wrong and not acceptable. But the Federal Constitutional Court reasons that the legislator can use the category "race" within his scope of evaluation and prognostication in accordance with the Constitution for the ban of import of dangerous dogs. The Court demands--because of the weak data background - that the legislator monitors the legislation, to adjust it according to current developments. The Constitutional Court creates with the judgment "dangerous dogs" legal certainty. The jurisprudence of the administrative courts of the Laender and of the Federal Administrative Court based on the category "race" was approved as well as the police laws of the Laender dealing with dangerous dogs.

  20. Should Courts Write Your Job Descriptions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Some relationships of the Equal Pay Act and the court practice of writing job descriptions and making evaluations are examined with the aim of suggesting ways to eliminate court involvement in the average personnel or industrial engineering department. (TA)

  1. Is tobacco a drug? Administrative agencies as common law courts.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, C R

    1998-04-01

    Professor Cass Sunstein argues that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco products. He considers the text of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which supports the FDA assertion, and the context of its enactment, which argues against the FDA. He resolves the tension between text and context in favor of FDA jurisdiction by turning to the emerging role of administrative agencies. In modern government, he contends, administrative agencies have become America's common law courts, with the power to adapt statutory regimes to new facts and new values when the underlying statute is ambiguous. Professor Sunstein's Article, like the other pieces in this volume, was written after the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina decided Coyne Beahm v. FDA, but before a three judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed that decision in Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. FDA. In Coyne Beahm, the District Court held that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products, but not tobacco advertising. The Fourth Circuit rejected the District Court's jurisdictional ruling and invalidated the FDA's regulations in their entirety. The Clinton Administration has since requested an en banc rehearing before the Fourth Circuit.

  2. Student Rights and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC" contains 17 annotations of documents and journal articles on student rights and the courts, all of which are indexed in the ERIC system. Materials on sex discrimination, suspension and expulsion, due process, mainstreaming, school publications, and other topics are annotated. (DS)

  3. The Camera Comes to Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  4. In the Courts: Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockenberg, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    This article analyzes a 1989 decision by the California Court of Appeal, "McCarthy v. Fletcher." The case concerns a suit brought by a teacher against the local school district because the district removed two books from a booklist adopted by the teacher's English department. (IAH)

  5. Creationism, Evolution and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen; Ivers, Gregg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the continuing controversy over evolution and creationism and the role that the courts have played. Examines the effects that result from this controversy, such as the overly cautious selection of textbooks by adoption committees and publishers' reluctance to include "questionable" materials in new books. (GEA)

  6. Gender Bias in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    The term gender bias was coined by the National Judicial Education Program to Promote Equality for Women and Men in the Courts and is defined as the predisposition or tendency to think about and behave toward people primarily on the basis of their sex rather than their status, professional accomplishments, or aspirations. An effective method for…

  7. Juvenile Courts- Terms To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Offers a crossword puzzle that focuses on terms learned in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education." Explains that the letters in the boxes spell the answer to this question: what do juvenile courts try to offer juveniles? Provides the clues and answers to the puzzle. (CMK)

  8. The Many Voices of the Burger Court and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike the Warren Court, the Burger Court has had a lack of unanimity on school desegregation cases and the court has been divided. As a result there is no clear direction evident in the court's decisions. (IRT)

  9. Drug-Exposed Infant Cases in Juvenile Court: Risk Factors and Court Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagatun-Edwards, Inger; Saylor, Coleen

    2000-01-01

    This longitudinal study of social services and juvenile court files identified factors associated with court outcomes for drug exposed infants (N=118). Regression analysis suggested that mothers' compliance with court orders was the major predictor of court outcomes although chi square analysis found ethnicity, past referrals, and criminal record…

  10. The Courts as Educational Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maready, William F.

    This report discusses the expanding role of Federal judges as educational policymakers. The report discusses court decisions related to interpretations by the Federal Courts of the U.S. Constitution. The report notes that court decisions have covered the following topics: dress codes, flying of the flag, freedom of speech, unwed mothers,…

  11. Youth Court: Advocating for All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaruppa, Cindy L.; LeBlanc, Patrice; Lacey, Candace H.

    This paper describes the evaluative research of the Palm Beach County, Florida School Districts Youth Court Trial Program. Youth or teen courts have been implemented as an alternative measure to juvenile courts for handling adolescents who committed delinquent acts, usually for the first time. The purpose of the applied research was to identify…

  12. Education and the Courts: Reflections on Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, C. W.; Sochockyj, Mary

    The manner in which the United States courts have attempted to establish the validity of remedies and gain public acceptance of court orders in desegregation issues has encouraged public resistance to desegregation laws. In education related matters, the courts usually call on the expertise of lawyers and university professionals who have little…

  13. The Court in the Homeric Epos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loginov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The research investigates the court system in Homeric Greece. This period was characterized by a declining culture and scarce works that described those times. Hence, the court procedures of those times remains understudied; therefore, the purpose of this research is to reconstruct theoretically the court procedure in Homeric Greece. Homer's and…

  14. The Burger Court and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Philip R.

    This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…

  15. Does company compliance with RS-17 influence the characterization of a casual nexus in expert testimony?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Manuela; Guimarães, Bruno; Sampaio, Breno

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether company compliance with RS-17 influences the characterization of the casual nexus in physical therapists' expert reports of cumulative trauma disorders in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: The sample was composed of seven physical therapists who provided expert testimony regarding cumulative trauma disorder cases in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data collection was performed across two stages. In the first stage, the experts answered a sociodemographic survey and requested the identification numbers of recent cases where expert testimony was provided to characterize the causal nexus. In the second stage, the researchers went to the labor court to collect expert testimony data. These experts indicated that of 75 total cases, 31% (N=23) of the companies fulfilled RS-17, whereas 69% (N=52) did not comply with the law. Results: Among the organizations that complied with legislation, 30% of the analyzed expert testimonies showed a positive causal nexus. However, of the companies that did not comply with RS-17, 71% of the expert testimonies revealed a causal nexus. These results indicate that the breach of the law increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined by 54.8%. Conclusion: The results showed that failure to comply with RS-17 significantly increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined in physical therapists' expert testimony of cumulative trauma disorders. PMID:25714436

  16. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  17. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  18. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  19. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  20. Science In The Courtroom: The Impact Of Recent US Supreme Court Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, Susan

    2000-03-01

    Most physicists' work is far removed from the courtroom, but the principles of physics are important to a number of legal controversies. Several recent lawsuits have claimed that cellular phones cause brain cancer. And litigation over claims that electromagnetic fields cause other cancers has even more important implications for society. The problem of how to distinguish good science from bad in the courtroom has vexed lawyers and scientists alike for many years, and finally drew the attention of the United States Supreme Court in 1993. The Court has now issued three opinions on the standards for screening expert testimony, which require trial judges to evaluate scientific expert witnesses to determine if their testimony is reliable. How well are the new standards working? Is the judicial system doing any better at screening out junk science? This session will discuss how the Supreme Court's opinions are being applied and suggest several strategies, including the use of court appointed experts, that are being implemented to improve the process further.

  1. 77 FR 15053 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... result of the comment, the text ``members of the armed forces'' and ``trial by court-martial'' was... UCMJ jurisdiction. rr. Commenter recommended adding the words ``in the armed forces'' to the definition... as it applies to members of the armed forces, unless the error arises under these rules and...

  2. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  3. Borderline science: expert testimony and the Red River boundary dispute.

    PubMed

    Cittadino, Eugene

    2004-06-01

    The 1918 discovery of oil in the bed of the Red River, which forms the border between Texas and Oklahoma, led to a U.S. Supreme Court case that involved the extensive use of expert witnesses in fields such as geology, geography, and ecology. What began as a dispute between the two states soon became a multisided controversy involving those states, the federal government, Native Americans, and individual placer-mining claimants. After the federal attorneys introduced scientific experts into the dispute, including the plant ecologist Henry Chandler Cowles and the geographer Isaiah Bowman, fresh from negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference, Texas attorneys fielded their own team of opposing experts. Charged with the task of determining the location of the border, defined as the south bank of the river at the time of the 1819 treaty with Spain, the scientific experts presented the court with volumes of evidence and elaborate arguments, much of it contradictory and involving creative interpretations of existing theories. The case exhibited all the now-familiar features of a trial using expert witnesses, for which it represents an early, overlooked, and particularly complex example.

  4. Speech Cases Turned Aside by High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court declined without comment to take up two major appeals involving student free-speech rights on the Internet. One appeal encompassed two cases decided in favor of students last June by the full U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit, in Philadelphia. The other appeal stemmed from a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for…

  5. Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-12

    the military serving a sentence imposed by a court-martial; members of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Public Health Service...suspend all or part of the sentence , disapprove a finding or conviction, or lower the sentence .66 The CA may not increase the sentence . Once the CA takes... sentenced to prison at a court-martial for the sexual assault of a civilian. The authority of the CA to modify the findings and sentence of the court

  6. An Expert System for Searching in Full-Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Advisor Dr. John B. Smith Avail~;& Di~t pciIReader- Dr. Stephen Weiss Reader. Dr. Judith Wood 01990 Susan Evalyn...thoughts. My committee (Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., David Plaisted, John B. Smith, Stephen Weiss, and Judith Wood) deserves a chorus of praise for doing...debt to my advisor John B. Smith for his enthusiasm every step of the way. Finally, I want to thank my husband John Gauch for his technical, emotional

  7. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  8. Text Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehl, Doug

    2017-01-01

    To understand complex disciplinary texts, students need to possess a rich store of background knowledge. But what happens if students don't have that knowledge? In this article, Doug Buehl explores frontloading strategies that can bridge the gap between what students know and what they need to know to comprehend a disciplinary text. He outlines…

  9. An Exploration of Treatment and Supervision Intensity among Drug Court and Non-Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Warner, Tara D.; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that drug court programs appear effective in reducing the substance use and recidivism of drug-involved offenders. As there is no single drug court model, programs vary from site to site and the extent to which individual programs are fully implemented is not well documented. The extent to which drug court programs deliver…

  10. Expert Teacher Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Eva

    The expert teacher action program is to improve classroom teaching performance. The program has been tested in workshop sessions involving more than 1,200 educators representing 50 school districts. A set of standards, consisting of 25 variables, lead to the definition of expert teaching. Each variable deals with a major aspect of the duties of…

  11. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  12. Expert networks in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  13. Battered women's perceptions of civil and criminal court helpfulness: the role of court outcome and process.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Perez, Sara; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although most battered women seeking formal help have some contact with court, limited research exists on what they find helpful and harmful about these experiences. Using qualitative data from low-income, largely Black battered women, this study finds that issues related to court outcomes, such as case disposition and enforcement, are important to evaluations of helpfulness. More frequently mentioned, however, are court processes, including treatment by staff, process length, and public disclosure. Results highlight the importance of research and practice attending to issues beyond court outcomes, as well as the potential impact supportive treatment at court may have for victims' recovery.

  14. Indiana Court Strikes Down Mandatory Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The Indiana Supreme Court has struck down a school district's $20 school activity fee as a violation of the state constitution because, the court said, it is equivalent to a tuition charge. The 22,100-student Evansville-Vanderburgh school district imposed the fee on all K-12 students in the 2002-03 school year. The money was used to pay for…

  15. Court Interpreter Training: A Growing Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweda-Nicholson, Nancy

    Developments in court interpretation are outlined to illustrate the argument that more, and more qualified, interpreters are need to assist in both the federal and state courts. This discussion focuses principally on the criminal justice system, and includes federal statutory developments, especially concerning the implementation and impact of the…

  16. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  17. The Roberts Court and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahdert, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Since President Bush named Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. to the Supreme Court, speculation has run high as to where the new court may be headed. Citing three recent cases ("Morse v. Frederick", "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc." and "Garcetti v.…

  18. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  19. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  20. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  1. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  2. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  3. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  4. Kentucky's Unified Court of Justice. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    Resource materials and learning activities to help secondary students in Kentucky learn about their state's court system are provided. The guide begins by providing a history of the Kentucky Court of Justice. Discussed are the qualification of judges, the Retirement and Removal Commission, the Judicial Nominating Commission, and juries. Background…

  5. The Rehnquist Court and the Tenth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1995-01-01

    Examines several recent decisions of the more conservative and constructionist Rehnquist Supreme Court. Discusses those judgements that challenge the regulatory power of the federal government. In separate cases concerning mandatory retirement of state judges and regulating toxic waste clean-up, the high court ruled in favor of state control. (MJP)

  6. Supreme Court Biographies as a Classroom Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author goes beyond Supreme Court decisions to investigate the upbringing and personalities of three Supreme Court justices who left their mark on history: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, and Sandra Day O'Connor. His interviews with their biographers, G. Edward White for Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Juan Williams…

  7. The Supreme Court and the Suspect Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick J.

    1973-01-01

    Focused on are factual and legal dissimilarities between the court case of San Antonio Independent School District versus Rodriguez (in which the Supreme Court ruled that education is not a fundamental right protected by the Constitution) and recent right to education for the handicapped cases. (DB)

  8. Desegregation Dead? Not in This Court Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Maree

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the interpretations of the court's ruling in "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District 1." The decision handed down June 28, the last day of the Supreme Court's term, does not prohibit school districts from voluntarily integrating schools as long as the school district meets certain legal…

  9. The Supreme Court in the Culture Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…

  10. Court Seen Balky on Religion Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    When Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. reached his fifth anniversary on the U.S. Supreme Court in late September, observers took note of the court's rightward shift during his tenure in a number of areas, including corporate spending on federal elections and the ways school districts may consider race in assigning students. But at least one…

  11. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  12. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  13. Congressional Authority Over the Federal Courts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-16

    matters of “public rights,” mainly under federal statutes, in non-Article III tribunals. 109 See South Carolina v. Katzenbach , 383 U.S. 301, 331-32...Court as it had been misled by earlier decisions of the Court, especially Katzenbach v. Morgan, 384 U.S. 641 (1966), suggesting that when Congress acted

  14. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to... compensation for the court appointment under the same terms and conditions as are applied generally to... received. (b) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to use program resources...

  15. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to... compensation for the court appointment under the same terms and conditions as are applied generally to... received. (b) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to use program resources...

  16. Testifying in court: practical strategies for public safety, emergency services, and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Testifying in court can be an opportunity or an ordeal for public safety, emergency services, and mental health personnel, depending on the stakes involved and the status of the professional--fact witness, expert witness, or defendant. This article provides practical guidelines for effective courtroom testimony, including understanding your role in the legal process, knowing your case, preparing your testimony, using optimal presentation strategies, manifesting appropriate demeanor and body language, answering questions, parrying challenges, and carrying yourself overall as a dignified professional.

  17. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  18. Justice blocks and predictability of U.S. Supreme Court votes.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Successful attempts to predict judges' votes shed light into how legal decisions are made and, ultimately, into the behavior and evolution of the judiciary. Here, we investigate to what extent it is possible to make predictions of a justice's vote based on the other justices' votes in the same case. For our predictions, we use models and methods that have been developed to uncover hidden associations between actors in complex social networks. We show that these methods are more accurate at predicting justice's votes than forecasts made by legal experts and by algorithms that take into consideration the content of the cases. We argue that, within our framework, high predictability is a quantitative proxy for stable justice (and case) blocks, which probably reflect stable a priori attitudes toward the law. We find that U.S. Supreme Court justice votes are more predictable than one would expect from an ideal court composed of perfectly independent justices. Deviations from ideal behavior are most apparent in divided 5-4 decisions, where justice blocks seem to be most stable. Moreover, we find evidence that justice predictability decreased during the 50-year period spanning from the Warren Court to the Rehnquist Court, and that aggregate court predictability has been significantly lower during Democratic presidencies. More broadly, our results show that it is possible to use methods developed for the analysis of complex social networks to quantitatively investigate historical questions related to political decision-making.

  19. Love v. Superior Court (People)

    PubMed

    1990-12-28

    The petitioners, April Love and others, were convicted of soliciting acts of prostitution, and were ordered to undergo AIDS testing and counseling in compliance with the California Penal Code. Love challenged the mandatory testing as unconstitutional under the Fourth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment's due process and equal protection clauses. The First District Court of Appeal found that the testing complied with the "special needs" exception to the Fourth Amendment's prohibition of unreasonable searches, because the statute's testing and counseling provisions made prostitutes aware of the HIV risk to themselves and others. Further, because the Legislature could reasonably link AIDS transmission and prostitution, the statute comported with due process. Lastly, the statute was held to fulfill equal protection requirements, because use of the blood test's information was restricted equally among various offenders.

  20. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  1. Implementation of an Expert System for Instructional Design, Phase 3. Design Document and Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; Li, Zhongmin

    Instructional Design Expert (ID Expert) is a prototype instructional design expert system which supports the instructional design phase of instructional system development. Phase 2 of ID Expert was implemented using S.1 expert system language on the VAX computer. The user interface was text-based, consisting of a question/answer dialogue primarily…

  2. [Law courts and clinical documentation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Carnicero, M P; Magallón, A I; Gordillo, A

    2006-01-01

    Background. Until 2004, requests for clinical documentation proceeding from the Judicial Administration on Specialist Care of Pamplona were received in six different centres and were processed independently, with different procedures, and documents were even sent in duplicate, with the resulting work load. This article describes the procedure for processing requests for documentation proceeding from the Law Courts and analyses the requests received. Methods. A circuit was set up to channel the judicial requests that arrived at the Specialist Health Care Centres of Pamplona and at the Juridical Regime Service of the Health System of Navarra-Osasunbidea, and a Higher Technician in Health Documentation was contracted to centralise these requests. A proceedings protocol was established to unify criteria and speed up the process, and a database was designed to register the proceedings. Results. In the course of 2004, 210 requests for documentation by legal requirement were received. Of these, 24 were claims of patrimonial responsibility and 13 were requested by lawyers with the patient's authorisation. The most frequent jurisdictional order was penal (43.33%). Ninety-three point one five percent (93.15%) of the requests proceeded from law courts in the autonomous community of Navarra. The centre that received the greatest number of requests was the "Príncipe de Viana" Consultation Centre (33.73%).The most frequently requested documentation was a copy of reports (109) and a copy of the complete clinical record (39). On two occasions the original clinical record was required. The average time of response was 6.6 days. Conclusions. The centralisation of administration has brought greater agility to the process and homogeneity in the criteria of processing. Less time is involved in preparing and dispatching the documentation, the dispatch of duplicate documents is avoided, the work load has been reduced and the dispersal of documentation is avoided, a situation that

  3. Hypothetical constructs, hypothetical questions, and the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues.

  4. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  5. Expert systems - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

  6. Where to Put the Manicules: A Theory of Expert Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Manicules are hand-drawn symbols used by medieval readers to mark important parts of a text. Knowing where to place manicules is one characteristic of an expert reader. A meta-cognitive theory of expert reading helps to account for what readers know that allows them to place manicules appropriately. This theory proposes that expert readers are…

  7. 45 CFR 1201.10 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony. 1201.10 Section 1201.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES...

  8. Physiological, perceptual, and technical responses to on-court tennis training on hard and clay courts.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar M; Duffield, Rob; Minett, Geoffrey M; Sibte, Narelle; Murphy, Alistair P; Baker, John

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of court surface (clay vs. hard court) on technical, physiological, and perceptual responses to on-court tennis training. Four high-performance junior male players performed 2 identical training sessions on hard and clay courts, respectively. Sessions included both physical conditioning and technical elements as led by the coach. Each session was filmed for later notational analysis of stroke count and error rates. Furthermore, players wore a global positioning satellite device to measure distance covered during each session, while heart rate, countermovement jump distance, and capillary blood measures of metabolites were measured before, during, and after each session. Additionally, a respective coach and athlete rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured after each session. Total duration and distance covered during each session were comparable (p > 0.05; d < 0.20). Although forehand and backhands stroke volume did not differ between sessions (p > 0.05; d < 0.30), large effects for increased unforced and forced errors were present on the hard court (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). Furthermore, large effects for increased heart rate, blood lactate, and RPE values were evident on clay compared with hard courts (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). Additionally, although player and coach RPE on hard courts were similar, there were large effects for coaches to underrate the RPE of players on clay courts (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). In conclusion, training on clay courts results in trends for increased heart rate, lactate, and RPE values, suggesting that sessions on clay courts tend towards higher physiological and perceptual loads than hard courts. Furthermore, coaches seem effective at rating player RPE on hard courts but may underrate the perceived exertion of sessions on clay courts.

  9. A Judicial Perspective on Expert Testimony in Marijuana Driving Cases.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    The decriminalization of marijuana and propagation of marijuana prescribed for medical reasons have resulted in an increase in driving while under the influence of marijuana. Currently, the legal definition of marijuana driving impairment varies by state across the United States. Expert witnesses such as drug recognition experts and medical toxicologists are needed during a discovery to educate attorneys and during a testimony to educate judges and juries. These proceedings provide an overview of the US case law about driving impairment, the current status of the legal thresholds used in the courts for the admission of the medical toxicologist as an expert witness in marijuana driving and related cases, and provides an understanding of evolving issues surrounding the admissibility of their scientific opinion testimony.

  10. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    The authors were involved in a high profile case in the United States District Court involving Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades Agricultural Area in the State of Florida. One of the central issues of the case rested on a theory that all navigable waters of the United States comprised one "unitary" water body, and as such, transfer of water from one navigable water to another did not require any permitting action. Should this theory have prevailed, great precedent would be set regarding inter-basin transfer of volumes of water capable of significantly impact to the ecologic structure and function of all involved basins. Furthermore, the impact would certainly have had demographic implications of great significance. We were asked to serve as an expert witnesses in the case charged with developing a strategy to demonstrate that three large irrigation canals were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct" (language from the U.S. Supreme Court opinion on a related case) from Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake wholly in the continental U.S. Although a totally hydrologic approach could have been taken easily, it was thought better for the legal team to include an aquatic ecologic perspective, a true example of the linkage of the two disciplines into ecohydrology. Together, an argument was crafted to explain to the judge how, in fact, the waters could in no way be "unitary" in character and that they were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct." The fundamentals of the arguments rested on well known and established principles of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was incumbent upon the authors to educate the judge on how to think about hydrologic and ecologic principles. Issues of interest to the judge included a forensic assessment of the hydrologic and ecologic regime of the lake and the original Everglades system when the State of Florida first joined the U.S. While there are anecdotal archives that describe some elements of the system, there are few

  11. Avionic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshani, Forouzan

    1988-01-01

    At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

  12. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., background information provided to experts, and deliberations and formal interactions among experts shall be... and technical views to expert panels as input to any expert elicitation process....

  13. Privacy on thin ice? Considering the California Court of Appeal decision in Johnson v. Superior Court.

    PubMed

    Plosker, J A

    2001-01-01

    In Johnson v. Superior Court, the California Court of Appeal determined that a provision of a contract limiting the discovery of the identity of a sperm donor was against public policy and that the privacy interest did not protect against disclosure of this information. Although the court's analysis of the public policy exception to the enforcement of contracts was unnecessary, the opinion properly balances California's and petitioners' interests against an anonymous donor's privacy right.

  14. Offshore Oil: Supreme Court Ruling Intensified Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a Supreme Court ruling giving the federal government jurisdiction over substantial areas of the outer continental shelf (OCS) which opens the door for a federal program of OCS leasing. (GS)

  15. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  16. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  17. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  18. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  19. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  20. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1485 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... court law. (a) General. We will apply a holding in a United States Court of Appeals decision that we... Ruling. When we determine that a United States Court of Appeals holding conflicts with our interpretation... have published an Acquiescence Ruling to reflect a holding of a United States Court of Appeals on...

  2. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... court law. (a) General. We will apply a holding in a United States Court of Appeals decision that we... Ruling. When we determine that a United States Court of Appeals holding conflicts with our interpretation... have published an Acquiescence Ruling to reflect a holding of a United States Court of Appeals on...

  3. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  4. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  5. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  6. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  7. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  8. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  9. Juvenile Felony Defendants in Criminal Courts. State Court Processing Statistics, 1990-94. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Kevin J.; Smith, Steven K.; Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides statistics about juveniles in the criminal justice system, whether handled as adults in criminal courts or handled in juvenile courts. In the 75 largest U.S. counties, juveniles transferred to criminal courts represented about 1% of all felony defendants. Two thirds of juveniles transferred to criminal court were charged with…

  10. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  11. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  12. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  13. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  14. The admissibility of offender profiling in courtroom: a review of legal issues and court opinions.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Dario; Zappalà, Angelo; Santtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    What is the future of Offender Profiling? Is it an important field of forensic science or is it only a glamorous art? After the trilogy "Daubert-Joiner-Kumho" and after the last version, in 2009, of the Federal Rules of Evidence (F.R.E.), the opinion of American Courts concerning the admissibility of scientific evidence has changed, and the questions above can now have new answers. The change is closely tied to the perceived difference between hard and soft sciences and, in this way, the new gatekeeping role of the Courts also concerns whether offender profiling can be regarded as scientific evidence and if offender profiling should be admitted in the Courtroom as scientific evidence. In this work we present a comprehensive review concerning the most important Court opinions in U.S.A, U.K., Canada and Australia, about reliability and admissibility of offender profiling, in its different forensic application, as scientific evidence, and we suggest how and when an expert witness in the field of offender profiling can, in the light of these opinions, be admitted in Court.

  15. Constitutional Court of South Africa overturns lower court's decision on the right to "sufficient water".

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    On 8 October 2009, the Constitutional Court of South Africa overturned the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which addressed the proper interpretation of Section 27(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa (Constitution)--namely, everyone's right to have access to sufficient water.

  16. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  17. Drug Court Effectiveness: A Matched Cohort Study in the Dane County Drug Treatment Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Drug treatment courts (DTCs) are widely viewed as effective diversion programs for drug-involved offenders; however, previous studies frequently used flawed comparison groups. In the current study, the author compared rates of recidivism for drug court participants to rates for a traditionally adjudicated comparison group matched on potentially…

  18. Connecting to the Courts: A Teacher's Guide to the Wisconsin Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone de Nie, Karen, Ed.; Todd, Amanda K., Ed.; Hess, Diana, Ed.

    In February 2000, the Wisconsin Supreme Court, the State Bar of Wisconsin, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Curriculum and Instruction brought together 28 high school teachers from around the state together for a 2-day intensive workshop on teaching about federal and state courts. A second institute was held in February 2001…

  19. Minnesota in the Supreme Court. Lessons on Supreme Court Cases Involving Minnesotans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Jennifer

    This document focuses on cases brought by Minnesotans to the U.S. Supreme Court. The five lessons featured are designed to provide secondary classroom teachers with material needed to teach each unit. Lessons cover Supreme Court proceedings, free press issues, freedom of religion, abortion rights, and privilege against self-incrimination.…

  20. The Warren Court and the Burger Court: Some Comparisons of Education-Related Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)

  1. Explanation production by expert planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

  2. The readability of expert reports for non-scientist report-users: reports of DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Julian, Roberta; Kelty, Sally F; Kemp, Nenagh; Kirkbride, K Paul

    2014-04-01

    DNA evidence can be extremely compelling. With ongoing scientific advances and applications of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system, it is increasingly important that police, lawyers, and judges recognise both the limitations of DNA evidence and the strength of the evidence in particular cases. Because most forensic sciences are formally communicated via expert reports, we analysed the readability of 68 such reports of DNA evidence from 6 of 8 Australian jurisdictions. We conducted content analyses using three categories: content and sequence, language, and format. Categories contained qualitative and quantitative items drawn from theory and past research. Report styles differed by jurisdiction and by main audience - police and the courts. Reports for police were brief and few links were made between sections in these reports. Reports for courts were less brief and used either legal or scientific styles. Common sections in reports for courts included: the scientist's specialised knowledge; laboratory accreditation information; item list; results; and notes on interpretation. Sections were often not in a logical sequence, due to the use of appendices. According to Flesch Reading Ease scores, reports for police had language that was fairly difficult, and reports for courts, difficult. Difficulty was compounded by the use of specialist terms. Reports for police and the appendices of reports for court often used very small font and single line spacing. Many reports for court contained tables that spanned several pages. Suggestions based on theory and past research are provided to assist scientists to enhance the readability of reports for non-scientists.

  3. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  4. Make yourself an expert.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm.

  5. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert

  6. Supreme Court refuses to review clinic access law; Second Appeals Court upholds statute.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    On June 19, the US Supreme Court refused to review "Woodall v. Reno," a challenge to the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) filed in Virginia by an anti-choice individual. FACE prohibits the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing or obtaining reproductive health services. By denying the petition for "certiorari," the High Court let stand the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in February. In that ruling, the midlevel federal court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of two of the eight anti-choice lawsuits challenging FACE, "Woodall v. Reno" and "American Life League v. Reno," which were consolidated by the appeals panel. Although plaintiffs in the first case filed a request for review by the High Court within days of the appellate court ruling, plaintiffs in the latter case waited until May to do so. The Department of Justice, which is defending the federal statute, and CRLP and the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, who are intervening on behalf of women and health care providers, will file their opposition to the review by July 26. The Justices will then decide to hear the case. On June 23, a three-judge panel for the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed a lower court's decision to dismiss "Cheffer v. Reno," a facial challenge by Florida anti-choice activists seeking to invalidate FACE. The appeals court had ruled the law did not infringe on First Amendment rights, and the panel rejected the argument that Congress had exceeded its authority under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution by finding that the measure "protects and regulates commercial enterprises." The appeals court accepted an "amicus" brief filed by CRLP and NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund on behalf of the National Abortion Federation, the National Organization of Women, physicians, and women's health clinics, but denied their request to intervene in the

  7. Computer-Assisted Handwriting Analysis: Interaction with Legal Issues in U.S. Courts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Kenneth A.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Advances in the development of computer-assisted handwriting analysis have led to the consideration of a computational system by courts in the United States. Computer-assisted handwriting analysis has been introduced in the context of Frye or Daubert hearings conducted to determine the admissibility of handwriting testimony by questioned document examiners, as expert witnesses, in civil and criminal proceedings. This paper provides a comparison of scientific and judicial methods, and examines concerns over reliability of handwriting analysis expressed in judicial decisions. Recently, the National Research Council assessed that “the scientific basis for handwriting comparisons needs to be strengthened”. Recent studies involving computer-assisted handwriting analysis are reviewed in light of the concerns expressed by the judiciary and National Research Council. A future potential role for computer-assisted handwriting analysis in the courts is identified.

  8. 77 FR 71687 - Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Court Orders Prior to July 22, 1998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation, or any court- approved property settlement agreement incident to any court decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation (hereinafter ``court order'')...

  9. Court upholds whistleblower's firing over plasma tests.

    PubMed

    1999-09-03

    The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has upheld the firing of a lab technician from [name removed] Corp. over an injunction she filed regarding protocols for blood plasma testing. The technician claimed that blood plasma from outside vendors was contaminated by saline and should be screened using total protein tests. This test can help prevent false negatives for HIV and hepatitis that may result from saline contamination. The technician accused [name removed] of falsely representing the plasma as safe to the Federal government. The court held that [name removed] did not misrepresent itself because it complied with all required regulations and could represent their products as safe. Further, the court held the technician's firing was not improper because her whistleblowing "verges on being frivolous", and therefore was not protected conduct under the False Claims Act.

  10. Superfund awakes in state supreme courts

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.

    1998-01-01

    Superfund, often referred to as a sleeping giant, is waking up in state courts with rulings the insurance industry is on the hook for a large share of the nation`s environmental cleanup. While Congress has been quagmired in legislative reauthorization attempts, 40% of the state supreme courts (20 states) have passed laws favoring policyholders of comprehensive general liability insurance (CGL) to be compensated for their cleanup and litigation costs. These rulings vary in terms from state to state, but their collective action is giving the insurance industry grave concerns because of the increase in settlements with CGL policyholders.

  11. Internet free speech wins court test.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-06-21

    A U.S. District Court ruled that key provisions of the Communications Decency Act of 1996 are unconstitutional because they violate the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. The decision gives the Internet First Amendment protection instead of imposing a more restrictive standard. The Court noted that there are effective means of keeping inappropriate material away from children without restricting electronic communication among adults. The case was initiated by many companies and organizations, including the American Civil Liberties Union and AIDS organizations.

  12. The nature of expertise in fingerprint matching: experts can do a lot with a little.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of "information" available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect-experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints-but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony.

  13. The Nature of Expertise in Fingerprint Matching: Experts Can Do a Lot with a Little

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew B.; Tangen, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of “information” available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect—experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints—but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony

  14. Treatment Services in Adult Drug Courts: Report on the 1999 National Drug Court Treatment Survey. Drug Courts Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pexton, Elizabeth A.; Gossweiler, Robert

    In October 1999, National Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC), in cooperation with the Office of Justice Programs, Drug Courts Program Office and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, developed and distributed a questionnaire designed to describe substance abuse…

  15. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

  16. Unfitness to stand trial decision-making in the extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

    2014-06-01

    In the small number of trials for matters such as genocide and crimes against humanity that have taken place before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, by 2014 three occasions had arisen in which the fitness of the accused persons to participate in their trials had become contentious. This is hardly surprising given that the key period of Khmer Rouge government occurred a very long while ago--between 1975 and 1979. The accused persons are all aged. In two instances, the Trial Chamber of the Courts of its own motion sought expert evaluations of the accused persons' fitness to stand trial and, promptly, upon receipt of such reports, determined them to be fit by reference to criteria utilised by the Appeal Chamber of the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY). In the other instance an accused person, leng Thirith, was found unfit to stand trial and a range of important issues was traversed as to the measures that can properly be taken to try to render a person fit for trial and how legitimate the imposition of detention for that purpose is, and then how legitimate encroachments on a person's civil liberties are to monitor them if there is only a remote possibility that their mental state might improve. It is likely that the balance adopted by the Supreme Court Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia in making significant efforts to render an accused person fit for trial and then in continuing to monitor their mental state when such efforts do not bear fruit, instead of simply releasing them back into the community, will stand as an important precedent for future occasions under international criminal law when issues of fitness to stand trial and how they should be handled arise.

  17. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  18. The expert Neandertal mind.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive anthropology, and cognitive archaeology are combined to yield a picture of Neandertal cognition in which expert performance via long-term working memory is the centerpiece of problem solving. This component of Neandertal cognition appears to have been modern in scope. However, Neandertals' working memory capacity, which is the ability to hold a variety of information in active attention, may not have been as large as that of modern humans. This characteristic helps us understand features of the archaeological record, such as the rarity of innovation, and allows us to make empirically based speculations about Neandertal personality.

  19. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  20. WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD DRIVE - Hamilton Field, Tennis Courts, Escolta Avenue at Sixth Street, & Crescent Drive near South Oakwood Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  1. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  2. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  3. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  4. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  5. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  6. 7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Lee, Patricia A; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status hearings in court. In contrast, participants who were low risk performed equivalently regardless of the court hearings schedule. This study prospectively matches drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based on an assessment of their risk status and compares outcomes to clients randomly assigned to the standard hearings schedule. Results confirmed that participants who were high risk and matched to biweekly hearings had better during-treatment outcomes than participants assigned to status hearings as usual. These findings provide confirmation of the risk principle in drug courts and yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug courts.

  8. 96. CENTRAL COURT. MERCER MUSEUM, FROM ENTRY LEVEL SAME VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. CENTRAL COURT. MERCER MUSEUM, FROM ENTRY LEVEL SAME VIEW AS PA-107-67. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. Children, Special Needs and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowicz, Jack

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses legal developments relating to the 1981 Education Act in Great Britain, focusing on court interpretation in the areas of parental rights and participation, wider integration of students with special needs into ordinary schools, defining a special educational need, reassessments, and repayment of fees. Possible future trends…

  10. Supreme Court Deals Blow to Student Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynn, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Covers the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, which gave principals the right to censor school publications. In "One Student's Pursuit of Journalism," Alexandra Salas relates one student journalist's experience, including internships, from high school through the end of college. (LS)

  11. Court Schools: Embracing a Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paul A.; Catania, Kathryn; Nofziger, Sam

    2012-01-01

    It is ironic that the population of students on which educators have the most surveillance, either through ubiquitous video cameras or through the vigilant presence of probation officers, have been the most invisible in many educational practices. English learners who are incarcerated youth and attend county court schools throughout California are…

  12. Courting the Best for Your Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duques, Dawn Brill

    2007-01-01

    How can a person be certain that the potential trustee he is considering is right for his board? How can that candidate be certain that one's institution and board are right for him? Answers to these questions are vital. Courting a candidate for the board of a private college or university means spending time and money, and with budgets…

  13. Sexual Harassment: The Supreme Court Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Richard L.; Hughes, William

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court, in its June 1998 "Gebser" decision, held that school districts cannot be sued for damages under Title IX unless a school official knows about a teacher's sexual abuse of a student and fails to stop it. However, districts must comply with Title IX requirements and follow appropriate guidelines. (MLH)

  14. The Supreme Court and Public Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Scott

    1989-01-01

    Uses recent freedom of expression cases to explore the effect of public opinion and pressure on U.S. Supreme Court rulings, through a simulation for secondary students. Students are assigned a pressure group to represent, discuss the facts in small groups, and formulate their decisions and arguments for class discussion. (LS)

  15. 31 CFR 225.11 - Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE ACCEPTANCE OF BONDS SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS...

  16. The Courts and Student Rights -- Procedural Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phay, Robert E.

    This paper traces the evolution of student rights and the judicial protection of these rights through numerous court cases. The author outlines the minimum standards of due process required in disciplinary proceedings and discusses cases that point up (1) the required specificity of rules on student conduct, (2) the requirements of notice to…

  17. Professors' Freedoms under Assault in the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent court rulings have challenged the long-held concept of academic freedom for faculty members. As an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Kevin J. Renken says he felt obliged to speak out about his belief that administrators there were mishandling a National Science Foundation grant to him…

  18. Bringing the High Court to High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Jamin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Marshall-Brennan Fellowship constitutional literacy project wherein 30 pairs of law students at the Washington College of Law teach a constitutional rights and responsibilities course to high school students in Washington, D.C., and Maryland public high schools. Students are also taken to hear oral arguments at the Supreme Court.…

  19. Status of Cases in the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The status as of October 9, 1986 of higher education-related Supreme Court litigation is outlined concerning: accreditation, affirmative action, asbestos, bar examinations, collective bargaining, creationism, racial discrimination, infectious disease, liquor sales, pensions, pregnancy benefits, revocation of degree, sexual harassment, and student…

  20. Supreme Court Upholds Religious Liberty: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews a set of Supreme Court rulings that may dramatically alter the landscape of First Amendment jurisprudence: "Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah"; "Jones v. Clear Creek Independent School District"; "Lambs Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District"; and Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills…

  1. Evolution, Creationism, and the Courts: 20 Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…

  2. Supreme Court in Review--1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwendolyn H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the Supreme Court declared five acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. An overview of these decisions is offered in this article. It opens with a discussion of those acts that violated the First Amendment. These decisions dealt with the constitutionality of Arizona's "official English" statute; the Communications…

  3. 78 FR 14017 - Courts of Indian Offenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... are Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe. The tribes to be removed from... known as CFR Courts): The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe and the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians. This rule... exercise that jurisdiction. The Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe...

  4. Court Decisions and the Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Federal judge discusses role of federal courts in implementing laws concerning welfare of citizens; especially helping delivery of social services in state, mental and penal institutions. Gives various examples of real cases to illustrate his argument. Appeals to people working in social services to do their duty conscientiously. Based on speech…

  5. Avoiding the Court of First Resort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Dennis Dailey

    1981-01-01

    Many people in our society turn to courts for the resolution of every problem. By delegating to judges the authority to declare our legal rights we diminish our individual and collective liberties. This trend of legalism can have important consequences for school administrators. Rather than resist or evade the law, school officials can obviate…

  6. 78 FR 49120 - Courts of Indian Offenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 11 RIN 1076-AF16 Courts of Indian Offenses AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is confirming...

  7. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  8. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  9. The Burger Court in Factorial Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Thomas A.

    The attitudes of Supreme Court justices toward freedom of the press and ways in which their voting patterns affect the press were investigated in a study involving an examination of 235 nonunanimous decisions (G-cases), 199 nonunanimous civil liberties cases (C-cases), and 23 nonunanimous freedom of the press cases (P-cases) decided by the Burger…

  10. The High Court, Privacy and Teenage Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswinger, George L.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy of a recent High Court case reveals how a potpourri of legal input and reasoning resulted in a decision that could strike a blow for both understanding and positive action in the emotionally-laden, controversial area of teenage sexuality. (Author)

  11. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential.

  12. Veterans' psychiatric benefits: enter courts and attorneys.

    PubMed

    Sparr, L F; White, R; Friedman, M J; Wiles, D B

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the Veterans Judicial Review Act (VJRA) was signed into law, ending more than a century of Congressional measures that kept veterans' benefits claims completely out of the appellate court system. Before this new law, any decision made by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) about a veteran's claim was final, and there was no recourse for independent judgment of an appeal. The legislation modified the existing Board of Veterans Appeals (BVA) to enhance its independence from the Veterans' Administration and established a new Court of Veterans Appeals (CVA) with jurisdiction to review BVA decisions. Veterans' benefits proceedings have not only been insulated from the courts, they also have been undesirable to private attorneys, because since 1864 Congress has prohibited attorneys from charging more than $10 to advocate a VA disability claim. The new law allows attorneys to represent veterans before the CVA and receive appropriate remuneration. In 1991, the number of veterans was estimated at 26,897,000, and VA disability compensation programs spent $9.6 billion. Currently, there are about 2,179,000 veterans receiving service-connected monetary compensation; approximately 13.5 percent (293,200) have a primary psychiatric disability. The CVA is a specialized Article I court that has seven justices and sits in Washington, D.C. In its formative years, the Court has reached decisions that have had an impact on the veterans' psychiatric benefits examination process. Now more than ever, non-VA psychiatrists may be asked to offer probative opinions in veterans' benefits proceedings. The authors review VA psychiatric disability procedures and, using case examples, discuss both precedent decisions involving VA psychiatric claimants and the evolving standards of judicial review.

  13. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  14. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  15. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  16. Survey of Single-Judge Municipal Court Libraries in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Cornelia

    In this age of limited resources, municipal courts scrutinize their library budgets with a view to maintaining adequate legal information sources and services at the lowest possible cost. Some courts relying on the authority of the Ohio Revised Code Section 2303.201 assess additional court costs to fund the acquisition and maintenance of…

  17. A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    This book tells the story of one year in the life of a juvenile court classroom. The Chicago (Illinois) juvenile court is the largest site of incarcerated youth in the world, and was the first state court provided exclusively for children. The experiences of the detention center school, focusing on the classroom of "Mr. B.," a committed…

  18. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR... performs such other duties as the Court may direct. The Clerk is an officer of the Court....

  19. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR... performs such other duties as the Court may direct. The Clerk is an officer of the Court....

  20. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  1. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him...

  2. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him...

  3. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him...

  4. Youth Court: A National Movement. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Youth courts spread rapidly around the country in the 1990s, sharing important goals with law-related education (LRE), including a strong potential to improve the citizenship skills of young people. Youth court is a general term describing courts that involve young people in the sentencing of their peers. This technical bulletin provides an…

  5. 100th Anniversary of the Juvenile Court, 1899-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This issue commemorates the 100th anniversary of the creation of the juvenile court and the recognition that the developmental differences between children and adults require differences in the ways they are treated by the court system. The feature article, "An Evolving Juvenile Court: On the Front Lines with Judge J. Dean Lewis," reviews the…

  6. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  7. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  8. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  9. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  10. 19 CFR 162.50 - Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition. 162.50....50 Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition. (a) Sale. Forfeited property decreed by the court for... cleared for sale. (c) Destruction—(1) Proceeds of sale not sufficient. Property forfeited under a...

  11. Two Models of the Supreme Court in School Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Geel, Tyll

    This chapter suggests that a court of review, such as the United State Supreme Court, might follow either of two judicial strategies, based on a model of restraint or a model of activism. Following a discussion of these two models, the author assesses the work of the U.S. Supreme Court during the tenure of Chief Justices Warren and Burger in light…

  12. Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.…

  13. The New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1975-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated three areas: (1) factors related to the court's determination of foster care status or availability of children for adoption; (2) the extent of agreement between agency recommendations and court orders; and (3) the impact of the court review on moving children out of foster care. (SDH)

  14. High School Food Courts: A New Evolution in Student Dining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, George

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how traditional high school cafeterias have changed in recent years into food courts and dining areas usually found in shopping malls. Areas examined include food court design, traffic patterns, safety and after-hours usage, and kitchens and serving areas. How one school district turned its food court system into a successful…

  15. Enhanced algorithms for enterprise expert search system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokanov, Valentin; Romanov, Dmitry; Tsibulsky, Valentin

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of our enterprise expert search system application to the task introduced at the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) in 2007. The expert search system is based on analysis of content and communications topology in an enterprise information space. An optimal set of weighting coefficients for three query-candidate associating algorithms is selected for achieving the best search efficiency on the search collection. The obtained performance proved to be better than at most TREC participants. The hypothesis of additional efficiency improvement by means of query classification is proposed.

  16. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

  17. Court Efficiency Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Grassley, Chuck [R-IA

    2013-04-10

    04/10/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2566-2567) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Weakening forensic science in Spain: from expert evidence to documentary evidence.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan; Pardo-Iranzo, Virginia; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2012-07-01

    An amendment in 2002 to the Spanish Code of Criminal Procedure converted into documentary evidence the expert reports prepared by official laboratories aimed at determining the nature, weight, and purity of seized drugs. In most cases, experts are spared from appearance before the courts. This is likely to be extended to other forensic fields. After an overview of criminalistic identification in current forensic science, the objectivity and reliability concepts used by jurists and scientists are considered by comparing the paradigm of individualization with that of likelihood. Subsequently, a detailed critical study is made on the above-mentioned Spanish legal reform, and a comparison is made with the decision on the Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts case as ruled by the Supreme Court of the United States. Although the reform is in compliance with the Spanish Constitution, it is at odds with science, in particular regarding the logic underpinning the scientific evaluation of evidence.

  19. Robotics and expert systems. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a workshop on robotics and expert systems. Topics considered at the conference include: symbolic computation expert systems for software productivity; expert systems, practices; expert systems, methods; and, technology needs and productivity.

  20. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  1. Introduction: Progress and issues in drug treatment courts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lana D; Scarpitti, Frank R

    2002-01-01

    The first drug treatment court began in Miami, Florida in 1989, in direct response to the backlog of court cases for drug possession and trafficking. By mid-2001, there were 700 operational drug treatment courts and 400 more in the planning stages in the United States. In addition to providing an overview of the growth and development of drug treatment courts in the United States, this special issue examines their development in Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The primary focus is the evaluation research conducted to date, which identifies some of the critical unresolved issues facing drug treatment courts.

  2. Health courts: an alternative to traditional tort law.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    The current adversarial tort-based system of adjudicating malpractice claims is flawed. Alternate methods of compensation for birth injuries related to oxygen deprivation or mechanical injury are being utilized in Virginia and Florida. Although utilization of both of these schemes is limited, and they are not without problems in application, both have been successful in reducing the number of malpractice claims in the tort system and in reducing malpractice premiums. While the Florida and Virginia programs are primarily focused on compensation, other models outside the US focus include compensation as well as enhanced dispute resolution and potential for clinical practice change through peer review. Experts in the fields of law and public policy in the United States have evaluated a variety of approaches and have proposed models for administrative health courts that would provide both compensation and dispute resolution for medical and nursing malpractice claims. These alternative models are based on transparency and disclosure, with just compensation for injuries, and opportunities for improvements in patient safety.

  3. SENLEX: Sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  4. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  5. Systematic review of the impact of adult drug treatment courts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Randall T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. correctional system is overburdened by individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll in individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug court treatment programs (DTCs) are present in over 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States, as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes available descriptive information on representative drug treatment court populations, summarizes observational studies of drug court participants, and specifically reviews available experimental effectiveness literature on drug treatment courts. The review concludes by examining limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on drug treatment court interventions. Review of non-experimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of drug treatment courts point toward benefit vs. traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of drug treatment courts are scant (three identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues arise in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate consistent effect upon re-arrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in drug treatment court vs. typical adjudication. The two studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the drug treatment court group vs. those typically adjudicated. PMID:20478542

  6. Court redefines standard for HIV transmission risk.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Alabama's policy of segregating inmates by HIV status. The Alabama prison system tests all entering inmates; those who are HIV-positive are sent to one of two facilities. A range of prison services, including vocational training and sports competitions is often denied to them. The Department of Corrections argued that this policy has led to one of the lowest seroconversion rates of any State correctional system. The Court's ruling is a shift in its attitude on "significant" risk of HIV transmission in disallowing people from participation in employment, public services, or public accommodations. Rulings in dissenting cases are reviewed. The American Civil Liberties Union, representing the HIV-positive inmates, called the policy of segregating inmates blatant discrimination.

  7. Home Court Is Where the Heart Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Home-court advantage is considered as the edge that sports teams seem to gain when they play in their own arenas. Exactly why it happens, though, is a long-enduring mystery. It is a long-enduring puzzle that psychologists and coaches are at a loss to explain. Fans who paint their faces, taunt their opponents, and scream their throats raw may think…

  8. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  9. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  10. Georgia Supreme Court invalidates involuntary sterilization statute.

    PubMed

    Harper, T D

    1983-11-01

    In the US, the concept of eugenics has been limited to restrictions on the reproductive capabilities of criminals and the mentally defective. Moreover, the rights of persons subject to this restriction have been enhanced by recent judicial recognition of procreation as a fundamental right. Constitutional challenges have been mounted on the grounds that sterilization statutes constitute cruel or unusual punishment, a violation of the Equal Protection clause, an unlawful delegation of legislative or judicial powers, a bill of attainder, or a violation of the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These challenges have resulted in a reduction in the number of state-mandated sterilizations. This paper reviews the Georgia Supreme Court's recent invalidation of a 1970 statute authorizing the sterilization of mentally incompetent persons (O.C.G.A. 31-20-3). Motes v. Hall County Department of Family and Children Services, filed on behalf of a 21-year old retarded woman, challenged the statute as a violation of Motes' constitutional rights to due process and equal protection and contended that the state was required to prove the necessity of sterilization by more than a simple preponderance of the evidence. The Georgia Supreme Court negated both the sterilization order and the statute upon which it was based. In its decision, the Court recognized that an intrusion upon so fundamental a right as the ability to bear children requires proof by the state of at least "clear and convincing evidence" of the necessity of such an act.

  11. Perceived deterrence and outcomes in drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Foltz, Carol; Lee, Patricia A; Patapis, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    According to perceived-deterrence theory, the likelihood that an offender will engage in drug use or illegal activity is influenced by the perceived certainty of being detected for infractions or recognized for accomplishments, the perceived certainty of receiving sanctions for infractions or rewards for accomplishments, and the anticipated magnitude of the sanctions and rewards. This study evaluated drug court participants' perceived deterrence at monthly intervals during their enrollment in drug court. Exploratory cluster analysis (N=255) on the longitudinal scores yielded five subtypes of drug offenders characterized either by consistently elevated perceived-deterrence scores, consistently moderate scores, consistently low scores, increasing scores, or decreasing scores. The best outcomes were associated with consistently elevated scores, whereas the worst outcomes were associated with scores that declined over time as the participants became accustomed to the program. The clusters also differed in predicted directions on demographic variables. The correlational design does not permit inferences of causality; however, the results lend credence to perceived deterrence as a potential explanatory mechanism for the effects of drug courts.

  12. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  13. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  14. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of…

  15. Preparing Children for Court: Effects of a Model Court Education Program on Children's Anticipatory Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Rebecca; Saywitz, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined whether a pretrial preparation program, consisting of legal knowledge education, stress inoculation training, and a mock trial, is associated with decreased anticipatory anxiety of child witnesses. One hundred and ninety-three 4- to 17-year-olds who were awaiting impending legal proceedings attended Kids' Court School in Las Vegas, NV, one to two weeks before their court appearances. Participants completed a measure of anticipatory court-related anxiety before and after the intervention. As predicted, children's anticipatory anxiety decreased significantly from pretest to posttest. Results demonstrate the promise of a brief, unbiased, standardized program for reducing system-induced stress on child witnesses, while maintaining the integrity of the legal process. This study serves as a springboard to guide future research, practice, policy, and implementation on a larger scale.

  16. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  17. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  18. Are moral philosophers moral experts?

    PubMed

    Gesang, Bernward

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I examine the question of whether ethicists are moral experts. I call people moral experts if their moral judgments are correct with high probability and for the right reasons. I defend three theses, while developing a version of the coherence theory of moral justification based on the differences between moral and nonmoral experience: The answer to the question of whether there are moral experts depends on the answer to the question of how to justify moral judgments. Deductivism and the coherence theory both provide some support for the opinion that moral experts exist in some way. I maintain - within the framework of a certain kind of coherence theory - that moral philosophers are 'semi-experts'.

  19. Clara Harrison Town and the origins of the first institutional commitment law for the "feebleminded": psychologists as expert diagnosticians.

    PubMed

    Farreras, Ingrid G

    2014-11-01

    The first law providing for the commitment of "feeble-minded" individuals in the United States was passed in 1915, in the state of Illinois. House Bill 655 not only allowed for the permanent, involuntary institutionalization of feeble-minded individuals, but it shifted the commitment and discharge authority from the institution superintendents to the courts. Clara Harrison Town, a student of Lightner Witmer, and the state psychologist at the second largest institution for feeble-minded individuals in the country, was instrumental in this law passing and in ensuring that psychologists, for the first time, be viewed as court "experts" when testifying as to the feeble mindedness of individuals.

  20. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTSON, ANGELA A.; ST LAWRENCE, JANET S.; MCCLUSKEY, D. LEE

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals’ perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated into the services provided to drug court participants. Then, surveys were completed by 235 drug court participants to assess whether their sexual risk behaviors affirmed the need for such an intervention. The survey also assessed demographic characteristics, drug use prior to program entry, HIV knowledge, and condom attitudes. The relationship between duration in the drug court program and sexual risk behavior was also examined. Implications for the development and delivery of HIV risk reduction interventions within drug court programs are discussed. PMID:23658472

  1. Use of court records for supplementing occupational disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, E; Landrigan, P

    1987-01-01

    To conduct surveillance of occupationally related health events, the New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services analyzes death certificates and workers' compensation claims. In an effort to bolster these limited data sources, a previously unrecognized data-set comprised of court records was explored. Court records obtained from the Federal District Court proved to be a readily accessible and detailed source of information for identifying suspected cases of asbestos-related disease and potential sources of asbestos exposure. PMID:2959164

  2. Supreme court of Canada's "Beautiful Mind" case.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; O'Reilly, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada's (SCC) first case involving capacity and the refusal of involuntary psychiatric treatment involved a self described "professor" who had been referred to as "Canada's Beautiful Mind". He had been found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder for uttering death threats. While considered incapable of making a treatment decision by psychiatrists and a review board, three levels of court, including the SCC, found him to be capable. "Professor" Starson therefore continued to refuse treatment for his psychosis and spent over seven years detained because he refused the treatment required to become well enough to be released. This refusal of treatment is permitted under Ontario law, although it is not permitted in some other Canadian provinces, and in many other countries. This article describes Starson's situation, Ontario's law with respect to consent to treatment and relevant Canadian constitutional and criminal law. It provides an analysis of the Consent and Capacity Board decision and the court appeals. Implications from Starson's case are analyzed in relation to what happened to Starson, human rights and comparative law pertaining to involuntary patients' refusal of treatment, especially their relevance to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and laws in some other countries. Many Canadian and foreign jurisdictions where laws apparently accord with human rights codes do not allow a person to refuse the treatment required to restore their liberty. We conclude that a law that allows a person with a mental illness to be incarcerated indefinitely in a "hospital" because needed psychiatric treatment cannot, by law, be provided is not justifiable in a caring democratic jurisdiction.

  3. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  4. Filtering information from human experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

  5. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  6. The reasonable woman standard: effects on sexual harassment court decisions.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elissa L; Kulik, Carol T; Bourhis, Anne C

    2004-02-01

    Some federal courts have used a reasonable woman standard rather than the traditional reasonable man or reasonable person standard to determine whether hostile environment sexual harassment has occurred. The current research examined the impact of the reasonable woman standard on federal district court decisions, controlling for other factors found to affect sexual harassment court decisions. Results indicated that there was a weak relationship between whether a case followed a reasonable woman precedent-setting case and the likelihood that the court decision favored the plaintiff. The implications of our findings for individuals and organizations involved in sexual harassment claims are discussed.

  7. Indigenous Partner Violence, Indigenous Sentencing Courts, and Pathways to Desistance.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Elena; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-09-13

    Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior. Drawing from interviews with 30 Indigenous offenders, we explore the ways in which the courts can motivate Indigenous partner violence offenders on pathways to desistence.

  8. Do Specialty Courts Achieve Better Outcomes for Children in Foster Care than General Courts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Acquah, Kofi F.; Blevins, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effects of unified family and drug treatment courts (DTCs) on the resolution of cases involving foster care children and the resulting effects on school performance. Method: The first analytic step was to assess the impacts of presence of unified and DTCs in North Carolina counties on time children spent in…

  9. Youth Courts and Their Educational Value: An Examination of Youth Courts in Chester, Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael H.; Gold, Eva; Peralta, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The Stoneleigh Foundation of Philadelphia has historically focused its strategic investments on improving outcomes for youth involved or at risk of involvement in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Stoneleigh began its support for youth courts by providing a fellowship award from 2009 to 2011 to public interest lawyer Gregory Volz to…

  10. Sexual Science and Sexual Forensics in 1920s Germany: Albert Moll as (S)Expert

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Using court records involving the expert testimony of the Berlin sexologist Albert Moll, my article demonstrates that during the early 1920s a shift in the ‘epistemologies of justice’ concerning the adjudication of sex crimes took place within German courtrooms. Namely, presiding judges considered a greater number of sexual acts as punishable, despite no change in the laws themselves. Central to my argument is the role of expert testimony in practice and its critical reception. By focusing upon the rhetorical strategies presented by attorneys, judges and expert witnesses (as well as defendants themselves and their relatives), it illustrates the functions of expert and tacit knowledge in court, which were often not mutually exclusive. Moll’s stature also enabled him to translate his scientific–medical expertise into state support for his testimonies, as well as the rebuilding of an international community of sexological authorities. It was only under Moll’s leadership that the First International Sexology Congress could take place in 1926, an event that marked the apex of his prestige. PMID:23002293

  11. Sexual science and sexual forensics in 1920s Germany: Albert Moll as (S)expert.

    PubMed

    Conn, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    Using court records involving the expert testimony of the Berlin sexologist Albert Moll, my article demonstrates that during the early 1920s a shift in the 'epistemologies of justice' concerning the adjudication of sex crimes took place within German courtrooms. Namely, presiding judges considered a greater number of sexual acts as punishable, despite no change in the laws themselves. Central to my argument is the role of expert testimony in practice and its critical reception. By focusing upon the rhetorical strategies presented by attorneys, judges and expert witnesses (as well as defendants themselves and their relatives), it illustrates the functions of expert and tacit knowledge in court, which were often not mutually exclusive. Moll's stature also enabled him to translate his scientific-medical expertise into state support for his testimonies, as well as the rebuilding of an international community of sexological authorities. It was only under Moll's leadership that the First International Sexology Congress could take place in 1926, an event that marked the apex of his prestige.

  12. Organic Text Authors Charge Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the recent controversy involving two organic chemistry textbooks. The charge of plagiarism and the court litigations are the object of interest in the chemical community since many prominant scientists are planned as witnesses. (SA)

  13. Child Welfare and the Courts: A Statewide Study with Implications for Professional Development, Practice, and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Alberta J.; Steib, Sue D.

    2005-01-01

    Much anecdotal information exists about problems in courts adjudicating child welfare (CW) cases. However, little empirical research across courts, court divisions, and CW cases exists. Method: This study reports the results of a two-stage study of courts and the CW system. Stage 1 used direct, systematic court observations to identify critical…

  14. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  15. In the Best Interests of the Child: Social Work in the Family Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles

    This manual was designed to familiarize social workers with the dramatically restructured family court practices in order to prepare them for a family court appearance. Chapter I presents a brief history of the family court and describes such aspects of the family court as confidentiality of proceedings, impact of a court record on the individual,…

  16. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  17. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  18. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  19. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  20. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  1. High court nominee confirmed by Senate committee.

    PubMed

    1994-07-22

    On July 19, 1994, the 18-member US Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approved President Clinton's nominee for Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court, Chief Judge Stephen Breyer. If confirmed by the full Senate, Judge Breyer will replace recently retired Justice Harry Blackmun, author of the Roe vs. Wade decision. When asked during the proceedings about whether a line could be drawn to determine a state's interest in the regulation of abortion services at different points during pregnancy, Judge Breyer replied that the finding in Roe vs. Wade has been the law for at least 21 years and that the law was recently upheld in Planned Parenthood vs. Casey. He refused to answer specific questions on how the law applies since he anticipates that those questions will be the subject of litigation in the future. During his career, Judge Breyer was involved in 2 abortion-related cases. In one, he joined an opinion which struck down restrictions on abortion counseling and referrals by family planning clinics receiving federal funds. In the other, he dissented from a court reversal of dismissal of a challenge to Massachusetts's parental involvement requirement. The only heated exchange during the confirmation hearing occurred when the Judge was asked if he would consider it a conflict of interest to rule in environmental pollution cases since he has holdings in Lloyds of London, which insures clients against asbestos and pollution claims.

  2. Forensic physicians and written evidence: witness statements v. expert reports.

    PubMed

    Choong, Kartina A; Barrett, Martin

    2014-02-01

    When assisting the courts in criminal proceedings, the work of forensic physicians are leaning more towards the preparation of written evidence rather than the giving of oral evidence in person. For this, they may be asked to serve either as professional witnesses or expert witnesses. These 2 roles have nevertheless been a constant source of confusion among forensic physicians. In view of this, the article aims to highlight the similarities and differences between these 2 roles particularly in relation to the preparation of written evidence. It will take a close look at the forms of written evidence which forensic physicians are expected to produce in those distinct capacities and the attending duties, evidentiary rules and legal liabilities. Through this, the work aspires to assist forensic physicians undertake those responsibilities on a more informed footing.

  3. SENLEX: sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  5. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  6. Primary Care Pediatricians' Experience, Comfort and Competence in the Evaluation and Management of Child Maltreatment: Do We Need Child Abuse Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy G.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the self-reported experience, comfort and competence of primary care pediatricians in evaluating and managing child maltreatment (CM), in rendering opinions regarding the likelihood of CM, and in providing court testimony. We examined pediatricians' need for expert consultation when evaluating possible maltreatment. Methods:…

  7. Selecting Supreme Court Justices: A Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James H.

    2006-01-01

    The ABA Division for Public Education asked a panel of experts--Joyce Baugh, Mary Dudziak, Michael Gerhardt, Timothy Johnson, John Maltese, Mark Moller, Jason Roberts, Elliot Slotnick, and David Yalof--to respond to questions about the judicial nomination process. These questions touched on the balance between the president and the Senate, the…

  8. School Library Censorship Comes before the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemerer, Frank R.; Hirsh, Stephanie Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Censorship pressure has increased dramatically since 1980. Challenges to complaints about books in public libraries have resulted in widely divergent court decisions. The Supreme Court's agreement to review "Pico v. Island Trees Union Free School District" could have a profound impact on the governance of public schools. (Author/WD)

  9. Desegregation in the 1990s: The Supreme Court Pulls Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Scholler, Joseph, III.

    2000-01-01

    Between 1954 and 1979, the U.S. Supreme Court resolved over 30 school-segregation cases. During the 1980s, however, the Court placed desegregation on the back burner. Although a 1990 decision upheld desegregation tax increases for Kansas City, Missouri, schools, desegregation lost out in three subsequent cases. (Contains 24 references.) (MLH)

  10. The Equal Pay Act: Higher Education and the Court's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Swanson, Austin D.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 for college and university employees are reviewed through an examination of trends in court decisions and legal treatment of the issues. It is concluded that case law has been evolutionary, with concepts of "equal,""work," and others not altered drastically by the courts in recent years.…

  11. The Extra-Curricular Perspective: The Moot Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Janice Shaw; Thorpe, Judie Mosier

    At Ball State (Indiana) University, the moot court format's replication of real-world advocacy has been found far more conducive to teaching ethics and values than debate because it provides internal monitoring devices and instantaneous feedback. Of course, the main purpose of the moot court is to polish communication skills. Still, even with this…

  12. Smells Like Teen Spirit: Evaluating a Midwestern Teen Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Michael; Twill, Sarah; Kim, Chigon

    2011-01-01

    Teen courts have grown rapidly in the United States despite little evidence of their effectiveness. A survival analysis of 635 teen court and 186 regular diversion participants showed no significant differences in recidivism, although program completers were half as likely to reoffend as noncompleters. Older offenders survived significantly better…

  13. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653... mailing address of each payee covered by the order; and (3) The payee's SSN and state of legal...

  14. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653... mailing address of each payee covered by the order; and (3) The payee's SSN and state of legal...

  15. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700.1101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform...

  16. Domestic Violence and Dependency Courts: The "Greenbook" Demonstration Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Neena M.; Silverman, Jerry; Wang, Kathleen; Janczewski, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    This field study reports on a cross-site evaluation of dependency courts in communities receiving federal funding to implement the "Greenbook" initiative, a multisite demonstration for community improvement of coordinated responses to families victimized by domestic violence and child maltreatment. This article focuses on the dependency court,…

  17. Abused and Neglected Children in Court: Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Stephanie D.; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in…

  18. Conn. hospital's conduct violated labor law--court.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1992-01-20

    A federal appeals court in New York has ruled that Waterbury (Conn.) Hospital violated federal labor law in 1986 when it hired replacement nurses rather than returning striking nurses to fill certain hospital jobs. The court said the hospital didn't meet all the conditions under which it is allowable to hire permanent replacements during a strike.

  19. New U. S. Supreme Court Philosophy on Advertising Faces Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trauth, Denise M.; Huffman, John L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Supreme Court cases dealing with First Amendment protection for commercial advertising; concludes that the Supreme Court is moving in the direction of removing most restrictions on commercial advertising, in conflict with the desires of a number of important groups in society. (GT)

  20. Judicial Splits: The Supreme Court's New Message for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Noue, George R.

    2007-01-01

    When the Supreme Court pronounces on race and education it makes headlines. On 28 June 2007 the Supreme Court revealed its long-anticipated decisions on "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 and "Meredith v. Jefferson County," proving that maneuvering the minefield of America's race relations is just as difficult…

  1. Establishment Clause Case Reveals Flaws in the Court System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Blasts the supreme court of Washington State for its inappropriate treatment of Larry Witters, a legally blind student denied state vocational rehabilitation funds because his intended Bible studies program supposedly violated the First Amendment's establishment clause. Even a United States Supreme Court reversal failed to end Witter's…

  2. 26 CFR 1.6015-7 - Tax Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax Court review. 1.6015-7 Section 1.6015-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-7 Tax Court review. (a) In...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6015-7 - Tax Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax Court review. 1.6015-7 Section 1.6015-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-7 Tax Court review. (a) In...

  4. 5 CFR 838.1004 - Qualifying court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... annuity, a court order is not a qualifying court order whenever— (1) The marriage was terminated before May 7, 1985; or (2)(i) The marriage was terminated on or after May 7, 1985; and (ii) The employee or...-retirement marriage, the annuitant had not elected to provide a survivor annuity for that spouse before May...

  5. Symptoms of depression and successful drug court completion.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natasha S; Trinidad, Jonathan R; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark C

    2013-12-01

    The majority of drug abusing offenders who need substance abuse treatment do not receive it. Although interventions like drug court increase the probability of offender success, little is known about how co-occurring psychological symptoms impact drug court treatment outcomes. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that co-occurring psychological symptoms would have a significant relationship with successful drug court completion. Using a sample of suburban drug court enrollees (n = 122), multivariate logistic regression was conducted with successful drug court completion as the outcome variable. Predictor variables included symptom counts of depression, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, generalized anxiety, and social phobia. Results indicated that participants with fewer symptoms of depression were more likely to successfully complete drug court than participants with more symptoms. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that symptoms of depression are related to poorer outcomes for drug court enrollees. Accordingly, drug courts need to address participants' symptoms of depression to maximize success.

  6. K-12 Implications Seen in Some Cases before High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Arizona's variation on government vouchers for religious schools and California's prohibition on the sale of violent video games to minors present the top two cases with implications for education in the U.S. Supreme Court term that formally begins Oct. 4. New Justice Elena Kagan brings to the court extensive education policy experience as a…

  7. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer’s speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States. PMID:27737008

  8. 20 CFR 405.515 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 405.515 Section 405.515 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Judicial Review § 405.515 Application of circuit court law. We...

  9. 10 CFR 14.55 - Removal of State court proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of State court proceedings. 14.55 Section 14.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Employee Drivers § 14.55 Removal of State court proceedings. Upon a certification by the United States Attorney that...

  10. 10 CFR 14.55 - Removal of State court proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of State court proceedings. 14.55 Section 14.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Employee Drivers § 14.55 Removal of State court proceedings. Upon a certification by the United States Attorney that...

  11. 10 CFR 14.55 - Removal of State court proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of State court proceedings. 14.55 Section 14.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Employee Drivers § 14.55 Removal of State court proceedings. Upon a certification by the United States Attorney that...

  12. 10 CFR 14.55 - Removal of State court proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of State court proceedings. 14.55 Section 14.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Employee Drivers § 14.55 Removal of State court proceedings. Upon a certification by the United States Attorney that...

  13. USTC & TBA Guidelines for Tennis Court & Running Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    Guidelines are presented on tennis court and track and field construction that reflect the latest developments in construction technology, methodology, and practice. Based on contributions from experienced certified tennis court and track builders, material suppliers and design professionals, this manual examines each of the critical areas of…

  14. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…

  15. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees....

  16. 22 CFR 19.6-4 - Date of court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Department if it is issued more than 12 months after the divorce becomes final. A court order adjusting the... order issued within 12 months after a divorce becomes final directing payment of a pension to a former... month in which the divorce becomes final if so specified by the court. In such event, the...

  17. 5 CFR 1604.9 - Court orders and legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court orders and legal processes. 1604.9 Section 1604.9 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD UNIFORMED SERVICES ACCOUNTS § 1604.9 Court orders and legal processes. A TSP account can be divided in an action for...

  18. 22 CFR 19.6-1 - Orders by a court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... between a participant and a former spouse, and pursuant to any court decree of divorce, legal separation... decree of divorce, legal separation, or annulment, that any payment from the Fund which would otherwise... this section even though a divorce decree issued by such court may be a basis for pro rata...

  19. 22 CFR 19.6-1 - Orders by a court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... between a participant and a former spouse, and pursuant to any court decree of divorce, legal separation... decree of divorce, legal separation, or annulment, that any payment from the Fund which would otherwise... this section even though a divorce decree issued by such court may be a basis for pro rata...

  20. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees....

  1. 22 CFR 19.6-4 - Date of court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Department if it is issued more than 12 months after the divorce becomes final. A court order adjusting the... order issued within 12 months after a divorce becomes final directing payment of a pension to a former... month in which the divorce becomes final if so specified by the court. In such event, the...

  2. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees....

  3. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees....

  4. 22 CFR 19.6-4 - Date of court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Department if it is issued more than 12 months after the divorce becomes final. A court order adjusting the... order issued within 12 months after a divorce becomes final directing payment of a pension to a former... month in which the divorce becomes final if so specified by the court. In such event, the...

  5. 22 CFR 19.6-1 - Orders by a court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... between a participant and a former spouse, and pursuant to any court decree of divorce, legal separation... decree of divorce, legal separation, or annulment, that any payment from the Fund which would otherwise... this section even though a divorce decree issued by such court may be a basis for pro rata...

  6. 22 CFR 19.6-4 - Date of court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Department if it is issued more than 12 months after the divorce becomes final. A court order adjusting the... order issued within 12 months after a divorce becomes final directing payment of a pension to a former... month in which the divorce becomes final if so specified by the court. In such event, the...

  7. 22 CFR 19.6-1 - Orders by a court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... between a participant and a former spouse, and pursuant to any court decree of divorce, legal separation... decree of divorce, legal separation, or annulment, that any payment from the Fund which would otherwise... this section even though a divorce decree issued by such court may be a basis for pro rata...

  8. 22 CFR 19.6-1 - Orders by a court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... between a participant and a former spouse, and pursuant to any court decree of divorce, legal separation... decree of divorce, legal separation, or annulment, that any payment from the Fund which would otherwise... this section even though a divorce decree issued by such court may be a basis for pro rata...

  9. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees....

  10. 22 CFR 19.6-4 - Date of court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Department if it is issued more than 12 months after the divorce becomes final. A court order adjusting the... order issued within 12 months after a divorce becomes final directing payment of a pension to a former... month in which the divorce becomes final if so specified by the court. In such event, the...

  11. The Court Interpreters Act--A Step towards Equal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelo, Cosme J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Court Interpreters Act of 1978, signed by President Carter on October 29, 1978, establishes the right of any individual involved in federal proceedings to have a certified court interpreter if his/her communication or comprehension capabilities are inhibited because of a language barrier or a hearing or speech impairment. (NQ)

  12. Supreme Court Holds That Contagious Diseases Are Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a complex case involving termination of a third-grade teacher with recurrent tuberculosis. The United States Supreme Court upheld a circuit court's ruling that the teacher's condition satisfied section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act protecting handicapped persons against discrimination. Since contagiousness was not addressed, the…

  13. High Court's TB Ruling Probably Applies to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a United States Supreme Court decision upholding Section 504 protection for an elementary school teacher fired due to recurrent tuberculosis. The school board may need to make reasonable accommodation for employees handicapped by contagious diseases. The Court might also interpret Section 504 as covering AIDS carriers. (MLH)

  14. Evaluation of LEAA Funded Courts Training Programs. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManis Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    An impact evaluation of eight courts training project (CTP) institutes funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration was conducted. After a literature search and visits to potential evaluation sites in all fifty states, twelve sites were selected from a random stratified sample of court systems. Data were obtained from 1047 respondents…

  15. Juvenile Injustice: Dilemmas of the Family Court System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricant, Michael

    This report, based on a study of delinquency cases in the Bronx and Brooklyn family courts, examines the juvenile justice system in New York City. The study considered the following questions; (1) To what extent were problems being experienced by the court at various stages in the processing of cases? and (2) To what underlying forces might the…

  16. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Halberstam, Yosh; Yu, Alan C L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer's speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States.

  17. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated…

  18. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adherence to court order. 1608.8 Section 1608.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court...

  19. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adherence to court order. 1608.8 Section 1608.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court...

  20. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adherence to court order. 1608.8 Section 1608.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court...

  1. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adherence to court order. 1608.8 Section 1608.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court...

  2. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adherence to court order. 1608.8 Section 1608.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court...

  3. The Rhetoric of Right to Life: Beyond the Court's Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Martha

    The Supreme Court's 1973 decision striking down restrictive abortion laws in Texas and Georgia has significantly shaped the rhetoric of the Right to Life movement in both tone and substance. This paper explores how the Court's decision has influenced the movement's definition and development of issues. In addition, it examines the verbal and…

  4. Court Cases Alleging Employment Discrimination in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speers, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine Court Cases Alleging Employment Discrimination in Public Schools by analyzing 115 law based court cases ranging during 1980-2012, through the most available publication of "West's Educational Law Digest" of 2012. Employment is a means to provide sustainable income to support the individual(s)…

  5. We the Students: Supreme Court Cases for and about Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Jamin B.

    This casebook intends to show young people that their rights, their way of life, and indeed sometimes their very life, can depend on one remarkable document, the Constitution of the United States. The casebook is about the United States Constitution and how the Supreme Court and lower courts have interpreted it to govern the lives of U.S. public…

  6. 5 CFR 838.1016 - Receipt of multiple court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipt of multiple court orders. 838.1016 Section 838.1016 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Retirement Benefits § 838.1016 Receipt of multiple court orders. In the event that OPM receives two or...

  7. 5 CFR 838.134 - Receipt of multiple court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 838.134 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... survivor annuities, in the event that OPM receives two or more court orders acceptable for processing— (1... paragraph (c) of this section, for court orders affecting refunds of employee contributions, in the...

  8. 28 CFR 51.18 - Court-ordered changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Court-ordered changes. 51.18 Section 51.18 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.18 Court-ordered...

  9. 8 CFR 337.8 - Oath administered by the courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oath administered by the courts. 337.8... ALLEGIANCE § 337.8 Oath administered by the courts. (a) Notification of election. An applicant for naturalization not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of 8 CFR 310.2(d) must notify USCIS at the time of...

  10. An Analysis of Juvenile Court Laws in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Walter S., III

    Statutory laws, case laws, and model laws have been provided in this report as a basis for comparing Mississippi's juvenile laws with other juvenile laws. Since legislation concerning juvenile courts is vast, complete legislation is only provided for the State of Mississippi and two model juvenile court acts. Discussion, however, is provided which…

  11. Individual Factors Predicting Mental Health Court Diversion Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaaff, Ashley; Scott, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined which individual factors predict mental health court diversion outcome among a sample of persons with mental illness participating in a postcharge diversion program. Method: The study employed secondary analysis of existing program records for 419 persons with mental illness in a court diversion program. Results:…

  12. Robust camera calibration for sport videos using court models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farin, Dirk; Krabbe, Susanne; de With, Peter H. N.; Effelsberg, Wolfgang

    2003-12-01

    We propose an automatic camera calibration algorithm for court sports. The obtained camera calibration parameters are required for applications that need to convert positions in the video frame to real-world coordinates or vice versa. Our algorithm uses a model of the arrangement of court lines for calibration. Since the court model can be specified by the user, the algorithm can be applied to a variety of different sports. The algorithm starts with a model initialization step which locates the court in the image without any user assistance or a-priori knowledge about the most probable position. Image pixels are classified as court line pixels if they pass several tests including color and local texture constraints. A Hough transform is applied to extract line elements, forming a set of court line candidates. The subsequent combinatorial search establishes correspondences between lines in the input image and lines from the court model. For the succeeding input frames, an abbreviated calibration algorithm is used, which predicts the camera parameters for the new image and optimizes the parameters using a gradient-descent algorithm. We have conducted experiments on a variety of sport videos (tennis, volleyball, and goal area sequences of soccer games). Video scenes with considerable difficulties were selected to test the robustness of the algorithm. Results show that the algorithm is very robust to occlusions, partial court views, bad lighting conditions, or shadows.

  13. 19 CFR 162.49 - Forfeiture by court decree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forfeiture by court decree. 162.49 Section 162.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... court decree. (a) Report to the U.S. attorney or the Department of Justice if the penalty was...

  14. The Federalization of Libel by Two Supreme Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, F. Dennis

    A study examined the quantity and quality of libel decisions of the Warren and Burger Supreme Courts to determine how changes in libel law came about, how individual justices voted on libel compared to other issues of freedom of expression, and how permanent constitutional libel rules will be as the more conservative Rehnquist Supreme Court takes…

  15. The Equal Protection Clause, School Integration, and the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    The history of cases before the United States Supreme Court in which minorities have sought relief from discriminatory state laws under the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment (and the "due process clause" of the Fifth Amendment for federal action) suggests that court action in this area has changed over time. Not only has court…

  16. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status…

  17. High Court Upholds State's Bar on Aid to Theology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the 7-2 ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court upholding a Washington state scholarship program that denies aid to theology majors. Disappointing proponents of tuition aid for students in religious schools, the court held that Washington state was well within its rights to exclude students' training for the ministry from its Promise…

  18. Asthma and allergy: short texts and recommendations of the expert conference of the French Speaking Pneumology Society (SPLF), in partnership with the French Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SFAIC), the French Society of Occupational Medicine (SFMT) and the "Asthma-Allergy" association.

    PubMed

    Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Magnan, Antoine; Pauli, Gabrielle; Vervloet, Daniel; Wallaert, Benoît; Didier, Alain; Ameille, Jacques; Godard, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    The Asthma Plan published by the French Health Ministry in 2002, the experts conferences edited by ANAES on therapeutic education and follow-up of asthma, the inclusion of this disease in the Public Health Law have been remarkable steps in France during the last few years. The medical community, more particularly the pneumological community, has shown its commitment in the treatment of this public health problem. But allergy was not sufficiently taken into account, although it is responsible for nearly 50 to 60% cases of asthma. In most so-called developed countries the prevalence of asthma and of allergies has increased in the last twenty years. Its progress varies according to country and age group: the increased prevalence of allergy, more specifically of rhinitis and eczema, is most marked in children aged 6-7 year. The prevalence of asthma seems to have reached a plateau in certain northern countries or seems to have decreased in 13-14 year olds (Anglo-Saxon countries). There were multiple reasons, generally attributed to changes in life-style. Asthma is the result of an interaction between a genetic predisposition and the environment, where allergens are present, but also smoking. The relationships between allergy and asthma are complex. This conference discussed the various essential issues that face doctors who treat patients with asthma in their daily practice. The risk factors, the methods of exploration in children and adults and the specific treatments are, indeed, essential issues to be evaluated in a frequent pathology that interests a large number of physicians. The variety of experts is wide, representing pneumology (French Speaking Pneumology Society), the occupational medicine world (French Society of Occupational Medicine), the allergic pathology (French Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology), and patients with the patient association "Asthma & Allergy", physicians belonging to the general medicine community, general hospitals, private

  19. CONVERTING THE 'RIGHT TO LIFE' TO THE 'RIGHT TO PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EUTHANASIA': AN ANALYSIS OF CARTER V CANADA (ATTORNEY GENERAL), SUPREME COURT OF CANADA.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny; Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its landmark decision Carter v Canada (Attorney General), the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the criminal prohibition on physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia for certain persons in certain circumstances violated their rights to life, liberty, and security of the person in sec. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and thus was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court in effect overruled its earlier decision, Rodriguez v British Columbia (Attorney General), which upheld the prohibition as constitutionally valid, on the basis of changes in Charter jurisprudence and in the social facts since Rodriguez was decided. We argue that the Supreme Court's Carter decision shows conceptual disagreements with its Rodriguez decision concerning the nature and scope of the sec. 7-protected interests and the accompanying principles of fundamental justice. Not only do these conceptual differences have little to do with the changes that the Court in Carter invoked for 'revisiting' Rodriguez, the Court's articulation of the sec. 7 interests, particularly the right to life, and the principles of fundamental justice, especially the principle of over breadth, are problematic on their own terms. Furthermore, the way in which the Court dealt with evidence regarding abuses in permissive jurisdictions is also subject to criticism. We recommend that if, as now seems inevitable, legislation is introduced, it should mandate that assisted suicide and euthanasia be performed by specially licensed non-medical personnel and only on the authorization of a Superior Court judge. We also reject the key recommendations recently issued by the Provincial-Territorial Expert Advisory Group on Physician-Assisted Dying.

  20. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system.

  1. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  2. Brain death: legal obligations and the courts.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Christopher M; Pope, Thaddeus M

    2015-04-01

    Brain death, or death determined by neurologic criteria, has been legally adopted in all U.S. states for decades. Despite its long-established history, a lack of clear understanding has led to disputes requiring a legal forum for resolution. Recently, physicians and hospitals across the country have been impacted by a growing number of disputes about brain death. The authors offer clinicians a historical perspective on the evolution of brain death as a legal cause of death in the United States. They then review the more common legal categories of disputes encountered, including representative court cases for each. This overview provides physicians with a general legal perspective on brain death so they may better appreciate the pertinent issues if and when later confronted.

  3. The wicked in court: a neuroscientific primer.

    PubMed

    Tobeña, Adolf

    2013-09-01

    The criminal cases of Anders Breivik, the Norwegian shooter, and Bernard Madoff, the fraudulent American financier, are used as prominent examples of the complexity that courts have to explore when judging the severity and responsibility of felonies performed by different types of psychopaths. I outline the brain circuits subserving morally charged decisions in ordinary citizens and in patients with gross lesions in the same areas, along with singularities in these brain systems that have been detected in psychopaths. These neural signatures, combined with thorough neuropsychological examination, will hopefully improve the diagnoses and prognoses of criminals with dangerous psychopathic traits. In this respect, the profiles of incarcerated members of gangs are used to exemplify and distinguish among typical niches and varieties of psychopathy within criminal organizations. A discussion follows, presenting the complexities of novel research that is increasing the sophistication of these challenging but key intersections between neuroscience and law.

  4. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  5. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  6. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-11-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  7. Robotic planner expert system (RPLANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, Ervin Oneal

    1987-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis of the Johnson Space Center has developed a prototype of an expert system for robotic planning. A robot is given a high level goal to perform an action (i.e., swap, adjust, or stow) on a component unit of an object such as a satellite and the Robotic Planner Expert System (RPLANES) generates the necessary goals for arm actions. RPLANES is designed using the Inference Corp. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) development tool. It resides on a SYMBOLICS 3670. RPLANES and its evolution are described.

  8. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  9. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  10. [Judicial institutions of medical experts].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Roberto Lm

    2016-05-01

    This article considers the evolutive process that judicial organisms of medical experts have experienced in Argentina since their creation and formulates a proposal for its adequacy and modernization. Due to multiple and various evolutive factors, judicial organisms managing medicolegal expert activities show, nowadays, signals that a structural and dynamic reform is needed. They remain as organizational units of Public Administration and their effectiveness and efficiency depends not only of a scientific criteria but a managing one. The present and future challenge will be their conceptual transformation, from "corporate scientific entities" to "public-service-providing units" within the justice administration system.

  11. Carney v Newton: expert evidence about the standard of clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Hammer, Ingrid; Jefferys, Susannah

    2007-12-01

    In Carney v Newton [2006] TASSC 4 the Tasmanian Supreme Court heard a claim that the defendant breached his duty of care by failing to properly diagnose and treat a node positive carcinoma in the plaintiff's breast tissue. At trial, argument turned on the actual dialogue that took place during the initial consultation, with significant reliance on the clinical notes of the defendant. The court gave considerable weight to "expert" witnesses in ascertaining the acceptability of the defendant's conduct concerning the maintenance and interpretation of his clinical notes. This raises important questions in relation to proof of quality of medical records as part of the current professional standard of care, as modified by recent legislation in most jurisdictions.

  12. [Rethinking criminal responsibility: practical application of operational diagnosis and gnostic into expert testimony].

    PubMed

    Okada, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    There had been argument concerning the difference between the agnostic approach and the gnostic approach to the psychiatric perspective of criminal responsibility until the landmark ruling by the 3rd court of the Japanese Supreme Court in 1984. The decision upheld the gnostic approach and affirmed that the defendant's criminal responsibility should be based on such factors as psychopathology, motive, modus operandi, situation surrounding the crime, and pre-morbid personality, as long as the offense was not directly motivated by the delusion or hallucination. The gnostic explanation includes so many various factors that the psychiatric testimony cannot easily be objective, while agnostic experts can find a conclusion about criminal responsibility only by psychiatric diagnosis. To establish a standard, the authors summarized the means of determination of criminal responsibility. The authors also discussed various topics related to criminal responsibility including Asperger's syndrome, illicit drug intoxication, and prescribed drug intoxication.

  13. Neuropsychologist Experts and Civil Capacity Evaluations: Representative Cases.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists accept more forensic referrals now and spend more time in forensic consulting than ever before. Recent surveys show weekly hours devoted to forensic consulting increased 97% in the past decade. During the same time period, the number of board certified neuropsychologists more than doubled. Under recently published Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology, clinical neuropsychologists practice forensic psychology when applying scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of neuropsychology to the law to assist in addressing legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Among those increasingly varied forensic referrals, clinical neuropsychologists are conducting more civil competency and capacity evaluations. Representative cases from three jurisdictions demonstrate how neuropsychologists provide expertize in matters involving testamentary capacity, contractual capacity, business judgments, and job capacity. Case presentations illustrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of neuropsychological evaluation of civil capacities. The article concludes with a "battle of experts" case involving five neuropsychologists with opposing opinions recently heard in a Federal Appellate court. Implications for neuropschology training and forensic competencies are considered. In offering quality services to the legal profession, neuropsychologists support the truth-seeking function of the judiciary, promote justice, protect the profession, and serve public policy.

  14. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  15. Towards a science of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the field of AI are discussed. The components and applications of expert systems, which are computer systems designed to simulate the problem-solving behavior of a person expert in a narrow field, are examined. Two types of expert systems, shallow and deep, are described and examples are given. A logic programming system, rule-based system, and framed-based system are utilized as means of representing the expert system's data base. The limitations of expert systems are considered.

  16. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  17. Expert systems in government symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on various applications of expert systems. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge-based reasoning, new directions in knowledge acquisition, software, programming languages, systems engineering, intelligent information retrieval, reactor safety assessment, medical applications, uncertainty management, algorithms, parallel processing, and artificial intelligence.

  18. Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

  19. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  20. Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Gilstrap, Lewey; Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) provides an approach to developing expert system software. Because of the uncertainty associated with this process, an element of risk is involved. ESDM is designed to address the issue of risk and to acquire the information needed for this purpose in an evolutionary manner. ESDM presents a life cycle in which a prototype evolves through five stages of development. Each stage consists of five steps, leading to a prototype for that stage. Development may proceed to a conventional development methodology (CDM) at any time if enough has been learned about the problem to write requirements. ESDM produces requirements so that a product may be built with a CDM. ESDM is considered preliminary because is has not yet been applied to actual projects. It has been retrospectively evaluated by comparing the methods used in two ongoing expert system development projects that did not explicitly choose to use this methodology but which provided useful insights into actual expert system development practices and problems.

  1. Computers that Think Like Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

  2. Coupling expert systems and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Hsieh, B. J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype coupled system called NESS (NASA Expert Simulation System) is described. NESS assists the user in running digital simulations of dynamic systems, interprets the output data to performance specifications, and recommends a suitable series compensator to be added to the simulation model.

  3. Identifying predictors of treatment outcome in a drug court program.

    PubMed

    Roll, John M; Prendergast, Michael; Richardson, Kimberly; Burdon, William; Ramirez, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Drug courts are popular for dealing with drug-abusing offenders. However, relatively little is known about participant characteristics that reliably predict either success or failure in these treatment settings. In this article, we report on 99 individuals who were enrolled in a drug court program (approximately one-half of whom successfully completed the program). Using, logistic regression techniques we identified 2 significant predictors of outcome. First, individuals who were employed at the time of their enrollment into the drug court program were more likely to successfully complete the treatment program. Second, individuals with a history of illicit intravenous drug use were less likely to complete the program.

  4. The Supreme Court limits lawsuits against managed care organizations.

    PubMed

    Jost, Timothy Stoltzfus

    2004-01-01

    In Aetna Health Inc. v. Davila, the United States Supreme Court revisited the question of whether the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) precludes state lawsuits against ERISA plans. The Court held that ERISA preempts damage actions brought against managed care organizations under the Texas Health Care Liability Act because ERISA itself provides the exclusive remedy for challenging ERISA plans' coverage decisions. The Court suggested, however, that health plans might be liable for treatment decisions made by employed physicians. It also volleyed back to Congress the question of whether ERISA beneficiaries should have any remedy for damages caused by coverage decisions.

  5. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  6. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  7. How Expert Pilots Think Cognitive Processes in Expert Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    over many years and thousands of hours of learning and exposure. As with other fields of expertise, the pilots decision making abilities continue to...elaborately structured set of associated concepts, procedures and events ., based upon many years of study, training and experience in a aviation. The use of...with training and experience to show that many characteristics of Expert Decision Making (EDM) were enhanced as pilots accumulate flight time. The

  8. Statistical Mechanics of the US Supreme Court

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward D.; Broedersz, Chase P.; Bialek, William

    2015-07-01

    We build simple models for the distribution of voting patterns in a group, using the Supreme Court of the United States as an example. The maximum entropy model consistent with the observed pairwise correlations among justices' votes, an Ising spin glass, agrees quantitatively with the data. While all correlations (perhaps surprisingly) are positive, the effective pairwise interactions in the spin glass model have both signs, recovering the intuition that ideologically opposite justices negatively influence each another. Despite the competing interactions, a strong tendency toward unanimity emerges from the model, organizing the voting patterns in a relatively simple "energy landscape." Besides unanimity, other energy minima in this landscape, or maxima in probability, correspond to prototypical voting states, such as the ideological split or a tightly correlated, conservative core. The model correctly predicts the correlation of justices with the majority and gives us a measure of their influence on the majority decision. These results suggest that simple models, grounded in statistical physics, can capture essential features of collective decision making quantitatively, even in a complex political context.

  9. Statistical Mechanics of US Supreme Court

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward; Broedersz, Chase; Bialek, William; Biophysics Theory Group Team

    2014-03-01

    We build simple models for the distribution of voting patterns in a group, using the Supreme Court of the United States as an example. The least structured, or maximum entropy, model that is consistent with the observed pairwise correlations among justices' votes is equivalent to an Ising spin glass. While all correlations (perhaps surprisingly) are positive, the effective pairwise interactions in the spin glass model have both signs, recovering some of our intuition that justices on opposite sides of the ideological spectrum should have a negative influence on one another. Despite the competing interactions, a strong tendency toward unanimity emerges from the model, and this agrees quantitatively with the data. The model shows that voting patterns are organized in a relatively simple ``energy landscape,'' correctly predicts the extent to which each justice is correlated with the majority, and gives us a measure of the influence that justices exert on one another. These results suggest that simple models, grounded in statistical physics, can capture essential features of collective decision making quantitatively, even in a complex political context. Funded by National Science Foundation Grants PHY-0957573 and CCF-0939370, WM Keck Foundation, Lewis-Sigler Fellowship, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and Winston Foundation.

  10. Your business in court: 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Reiss, John B; Hall, Christopher R; Wartman, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    During this period, FDA focused considerable effort on its transparency initiative, which is likely to continue into the coming year, as well as continuing to ramp up its enforcement activities, as we predicted last year. The scope of the agency's ability to pre-empt state laws in product liability litigation involving pharmaceutical products still is developing post-Levine, and we are likely to see new decisions in the coming year. Fraud and abuse enforcement still is a major factor facing the industry, with the added threat of personal exposure to criminal sentences, fines and debarment from participation in federal and state programs under the Responsible Corporate Officer doctrine, or under the authorities exercised by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Inspector General. Consequently, it is increasingly important that senior corporate officers ensure active oversight of an effective compliance program which should mitigate these risks. The Federal Trade Commission continues to battle consumer fraud, particularly respecting weight loss programs, and it appears to be fighting a losing battle in its effort to prevent "reverse" payments to generic manufacturers by Innovator Manufacturers to delay the introduction of generics to the market. The Securities and Exchange Commission continues to be actively enforcing the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The Supreme Court gave shareholders more leeway in bringing stockholder suits in situations where a company conceals information that, if revealed, could have a negative effect on stock prices.

  11. 63. THIRD FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS FROM SORTING AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. THIRD FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS FROM SORTING AREA TO PACKAGE HANDLING AND WRAPPING - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. The Courts and the Child. Who Speaks for Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sch Libr J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Excerpts from the Supreme Court decision in Tinker vs. Des Moines Independent School District, protecting pupils' rights under the First and Fourteenth Amendments to express their political views peacefully. The implications for freedom of selection in libraries are noted. (JS)

  13. The New 2001-2002 Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed during the 2001-2002 term of the U.S. Supreme Court, which convened on October 1, 2001: (1) school vouchers; (2) affirmative action; (3) online pornography; and (4) the death penalty. (CMK)

  14. 78 FR 51821 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION..., (202) 502-4502, pubaffairs@ussc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States...

  15. 75 FR 41279 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Send comments to: United States Sentencing Commission, One Columbus Circle, NE., Suite...

  16. 76 FR 38460 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2011, the United States...

  17. 77 FR 51110 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION..., (202) 502-4502. ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Sentencing Commission, an...

  18. 78 FR 36641 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2013, the United States...

  19. 75 FR 54698 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION...: (202) 502-4597. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Sentencing Commission, an...

  20. 75 FR 54705 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2010, the United States...

  1. 76 FR 58563 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION..., (202) 502-4502. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Sentencing Commission, an...

  2. View of foundation, looking southeast. Note tennis courts in background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundation, looking southeast. Note tennis courts in background facing southeast, see HABS No. CA-2716 - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. View of foundation, looking south. Note tennis courts in background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundation, looking south. Note tennis courts in background facing south, see HABS no. CA-2716 - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 78 FR 26425 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... information for a more accurate assessment of the tax loss,'' and providing ``the court should use any method... Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act of 2003, Public Law 108-21...

  5. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  6. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Will the Supreme Court finally eliminate ERISA preemption?

    PubMed

    Trueman, David L

    2004-01-01

    David Trueman's article reviews the history of ERISA preemption by analyzing seminal Supreme Court cases and predicts the future of ERISA preemption in his analysis of recent federal case law. Traditionally, the ability to hold a managed care entity responsible for its actions has been hampered by a strict interpretation of the preemption clauses of ERISA but as the Supreme Court's jurisprudence has evolved and loosened, several federal courts have allowed suits against managed care companies to go forward. Conflict among the federal circuits has arisen and the Supreme Court has granted certiorari to two cases from Texas in order to clarify ERISA preemption. Mr. Trueman discusses the future of ERISA preemption in light of these decisions.

  8. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  9. The Effectiveness of Idaho DUI and Misdemeanor/DUI Courts: Outcome Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Scott M.; Collins, Peter A.; Rosky, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    As DUI Courts continue to expand through the United States, research needs to match the growth to inform administrators and the public on the effectiveness of these courts. The current study found that participation in a DUI or Misdemeanor/DUI Drug Court (23%) reduced recidivism compared to a comparison group (37%) with court filing records that…

  10. The 1990-91 Term of the Supreme Court and Its Impact on Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatel, David; Brannan, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin reviews the 1990-91 term of the U.S. Supreme Court in terms of its impact on public schools, finding that the Court tended to decline to review decisions by lower courts that gave school districts discretion to resolve questions of student and employee rights. Court opinions that were handed down are discussed, and the impact of…

  11. Language Planning and Policy Development for Court Interpretation Services in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweda-Nicholson, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Chronicles the history of federal laws governing use of court interpreters, focusing on the Court Interpreters Act of 1978. The Spanish/English Federal Court Interpreter Certification Examination is discussed, and problems in state court interpreter selection, policy formation, and improvement of interpreting quality are presented. (Author/MSE)

  12. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  13. The Timing and Accumulation of Judicial Sanctions among Drug Court Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRee, Nick; Drapela, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    Judicial sanctions are used by drug courts to encourage clients to comply with program requirements. However, few studies have explored the application of sanctions in drug courts or the relationship between sanctions and drug court graduation. This article reports the results of a study of sanctions as applied in a drug court in southwest…

  14. Indian Courts and the Future. Report of the NAICJA Long Range Planning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National American Indian Court Judges Association.

    In 1976 the National American Indian Court Judges Association was awarded a one year contract to study Indian court systems, identify their main strengths and weaknesses, develop a set of model standards, name four model courts with whom to test the model standards, and propose a five year plan of support for Indian courts. Written materials…

  15. How to Read a U.S. Supreme Court Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Reading U.S. Supreme Court opinions can be intimidating. Yet, in the digital age, it has never been easier to access them. The average opinion is about 4,750 words, and is one of approximately 75 issued by the Court each year. It might be reassuring to know that opinions contain similar parts and tend to follow a similar format. There are also…

  16. Violence or discipline? Working with multicultural court-ordered clients.

    PubMed

    Waldman, F

    1999-10-01

    Therapists working with court-ordered clients from cultures differing from the mainstream face challenging issues of compulsory therapy in the context of cultural diversity. This article reviews the literature on court-ordered and multicultural counseling, highlighting central elements of both. It then suggests guidelines that blend these elements. The author illustrates how using these guidelines can enable therapists to engage these clients in the therapeutic process and focus on culture as the context for change.

  17. Expert systems in agriculture and resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    This paper gives a description of some representative examples of expert systems applied to problems in agriculture and biological resource management. The discussion of agricultural expert systems focuses on several decision support systems for crop management, describing the systems themselves and the implementation efforts surrounding them. The examples of the application of expert systems to biological resource management focus on the integration of expert systems with geographic information systems. A description of some of the more recent developments in agricultural expert systems, still in the prototype stage, is then given, followed by a summary discussion of possible environmental implications of the use of expert systems in agriculture and resource management. 63 refs.

  18. Expert credibility in climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Prall, James W; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H

    2010-07-06

    Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97-98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

  19. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  20. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  1. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  2. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  3. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  4. Lac Courte Oreilles Energy Analysis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Isham; Denise Johnson

    2009-04-01

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe applied for first step funding in 2007 and was awarded in October of that year. We wanted to perform an audit to begin fulfilling two commitments we made to our membership and resolutions that we adopted. One was the Kyoto Protocol and reduce our carbon emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of our energy by sustainable means. To complete these goals we needed to begin with first assessing what our carbon emissions are and begin taking the steps to conserve on the energy we currently use. The First Step Grant gave us the opportunity to do this. Upon funding the Energy Project was formed under the umbrella of the LCO Public Works Department and Denise Johnson was hired as the coordinator. She quickly began fulfilling the objectives of the project. Denise began by contact the LCO College and hiring interns who were able to go to each Tribal entity and perform line logging to read and document the energy used for each electrical appliance. Data was also gathered for one full year from each entity for all their utility bills (gasoline, electric, natural gas, fuel oil, etc.). Relationships were formed with the Green Team and other Green Committees in the area that could assist us in this undertaking. The Energy Task Force was of great assistance as well recommending other committees and guidance to completing our project. The data was gathered, compiled and placed into spreadsheets that would be understandable for anyone who didn't have a background in Renewable Resources. While gathering the data Denise was also looking for ways to conserve energy usage, policies changes to implement and any possible viable renewable energy resources. Changes in the social behaviors of our members and employees will require further education by workshops, energy fairs, etc.. This will be looked into and done in coordination with our schools. The renewable resources seem most feasible are wind resources as well as Bio Mass both of which need further assessment

  5. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  6. Galaxy Classification: Citizen Scientists versus Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsch, Stefan J.; Vazquez, Richard; Phung, Chau; VanHilst, Michael; Castro, Victor H.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We present the differences of morphological galaxy classification between non-experts and experts. The non-experts are represented by college students and a retired adult community, who use an online application to visually classify galaxies selected from a galaxy morphology catalog. We find that the non-expert group lags the expert classification by one Hubble type behind, for instance, the non-experts classify a set of galaxies with Sb, while the experts classify the same set as Sc. We believe the reason is because the Hubble sequence is increasing the asymmetric structures towards later types. Our results show that the experts have the ability to identify more detailed structures, which the laymen commonly do not recognize.

  7. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  8. The impact of Daubert on the admissibility of forensic anthropology expert testimony.

    PubMed

    Lesciotto, Kate M

    2015-05-01

    Forensic anthropologists anticipated a significant impact from the 1993 Supreme Court Daubert decision, which addressed the standard of admissibility for expert testimony. In response, many forensic articles cited Daubert in the search for objective techniques or a critique of established subjective methods. This study examines challenges to forensic anthropological expert testimony to evaluate whether Daubert has actually affected the admissibility of such testimony. Thirty cases were identified that addressed the admissibility of the testimony, including 14 cases prior to Daubert and 16 after Daubert. Examination of these cases indicates that post-Daubert cases do not result in more exclusions. Yet, this lack of exclusions may instead be viewed as a manifestation of the field's overall surge toward more objective and quantifiable techniques in a self-regulating response to Daubert.

  9. I Spy with My Little Eye: Jurors' Detection of Internal Validity Threats in Expert Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McAuliff, Bradley D.; Duckworth, Tejah D.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examined whether jury-eligible community members (N = 223) were able to detect internally invalid psychological science presented at trial. Participants read a simulated child sexual abuse case in which the defense expert described a study he had conducted on witness memory and suggestibility. We varied the study's internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and publication status (published, unpublished). Expert evidence quality ratings were higher for the valid versus missing control group version only. Publication increased ratings of defendant guilt when the study was missing a control group. Variations in internal validity did not influence perceptions of child victim credibility or police interview quality. Participants' limited detection of internal validity threats underscores the need to examine the effectiveness of traditional legal safeguards against junk science in court and improve the scientific reasoning ability of lay people and legal professionals. PMID:20162342

  10. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report.

  11. I spy with my little eye: jurors' detection of internal validity threats in expert evidence.

    PubMed

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Duckworth, Tejah D

    2010-12-01

    This experiment examined whether jury-eligible community members (N = 223) were able to detect internally invalid psychological science presented at trial. Participants read a simulated child sexual abuse case in which the defense expert described a study he had conducted on witness memory and suggestibility. We varied the study's internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and publication status (published, unpublished). Expert evidence quality ratings were higher for the valid versus missing control group version only. Publication increased ratings of defendant guilt when the study was missing a control group. Variations in internal validity did not influence perceptions of child victim credibility or police interview quality. Participants' limited detection of internal validity threats underscores the need to examine the effectiveness of traditional legal safeguards against junk science in court and improve the scientific reasoning ability of lay people and legal professionals.

  12. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  13. The chiropractor as an expert witness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman-Smith, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the professional status of the chiropractor as an expert witness in Canada. It commences with an outline of the relevant law then considers the circumstances which affect whether or not a chiropractor’s testimony in a particular instance will be admitted as expert and given weight against conflicting expert evidence. There is brief discussion of related insurance issues.

  14. The presentation of expert testimony via live audio-visual communication.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1991-01-01

    As part of a national effort to improve efficiency in court procedures, the American Bar Association has recommended, on the basis of a number of pilot studies, increased use of current audio-visual technology, such as telephone and live video communication, to eliminate delays caused by unavailability of participants in both civil and criminal procedures. Although these recommendations were made to facilitate court proceedings, and for the convenience of attorneys and judges, they also have the potential to save significant time for clinical expert witnesses as well. The author reviews the studies of telephone testimony that were done by the American Bar Association and other legal research groups, as well as the experience in one state forensic evaluation and treatment center. He also reviewed the case law on the issue of remote testimony. He then presents data from a national survey of state attorneys general concerning the admissibility of testimony via audio-visual means, including video depositions. Finally, he concludes that the option to testify by telephone provides a significant savings in precious clinical time for forensic clinicians in public facilities, and urges that such clinicians work actively to convince courts and/or legislatures in states that do not permit such testimony (currently the majority), to consider accepting it, to improve the effective use of scarce clinical resources in public facilities.

  15. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  16. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  17. Scrutiny Land: Scrutiny Land is the place where government needs to justify to a court its restrictions on the liberties of the people.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Randy E

    2008-06-01

    Scrutiny Land is the place where government needs to justify to a court its restrictions on the liberties of the people. In the 1930s, the Supreme Court began limiting access to Scrutiny Land. While the New Deal Court merely shifted the burden to those challenging a law to show that a restriction of liberty is irrational, the Warren Court made the presumption of constitutionality effectively irrebuttable. After this, only one road to Scrutiny Land remained: showing that the liberty being restricted was a fundamental right. The Glucksberg Two-Step, however, limited the doctrine of fundamental rights to those (1) narrowly defined liberties that are (2) deeply rooted in tradition and history. In this Article, I explain how the ability to define accurately almost any liberty as broad or narrow improperly gives courts complete discretion to protect liberty or not as it chooses. I then describe an alternative that is suggested by the approach taken by the Court in Lawrence v. Texas: a general presumption of liberty. Not only is such an approach practical, it is also more consistent with the text and original meaning of the Constitution than is the Glucksburg Two-Step.

  18. The role of the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Jerrold, Laurance

    2007-08-01

    The role of expert witnesses in medical malpractice litigation is often misunderstood. Much maligned, the expert has been the subject of castigation by a range of people, from his professional colleagues to the jurists who preside over his testimony. From an academic perspective, the expert witness is a necessary evil, and his denigration is his own doing; for the expert is a neutral character who creates his own professional persona. This purpose of this article is to serve as a primer for those interested in understanding the role that the expert is supposed to play in litigation, and the factors surrounding his activities.

  19. Long-term recidivism of mental health court defendants.

    PubMed

    Ray, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The first MHC was established in 1997 and now, over 15years later, there are over 300 mental health courts in the United States. In a relatively short time these courts have become an established criminal justice intervention for persons with a mental illness. However, few studies have looked at the long-term outcomes of MHCs on criminal recidivism. Of the studies evaluating the impact of MHCs on criminal recidivism, most follow defendants after entry into the court during their participation, and only a few have followed defendants after court exit for periods of one or two years. This study follows MHC defendants for a minimum of five years to examine recidivism post-exit with particular attention to MHC completion's effect. Findings show that 53.9% of all MHC defendants were rearrested in the follow-up and averaged 15months to rearrest. Defendants who completed MHC were significantly less likely to be rearrested (39.6% vs. 74.8%), and went longer before recidivating (17.15months vs. 12.27months) than those who did not complete. This study suggests that MHCs can reduce criminal recidivism among offenders with mental illness and that this effect is sustained for several years after defendants are no longer under the court's supervision.

  20. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball.

  1. System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

  2. Species identification by experts and non-experts: comparing images from field guides

    PubMed Central

    Austen, G. E.; Bindemann, M.; Griffiths, R. A.; Roberts, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification is fundamental when recording ecological data. However, the ability to correctly identify organisms visually is rarely questioned. We investigated how experts and non-experts compared in the identification of bumblebees, a group of insects of considerable conservation concern. Experts and non-experts were asked whether two concurrent bumblebee images depicted the same or two different species. Overall accuracy was below 60% and comparable for experts and non-experts. However, experts were more consistent in their answers when the same images were repeated, and more cautious in committing to a definitive answer. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of correctly identifying bumblebees using images from field guides. Such error rates need to be accounted for when interpreting species data, whether or not they have been collected by experts. We suggest that investigation of how experts and non-experts make observations should be incorporated into study design, and could be used to improve training in species identification. PMID:27644140

  3. Comparing Powerpoint Experts' and University Students' Opinions about Powerpoint Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackiewicz, Jo

    2008-01-01

    Technical communication instructors want to help students, as well as professionals, design effective PowerPoint presentations. Toward this end, I compare the advice of academic and industry experts about effective PowerPoint presentation design to survey responses from university students about slide text, visual elements, animations, and other…

  4. Interactive Learning Using Expert System Quizzes on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a software system that allows teachers and students in practically any subject to make interactive expert systems of quizzes on the Internet. Discusses the design of the system, including building a database of questions and answers; integrating text files of questions and answers with JavaScript-HTML pages; and the JavaScript and HTML…

  5. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  6. Expert system validation in prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  7. Expert system for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Venoge, T.P. de; Stauffer, T.B.; Medina, M.; Jacobs, T.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous waste site remedial investigations and feasibility studies generally involve some degree of groundwater modeling. A plethora of models exist and most models are difficult to use. An expert system has been developed to lead the user to the appropriate model(s) based on responses to questions about site conditions and data availability. The system is menu driven, user friendly, and provides assistance in estimating input parameters where field measurements are lacking. The system contains twelve models, both analytical and numerical models, that are in the public domain. Some of the models included in the system are MOC, MODFLOW, BIOPLUME, RESSQ, TDAST and PLUME2D. Preprocessors and post processors have been written to permit easy data input and to provide understandable and interpretable data output. There are two versions of the expert system that are available. One version is a UNIX based system that works through the windows environment and provides excellent graphics capabilities. The other version is DOS based and will run on a 386 processor or higher system with 10 megabytes of available hard disk space.

  8. Recovery of Expert Fees in Special Education Due Process Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.; McDuffie, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court issued three rulings in special education cases during the past 2 years. Considering that in the previous 25 years, the high court had issued only 14 rulings, these three decisions represent a significant increase in the special education cases heard by the Court. These important rulings all addressed parental rights in due…

  9. Making Sense of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  10. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  11. Workbook-Text Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eddie

    1982-01-01

    "Science Work-A-Text" combines a text and workbook approach to studying/teaching grades 1-6 elementary science. Five major themes (living things; health/nutrition; planet earth; the universe; matter and energy) are covered at each grade level. Major focus of the series is on reading and content rather than process. (Author/SK)

  12. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  13. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  14. The Perfect Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

  15. Texting "boosts" felt security.

    PubMed

    Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research.

  16. Supreme Court says suit against insurer can continue.

    PubMed

    1996-04-05

    The Oregon Supreme Court is allowing the estate of [name removed], a restaurant worker, to seek damages against an insurance company that refused to cover his employer when it was determined that [name removed] had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, an AIDS-defining condition. [Name removed]'s lawsuit charges that the PAAC Health Plan Inc. denied the application for insurance filed by employer [name removed] [name removed] of the Old Wives' Tales Restaurant. [Name removed] sued PAAC, [name removed], and the insurance broker. Before [name removed]'s death in August 1993, an appeals court voted 2-1 to affirm a trial judge's decision to dismiss claims against the broker, but reversed an order granting summary judgment to PAAC. State Supreme Court Justice Wallace P. Carson, Jr., heard PAAC's appeal and ruled that [name removed]'s estate could proceed with claims against PAAC.

  17. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders

    PubMed Central

    TOLOU-SHAMS, MARINA; HOUCK, CHRISTOPHER D.; NUGENT, NICOLE; CONRAD, SELBY M.; REYES, AYANARIS; BROWN, LARRY K.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprotected. After accounting for recent marijuana use, the odds of a juvenile having vaginal or anal sex was 6 times greater if they had recently used alcohol. Juvenile drug courts may benefit from delivering alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions to fully address the needs of these young offenders. PMID:22997487

  18. Predicting drug court treatment completion using the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Curtis; Powers, Bradley; Halfaker, Dale; Akeson, Steven; Ben-Porath, Yossef

    2012-12-01

    We examined the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) substantive scales to predict Drug Court treatment completion in a sample of individuals identified as being at risk for failure to complete the program. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF scales Behavior/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Aberrant Experiences, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Aggression, and Disconstraint-Revised were associated with increased risk for failure to complete treatment. These results are consistent with previous findings (O'Reilly, 2007; Sellbom, Ben-Porath, Baum, Erez, & Gregory, 2008) regarding treatment completion. Gender was also found to be associated with treatment completion, with females being more likely to complete the Drug Court program than males. Zero-order correlations and relative risk analyses indicated that the MMPI-2-RF can provide useful information regarding risk factors for failure to complete Drug Court treatment. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  19. Court says protective garb wasn't necessary for inmates.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    A divided panel of the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a lower court ruling that would have allowed prison inmates who work as medical orderlies to proceed with a claim for protective gear. Three inmates from the Federal Correctional Institution at Butner, NC claim that prison officials were indifferent to their Eighth Amendment constitutional rights outlawing cruel and unusual punishment in 1992. These inmates volunteered to be orderlies but were not permitted to resign. They had to clean away blood and feces of HIV-positive inmates and were denied universal precautions, including protective gear. The Circuit Court wrote that government officials performing discretionary functions are entitled to qualified immunity from lawsuits. The ruling noted that no body of law existed in 1992 that would have directed prison administrators to supply protective gear to medical orderlies exposed to body fluids.

  20. Automatic Text Structuring and Categorization As a First Step in Summarizing Legal Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moens, Marie-Francine; Uyttendaele, Caroline

    1997-01-01

    Describes SALOMON (Summary and Analysis of Legal texts for Managing Online Needs), a system which automatically summarizes Belgian criminal cases to improve access to court decisions. Highlights include a text grammar represented as a semantic network; automatic abstracting; knowledge acquisition and representation; parsing; evaluation, including…

  1. Noisy text categorization.

    PubMed

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (Word Error Rate between approximately 10 and approximately 50 percent) versions of the same documents is compared. The noisy texts are obtained through handwriting recognition and simulation of optical character recognition. The results show that the performance loss is acceptable for Recall values up to 60-70 percent depending on the noise sources. New measures of the extraction process performance, allowing a better explanation of the categorization results, are proposed.

  2. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePlus

    ... Texting Lexi bumped into someone at the mall. Curtis slammed into a parking meter. Ryan tripped over ... the move. ER docs who treat people like Curtis (he cracked his ribs in his encounter with ...

  3. India: Delhi high court annuls law criminalizing adult homosexual relations.

    PubMed

    Skanland, Celeste A

    2009-12-01

    In what is considered by many to be a landmark decision on equality and non-discrimination in India, the Delhi High Court declared in July 2009 that Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which criminalizes people who engage in "unnatural offences", violates the rights to equality, freedom from discrimination, and life and personal liberty, pursuant to the India Constitution (Constitution). The court also agreed with the petitioner in the case that the law severely impairs HIV/AIDS prevention efforts by discouraging men who have sex with men (MSM) from participating for fear of stigma, discrimination and police abuse under the guise of enforcing the Section.

  4. The diagnosis of microcytic anemia by a rule-based expert system using VP-Expert.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M L; McKinney, T

    1989-09-01

    We describe our experience in creating a rule-based expert system for the interpretation of microcytic anemia using the expert system development tool, VP-Expert, running on an IBM personal computer. VP-Expert processes data (complete blood cell count results, age, and sex) according to a set of user-written logic rules (our program) to reach conclusions as to the following causes of microcytic anemia: alpha- and beta-thalassemia trait, iron deficiency, and anemia of chronic disease. Our expert system was tested using previously interpreted complete blood cell count data. In most instances, there was good agreement between the expert system and its pathologist-author, but many discrepancies were found in the interpretation of anemia of chronic disease. We conclude that VP-Expert has a useful level of power and flexibility, yet is simple enough that individuals with modest programming experience can create their own expert systems. Limitations of such expert systems are discussed.

  5. The earliest medical texts.

    PubMed

    Frey, E F

    The first civilization known to have had an extensive study of medicine and to leave written records of its practices and procedures was that of ancient Egypt. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri from the period between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.: the Kahun Medical Papyrus, the Ramesseum IV and Ramesseum V Papyri, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, The Ebers Medical Papyrus and the Hearst Medical Papyrus. These texts, most of them based on older texts dating possibly from 3000 B.C., are comparatively free of the magician's approach to treating illness. Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly.

  6. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-05

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise.

  7. SENLEX: a sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-06-25

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  9. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  10. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  11. Listening with text

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Blake

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous, text-based patient-physician encounters are highly effective as a first touch point to the health system as they allow experienced physicians to make the first decision on next steps. Results are beginning to come in with patients in Colorado and Texas along five key measures: utilization, re-engagement, compliance, response time, and overall savings. PMID:28293592

  12. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  13. Texts On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  14. Teaching Expository Text Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose; Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David

    2006-01-01

    Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks (Armbruster, 1991). Expository text…

  15. Texts and Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iser, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  16. Summarizing Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  17. Colorado High Court Rules U. of Denver Is Not Liable for Student's Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    A Colorado Supreme Court ruling rejecting a student's liability claim for an injury sustained in a fraternity house is the second this year in which a court found no special university responsibility to protect student safety in private activities. (MSE)

  18. 5 CFR 838.931 - Court orders that provide temporary awards of former spouse survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT... from honoring a modification of the court order (the date of retirement or death, or, in the case of...

  19. IsTeen Court effective for repeat offenders? A test of the restorative justice approach.

    PubMed

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.

  20. 29 CFR 785.25 - Illustrative U.S. Supreme Court decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by the U.S. Supreme Court further illustrate the types of activities which are considered an integral...)). In both cases the Supreme Court held that these activities are an integral and indispensable part...