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  1. Courting the expert: a clash of culture?

    PubMed

    Caldwell, P

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the utility of expert opinion in legal proceedings and the deployment of expert witnesses in adversarial litigation. The use of expert witnesses to assist courts in making just and fair conclusions may be contrasted with the partisan interests of those who call them. An adversarial system is a bad method of scientific enquiry and undermines the court's capacity to reach the 'right' answer. As a consequence, courts may reach the wrong conclusion based on bad science. The role of the expert as a witness places strain on an expert to provide certainty, where in fact there may be none. Recent reforms in the civil courts have changed little and the problem is even more acute in criminal trials. The expert can rely solely on the integrity of his or her own opinion, tempered with a little humility. However, when filtered through the rhetoric and advocacy of a court arena, even this may be compromised.

  2. Sexual assault nurse examiners' experiences providing expert witness court testimony.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Long, Susan M; Townsend, Stephanie M; Kinnison, Kelly E; Pulley, Emily M; Adames, S Bibiana; Wasco, Sharon M

    2007-01-01

    Nurses from a national random sample of SANE programs were interviewed about their most recent experience providing expert witness court testimony (N = 110). Forty-three percent of the SANEs characterized this experience "fine" with no difficulties, but 58% mentioned that they had encountered problems. Challenges they faced while testifying are explored in depth and implications for forensic nursing practice are discussed.

  3. From mental health professional to expert witness: testifying in court.

    PubMed

    Bank, S C

    2001-01-01

    Our democratic principles rest on the belief that truth is discovered through the fair and open combat of ideas in a court of law. When mental health professionals participate in this adversary process as expert witnesses, it is essential for them to understand that attorneys will attempt to impeach their credibility. Mental health professionals who appreciate the spirit and mechanics of courtroom communication will be best prepared to protect the integrity of their testimony. The courtroom communications model provides experts with a conceptual framework utilizing three components: the speaker is the expert, the message is testimony, and the audience is the judge or jury. Within the structure of this model, communication principles from social psychology can be used to enhance the clarity of testimony and to prevent attorneys from distorting the expert's opinions. First and foremost, expert witness testimony must be formulated on accepted scholarly and ethical standards. To establish credibility, experts must appear knowledgeable and trustworthy to the judge and jury. The expert must come to court prepared for both direct examination and cross-examination, know when to emphasize logic or emotion, tailor speech in order to reach the maximum number of jurors, and remain nondefensive by projecting the same demeanor regardless of which side is conducting the examination. The role of the expert witness is forever changing because the judicial system--like the mental health field--continues to evolve. Although the adversary process has undergone dramatic changes over the past eight hundred years, historical vestiges continue to echo throughout our courtrooms. Today expert witnesses are the champions of both victims and the accused. Legal disputes are increasingly being decided by the battle of the experts, who must undergo the ordeal of cross-examination. When you consider the brutality of ancient ordeals, responding to attorneys armed with questions may not seem so

  4. [Is the court-ordered treatment indication by the expert based on a medical diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Spriet, H; Abondo, M; Naudet, F; Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2014-09-01

    Court-ordered treatment was created in 1998, as part of a law against sexual offense recidivism. The creation of court-ordered treatment is based on the premise that many offenders have psychiatric disorders. If the court-ordered treatment is appraised as an effective way to prevent recidivism by the lawmaker, the preeminent role of psychiatry, in the prevention of recidivism has generated controversy in the psychiatric community. Few studies have been conducted on court-ordered treatment in France, and have concerned epidemiological measures. Court-ordered treatment leads to an extension of the expert's mission. In order to prevent recidivism, the interest of a treatment is a new part of the expert's mission. The main purpose of this study was to assess the kind of diagnosis reported by the forensic psychiatrist who considered the court-ordered treatment as appropriate. We led a descriptive and retrospective study among the experts' reports of 68 subjects followed by three psychiatrists. We categorized each diagnosis found in the experts' reports in reference to DSM-IV-TR axis I and axis II. As the expert has no obligation to refer to the DSM-IV-TR, we also considered the "no DSM-IV-TR categorized disorder" as a category. The primary outcome was the proportion of each diagnosis category in experts' reports, in which the forensic psychiatrist agreed with the indication of a court-ordered treatment. We analysed 123 experts' reports in which the mission was to diagnose a mental disorder and to assess the need for a court-ordered treatment. The expert agreed with the need for a court-ordered treatment in 112 reports. In those reports the diagnosis was "no disorder" in 27% of them, "no DSM-IV-TR categorized disorder" in 26% of them, "axis II disorder" in 24% of them, "axis I disorder" in 19% of them, and "association of an axis I and an axis II disorder" in 4% of them. The diagnoses were heterogeneous. Their associations with the need for a court-ordered treatment

  5. [Developmental aspects in expert testimony for juvenile court].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Toker, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The history of German legislation resulting in the developmental orientation of juvenile court law (JCL) led to setting the minimum age of criminal responsibility at the age of 14, which places Germany within the average range compared to other EU countries, even though most skills regarding the discernment of right- or wrong-doing are developed in earlier stages of life. The requirement put by section sign 3 JCL that legal discernment be emotionally grounded and the necessity to explore context factors (family or group, specific situation) make psychiatric evaluation of adolescents in court a delicate task. It is indispensable that new findings in neurobiology be considered upon making an assessment of the individual neuro-developmental status. In contrast, an assessment according to section sign 105 JCL considers the overall development irrespective of the crime(s). Developmental issues regarding legal prognosis are discussed for some types of offences (homicide, sexual offences, arson).

  6. The physician expert witness and the U.S. Supreme court--an epidemiologic approach.

    PubMed

    Norton, Martin L

    2002-01-01

    It is a fact of life that the physician is occasionally called upon to provide Expert Witness evidence. This is clearly distinct from evidence of a participatory nature where the physician is a party to the act by virtue of the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this presentation is to alert the physician to new criteria, imposed by the court, for acceptance of Expert Testimony. Prior to March 23, 1999, expert witness testimony fell into three categories, Scientific, technical, and other specialized knowledge. Scientific knowledge included the conclusions that could be subjected to analysis of a statistical nature, or could be validated by methodology such as epidemiologic criteria. Technical knowledge was based on factors such as mechanical or stress analysis utilized in engineering. Other "specialized knowledge" could be based on experiential data and information not necessarily subject to epidemiologic or other scientific analysis. Therefore, the physician presented his reasoning often based on years of professional practice and publication in journals of clinical practice. On March 23rd 1999, the Supreme Court of the United States changed the criteria for all categories stating that there is "no relevant distinction between 'scientific' knowledge' and 'technical' or 'other specialized knowledge' in Federal Rule of Evidence 702. This momentous decision [Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, (97-1709), 131 F.3d 1433) reversed.] referred back to a previous case [Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 509 US. 579,589], which established four criteria based on methods of analysis for t he courts, and was now extended for all expert evidence. Thus the area of expert witness evidence was changed by this momentous act placing the judge as arbiter of all expert evidence, including that of the physician. This paper will offer a brief review and an analysis of the significance of this for the professional involved in the legal system as an expert witness.

  7. Frame-Analysis of Argumentation in Court Opinion Texts: Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilingaryan, Kamo; Lutskovskaya, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on practical experiment on perception of argumentative nature of court opinions by non-native speakers. Several argumentative frames most frequently used in the texts of court opinions are identified and described in the article. The article also aims at analyzing the distribution characteristics of the identified frames. Text…

  8. Text of the Supreme Court's Opinion in the Selective Service System Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The texts are presented of the Supreme Court opinions in the case of the Selective Service System vs. Minnesota Public Interest Research Group, which upheld a federal law requiring college students to register for the draft before receiving federal student aid. Included are the majority opinion by Chief Justice Warren E. Burger and dissenting…

  9. Becoming an expert practitioner: court experimentalism and the medical skills of Anna of Saxony (1532-1585).

    PubMed

    Rankin, Alisha

    2007-03-01

    This essay proposes that the well-documented interest in empirical and experimental practice at the early modern German courts was not limited to male practitioners. Just as princes evinced an interest in practical alchemy, mathematics, and astronomy, a large number of gentlewomen became expert medical practitioners. Using a case study of one noblewoman, Electress Anna of Saxony, I would like to expand the notion of "prince-practitioning" to a more general and inclusive "court experimentalism." Like the prince-practitioners, Anna engaged in a laborious attempt to learn the hands-on techniques involved in becoming an expert; she collaborated with both noblewomen and noblemen in her efforts; and she semantically linked her medicine to the alchemical skills (Künste) practiced by her husband, Elector August. Although court experimentalism cannot be equated with experimentation in the modern sense, medicine is one area in which women actively shared in the early modern fascination with empirical knowledge.

  10. Prosecution-retained versus court-appointed experts: comparing and contrasting risk assessment reports in preventative detention hearings.

    PubMed

    Blais, Julie; Forth, Adelle E

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the risk assessment reports of prosecution-retained (n = 43) and court-appointed experts (n = 68) within the context of preventative detention hearings on variables ranging from the information within the assessment reports (e.g., length) to the conclusions drawn in terms of risk and treatment amenability (e.g., categorical statements of risk). A separate section also focused specifically on psychopathy. Court-appointed expert assessments were significantly longer (d = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.01, 0.78]) and contained more information pertaining to risk factors (odds ratio [OR] = 4.48, 95% CI [1.21, 16.61]) and risk management (OR = 3.15, 95% CI [1.20, 8.25]). Both types of experts communicated risk assessment results in categorical terms and were highly likely to utilize actuarial scales. Less than half of all assessments contained information on dynamic or protective factors. Other than providing a total psychopathy score, the assessments contained very little additional information about the implications of this score for risk management or treatment amenability. Although the results indicate that risk assessment reports between prosecution-retained and court-appointed experts were more similar than they were different, it is also evident that, overall, reports should contain more information on dynamic risk factors and risk management in order to be useful in the context of preventative detention hearings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Defining 'reasonable medical certainty' in court: What does it mean to medical experts in child abuse cases?

    PubMed

    Dias, Mark S; Boehmer, Susan; Johnston-Walsh, Lucy; Levi, Benjamin H

    2015-12-01

    Physicians and others who provide expert testimony in court cases involving alleged child abuse may be instructed to state their conclusions within a 'reasonable medical certainty' (RMC). However, neither judges nor jurors knows what degree of probability constitutes RMC for a given expert, nor whether different experts use different standards to formulate their opinions. We sought to better understand how experts define RMC in the context of court cases. An email survey was sent to members of six list-serves, representing four specialties, whose members testify in child abuse cases. Respondents were asked to define how RMC corresponded to (1) the numerical probability that abuse occurred, (2) the ordinal probability, and (3) how their determinations relate to common legal standards ('preponderance of the evidence', 'clear and convincing', and 'beyond a reasonable doubt'). Participants were also asked how comfortable they were in defining RMC; whether their definition changed according to the charges or type of proceeding; and how they would apply RMC to several hypothetical cases. The 294 list-serve participants who responded included child abuse pediatricians (46%), forensic pathologists (21%), pediatric neurosurgeons (15%), pediatric ophthalmologists (12%), and others (6%). Though 95% of respondents had testified in court, only 45% had received training in the definition of RMC. Only 37% were comfortable defining RMC. Although many responses were highly clustered and paired comparisons showed that 95% of participants' responses were internally consistent, there was variability in respondents' definitions of RMC. There is some variability in how child abuse expert witnesses define and use the term RMC; we provide suggestions about how to more accurately and transparently define RMC to ensure justice in these cases.

  12. Text of High Court's Ruling on Judges' Right to Upset Academic Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John Paul

    1985-01-01

    The Supreme Court's opinion and concurring opinion in a case limiting the right of courts to overturn academic decisions, based on the case of university's dismissal of a student after his failure of an important examination, are presented. (MSE)

  13. [Characteristics of murder and attempted murder in Cameroon. Study based on expert psychiatric court reports].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first

  14. 'What on earth can this possibly mean'? French reentry courts and experts' risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Herzog-Evans, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of ten years of punitive criminal justice policies, the number of cases in which risk assessments by psychiatrist experts are mandatory has considerably increased in France. Because of complex and deeply ingrained cultural factors, most experts and academics oppose the use of actuarial or other structured judgement tools, which they assimilate to these policy changes. Parallel to this, the reentry judges in charge of making release and other community sentence decisions have maintained a strong rehabilitative and desistance-focused culture. Drawing on interviews with these judges and experts, the author wanted to assess the judges' expectations of experts' reports, their opinion on actuarial tools, and how they perceived experts and their aptitude to assess risk. The study showed that French reentry judges manage to keep experts' conclusions at bay when they do not fit with their desistance goals, as they can draw upon their own expertise and that of probation services. They do not have much faith in the professionalism and methodology of experts, and would like them to better demonstrate how they reach their conclusions. Moreover, criminogenic needs assessment would be much more useful to them than static risk assessment, which raises the issue as to why this is not the French probation services' role. Reentry judges who never encountered a report which uses a structured tool are influenced by the French ideological debate; those who have read such reports are unanimously in favour of such tools. It thus seems clear that they would like experts to be more strongly guided by science, but are not yet fully aware of what this entails. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Role of experts in forensic medicine in opinioning for courts and insurance agencies].

    PubMed

    Berent, Jarosław

    2005-01-01

    Forensic medicine belongs to a group of medical specialties which are listed as basic specialties according to the Ministry of Health. As indicated already by the specialist program, the aim of such studies involves mastering of abilities which permit the medical doctor to provide competent opinions for courts and other organs in the administration of justice, consistent with the current medical knowledge, forensic experience and requirements of the law. Therefore, obtaining specialist qualifications in forensic medicine the doctor is expected to be prepared for forensic certification in penal, civil and insurance matters on the basis of a medical examination and/or court files. It should be explained that forensic medicine practiced in Poland and in some European countries represents a much broader specialty than forensic pathology practiced in the USA and some English-speaking countries. In the latter countries the specialty represents a part of broadly understood pathology. The situation of a forensic physician in organization of the execution of justice in the USA, his/ her competencies and range of activities are completely distinct to those characterizing a forensic physician in Poland. In its range accepted in Poland, forensic medicine has a broader scope. It deals not only with the narrow range of penal proceedings but also pertains the entire problems of certification for the courts and other organs which deal with implementation of justice, as well as for other institutions such as various insurance companies. One of the reasons for separation of forensic medicine from other specialties was the fact that appropriate forensic opinioning requires more than encompassing respective medical knowledge. Also needed is the ability to understand intentions and aims of justice execution and the capacity to formulate opinions in such a range and in such a way that it will be perceived by the addressee in an unbiased form.

  16. Dangerous Liaisons? Psychiatry and Law in the Court of Protection-Expert Discourses of 'Insight' (and 'Compliance').

    PubMed

    Case, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A finding that 'P' (as the person who is subject to Court of Protection proceedings is known) lacks mental capacity is the trigger for exposing them to decision-making by others and the powers of the Court of Protection (CoP) which, in the words of Justice Hedley, can be 'invasive and draconian' (Hedley J in PC v City of York Council cited in [2013] EWCA Civ 478 [13]). Whilst the law asserts the upper hand in the assessment of mental capacity for persons who come before the CoP, it is the discipline of psychiatry, which dominates expert witness testimony in these proceedings. There are a number of implications of allowing psychiatry to dominate this terrain, not least that, as will be argued in this article, clinical discourse, which makes reference to non-statutory terminology such as 'lack of insight' and 'non-compliance' are imported into the business of capacity assessment. This terminology, if used lazily and without clear reference to the statutory criteria, has the potential to muddy the waters of assessing P's capacity. At its worst, it can mask value judgements, which threaten to undermine the law's 'autonomy promoting' provisions set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Whilst it is not intended to discredit 'insight' as a concept in psychiatry, this article concludes that it has a proper context and that in the mental capacity context, decision-makers, lawyers, and advocates should exercise careful scrutiny of its use, and CoP judgments should carefully interrogate the language imported by expert witnesses.

  17. Intra- and interobserver agreement among obstetric experts in court regarding the review of abnormal fetal heart rate tracings and obstetrical management.

    PubMed

    Sabiani, Laura; Le Dû, Renaud; Loundou, Anderson; d'Ercole, Claude; Bretelle, Florence; Boubli, Léon; Carcopino, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the intra- and interobserver agreement among obstetric experts in court regarding the retrospective review of abnormal fetal heart rate tracings and obstetrical management of patients with abnormal fetal heart rate during labor. A total of 22 French obstetric experts in court reviewed 30 cases of term deliveries of singleton pregnancies diagnosed with at least 1 hour of abnormal fetal heart rate, including 10 cases with adverse neonatal outcome. The experts reviewed all cases twice within a 3-month interval, with the first review being blinded to neonatal outcome. For each case reviewed, the experts were provided with the obstetric data and copies of the complete fetal heart rate recording and the partogram. The experts were asked to classify the abnormal fetal heart rate tracing and to express whether they agreed with the obstetrical management performed. When they disagreed, the experts were asked whether they concluded that an error had been made and whether they considered the obstetrical management as the cause of cerebral palsy in children if any. Compared with blinded review, the experts were significantly more likely to agree with the obstetric management performed (P < .001) and with the mode of delivery (P < .001) when informed about the neonatal outcome and were less likely to conclude that an error had been made (P < .001) or to establish a link with potential cerebral palsy (P = .003). The experts' intraobserver agreement for the review of abnormal fetal heart rate tracing and obstetrical management were both mediocre (kappa = 0.46-0.51 and kappa = 0.48-0.53, respectively). The interobserver agreement for the review of abnormal fetal heart rate tracing was low and was not improved by knowledge of the neonatal outcome (kappa = 0.11-0.18). The interobserver agreement for the interpretation of obstetrical management was also low (kappa = 0.08-0.19) but appeared to be improved by knowledge of the neonatal outcome

  18. [Professional and ethical medical expert quality].

    PubMed

    Iveković, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons.

  19. Comparing Text-based and Graphic User Interfaces for novice and expert users.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jung-Wei; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-10-11

    Graphic User Interface (GUI) is commonly considered to be superior to Text-based User Interface (TUI). This study compares GUI and TUI in an electronic dental record system. Several usability analysis techniques compared the relative effectiveness of a GUI and a TUI. Expert users and novice users were evaluated in time required and steps needed to complete the task. A within-subject design was used to evaluate if the experience with either interface will affect task performance. The results show that the GUI interface was not better than the TUI for expert users. GUI interface was better for novice users. For novice users there was a learning transfer effect from TUI to GUI. This means a user interface is user-friendly or not depending on the mapping between the user interface and tasks. GUI by itself may or may not be better than TUI.

  20. Comparing Text-based and Graphic User Interfaces for Novice and Expert Users

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Wei; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-01-01

    Graphic User Interface (GUI) is commonly considered to be superior to Text-based User Interface (TUI). This study compares GUI and TUI in an electronic dental record system. Several usability analysis techniques compared the relative effectiveness of a GUI and a TUI. Expert users and novice users were evaluated in time required and steps needed to complete the task. A within-subject design was used to evaluate if the experience with either interface will affect task performance. The results show that the GUI interface was not better than the TUI for expert users. GUI interface was better for novice users. For novice users there was a learning transfer effect from TUI to GUI. This means a user interface is user-friendly or not depending on the mapping between the user interface and tasks. GUI by itself may or may not be better than TUI. PMID:18693811

  1. [Opinions issued by an expert appointed by a court in civil cases from the point of view of the defendant insurance company].

    PubMed

    Truszkiewicz, Waldemar; Pałka, Janusz; Maciejczak, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses problems which are encountered by an insurance company in connection with the opinions issued by experts appointed by a court in civil cases and concerning the evaluation of the results of accidents or damages in civil liability insurance. Every year, the group of physicians employed by the Office of Medical Services of Insurance at the PZU Zycie SA and PZU SA, issues opinions for about 3000 appeal and complicated cases from all over Poland. In some of the cases, an individual holding an accident insurance policy or an injured person in the case of civil liability insurance disagrees with the findings of the insurance company and brings the case to a civil court. About 7% of the opinions issued by the Office in 2005 were polemics with court experts, concerning their manner of classifying the results of an accident or an event which resulted in damage to an individual. Among the 200 opinions, there are several important and recurring problems, which are presented in the paper. The main doubts concern: 1. insufficient analysis of the circumstances of an event and drawing hasty conclusions about the cause-and-effect relationship, 2. claiming the certain occurrence of a cause-and-effect relationship, despite substantial doubts, 3. absence of analysis of general conditions of insurance, which in voluntary insurance may contain various exemptions and restrictions, 4. insufficient analysis of medical documentation containing information about some deviations before the event, 5. determining by the experts the degree of permanent loss of health despite the absence of functional impairment revealed in an examination, 6. determining permanent results of an accident based solely on unverifiable subjective complaints, 7. deciding about the percentage of permanent detriment to health in most cases on a slightly higher level than was decided by a physician who took such a decision for the insurance agency.

  2. [Differences in psychiatric expertise of responsibility for schizophrenic persons accused of murder: Study with experts of the Court of Appeal of Aix-en-Provence].

    PubMed

    Guivarch, J; Piercecchi-Marti, M-D; Glezer, D; Chabannes, J-M

    2016-08-01

    In France, forensic psychiatric assessment plays a central role in the relationship between psychiatry and justice. The psychiatric expert is commissioned to determine whether or not the accused has a mental disorder and to specify whether or not it affected discernment at the time of offense. Nowadays, psychiatric expertise is coming under more and more criticism, particularly regarding divergences between experts. Our objectives were to find points of divergence between experts, try to understand causes and suggest ways to try to reduce them. For this we conducted a study, between July 2012 and January 2013, with psychiatric experts of the Court of Appeal of Aix-en-Provence through semi-structured interviews. We focused on a limited context: psychiatric expertise of responsibility for schizophrenic persons accused of murder. We questioned the experts about the issue of criminal liability of a person with schizophrenia in general but also in clinical situations we thought particularly involved in disagreements. We recruited a population of 17 psychiatrists, mostly males of average age of 58 years, working mostly in the department of adult psychiatry of a hospital. We highlighted the differences between the experts, first with regards to the issue of liability in general. Experts divided seemed to keep in majority (52.9 %) the alternative between abolition and alteration of discernment when faced with a schizophrenic person accused of murder. The differences were even more pronounced in specific contexts. Thus, the fact that the person had suffered from delirium at the time of the offense led half of the experts (47.1 %) to conclude a systematic abolition of discernment, while the other half made such a conclusion when the delirium was directly linked to the facts. Discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment, drug abuse or existence of premeditation changed the conclusions of the experts in half the cases, more in the sense of an increased accountability in the

  3. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  4. Dangerous Liaisons? Psychiatry and Law in the Court of Protection—Expert Discourses of ‘Insight’ (and ‘Compliance’)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A finding that ‘P’ (as the person who is subject to Court of Protection proceedings is known) lacks mental capacity is the trigger for exposing them to decision-making by others and the powers of the Court of Protection (CoP) which, in the words of Justice Hedley, can be ‘invasive and draconian’ (Hedley J in PC v City of York Council cited in [2013] EWCA Civ 478 [13]). Whilst the law asserts the upper hand in the assessment of mental capacity for persons who come before the CoP, it is the discipline of psychiatry, which dominates expert witness testimony in these proceedings. There are a number of implications of allowing psychiatry to dominate this terrain, not least that, as will be argued in this article, clinical discourse, which makes reference to non-statutory terminology such as ‘lack of insight’ and ‘non-compliance’ are imported into the business of capacity assessment. This terminology, if used lazily and without clear reference to the statutory criteria, has the potential to muddy the waters of assessing P’s capacity. At its worst, it can mask value judgements, which threaten to undermine the law’s ‘autonomy promoting’ provisions set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Whilst it is not intended to discredit ‘insight’ as a concept in psychiatry, this article concludes that it has a proper context and that in the mental capacity context, decision-makers, lawyers, and advocates should exercise careful scrutiny of its use, and CoP judgments should carefully interrogate the language imported by expert witnesses. PMID:28007808

  5. Text mining and expert curation to develop a database on psychiatric diseases and their genes

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Sacristán, Alba; Bravo, Àlex; Portero-Tresserra, Marta; Valverde, Olga; Armario, Antonio; Blanco-Gandía, M.C.; Farré, Adriana; Fernández-Ibarrondo, Lierni; Fonseca, Francina; Giraldo, Jesús; Leis, Angela; Mané, Anna; Mayer, M.A.; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Nadal, Roser; Ortiz, Jordi; Pavon, Francisco Javier; Perez, Ezequiel Jesús; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Serrano, Antonia; Torrens, Marta; Warnault, Vincent; Sanz, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric disorders constitute one of the main causes of disability worldwide. During the past years, considerable research has been conducted on the genetic architecture of such diseases, although little understanding of their etiology has been achieved. The difficulty to access up-to-date, relevant genotype-phenotype information has hampered the application of this wealth of knowledge to translational research and clinical practice in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric patients. PsyGeNET (http://www.psygenet.org/) has been developed with the aim of supporting research on the genetic architecture of psychiatric diseases, by providing integrated and structured accessibility to their genotype–phenotype association data, together with analysis and visualization tools. In this article, we describe the protocol developed for the sustainable update of this knowledge resource. It includes the recruitment of a team of domain experts in order to perform the curation of the data extracted by text mining. Annotation guidelines and a web-based annotation tool were developed to support the curators’ tasks. A curation workflow was designed including a pilot phase and two rounds of curation and analysis phases. Negative evidence from the literature on gene–disease associations (GDAs) was taken into account in the curation process. We report the results of the application of this workflow to the curation of GDAs for PsyGeNET, including the analysis of the inter-annotator agreement and suggest this model as a suitable approach for the sustainable development and update of knowledge resources. Database URL: http://www.psygenet.org PsyGeNET corpus: http://www.psygenet.org/ds/PsyGeNET/results/psygenetCorpus.tar

  6. Numerical Algorithms for the Analysis of Expert Opinions Elicited in Text Format

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    geometric ideas in Euclidean space and linear algebra. 5.1.1 Deterministic Models for Text Data The most common deterministic model for text is the...document by a point in Euclidean space, that is, document i, written Di ∈ Rp, is defined by the vector Di ∆ = ( m i1,m i 2, . . . ,m i p )′ . (1) Here the...the query vector through the angle, or through the euclidean norm. As a text analysis example one might convert all document vectors to unit vectors

  7. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I.; Good, Benjamin M.; Furlong, Laura I.

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects. Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V PMID:27307137

  8. Texting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…

  9. Identifying influenza-like illness presentation from unstructured general practice clinical narrative using a text classifier rule-based expert system versus a clinical expert.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jayden; Love, Tom; Baker, Michael G; Dowell, Anthony; Carnachan, Matthew; Stubbe, Maria; McBain, Lynn

    2015-10-06

    We designed and validated a rule-based expert system to identify influenza like illness (ILI) from routinely recorded general practice clinical narrative to aid a larger retrospective research study into the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Rules were assessed using pattern matching heuristics on routine clinical narrative. The system was trained using data from 623 clinical encounters and validated using a clinical expert as a gold standard against a mutually exclusive set of 901 records. We calculated a 98.2 % specificity and 90.2 % sensitivity across an ILI incidence of 12.4 % measured against clinical expert classification. Peak problem list identification of ILI by clinical coding in any month was 9.2 % of all detected ILI presentations. Our system addressed an unusual problem domain for clinical narrative classification; using notational, unstructured, clinician entered information in a community care setting. It performed well compared with other approaches and domains. It has potential applications in real-time surveillance of disease, and in assisted problem list coding for clinicians. Our system identified ILI presentation with sufficient accuracy for use at a population level in the wider research study. The peak coding of 9.2 % illustrated the need for automated coding of unstructured narrative in our study.

  10. Court Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nankivell, R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents court briefs for three separate constitutional issues: the individual right to die as tested in the "Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health" case; constitutional rights and drunk driving; and student religious clubs' right to meet at public schools in accordance with the Equal Access Act of 1984. Analyzes court opinions and…

  11. Court Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nankivell, R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents court briefs for three separate constitutional issues: the individual right to die as tested in the "Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health" case; constitutional rights and drunk driving; and student religious clubs' right to meet at public schools in accordance with the Equal Access Act of 1984. Analyzes court opinions and…

  12. Cutting Crime: Drug Courts in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    Drug courts depart from traditional criminal justice practice by directing nonviolent drug abusing offenders to intensive court-supervised drug treatment instead of to prison. An examination of drug courts is offered in this booklet. The text is based on extensive interviews with judges, prosecutors, public defenders, court administrators, police…

  13. Cutting Crime: Drug Courts in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    Drug courts depart from traditional criminal justice practice by directing nonviolent drug abusing offenders to intensive court-supervised drug treatment instead of to prison. An examination of drug courts is offered in this booklet. The text is based on extensive interviews with judges, prosecutors, public defenders, court administrators, police…

  14. Expert Witness from the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, William J.

    1975-01-01

    Increasingly, therapists are asked to testify in court cases as expert witnesses. Many of these cases involve testimony about homosexuality. The best policy on the stand is explained and suggestions for preparation and presentation in the court are made. (Author)

  15. The Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibine, Alex

    1980-01-01

    Overview of some of the most important Indian court cases of the last decade, including ones regarding treaty rights, tribal jurisdiction and sovereignty, tax jurisdiction, land claims, and hunting and fishing rights. (DS)

  16. Expert reports

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, article 4590i of the Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated, the statutory provision that governs health care liability claims in Texas, was amended to require claimants to file expert reports within 180 days as part of the prosecution of their claims. Sufficient expert reports include explanations of the standard of care, the deviation from that standard, and how the deviation caused the claimant's damages. Two provisions allow courts to grant a 30-day extension for filing expert reports. A good cause extension can be used to extend the filing deadline to 210 days; however, case law has not clearly defined what constitutes good cause. An accident or mistake grace period can be used to justify reports filed >210 days after the suit has been filed; judges determine whether the failure is due to a mistake or intentional indifference. As with any statute, the language is not as important as how the courts (judges) interpret that language. The statute may appear strict but room for interpretation exists. PMID:16389359

  17. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F.; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C.; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining–based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining–aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  18. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F; Dela Rosa, Mira Anne C; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining-based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining-aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  19. [Medical expert opinion--credibility, ethics, remuneration].

    PubMed

    Sahar, Avraham

    2007-07-01

    Israeli Law requires a Personal Injury Claim to be supported by an Expert Medical Opinion. Such evidence provides the Court with information essential for the evaluation of scientific material, which is beyond the Court's "judicial knowledge". Incongruent Expert Opinions are not necessarily the result of deceit. Experts are entitled to differences in their respective evaluation and interpretation of data and conflicting medical opinions may be legitimate. The Court's duty and prerogative is to select the "legally correct" opinion. The sole tool at the Court's disposal is precise and logical thinking, aided by principles set by the U.S. Supreme Court for the evaluation of scientific evidence, and adopted by the Israeli Court. The choice of the "correct" opinion centers on it's objectivity. A court-appointed expert is not necessarily an effective solution. Remuneration of the expert by the interested party increases the level of mistrust. The difficult questions concerning the credibility of an opinion arise as the result of insufficient specific expertise of the witness, presentation by a pretender to expertise or plain misrepresentation of data, excerpts of literature etc. Such transgressions are best exposed by the opposing party's expert and attorney. The court has effective means for the control of such behavior. The fraudulent expert witness is neither immune to criminal prosecution, nor to civil suit. IMA's Code of Ethics for Experts is adequate. Expert's fees should be consistent with the effort involved, as well as with the expert's rank and experience. Any linkage of fees to the outcome of the procedure should be prohibited, as well as the intervention of "contractors". Attempts to limit experts' fees, may result in the abstention of the most knowledgeable specialists from such duties. The blame for a false opinion does not lie with the paying party, it is mostly the witness who is responsible.

  20. At the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…

  1. At the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…

  2. Understanding the Federal Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses the workings of the federal courts and supports six law-related lesson plans. It is divided into the following sections: "The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary"; "The Federal Courts in American Government" ("The Federal Courts and Congress"; "The Federal Courts and the Executive…

  3. Order in the Court!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, Madeline

    2005-01-01

    This fall teachers will have the infrequent, but valuable opportunity to teach children about the Supreme Court and its confirmation process. The appointment of a new Justice lets students witness the Court's role and how the three branches of government work together. Teachers also report that the Court is a favorite topic because children can…

  4. How lawyers view psychiatric experts.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H; Skip Simpson, J D

    2012-11-01

    Good lawyers look for integrity in their expert consultants and expert witnesses. They need truthful, accurate information to help them assess and frame cases, win or settle them favorably, and/or withdraw when the case has little merit. Experts should be well qualified to review, interpret, and eventually testify credibly about their portions of the case. They should be able to work with lawyers in the lawyers' own arenas (e.g., courts, hearings) and to convey their opinions to others, such as juries, clearly and without unnecessary distractions.

  5. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  6. CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search Jiepu Jiang1, Wei Lu1, Haozhen Zhao2 1 Center for Studies of...AND SUBTITLE CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...15. J. Jiang, W. Lu, D. Liu. CSIR at TREC 2007. In Proceedings of the 16th Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), 2007. 16. J. Jiang, W. Lu. IR

  7. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  8. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  9. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the Supreme Court's preview. As the 2005 term neared its June 30 end date, the Supreme Court, still adjusting to its first membership change in 11 years, had yet to decide dozens of cases that had defied quick resolution throughout the term. But with the last-minute release of seriously fractured decisions in many of the…

  10. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  11. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at various cases of the Supreme Court's most recent term. In contrast to the 2006-2007 term when the Supreme Court was regularly split 5-4, during this last term, the justices have formed surprising coalitions in cases considered highly controversial. For example, it was the so-called liberal bloc's Justice Stevens who wrote the…

  12. Genetics in the courts

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  13. Insurers lose court battle

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-09-28

    Recent court disputes concerning insurance coverage of Superfund costs have resulted in the retrial of a proinsurer ruling on environmental cleanup costs for potentially responsible parties. The court rejected the insurance industry`s pollution exclusion clause by Aetna and two nonchemical companies. Supposedly this is good news for the chemical industry, because there will be more access to insurance money in Superfund cleanups.

  14. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  15. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that the 2010 Supreme Court term was without the "fireworks" of recent years and, therefore, this year the Court garnered limited media attention and national interest. Contributing to this limited attention was the fact that the term ended with no retirements or looming confirmation battles. In addition, the term's…

  16. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the Supreme Court's preview. As the 2005 term neared its June 30 end date, the Supreme Court, still adjusting to its first membership change in 11 years, had yet to decide dozens of cases that had defied quick resolution throughout the term. But with the last-minute release of seriously fractured decisions in many of the…

  17. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that the 2010 Supreme Court term was without the "fireworks" of recent years and, therefore, this year the Court garnered limited media attention and national interest. Contributing to this limited attention was the fact that the term ended with no retirements or looming confirmation battles. In addition, the term's…

  18. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  19. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  20. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  1. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  2. Court Disallows Damage Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomson, Bernard; Coplan, Norman

    1976-01-01

    In rejecting claims for damages, the Court finds that contract's "increase or decrease of cost" language is not applicable to added overhead costs and loss of labor efficiency resulting from delays over which the contractor has no control. (Author)

  3. People Power in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes seven activities for teaching secondary social studies students about court juries. Students observe and discuss the actual selection of a jury, play shadow-jury in an actual court case, interview jurors, research student courts, and survey and discuss student opinions on jury-related issues and court decisions. (AM)

  4. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  5. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  6. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  7. English Professor as Public Figure: My Days in Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    The author has twice spent a full day in court, as an expert witness; rather an odd task for an English professor, one might think. Each time involved a matter of considerable importance: an obscenity prosecution of a classic novel during the 1960s, and then, about twenty years later, a financial crisis at a community college involving dozens of…

  8. English Professor as Public Figure: My Days in Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    The author has twice spent a full day in court, as an expert witness; rather an odd task for an English professor, one might think. Each time involved a matter of considerable importance: an obscenity prosecution of a classic novel during the 1960s, and then, about twenty years later, a financial crisis at a community college involving dozens of…

  9. Courts and Kids: Pursuing Educational Equity through the State Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past thirty-five years, federal courts have dramatically retreated from actively promoting school desegregation. In the meantime, state courts have taken up the mantle of promoting the vision of educational equity originally articulated in "Brown v. Board of Education". "Courts and Kids" is the first detailed analysis…

  10. Courts and Kids: Pursuing Educational Equity through the State Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past thirty-five years, federal courts have dramatically retreated from actively promoting school desegregation. In the meantime, state courts have taken up the mantle of promoting the vision of educational equity originally articulated in "Brown v. Board of Education". "Courts and Kids" is the first detailed analysis…

  11. Drug Courts and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The narrow preoccupation with abstinence causes many substance-abusing youth to react either with dishonesty or resistance. Drug education and treatment programs need to help youth rethink their use of drugs, rather than utilize harshly confrontational tactics. Drug courts can provide sanctions, while treatment interventions such as the Seven…

  12. Greenhouse Gas Court Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the June 26, 2012, U.S. Court of Appeals- D.C. Circuit's decision to uphold EPA's Endangerment Finding and greenhouse gas regulations issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for passenger vehicles and CAA permitting for stationary sources.

  13. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  14. National Youth Court Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Tracy M.

    Youth courts provide communities with an opportunity to impose immediate consequences for first time youthful offenders, while providing a peer operated disposition mechanism that constructively allows young people to take responsibility, be held accountable, and make amends for violating the law. Dispositions hold youth accountable in part…

  15. Supreme Court Potpourri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Examines several recent Supreme Court decisions and comments on the implications of those decisions. Looks at powers of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the picketing of private homes, involuntary servitude, alcoholism, displaying of adult literature, attorney advertisements, confronting one's accuser, physician peer review…

  16. Supreme Court Potpourri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Examines several recent Supreme Court decisions and comments on the implications of those decisions. Looks at powers of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the picketing of private homes, involuntary servitude, alcoholism, displaying of adult literature, attorney advertisements, confronting one's accuser, physician peer review…

  17. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 2008-2009 term, Justice David Souter's decision to return to New Hampshire and President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to replace him on the bench had taken over the Supreme Court news cycle. In the end, the consensus has been that, with the possible exception of criminal justice issues, swapping out Souter for Sotomayor…

  18. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.; Hawke, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Of the three branches of government, the Supreme Court usually receives the least national attention. Not so this year. In addition to another changing of the guard with the retirement of Justice Stevens and the nomination of Elena Kagan, the 2009-2010 term generated a great deal of controversy. And in a number of instances, the public's keen…

  19. Supreme Court Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    Reactions to the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and debate over the president's replacement nomination, Judge John Roberts, Jr., of the D.C. Circuit, dominated this summer's Supreme Court recess. Subsequently, after Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005, President Bush nominated Roberts for the chief justice…

  20. Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    It was late on Election Day 2010 and Vander Plaats, a Sioux City, Iowa, businessman and leader of a campaign to oust three Iowa Supreme Court justices, had just gotten word that he and his team had pulled it off. The voters had rejected the three justices up for a retention vote: David Baker, Michael Streit, and Chief Justice Marsha Ternus.…

  1. Covering the Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Renee

    1989-01-01

    Assesses the media coverage of U.S. Supreme Court decisions by focusing on "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services." Expresses concern that deadline pressures force the media to respond to decisions too quickly, thus misrepresenting the legal impact of these decisions to the public. Considers ways of improving media coverage of the…

  2. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  3. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.; Hawke, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Of the three branches of government, the Supreme Court usually receives the least national attention. Not so this year. In addition to another changing of the guard with the retirement of Justice Stevens and the nomination of Elena Kagan, the 2009-2010 term generated a great deal of controversy. And in a number of instances, the public's keen…

  4. Supreme Court Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    Reactions to the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and debate over the president's replacement nomination, Judge John Roberts, Jr., of the D.C. Circuit, dominated this summer's Supreme Court recess. Subsequently, after Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005, President Bush nominated Roberts for the chief justice…

  5. State Court Organization, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for State Courts, Williamsburg, VA.

    Information on state court organization as of January 1, 1980, in the 50 states, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands is provided. Data were collected from published sources and through questionnaires. There are two major parts. Part I consists of 36 tables containing comparative data from all the…

  6. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on two U.S. Supreme Court cases involving unreasonable searches and seizures: (1) Kyllo v. United States, No. 99-8508; and (2) Indianapolis v. Edmond, No. 99-1030. Includes information about the first case and the basis and decision of the second case. (CMK)

  7. Court-ordered caesareans.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Elizabeth; Lomri, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Court-ordered caesarean sections are in the news after a number of recent legal decisions authorising surgery for women who lack mental capacity to consent. The decisions have not always been based on good evidence and they raise serious concerns about the protection of the rights of mentally ill women. The authors explain the legal process and question the wisdom of recent judgements.

  8. Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    It was late on Election Day 2010 and Vander Plaats, a Sioux City, Iowa, businessman and leader of a campaign to oust three Iowa Supreme Court justices, had just gotten word that he and his team had pulled it off. The voters had rejected the three justices up for a retention vote: David Baker, Michael Streit, and Chief Justice Marsha Ternus.…

  9. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  10. Rodriguez: The State Courts Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 16 state court decisions in 15 states concerning equity in statewide school finance systems, in the aftermath of the Supreme Court's San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" decision. Finds that some state legislatures and courts reformed their finance systems, while others let inequalities continue. (RW)

  11. Rodriguez: The State Courts Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 16 state court decisions in 15 states concerning equity in statewide school finance systems, in the aftermath of the Supreme Court's San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" decision. Finds that some state legislatures and courts reformed their finance systems, while others let inequalities continue. (RW)

  12. Supreme Court Ruling on Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents the text of a unanimous Supreme Court opinion delivered by Justice Douglas, as well as two separate concurring opinions, which granted non-English speaking Chinese students' petition for relief from unequal and unconstitutional educational opportunities resulting from an absence of English language instruction. (Author/SF)

  13. Professionalism in court

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Serving as an expert witness can be a rewarding experience. It affords the neurologist the opportunity to contribute expertise to the legal system's pursuit of justice and benefits the public interest. However, serving as an expert witness without understanding and incorporating relevant professional and specialty guidelines concerning expert witness testimony can place the neurologist at risk. The American Academy of Neurology has established standards governing expert witness testimony and a disciplinary process to respond to complaints of violation of its standards. Increased understanding of and adherence to these qualifications and guidelines, coupled with an awareness of how the legal system differs from clinical practice, will better equip neurologists serving as expert witnesses and minimize their professional risk when doing so. PMID:25279255

  14. Expert System Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    Expert System Management System (ESMS) Small Business Innovative Research Contract developed a distributed fault-tolerant expert system shell for...multiple expert systems in a multiprocessor environment. The ESMS contained four domain specific expert systems called Manager Expert System , Route...Planner Expert System , Weapon Expert System , and Situation Awareness and Display Expert System . The ESMS expert system shell was written in LISP

  15. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  16. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  17. 27 CFR 71.118 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Court review. 71.118... § 71.118 Court review. If an applicant or respondent files an appeal in Federal court of the... record for submission to the court in accordance with the applicable court rules. ...

  18. 27 CFR 71.118 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Court review. 71.118... § 71.118 Court review. If an applicant or respondent files an appeal in Federal court of the... record for submission to the court in accordance with the applicable court rules. ...

  19. Tennis Courts: A Construction and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This manual addresses court design and planning; the construction process; court surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor tennis court design and renovation; care and maintenance tips; and court repair, reconstruction, and renovation. General and membership information is provided on the U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Association…

  20. 20 CFR 243.3 - Payments pursuant to court decree or court-approved property settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments pursuant to court decree or court... to court decree or court-approved property settlement. Certain annuity components are subject to division pursuant to a court decree or to a court-approved property settlement incident to any such...

  1. An exception to court rule

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.; Strott, L.

    1995-01-01

    In August, 1994, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit handed down a decision that could make it much easier to challenge Superfund remedies in court. The Superfund law explicitly limits judicial review of removal or remedial actions. There are five exceptions to the above which are described in this paper.

  2. Court Cases about Teacher Insubordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Cory Shawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine court cases about adverse employment actions against public educators for insubordination, in an effort to understand what courts consider to be "insubordination." This study represents qualitative document-based research that was based upon the analysis of case law. The research sources were…

  3. The Supreme Court and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the facts and state and federal constitutional law related to "Zelman v. Simons-Harris," a Cleveland school-voucher case before the United States Supreme Court. Argues that the Court will likely uphold the constitutionality of the Cleveland voucher program, finding that it does not advance religion in violation of the First…

  4. Volunteers in Court: A Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Ivan H.; Goter, Leroy P.

    The manual's purpose is to draw together the body of knowledge gained from the experience of the approximately 10,000 unpaid local citizens currently providing volunteer probation services in about 125 courts. The manual draws heavily from the core experience with the Boulder Juvenile Court, Boulder, Colorado. The first chapter presents a general…

  5. Juvenile Court: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether juveniles who commit criminal law violations should be tried in the same courts as adults. Addresses the issue of transfers that is a legal mechanism used to move youth to criminal court. Considers alternative proposals for handling youth brought to the judicial system and the role of the federal government. (CMK)

  6. Supreme Court Term in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…

  7. Juvenile Court: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether juveniles who commit criminal law violations should be tried in the same courts as adults. Addresses the issue of transfers that is a legal mechanism used to move youth to criminal court. Considers alternative proposals for handling youth brought to the judicial system and the role of the federal government. (CMK)

  8. Supreme Court Term in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…

  9. Court Cases about Teacher Insubordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Cory Shawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine court cases about adverse employment actions against public educators for insubordination, in an effort to understand what courts consider to be "insubordination." This study represents qualitative document-based research that was based upon the analysis of case law. The research sources were…

  10. Intervention of the Courts in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)

  11. Intervention of the Courts in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)

  12. European courts and old people.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  13. [Remarks about the position of the medico-legal expert in imperative regulations in the Penal and Civil Codes].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.

  14. Performance evaluation of court in construction claims settlement of litigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Kemala; Latief, Yusuf; Rarasati, Ayomi Dita; Siddik, Arief

    2017-06-01

    Claim construction has a major influence on the implementation of projects, such as the cost and time. The success of the construction project is highly dependent on the effective resolution of claims. Although it has been recognized that litigation or court is not the best way because it may reduce or eliminate profits and damage the relationship, it is a method of resolving claims and disputes that is common in the world of construction. The method of resolving claims and disputes through litigation or court may solve the problem in an alternative method, namely the implementation of the judgment which can be enforced effectively against the losing party and the ruling which has the force of law of the country where the claims and disputes are examined. However, litigation or court may take longer time and require high cost. Thus, it is necessary to identify factors affecting the performance of the court and to develop a system capable of improving an existing system in order to run more effectively and efficiently. Resolution in the claims management of construction projects with the method of litigation is a procedure that can be used by the courts in order to shorten the time in order to reduce the cost. The scope of this research is directed to all parties involved in the construction, both the owners and the contractors as implementers and practitioners, as well as experts who are experienced in construction law.

  15. [Urology facing the courts. The basis of professional responsibility].

    PubMed

    Haertig, A; Haillot, O; Chopin, G

    1989-01-01

    The liability of the urologist can be involved according to 3 procedures: The civil procedure is that of the Tribunal de Grande Instance (High Court) then the Cour d'Appel (Court of Appeal). Financial compensations are claimed from the surgeon for not respecting the medical contact. This contract is tacit, oral and carries obligations for the surgeon. The administrative procedure is that of the Tribunal Administratif (Administrative Court) then the Conseil d'Etat (Council of State). This only concerns the salaried surgeon in his salaried activities. The penal procedure is that of the Tribunal Correctionnel (Criminal Court) then the Cour d'Appel (Court of Appeal). The surgeon is then charged with a crime, usually unintensional injuries or through negligence. Although the harlm is easy to prove, the reality of the fault of the surgeon and the relation between fault and damage are far less so. It is the plaintiff (Civil Course, Administrative Cours) or the State Prosecutor (Penal Course) who must prove the fault and causality by the help of an expert's report. So, the responsibility of the surgeon can be committed. However, the development of the insurance system has allowed more widespread compensation without any fault found on the surgeon's part and increasingly frequent conciliatory procedures.

  16. Autism spectrum disorder: forensic issues and challenges for mental health professionals and courts.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2013-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as defined in DSM-V, can be relevant in a variety of ways to decision-making by courts and tribunals. This includes the family, disciplinary, discrimination and criminal law contexts. By reviewing decisions made by superior courts in a number of common law jurisdictions, this article identifies a pivotal role for mental health professionals closely familiar with both the disorder and forensic exigencies to educate courts about the inner world of those with ASD. Highlighting areas of criminality that court decisions have dealt with, especially in relation to persons with Asperger's Disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, it calls for further research on the connection between ASD, on the one hand, and conduct, capacities and skills, on the other hand. It urges enhancement of awareness of the forensic repercussions of the disorder so that expert evidence can assist the courts more humanely and informedly to make criminal justice and other decisions.

  17. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  18. Judges' views on evidence of genetic contributions to mental disorders in court.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    This preliminary analysis assesses how judges view the use of behavioral genetics evidence on genetic influences to mental disorders in court. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews, analyzed using constant comparative analysis, were conducted with California trial court judges. Most judges reported the beneficial effects of this evidence being presented in court, particularly as a mitigating factor for sentencing. Yet some judges viewed it as an aggravating factor and expressed concerns about genetic privacy. Judges described initial reactions to being potentially presented with evidence on genetic influences to mental disorders as apprehension, curiosity, and sympathy. Judges also reported putting significant trust in experts on these issues. Findings suggest some judges are skeptical of this evidence, but largely open to its presentation. Sympathetic reactions may result in mitigating attitudes of some judges. As judges significantly trust experts, some judges could also be overly trusting of genetic evidence and expert opinion on these issues.

  19. From expert witness to defendant: abolition of expert witness protection and its implications.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    In Jones v Kaney [2011] 2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.

  20. Court Efficiency Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Steve [R-IA-4

    2013-12-02

    House - 01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Internet. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Stop Court-Packing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Cotton, Tom [R-AR-4

    2013-06-04

    House - 07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Internet. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. First Year at Somerset Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgar, Sybil

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-three autistic adolescents are currently being provided with individualized programs of education, social and work experience at Somerset Court, the first British residential center of its kind. (LH)

  3. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  4. 42 CFR 405.857 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court review. 405.857 Section 405.857 Public Health... HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Appeals Under the Medicare Part B Program § 405.857 Court... obtain a court review if the amount remaining in controversy is $1,000 or more. A party may obtain court...

  5. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  6. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B). ...

  7. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B). ...

  8. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B). ...

  9. Citizen Court Watching: The Consumer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth; And Others

    The document presents a state-of-the-art review of citizen court watching projects. It examines two particularly well-documented projects, and offers guidelines for citizen effort in court improvement. Citizen court watching is interpreted to include unofficial court monitoring, observation, and recommendation for reform by citizen groups and…

  10. The Rehnquist Court Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the actions and effects of the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist. Considers Court decisions written in 1988-1989, commenting on the Court's growing self-confidence and strength. Concludes that the Rehnquist Court could be one of the most lasting legacies of the Reagan era. (LS)

  11. The Nevada mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays.

  12. 25 CFR 11.206 - Is the Court of Indian Offenses a court of record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is the Court of Indian Offenses a court of record? 11.206 Section 11.206 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Courts of Indian Offenses; Personnel; Administration § 11.206 Is the Court...

  13. 25 CFR 11.206 - Is the Court of Indian Offenses a court of record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is the Court of Indian Offenses a court of record? 11.206 Section 11.206 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Courts of Indian Offenses; Personnel; Administration § 11.206 Is the Court...

  14. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  15. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  16. Expert witnesses in dentistry: a comparison between Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana

    2012-11-30

    A dentist is frequently required to translate dental trauma into monetary value, for example after car accidents and/or work-related injuries. When called to act in this capacity a dentist should combine his/her biological and technical knowledge with a quality medico-legal knowledge. Calculation of economic (pecuniary) damages and non-economic (non-pecuniary) damages requires specific training in medico-legal matters and awareness of the inherent pitfalls. Expert Witnesses registered in Court are usually asked to perform this duty. Nevertheless, European countries have differences regarding dental damage evaluations as well as significant differences in the conditions required for registration as an Expert Witness in Court. A dental Expert Witness has precise responsibilities and is subject to civil or criminal proceedings (depending on the judicial system) if found wanting. In forensic/legal dentistry a medico-legal doctor should not work in isolation from a dentist in dental cases nor is it wise for a dentist to work in the courts without having had specific training regarding judicial disciplines relating to dental damages. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the principal differences in the judicial systems regarding the appointment of Expert Witnesses in both Italian and Croatian courts. The next step will expand this investigation through to European countries in order to marshal knowledge towards harmonization, best practice and a common ground for dental evaluation and claim compensations (in accordance with the Council of Europe Resolution 75 – 7 Compensation for physical injury or death).

  17. Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, L; Daynard, R

    2007-01-01

    The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that “everybody knew, nobody knows”. Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not “hired guns”. The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID

  18. Testifying in a mock court: the experiences of forensic advanced trainees.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lillian Lywan; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to examine the experiences of advanced trainees in forensic psychiatry as they practise testifying as expert witnesses in a mock court setting. Five advanced trainees (including the first author) submitted court-ordered forensic reports in advance of attending the mock court. Senior colleagues had roles of Judge, prosecution and defence lawyers. House officers and medical students were summoned as jury. Over a year, each trainee had the experience of direct and cross-examination by opposing legal teams. Following the mock trial, each participant was given immediate feedback and subsequently asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. The experience of participating in a mock court has learning value for advanced trainees specialising in forensic psychiatry in anticipation of giving evidence in a court of law. Constructive feedback enabled attendees to gain valuable education in a supportive setting. Of particular value was guidance in the use of technical language in presenting evidence in a court setting, knowledge of the breadth of questions that could be put forth to an expert witness, desensitisation training in an adversarial albeit simulated setting, and acquiring skills in staying calm under pressure. The importance of a well-written report, good preparation and anxiety management were significant learning points. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Attorney beliefs concerning scientific evidence and expert witness credibility.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Hayley J; Kehn, Andre; Wise, Richard A; Cramer, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Expert witnesses play a pivotal role in offering a variety of scientific evidence at trial. Although judges are the ultimate gatekeepers of what constitutes valid scientific evidence, attorneys play an important part in determining what evidence is presented to the court. Employing experimental and descriptive analyses, the present study sought to address gaps in the attorney/expert witness literature by addressing three questions: One) To what extent do attorneys prefer forensic or social scientific evidence and experts?, Two) How knowledgeable are attorneys concerning empirically-supported indicators of expert credibility?, Three) What do attorneys believe concerning the frequency and nature of expert errors in their own trials relative to others? Results showed that attorneys prefer forensic science evidence and experts compared to social/psychological counterparts. Moreover, attorneys displayed considerable knowledge of factors that will impact perceived expert credibility. In particular, attorneys value perceived expert trustworthiness, communication skills, content of testimony/reports, perceived expert knowledge, and years and type of expert experience. Finally, attorneys displayed a consistent and strong self-serving bias pattern, such that they believe expert errors occur more much frequently in other attorneys' cases compared to their own. Implications are discussed with respect to vetting expert witnesses, scientific evidence/errors and wrongful conviction, and training for attorneys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Key performance indicators for Australian mental health court liaison services.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Fiona; Heffernan, Ed; Greenberg, David; Butler, Tony; Burgess, Philip

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development and technical specifications of a framework and national key performance indicators (KPIs) for Australian mental health Court Liaison Services (CLSs) by the National Mental Health Court Liaison Performance Working Group (Working Group). Representatives from each Australian State and Territory were invited to form a Working Group. Through a series of national workshops and meetings, a framework and set of performance indicators were developed using a review of literature and expert opinion. A total of six KPIs for CLSs have been identified and a set of technical specifications have been formed. This paper describes the process and outcomes of a national collaboration to develop a framework and KPIs. The measures have been developed to support future benchmarking activities and to assist services to identify best practice in this area of mental health service delivery.

  1. Children's knowledge of court proceedings.

    PubMed

    Flin, R H; Stevenson, Y; Davies, G M

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes a study of children's legal vocabulary and their knowledge of criminal court procedures. Subjects (aged six, eight, 10 years and adults) were also asked about their feelings regarding a hypothetical court appearance as a witness. All subjects, children and adults, performed best on a vocabulary recognition section, with descriptions and concepts proving more difficult. Observed developmental trends in both legal vocabulary and conceptual appreciation of criminal law replicates previous work from Australia and America and supports the contention that children younger than 10 years are not well informed about the legal system. Results indicated clear deficits in knowledge as well as frequent misconceptions regarding legal personnel and procedures.

  2. Texas Court's Ruling in Bonfire Case Widens Liability Worries for College Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A Texas court's recent ruling that allowed a negligence lawsuit to proceed against 12 former administrators at Texas A&M University has some higher-education legal experts concerned about campus officials' liability in a variety of situations, including fraternity initiations, housing accidents, and student suicides. The decision was in favor…

  3. Texas Court's Ruling in Bonfire Case Widens Liability Worries for College Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A Texas court's recent ruling that allowed a negligence lawsuit to proceed against 12 former administrators at Texas A&M University has some higher-education legal experts concerned about campus officials' liability in a variety of situations, including fraternity initiations, housing accidents, and student suicides. The decision was in favor…

  4. [Consequences of the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court on the fighting dog problem].

    PubMed

    Hülsenbusch, M

    2005-03-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court decided with its "Dangerous dog-judgment" about the constitutional complaint of 53 dog breeders on the federal act combating dangerous dogs. This judgment was a so-called Pyrrhic Victory for the appellants. The Court declared the legislative competence of the federal level in this issue for null and void. But the statutory prohibition for breeding Pitbull-Terrier-, American Staffordshire-Terrier-, Staffordshire-Bullterrier-, Bullterrier-races and cross breeding out of this dogs will be governed in police laws by the Laender finally. The Standing Conference of the Ministers for Internal Affairs declared an appropriate recommendation. The use of the category "race" was refused by experts in discussions as completely wrong and not acceptable. But the Federal Constitutional Court reasons that the legislator can use the category "race" within his scope of evaluation and prognostication in accordance with the Constitution for the ban of import of dangerous dogs. The Court demands--because of the weak data background - that the legislator monitors the legislation, to adjust it according to current developments. The Constitutional Court creates with the judgment "dangerous dogs" legal certainty. The jurisprudence of the administrative courts of the Laender and of the Federal Administrative Court based on the category "race" was approved as well as the police laws of the Laender dealing with dangerous dogs.

  5. Is tobacco a drug? Administrative agencies as common law courts.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, C R

    1998-04-01

    Professor Cass Sunstein argues that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco products. He considers the text of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which supports the FDA assertion, and the context of its enactment, which argues against the FDA. He resolves the tension between text and context in favor of FDA jurisdiction by turning to the emerging role of administrative agencies. In modern government, he contends, administrative agencies have become America's common law courts, with the power to adapt statutory regimes to new facts and new values when the underlying statute is ambiguous. Professor Sunstein's Article, like the other pieces in this volume, was written after the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina decided Coyne Beahm v. FDA, but before a three judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed that decision in Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. FDA. In Coyne Beahm, the District Court held that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products, but not tobacco advertising. The Fourth Circuit rejected the District Court's jurisdictional ruling and invalidated the FDA's regulations in their entirety. The Clinton Administration has since requested an en banc rehearing before the Fourth Circuit.

  6. The expert witness. Neither Frye nor Daubert solved the problem: what can be done?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H H

    2001-01-01

    Flawed expert scientific testimony has compromised truth finding in American litigation, including in medical malpractice and in product liability cases. The Federal Rules of Evidence and the Supreme Court in Daubert and other cases have established standards for testimony that include reliability and relevance, and established judges as gatekeepers. However, because of lack of understanding of scientific issues, judges have problems with this role, and juries have difficulties with scientific evidence. Professionals and the judiciary have made some advances, but a better system involving the court's use of neutral experts and a mechanism to hold experts accountable for improprieties is needed.

  7. Should Courts Write Your Job Descriptions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Some relationships of the Equal Pay Act and the court practice of writing job descriptions and making evaluations are examined with the aim of suggesting ways to eliminate court involvement in the average personnel or industrial engineering department. (TA)

  8. Should Courts Write Your Job Descriptions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Some relationships of the Equal Pay Act and the court practice of writing job descriptions and making evaluations are examined with the aim of suggesting ways to eliminate court involvement in the average personnel or industrial engineering department. (TA)

  9. In the Courts: Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockenberg, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    This article analyzes a 1989 decision by the California Court of Appeal, "McCarthy v. Fletcher." The case concerns a suit brought by a teacher against the local school district because the district removed two books from a booklist adopted by the teacher's English department. (IAH)

  10. Juvenile Courts- Terms To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Offers a crossword puzzle that focuses on terms learned in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education." Explains that the letters in the boxes spell the answer to this question: what do juvenile courts try to offer juveniles? Provides the clues and answers to the puzzle. (CMK)

  11. Creationism, Evolution and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen; Ivers, Gregg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the continuing controversy over evolution and creationism and the role that the courts have played. Examines the effects that result from this controversy, such as the overly cautious selection of textbooks by adoption committees and publishers' reluctance to include "questionable" materials in new books. (GEA)

  12. Student Rights and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC" contains 17 annotations of documents and journal articles on student rights and the courts, all of which are indexed in the ERIC system. Materials on sex discrimination, suspension and expulsion, due process, mainstreaming, school publications, and other topics are annotated. (DS)

  13. The Washington Report: Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The following is a sample summary of selected Indian cases in the Supreme Court Docket as of September 15, 1978: State of Washington vs Confederated Bands and Tribes of the Yakima Indian Nation, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe of Indians vs Andrus, and Confederated Tribes of Colville Indian Reservation vs Washington. (RTS)

  14. Gender Bias in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    The term gender bias was coined by the National Judicial Education Program to Promote Equality for Women and Men in the Courts and is defined as the predisposition or tendency to think about and behave toward people primarily on the basis of their sex rather than their status, professional accomplishments, or aspirations. An effective method for…

  15. The Camera Comes to Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  16. Publius and the Contemporary Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George

    The proper role and function of the Supreme Court in the United States' system of government has been a matter of great controversy in recent years. "The Federalist Papers," specifically the documents written by "Publius," have much insight to contribute to this debate. In "Federalist #78," Publius makes the case for…

  17. 25 CFR 11.908 - Court records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court records. 11.908 Section 11.908 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.908 Court records. (a) A record of all hearings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part...

  18. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  19. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  20. The Many Voices of the Burger Court and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike the Warren Court, the Burger Court has had a lack of unanimity on school desegregation cases and the court has been divided. As a result there is no clear direction evident in the court's decisions. (IRT)

  1. Document Delivery Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the design of an expert system developed using VP-Expert for document delivery decision making in a law library. Presents methods used in knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation after a brief review of the literature on expert system use in libraries. An appendix includes the rules of the expert system. (Author/AEF)

  2. Drug-Exposed Infant Cases in Juvenile Court: Risk Factors and Court Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagatun-Edwards, Inger; Saylor, Coleen

    2000-01-01

    This longitudinal study of social services and juvenile court files identified factors associated with court outcomes for drug exposed infants (N=118). Regression analysis suggested that mothers' compliance with court orders was the major predictor of court outcomes although chi square analysis found ethnicity, past referrals, and criminal record…

  3. Drug-Exposed Infant Cases in Juvenile Court: Risk Factors and Court Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagatun-Edwards, Inger; Saylor, Coleen

    2000-01-01

    This longitudinal study of social services and juvenile court files identified factors associated with court outcomes for drug exposed infants (N=118). Regression analysis suggested that mothers' compliance with court orders was the major predictor of court outcomes although chi square analysis found ethnicity, past referrals, and criminal record…

  4. Youth Court: Advocating for All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaruppa, Cindy L.; LeBlanc, Patrice; Lacey, Candace H.

    This paper describes the evaluative research of the Palm Beach County, Florida School Districts Youth Court Trial Program. Youth or teen courts have been implemented as an alternative measure to juvenile courts for handling adolescents who committed delinquent acts, usually for the first time. The purpose of the applied research was to identify…

  5. The Court in the Homeric Epos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loginov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The research investigates the court system in Homeric Greece. This period was characterized by a declining culture and scarce works that described those times. Hence, the court procedures of those times remains understudied; therefore, the purpose of this research is to reconstruct theoretically the court procedure in Homeric Greece. Homer's and…

  6. 46 CFR 327.8 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME... AND LITIGATION § 327.8 Court action. No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3) of... beneficiaries, or their legal representatives shall institute a court action for the enforcement of such claim...

  7. 46 CFR 327.8 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME... AND LITIGATION § 327.8 Court action. No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3) of... beneficiaries, or their legal representatives shall institute a court action for the enforcement of such claim...

  8. 31 CFR 225.11 - Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money... LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.11 Courts. Nothing contained in this part shall affect the authority of a court over a Government obligation given as security in a civil action. ...

  9. 31 CFR 225.11 - Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money... LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.11 Courts. Nothing contained in this part shall affect the authority of a court over a Government obligation given as security in a civil action. ...

  10. 31 CFR 225.11 - Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money... LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.11 Courts. Nothing contained in this part shall affect the authority of a court over a Government obligation given as security in a civil action. ...

  11. 5 CFR 890.107 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Court review. 890.107 Section 890.107... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 890.107 Court review. (a) A suit... the carrier or carrier's subcontractors. The recovery in such a suit shall be limited to a court order...

  12. 27 CFR 555.80 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the district...

  13. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7... PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by the... reversed in the appropriate district court of the United States. ...

  14. 31 CFR 225.11 - Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money... LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.11 Courts. Nothing contained in this part shall affect the authority of a court over a Government obligation given as security in a civil action. ...

  15. 36 CFR 1150.105 - Court enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Court enforcement. 1150.105... BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Posthearing Procedures; Decisions § 1150.105 Court... appropriate United States district court to enforce, in whole or in part, any final compliance order. No...

  16. 31 CFR 225.11 - Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money... LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES § 225.11 Courts. Nothing contained in this part shall affect the authority of a court over a Government obligation given as security in a civil action. ...

  17. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7... PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by the... reversed in the appropriate district court of the United States. ...

  18. 36 CFR 1150.105 - Court enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Court enforcement. 1150.105... BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Posthearing Procedures; Decisions § 1150.105 Court... appropriate United States district court to enforce, in whole or in part, any final compliance order. No...

  19. The Courts as Educational Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maready, William F.

    This report discusses the expanding role of Federal judges as educational policymakers. The report discusses court decisions related to interpretations by the Federal Courts of the U.S. Constitution. The report notes that court decisions have covered the following topics: dress codes, flying of the flag, freedom of speech, unwed mothers,…

  20. Education and the Courts: Reflections on Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, C. W.; Sochockyj, Mary

    The manner in which the United States courts have attempted to establish the validity of remedies and gain public acceptance of court orders in desegregation issues has encouraged public resistance to desegregation laws. In education related matters, the courts usually call on the expertise of lawyers and university professionals who have little…

  1. The Burger Court and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Philip R.

    This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…

  2. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  3. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  4. A guide to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waterman, D.

    1986-01-01

    This is a general guide to expert systems written specifically for the reader without a computer science background. Contents: Introduction; Introduction to expert systems; Expert system tools; Building an expert system; Difficulties with expert system development; Expert systems in the marketplace; Expert systems and tools; Glossary of expert system terms; References; Author index; Subject index.

  5. Does company compliance with RS-17 influence the characterization of a casual nexus in expert testimony?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manuela; Guimarães, Bruno; Sampaio, Breno

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether company compliance with RS-17 influences the characterization of the casual nexus in physical therapists' expert reports of cumulative trauma disorders in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample was composed of seven physical therapists who provided expert testimony regarding cumulative trauma disorder cases in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data collection was performed across two stages. In the first stage, the experts answered a sociodemographic survey and requested the identification numbers of recent cases where expert testimony was provided to characterize the causal nexus. In the second stage, the researchers went to the labor court to collect expert testimony data. These experts indicated that of 75 total cases, 31% (N=23) of the companies fulfilled RS-17, whereas 69% (N=52) did not comply with the law. Among the organizations that complied with legislation, 30% of the analyzed expert testimonies showed a positive causal nexus. However, of the companies that did not comply with RS-17, 71% of the expert testimonies revealed a causal nexus. These results indicate that the breach of the law increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined by 54.8%. The results showed that failure to comply with RS-17 significantly increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined in physical therapists' expert testimony of cumulative trauma disorders.

  6. Does company compliance with RS-17 influence the characterization of a casual nexus in expert testimony?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Manuela; Guimarães, Bruno; Sampaio, Breno

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether company compliance with RS-17 influences the characterization of the casual nexus in physical therapists' expert reports of cumulative trauma disorders in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: The sample was composed of seven physical therapists who provided expert testimony regarding cumulative trauma disorder cases in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data collection was performed across two stages. In the first stage, the experts answered a sociodemographic survey and requested the identification numbers of recent cases where expert testimony was provided to characterize the causal nexus. In the second stage, the researchers went to the labor court to collect expert testimony data. These experts indicated that of 75 total cases, 31% (N=23) of the companies fulfilled RS-17, whereas 69% (N=52) did not comply with the law. Results: Among the organizations that complied with legislation, 30% of the analyzed expert testimonies showed a positive causal nexus. However, of the companies that did not comply with RS-17, 71% of the expert testimonies revealed a causal nexus. These results indicate that the breach of the law increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined by 54.8%. Conclusion: The results showed that failure to comply with RS-17 significantly increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined in physical therapists' expert testimony of cumulative trauma disorders. PMID:25714436

  7. Science In The Courtroom: The Impact Of Recent US Supreme Court Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, Susan

    2000-03-01

    Most physicists' work is far removed from the courtroom, but the principles of physics are important to a number of legal controversies. Several recent lawsuits have claimed that cellular phones cause brain cancer. And litigation over claims that electromagnetic fields cause other cancers has even more important implications for society. The problem of how to distinguish good science from bad in the courtroom has vexed lawyers and scientists alike for many years, and finally drew the attention of the United States Supreme Court in 1993. The Court has now issued three opinions on the standards for screening expert testimony, which require trial judges to evaluate scientific expert witnesses to determine if their testimony is reliable. How well are the new standards working? Is the judicial system doing any better at screening out junk science? This session will discuss how the Supreme Court's opinions are being applied and suggest several strategies, including the use of court appointed experts, that are being implemented to improve the process further.

  8. What Are Expert Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  9. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  10. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  11. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  12. PTSD in Court I: Introducing PTSD for Court.

    PubMed

    Young, Gerald

    The first part of the series of three articles on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Court to appear in the journal reviews the history of the construct of PTSD and its presentation in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition; World Health Organization, 2018). There are 20 symptoms of PTSD in the DSM-5. PTSD symptoms are arranged into a four-cluster model, which has received partial support in the literature. Other four-factor models have been found that fit the data even better than that of the DSM-5. There is a five-factor dysphoria model and two six-factor models that have been found to fit better the DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Finally, research is providing support for a hybrid seven-factor model. An eighth factor on dissociation seems applicable to the minority of people who express the dissociative subtype. At the epidemiological level, individuals can expect trauma exposure to take place about 70% over one's lifetime. Also, traumatic exposure leads to traumatic reactions in about 10% of cases, with PTSD being a primary diagnosis for trauma. Once initiated, PTSD becomes prolonged in about 10% of cases. Polytrauma and comorbidities complicate these prevalence statistics. Moreover, the possibility of malingered PTSD presents confounds. However, the estimate for malingered PTSD varies extensively, from 1 to 50%, so that the estimate is too imprecise for use in court without further research. This first article in the series of three articles appearing in the journal on PTSD in Court concludes with discussion of complications related to comorbidities and heterogeneities, in particular. For example, PTSD and its comorbidities can be expressed in over one quintillion ways. This complexity in its current structure in the DSM-5 speaks to the individual differences involved in its expression. Crown Copyright © 2016

  13. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  14. 42 CFR 405.730 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court review. 405.730 Section 405.730 Public Health... Court review. (a) To the extent authorized by sections 1869, 1876(c)(5)(B), and 1879(d) of the Act, a... ALJ decision, may obtain a court review if the amount remaining in controversy is $1,000 or more. A...

  15. Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-12

    the military serving a sentence imposed by a court-martial; members of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Public Health Service...suspend all or part of the sentence , disapprove a finding or conviction, or lower the sentence .66 The CA may not increase the sentence . Once the CA takes... sentenced to prison at a court-martial for the sexual assault of a civilian. The authority of the CA to modify the findings and sentence of the court

  16. Speech Cases Turned Aside by High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court declined without comment to take up two major appeals involving student free-speech rights on the Internet. One appeal encompassed two cases decided in favor of students last June by the full U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit, in Philadelphia. The other appeal stemmed from a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for…

  17. Speech Cases Turned Aside by High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court declined without comment to take up two major appeals involving student free-speech rights on the Internet. One appeal encompassed two cases decided in favor of students last June by the full U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit, in Philadelphia. The other appeal stemmed from a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for…

  18. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  19. Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Text Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehl, Doug

    2017-01-01

    To understand complex disciplinary texts, students need to possess a rich store of background knowledge. But what happens if students don't have that knowledge? In this article, Doug Buehl explores frontloading strategies that can bridge the gap between what students know and what they need to know to comprehend a disciplinary text. He outlines…

  1. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  2. Text Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehl, Doug

    2017-01-01

    To understand complex disciplinary texts, students need to possess a rich store of background knowledge. But what happens if students don't have that knowledge? In this article, Doug Buehl explores frontloading strategies that can bridge the gap between what students know and what they need to know to comprehend a disciplinary text. He outlines…

  3. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  4. 5 CFR 838.806 - Amended court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amended court orders. 838.806 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities § 838.806 Amended court orders. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse survivor...

  5. 19 CFR 176.31 - Reliquidation following decision of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reliquidation following decision of court. 176.31...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Procedure Following Court Decision § 176.31 Reliquidation following decision of court. (a) Decision of U.S. Court of...

  6. 5 CFR 838.122 - State courts' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State courts' responsibilities. State courts are responsible for— (a) Providing due...

  7. 19 CFR 176.31 - Reliquidation following decision of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reliquidation following decision of court. 176.31...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Procedure Following Court Decision § 176.31 Reliquidation following decision of court. (a) Decision of U.S. Court of...

  8. 5 CFR 838.806 - Amended court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amended court orders. 838.806 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities § 838.806 Amended court orders. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse survivor...

  9. 5 CFR 838.122 - State courts' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State courts' responsibilities. State courts are responsible for— (a) Providing due...

  10. 5 CFR 838.806 - Amended court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amended court orders. 838.806 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities § 838.806 Amended court orders. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse survivor...

  11. 19 CFR 176.31 - Reliquidation following decision of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reliquidation following decision of court. 176.31...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Procedure Following Court Decision § 176.31 Reliquidation following decision of court. (a) Decision of U.S. Court of...

  12. The Impact of Teen Court on Young Offenders. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A.; Buck, Janeen; Coggeshall, Mark B.

    This paper reports findings from the Evaluation of Teen Courts Project, which studied teen courts in Alaska, Arizona, Maryland, and Missouri. Researchers measured pre-court attitudes and post-court (6-month) recidivism among more than 500 juveniles referred to teen court for nonviolent offenses. The study compared recidivism outcomes for teen…

  13. An Exploration of Treatment and Supervision Intensity among Drug Court and Non-Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Warner, Tara D.; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that drug court programs appear effective in reducing the substance use and recidivism of drug-involved offenders. As there is no single drug court model, programs vary from site to site and the extent to which individual programs are fully implemented is not well documented. The extent to which drug court programs deliver…

  14. Borderline science: expert testimony and the Red River boundary dispute.

    PubMed

    Cittadino, Eugene

    2004-06-01

    The 1918 discovery of oil in the bed of the Red River, which forms the border between Texas and Oklahoma, led to a U.S. Supreme Court case that involved the extensive use of expert witnesses in fields such as geology, geography, and ecology. What began as a dispute between the two states soon became a multisided controversy involving those states, the federal government, Native Americans, and individual placer-mining claimants. After the federal attorneys introduced scientific experts into the dispute, including the plant ecologist Henry Chandler Cowles and the geographer Isaiah Bowman, fresh from negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference, Texas attorneys fielded their own team of opposing experts. Charged with the task of determining the location of the border, defined as the south bank of the river at the time of the 1819 treaty with Spain, the scientific experts presented the court with volumes of evidence and elaborate arguments, much of it contradictory and involving creative interpretations of existing theories. The case exhibited all the now-familiar features of a trial using expert witnesses, for which it represents an early, overlooked, and particularly complex example.

  15. Text mining.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    One of the fastest-growing fields in bioinformatics is text mining: the application of natural language processing techniques to problems of knowledge management and discovery, using large collections of biological or biomedical text such as MEDLINE. The techniques used in text mining range from the very simple (e.g., the inference of relationships between genes from frequent proximity in documents) to the complex and computationally intensive (e.g., the analysis of sentence structures with parsers in order to extract facts about protein-protein interactions from statements in the text). This chapter presents a general introduction to some of the key principles and challenges of natural language processing, and introduces some of the tools available to end-users and developers. A case study describes the construction and testing of a simple tool designed to tackle a task that is crucial to almost any application of text mining in bioinformatics--identifying gene/protein names in text and mapping them onto records in an external database.

  16. An Expert System for Searching in Full-Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Advisor Dr. John B. Smith Avail~;& Di~t pciIReader- Dr. Stephen Weiss Reader. Dr. Judith Wood 01990 Susan Evalyn...thoughts. My committee (Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., David Plaisted, John B. Smith, Stephen Weiss, and Judith Wood) deserves a chorus of praise for doing...debt to my advisor John B. Smith for his enthusiasm every step of the way. Finally, I want to thank my husband John Gauch for his technical, emotional

  17. Battered women's perceptions of civil and criminal court helpfulness: the role of court outcome and process.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Perez, Sara; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although most battered women seeking formal help have some contact with court, limited research exists on what they find helpful and harmful about these experiences. Using qualitative data from low-income, largely Black battered women, this study finds that issues related to court outcomes, such as case disposition and enforcement, are important to evaluations of helpfulness. More frequently mentioned, however, are court processes, including treatment by staff, process length, and public disclosure. Results highlight the importance of research and practice attending to issues beyond court outcomes, as well as the potential impact supportive treatment at court may have for victims' recovery.

  18. The Roberts Court and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahdert, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Since President Bush named Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. to the Supreme Court, speculation has run high as to where the new court may be headed. Citing three recent cases ("Morse v. Frederick", "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc." and "Garcetti v.…

  19. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by the...

  20. Court Interpreter Training: A Growing Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweda-Nicholson, Nancy

    Developments in court interpretation are outlined to illustrate the argument that more, and more qualified, interpreters are need to assist in both the federal and state courts. This discussion focuses principally on the criminal justice system, and includes federal statutory developments, especially concerning the implementation and impact of the…

  1. Congressional Authority Over the Federal Courts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-16

    matters of “public rights,” mainly under federal statutes, in non-Article III tribunals. 109 See South Carolina v. Katzenbach , 383 U.S. 301, 331-32...Court as it had been misled by earlier decisions of the Court, especially Katzenbach v. Morgan, 384 U.S. 641 (1966), suggesting that when Congress acted

  2. The Role of the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Raoul

    Chapter 1 of a book on school law, this article analyzes the role of the U.S. Supreme Court, and contends that there has been a judicial takeover of functions that had been delegated by the Constitution to the states and to the people. Specifically, the author argues that much of the Supreme Court's expansion of its powers rests on the selective…

  3. The Roberts Court and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahdert, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Since President Bush named Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. to the Supreme Court, speculation has run high as to where the new court may be headed. Citing three recent cases ("Morse v. Frederick", "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc." and "Garcetti v.…

  4. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  5. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  6. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  7. What Happens to Mental Health Court Noncompleters?

    PubMed

    Ray, Bradley; Hood, Brittany J; Canada, Kelli E

    2015-01-01

    Mental health court (MHC) research consistently finds that defendants who successfully complete and graduate from the court are less likely to recidivate than those who do not. However, research has not assessed what happens to these noncompleters once they are sent back to traditional court. Using follow-up data on six years of noncompleters from pre-adjudication MHC, we examine what happens to these defendants in traditional court. Findings suggest that 63.7% of defendants' charges were dismissed, 21.0% received probation, and 15.3% were sentenced to incarceration. We examine the time to disposition and differences in defendant characteristics and disposition outcome as well as the relationship between disposition and subsequent recidivism. Results suggest that more severe punishments in traditional court are associated with recidivism. Logistic regression analysis shows that defendants whose charges were dismissed in traditional court were less likely to recidivate than those who were sentenced to probation or incarceration. Our findings highlight the need for future MHC evaluations to consider traditional court outcomes and support trends towards post-adjudication courts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  9. Court Showdown over Florida Vouchers Nears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a nationally-watched case by educators and families which is scheduled to be heard by the Florida Supreme Court. The court is to decide whether Opportunity Scholarships, available to students enrolled in Florida's persistently lowest-rated public schools, run afoul of a prohibition on using public money in religious…

  10. Court Seen Balky on Religion Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    When Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. reached his fifth anniversary on the U.S. Supreme Court in late September, observers took note of the court's rightward shift during his tenure in a number of areas, including corporate spending on federal elections and the ways school districts may consider race in assigning students. But at least one…

  11. Desegregation Dead? Not in This Court Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Maree

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the interpretations of the court's ruling in "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District 1." The decision handed down June 28, the last day of the Supreme Court's term, does not prohibit school districts from voluntarily integrating schools as long as the school district meets certain legal…

  12. The Supreme Court and the Suspect Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick J.

    1973-01-01

    Focused on are factual and legal dissimilarities between the court case of San Antonio Independent School District versus Rodriguez (in which the Supreme Court ruled that education is not a fundamental right protected by the Constitution) and recent right to education for the handicapped cases. (DB)

  13. The Supreme Court in the Culture Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…

  14. Court Seen Balky on Religion Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    When Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. reached his fifth anniversary on the U.S. Supreme Court in late September, observers took note of the court's rightward shift during his tenure in a number of areas, including corporate spending on federal elections and the ways school districts may consider race in assigning students. But at least one…

  15. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  16. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  17. Indiana Court Strikes Down Mandatory Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The Indiana Supreme Court has struck down a school district's $20 school activity fee as a violation of the state constitution because, the court said, it is equivalent to a tuition charge. The 22,100-student Evansville-Vanderburgh school district imposed the fee on all K-12 students in the 2002-03 school year. The money was used to pay for…

  18. Supreme Court Biographies as a Classroom Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author goes beyond Supreme Court decisions to investigate the upbringing and personalities of three Supreme Court justices who left their mark on history: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, and Sandra Day O'Connor. His interviews with their biographers, G. Edward White for Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Juan Williams…

  19. Kentucky's Unified Court of Justice. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    Resource materials and learning activities to help secondary students in Kentucky learn about their state's court system are provided. The guide begins by providing a history of the Kentucky Court of Justice. Discussed are the qualification of judges, the Retirement and Removal Commission, the Judicial Nominating Commission, and juries. Background…

  20. The Rehnquist Court and the Tenth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1995-01-01

    Examines several recent decisions of the more conservative and constructionist Rehnquist Supreme Court. Discusses those judgements that challenge the regulatory power of the federal government. In separate cases concerning mandatory retirement of state judges and regulating toxic waste clean-up, the high court ruled in favor of state control. (MJP)

  1. The Supreme Court in the Culture Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…

  2. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  3. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to... compensation for the court appointment under the same terms and conditions as are applied generally to... received. (b) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to use program resources...

  4. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to... compensation for the court appointment under the same terms and conditions as are applied generally to... received. (b) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to use program resources...

  5. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  6. 18. Historic view of Court Street and Depot Square. Photoengraving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic view of Court Street and Depot Square. Photoengraving from Artwork of Rhode Island (Chicago: W.H. Parish Publishing Co., 1896) view west - Court Street Bridge, Court Street spanning Blackstone River & Truman Drive, Woonsocket, Providence County, RI

  7. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  8. Text Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  9. Testifying in court: practical strategies for public safety, emergency services, and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Testifying in court can be an opportunity or an ordeal for public safety, emergency services, and mental health personnel, depending on the stakes involved and the status of the professional--fact witness, expert witness, or defendant. This article provides practical guidelines for effective courtroom testimony, including understanding your role in the legal process, knowing your case, preparing your testimony, using optimal presentation strategies, manifesting appropriate demeanor and body language, answering questions, parrying challenges, and carrying yourself overall as a dignified professional.

  10. Postpartum psychosis and the courts.

    PubMed

    Nau, Melissa L; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Although mental state defenses frequently are raised in cases of infanticide, legal criteria for these defenses vary across jurisdictions. We reviewed outcomes of such cases in states using M'Naughten or model penal code (MPC) standards for insanity, and the factors considered by the courts in reaching these decisions. LexisNexis and Westlaw searches were conducted of case law, legal precedent, and law review articles related to infanticide. Google and other Internet search engines were used to identify unpublished cases. Despite the differing legal standards for insanity among states, the outcomes of infanticide cases do not appear to be dependent solely on which standard is used. The presence of psychosis was important in the successful mental state defenses. This case series suggests that states that use the stricter M'Naughten standard have not been less likely than states with an MPC standard to adjudicate women who have committed infanticide as not guilty by reason of insanity.

  11. Love v. Superior Court (People)

    PubMed

    1990-12-28

    The petitioners, April Love and others, were convicted of soliciting acts of prostitution, and were ordered to undergo AIDS testing and counseling in compliance with the California Penal Code. Love challenged the mandatory testing as unconstitutional under the Fourth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment's due process and equal protection clauses. The First District Court of Appeal found that the testing complied with the "special needs" exception to the Fourth Amendment's prohibition of unreasonable searches, because the statute's testing and counseling provisions made prostitutes aware of the HIV risk to themselves and others. Further, because the Legislature could reasonably link AIDS transmission and prostitution, the statute comported with due process. Lastly, the statute was held to fulfill equal protection requirements, because use of the blood test's information was restricted equally among various offenders.

  12. Justice blocks and predictability of U.S. Supreme Court votes.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Successful attempts to predict judges' votes shed light into how legal decisions are made and, ultimately, into the behavior and evolution of the judiciary. Here, we investigate to what extent it is possible to make predictions of a justice's vote based on the other justices' votes in the same case. For our predictions, we use models and methods that have been developed to uncover hidden associations between actors in complex social networks. We show that these methods are more accurate at predicting justice's votes than forecasts made by legal experts and by algorithms that take into consideration the content of the cases. We argue that, within our framework, high predictability is a quantitative proxy for stable justice (and case) blocks, which probably reflect stable a priori attitudes toward the law. We find that U.S. Supreme Court justice votes are more predictable than one would expect from an ideal court composed of perfectly independent justices. Deviations from ideal behavior are most apparent in divided 5-4 decisions, where justice blocks seem to be most stable. Moreover, we find evidence that justice predictability decreased during the 50-year period spanning from the Warren Court to the Rehnquist Court, and that aggregate court predictability has been significantly lower during Democratic presidencies. More broadly, our results show that it is possible to use methods developed for the analysis of complex social networks to quantitatively investigate historical questions related to political decision-making.

  13. [Law courts and clinical documentation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Carnicero, M P; Magallón, A I; Gordillo, A

    2006-01-01

    Background. Until 2004, requests for clinical documentation proceeding from the Judicial Administration on Specialist Care of Pamplona were received in six different centres and were processed independently, with different procedures, and documents were even sent in duplicate, with the resulting work load. This article describes the procedure for processing requests for documentation proceeding from the Law Courts and analyses the requests received. Methods. A circuit was set up to channel the judicial requests that arrived at the Specialist Health Care Centres of Pamplona and at the Juridical Regime Service of the Health System of Navarra-Osasunbidea, and a Higher Technician in Health Documentation was contracted to centralise these requests. A proceedings protocol was established to unify criteria and speed up the process, and a database was designed to register the proceedings. Results. In the course of 2004, 210 requests for documentation by legal requirement were received. Of these, 24 were claims of patrimonial responsibility and 13 were requested by lawyers with the patient's authorisation. The most frequent jurisdictional order was penal (43.33%). Ninety-three point one five percent (93.15%) of the requests proceeded from law courts in the autonomous community of Navarra. The centre that received the greatest number of requests was the "Príncipe de Viana" Consultation Centre (33.73%).The most frequently requested documentation was a copy of reports (109) and a copy of the complete clinical record (39). On two occasions the original clinical record was required. The average time of response was 6.6 days. Conclusions. The centralisation of administration has brought greater agility to the process and homogeneity in the criteria of processing. Less time is involved in preparing and dispatching the documentation, the dispatch of duplicate documents is avoided, the work load has been reduced and the dispersal of documentation is avoided, a situation that

  14. No Soldier Left Behind: The Veterans Court Solution.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Paul A; Hanrahan, Kathleen J

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns one of the newer iterations of problem-solving courts: veterans treatment courts. We trace the history of problem solving court implementation and explore the functioning of an established veterans court. The focus of this exploratory, qualitative study is the courthouse workgroup and their interactions both within the veterans court and with more traditional criminal courts and criminal justice agencies. We summarize the literature on problem solving courts and the experience, insights and suggestions of the members of the court we examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  16. Expert Teacher Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Eva

    The expert teacher action program is to improve classroom teaching performance. The program has been tested in workshop sessions involving more than 1,200 educators representing 50 school districts. A set of standards, consisting of 25 variables, lead to the definition of expert teaching. Each variable deals with a major aspect of the duties of…

  17. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  18. Expert networks in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  19. Reorganized text.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Reorganized Text: In the Original Investigation titled “Patterns of Hospital Utilization for Head and Neck Cancer Care: Changing Demographics” posted online in the January 29, 2015, issue of JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery (doi:10.1001 /jamaoto.2014.3603), information was copied within sections and text rearranged to accommodate Continuing Medical Education quiz formatting. The information from the topic statements of each paragraph in the Hypothesis Testing subsection of the Methods section was collected in a new first paragraph for that subsection, which reads as follows: “Several hypotheses regarding the causes of regionalization of HNCA care were tested using the NIS data: (1) increasing patient comorbidities over time, causing a shift in care to teaching institutions that would theoretically be better equipped to handle such increased comorbidities; (2) shifting of payer status; (3) increased proportion of prior radiation therapy; and (4) a higher fraction of more complex procedures being referred and performed at teaching institutions.” In addition, the phrase "As summarized in Table3," was added to the beginning of paragraph 6 of the Discussion section, and the call-out to Table 3 in the middle of that paragraph was deleted. Finally, paragraphs 6 and 7 of the Discussion section were combined.

  20. An expert system for the quantification of fault rates in construction fall accidents.

    PubMed

    Talat Birgonul, M; Dikmen, Irem; Budayan, Cenk; Demirel, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Expert witness reports, prepared with the aim of quantifying fault rates among parties, play an important role in a court's final decision. However, conflicting fault rates assigned by different expert witness boards lead to iterative objections raised by the related parties. This unfavorable situation mainly originates due to the subjectivity of expert judgments and unavailability of objective information about the causes of accidents. As a solution to this shortcoming, an expert system based on a rule-based system was developed for the quantification of fault rates in construction fall accidents. The aim of developing DsSafe is decreasing the subjectivity inherent in expert witness reports. Eighty-four inspection reports prepared by the official and authorized inspectors were examined and root causes of construction fall accidents in Turkey were identified. Using this information, an evaluation form was designed and submitted to the experts. Experts were asked to evaluate the importance level of the factors that govern fall accidents and determine the fault rates under different scenarios. Based on expert judgments, a rule-based expert system was developed. The accuracy and reliability of DsSafe were tested with real data as obtained from finalized court cases. DsSafe gives satisfactory results.

  1. Physiological, perceptual, and technical responses to on-court tennis training on hard and clay courts.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar M; Duffield, Rob; Minett, Geoffrey M; Sibte, Narelle; Murphy, Alistair P; Baker, John

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of court surface (clay vs. hard court) on technical, physiological, and perceptual responses to on-court tennis training. Four high-performance junior male players performed 2 identical training sessions on hard and clay courts, respectively. Sessions included both physical conditioning and technical elements as led by the coach. Each session was filmed for later notational analysis of stroke count and error rates. Furthermore, players wore a global positioning satellite device to measure distance covered during each session, while heart rate, countermovement jump distance, and capillary blood measures of metabolites were measured before, during, and after each session. Additionally, a respective coach and athlete rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured after each session. Total duration and distance covered during each session were comparable (p > 0.05; d < 0.20). Although forehand and backhands stroke volume did not differ between sessions (p > 0.05; d < 0.30), large effects for increased unforced and forced errors were present on the hard court (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). Furthermore, large effects for increased heart rate, blood lactate, and RPE values were evident on clay compared with hard courts (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). Additionally, although player and coach RPE on hard courts were similar, there were large effects for coaches to underrate the RPE of players on clay courts (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). In conclusion, training on clay courts results in trends for increased heart rate, lactate, and RPE values, suggesting that sessions on clay courts tend towards higher physiological and perceptual loads than hard courts. Furthermore, coaches seem effective at rating player RPE on hard courts but may underrate the perceived exertion of sessions on clay courts.

  2. Mental health among suburban drug court participants.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Jessica Aungst; Nochajski, Thomas H; Coffey, Scott F; Farrell, Mark G

    2007-01-01

    The issue of co-occurring disorders is of concern to the Criminal Justice field, including drug courts. To assess the potential co-occurrence of substance use- and mental health-related diagnoses, the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire and similar instruments was administered to suburban drug court clients. Based on the screening, one quarter to one half of the 108 participants would be referred for follow-up for a mental health issue; women would be referred at a greater rate than men. There is a need to develop appropriate, brief mental health screening instruments for use in drug court settings so that clients can receive necessary services.

  3. Implementation of an Expert System for Instructional Design, Phase 3. Design Document and Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; Li, Zhongmin

    Instructional Design Expert (ID Expert) is a prototype instructional design expert system which supports the instructional design phase of instructional system development. Phase 2 of ID Expert was implemented using S.1 expert system language on the VAX computer. The user interface was text-based, consisting of a question/answer dialogue primarily…

  4. Hypothetical constructs, hypothetical questions, and the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues.

  5. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    The authors were involved in a high profile case in the United States District Court involving Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades Agricultural Area in the State of Florida. One of the central issues of the case rested on a theory that all navigable waters of the United States comprised one "unitary" water body, and as such, transfer of water from one navigable water to another did not require any permitting action. Should this theory have prevailed, great precedent would be set regarding inter-basin transfer of volumes of water capable of significantly impact to the ecologic structure and function of all involved basins. Furthermore, the impact would certainly have had demographic implications of great significance. We were asked to serve as an expert witnesses in the case charged with developing a strategy to demonstrate that three large irrigation canals were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct" (language from the U.S. Supreme Court opinion on a related case) from Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake wholly in the continental U.S. Although a totally hydrologic approach could have been taken easily, it was thought better for the legal team to include an aquatic ecologic perspective, a true example of the linkage of the two disciplines into ecohydrology. Together, an argument was crafted to explain to the judge how, in fact, the waters could in no way be "unitary" in character and that they were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct." The fundamentals of the arguments rested on well known and established principles of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was incumbent upon the authors to educate the judge on how to think about hydrologic and ecologic principles. Issues of interest to the judge included a forensic assessment of the hydrologic and ecologic regime of the lake and the original Everglades system when the State of Florida first joined the U.S. While there are anecdotal archives that describe some elements of the system, there are few

  6. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  7. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  8. Where to Put the Manicules: A Theory of Expert Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Manicules are hand-drawn symbols used by medieval readers to mark important parts of a text. Knowing where to place manicules is one characteristic of an expert reader. A meta-cognitive theory of expert reading helps to account for what readers know that allows them to place manicules appropriately. This theory proposes that expert readers are…

  9. 45 CFR 1201.10 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony. 1201.10 Section 1201.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES...

  10. 22 CFR 172.9 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... testimony. 172.9 Section 172.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES... employees shall not provide opinion or expert testimony based upon information which they acquired in the...

  11. 22 CFR 172.9 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... testimony. 172.9 Section 172.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES... employees shall not provide opinion or expert testimony based upon information which they acquired in the...

  12. 22 CFR 172.9 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... testimony. 172.9 Section 172.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES... employees shall not provide opinion or expert testimony based upon information which they acquired in the...

  13. 22 CFR 172.9 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... testimony. 172.9 Section 172.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICE OF PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES... employees shall not provide opinion or expert testimony based upon information which they acquired in the...

  14. Privacy on thin ice? Considering the California Court of Appeal decision in Johnson v. Superior Court.

    PubMed

    Plosker, J A

    2001-01-01

    In Johnson v. Superior Court, the California Court of Appeal determined that a provision of a contract limiting the discovery of the identity of a sperm donor was against public policy and that the privacy interest did not protect against disclosure of this information. Although the court's analysis of the public policy exception to the enforcement of contracts was unnecessary, the opinion properly balances California's and petitioners' interests against an anonymous donor's privacy right.

  15. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  16. Courts Foil Schools' Efforts to Detect Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two recent court cases that demonstrate the difficulty of balancing the emphasis on drug detection with the privacy rights of students. Concludes that school officials should not be quick to assume that reasonable suspicion exists. (IW)

  17. Supreme Court Ethics Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Slaughter, Louise McIntosh [D-NY-25

    2013-08-01

    House - 09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Internet. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Court procedures for handling intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Fisher, D A

    2001-01-01

    The courts have implemented numerous approaches to reduce the probability of recidivism among people apprehended for or convicted of driving while intoxicated. Although traditional punitive sanctions, such as fines and incarceration, are commonly used, they have not eliminated drinking and driving in the United States. Consequently, the court system has developed additional sanctioning procedures that show promise. For example, rehabilitative programs (e.g., alcohol education and alcoholism treatment) can reduce recidivism, at least marginally. These programs appear to be more effective when combined with license suspension. In addition to license suspension, several alternative methods for limiting driving opportunities of offenders have proven effective, including impounding offenders' vehicles or license plates, installing ignition interlocks, and requiring electronic home monitoring or house arrest. Effective court monitoring is a critical component in supporting recovery and compelling offenders to participate in rehabilitation programs. This role of the courts in monitoring offenders will likely increase as the use of intrusive, alternative sanctions grows.

  19. Offshore Oil: Supreme Court Ruling Intensified Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a Supreme Court ruling giving the federal government jurisdiction over substantial areas of the outer continental shelf (OCS) which opens the door for a federal program of OCS leasing. (GS)

  20. Offshore Oil: Supreme Court Ruling Intensified Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a Supreme Court ruling giving the federal government jurisdiction over substantial areas of the outer continental shelf (OCS) which opens the door for a federal program of OCS leasing. (GS)

  1. Expert systems - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

  2. Corrosion consultant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.L.

    1994-12-31

    The development and use of an expert system to recommend coatings for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plant is described. The system ranks coatings by their material properties, experimental test and plant performance scores when the component to be coated and its working environment are specified. The user interface, the inference engine, the knowledge base and the implementation of the expert system are presented with comments on its suitability and application for corrosion consultations.

  3. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  4. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  5. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  6. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more Judges...

  7. 5 CFR 838.1004 - Qualifying court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifying court orders. 838.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1004 Qualifying court orders. (a) A former spouse is entitled to a portion of an employee's...

  8. 5 CFR 838.1014 - Guidelines on interpreting court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guidelines on interpreting court orders... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1014 Guidelines on interpreting court orders. As circumstances require...

  9. 5 CFR 838.1014 - Guidelines on interpreting court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines on interpreting court orders... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1014 Guidelines on interpreting court orders. As circumstances require...

  10. 5 CFR 838.1016 - Receipt of multiple court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Receipt of multiple court orders. 838... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1016 Receipt of multiple court orders. In the event that OPM receives two or more...

  11. 5 CFR 838.1004 - Qualifying court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualifying court orders. 838.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1004 Qualifying court orders. (a) A former spouse is entitled to a portion of an employee's...

  12. 5 CFR 838.1014 - Guidelines on interpreting court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guidelines on interpreting court orders... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1014 Guidelines on interpreting court orders. As circumstances require...

  13. 5 CFR 838.1016 - Receipt of multiple court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Receipt of multiple court orders. 838... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1016 Receipt of multiple court orders. In the event that OPM receives two or more...

  14. 25 CFR 11.912 - Contempt of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contempt of court. 11.912 Section 11.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.912 Contempt of court. Any willful disobedience or interference with...

  15. Learning by Trial and Error: A Case for Moot Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, J. Lon; Skaggs, Neil T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of active learning within economics focusing on moot courts. Explains how moot courts fit into economics and presents examples of how moot courts can be used within law and economics, history of economic thought, and environmental economics courses. Highlights student perceptions of moot courts. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  16. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  17. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  18. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  19. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  20. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  1. A Judicial Perspective on Expert Testimony in Marijuana Driving Cases.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    The decriminalization of marijuana and propagation of marijuana prescribed for medical reasons have resulted in an increase in driving while under the influence of marijuana. Currently, the legal definition of marijuana driving impairment varies by state across the United States. Expert witnesses such as drug recognition experts and medical toxicologists are needed during a discovery to educate attorneys and during a testimony to educate judges and juries. These proceedings provide an overview of the US case law about driving impairment, the current status of the legal thresholds used in the courts for the admission of the medical toxicologist as an expert witness in marijuana driving and related cases, and provides an understanding of evolving issues surrounding the admissibility of their scientific opinion testimony.

  2. Juvenile Felony Defendants in Criminal Courts. State Court Processing Statistics, 1990-94. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Kevin J.; Smith, Steven K.; Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides statistics about juveniles in the criminal justice system, whether handled as adults in criminal courts or handled in juvenile courts. In the 75 largest U.S. counties, juveniles transferred to criminal courts represented about 1% of all felony defendants. Two thirds of juveniles transferred to criminal court were charged with…

  3. Avionic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshani, Forouzan

    1988-01-01

    At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

  4. Transient stability expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshizawa, J.; Klapper, D.B.; Price, W.W.; Wirgau, K.A.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to develop expert system concepts for use with power system stability studies, and provide proof of the concepts in a prototype computer program. Power system stability analysis consists of several activities (procedures), each with it's own technology. An analysis of the transient stability problem-solving process indicates that it is an iterative design procedure. Portions of this procedure are analogous to a closed loop feedback control system. For example, the Remedial Measures procedure determines changes in the system to satisfy a performance criterion. The user, with the help of the expert system, incorporates these changes into the design and determines the impact on the system performance. This process continues until satisfactory performance is achieved. The following conclusions were found: power system transient stability is a meaningful area for application of expert systems. The expert system can cover a broad spectrum of activities which includes qualitative and quantitative evaluation of system transient performance, suggestions for further processing, and contributions to study organization. It was determined that the expert system inferencing procedure should be highly efficient to process this type of problem.

  5. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  6. Connecting to the Courts: A Teacher's Guide to the Wisconsin Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone de Nie, Karen, Ed.; Todd, Amanda K., Ed.; Hess, Diana, Ed.

    In February 2000, the Wisconsin Supreme Court, the State Bar of Wisconsin, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Curriculum and Instruction brought together 28 high school teachers from around the state together for a 2-day intensive workshop on teaching about federal and state courts. A second institute was held in February 2001…

  7. Drug Court Effectiveness: A Matched Cohort Study in the Dane County Drug Treatment Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Drug treatment courts (DTCs) are widely viewed as effective diversion programs for drug-involved offenders; however, previous studies frequently used flawed comparison groups. In the current study, the author compared rates of recidivism for drug court participants to rates for a traditionally adjudicated comparison group matched on potentially…

  8. Televising Supreme Court and Other Federal Court Proceedings: Legislation and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-08

    the Administration believes Section 22 has the potential to influence court proceedings unduly and to compromise the security of participants in the...and believe it can be duplicated in the federal courts.50 CRS-18 Concluding Observations The debate on televison and other electronic media coverage of

  9. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  10. Drug Court Effectiveness: A Matched Cohort Study in the Dane County Drug Treatment Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Drug treatment courts (DTCs) are widely viewed as effective diversion programs for drug-involved offenders; however, previous studies frequently used flawed comparison groups. In the current study, the author compared rates of recidivism for drug court participants to rates for a traditionally adjudicated comparison group matched on potentially…

  11. Constitutional Court of South Africa overturns lower court's decision on the right to "sufficient water".

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    On 8 October 2009, the Constitutional Court of South Africa overturned the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which addressed the proper interpretation of Section 27(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa (Constitution)--namely, everyone's right to have access to sufficient water.

  12. Minnesota in the Supreme Court. Lessons on Supreme Court Cases Involving Minnesotans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Jennifer

    This document focuses on cases brought by Minnesotans to the U.S. Supreme Court. The five lessons featured are designed to provide secondary classroom teachers with material needed to teach each unit. Lessons cover Supreme Court proceedings, free press issues, freedom of religion, abortion rights, and privilege against self-incrimination.…

  13. The Warren Court and the Burger Court: Some Comparisons of Education-Related Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)

  14. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  15. The Warren Court and the Burger Court: Some Comparisons of Education-Related Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)

  16. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., background information provided to experts, and deliberations and formal interactions among experts shall be... and technical views to expert panels as input to any expert elicitation process....

  17. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  18. Fracture mechanics expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform. 7 refs.

  19. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  20. The admissibility of offender profiling in courtroom: a review of legal issues and court opinions.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Dario; Zappalà, Angelo; Santtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    What is the future of Offender Profiling? Is it an important field of forensic science or is it only a glamorous art? After the trilogy "Daubert-Joiner-Kumho" and after the last version, in 2009, of the Federal Rules of Evidence (F.R.E.), the opinion of American Courts concerning the admissibility of scientific evidence has changed, and the questions above can now have new answers. The change is closely tied to the perceived difference between hard and soft sciences and, in this way, the new gatekeeping role of the Courts also concerns whether offender profiling can be regarded as scientific evidence and if offender profiling should be admitted in the Courtroom as scientific evidence. In this work we present a comprehensive review concerning the most important Court opinions in U.S.A, U.K., Canada and Australia, about reliability and admissibility of offender profiling, in its different forensic application, as scientific evidence, and we suggest how and when an expert witness in the field of offender profiling can, in the light of these opinions, be admitted in Court.

  1. Modeling Expert Control Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    body of rese:inlh results characterize expert domain knowledge and problem-solving mechanisms for a variet td problem domains. By contrast, little is...ident ification of regions of secuml:u I structure, since these regions are used as solid-level components of the struture to he determined. ABC is an...similar to that of human experts in the field, who themselves do not alwas agree on the interpretation of data. This was illustrated vi,,idlf by three

  2. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  3. Understanding success and nonsuccess in the drug court.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Andrew; Keena, Linda D; O'Brien, Erin

    2013-10-01

    The drug court was developed as a response to the ineffectiveness of the traditional criminal justice response to addiction. It has grown from 1 Miami court in 1989 to more than 2,100 drug court programs across the United States in 2011. The drug court has been described as a restorative or community justice intervention that can benefit the offender, direct and indirect victims, and the community as a whole through its combination of treatment, intensive supervision, and regular court appearances. Although the number of qualitative drug court studies has increased in recent years, there are few studies that compare those who successfully complete the drug court program with those who do not complete. This article is a qualitative study of drug court participants in an Arkansas drug court program. The article compares and contrasts the perceptions of those graduated from the program with those who were terminated from the program.

  4. Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-23

    An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite...anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates...in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument’s Personal Consultant Plus expert - system shell. The expert

  5. Expert Systems Application In Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Pradip; Chitturi, Ramesh; Babu, A. J. G.

    1987-05-01

    Expert system, a special branch of Artificial Intelligence finds its way in the domain of manufacturing. This paper presents the basic ideas and features of the expert systems, problems in manufacturing and application of expert systems in manufacturing. As the process planning is an important phase in manufacturing, the suitability of expert systems for process planning area has been highlighted. Several expert systems, developed to solve manufacturing problems are also discussed in the paper.

  6. Expert systems in civil engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kostem, C.N.; Maher, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on expert systems in civil engineering. Topics considered at the symposium included problem solving using expert system techniques, construction schedule analysis, decision making and risk analysis, seismic risk analysis systems, an expert system for inactive hazardous waste site characterization, an expert system for site selection, knowledge engineering, and knowledge-based expert systems in seismic analysis.

  7. Supreme Court refuses to review clinic access law; Second Appeals Court upholds statute.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    On June 19, the US Supreme Court refused to review "Woodall v. Reno," a challenge to the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) filed in Virginia by an anti-choice individual. FACE prohibits the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing or obtaining reproductive health services. By denying the petition for "certiorari," the High Court let stand the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in February. In that ruling, the midlevel federal court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of two of the eight anti-choice lawsuits challenging FACE, "Woodall v. Reno" and "American Life League v. Reno," which were consolidated by the appeals panel. Although plaintiffs in the first case filed a request for review by the High Court within days of the appellate court ruling, plaintiffs in the latter case waited until May to do so. The Department of Justice, which is defending the federal statute, and CRLP and the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, who are intervening on behalf of women and health care providers, will file their opposition to the review by July 26. The Justices will then decide to hear the case. On June 23, a three-judge panel for the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed a lower court's decision to dismiss "Cheffer v. Reno," a facial challenge by Florida anti-choice activists seeking to invalidate FACE. The appeals court had ruled the law did not infringe on First Amendment rights, and the panel rejected the argument that Congress had exceeded its authority under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution by finding that the measure "protects and regulates commercial enterprises." The appeals court accepted an "amicus" brief filed by CRLP and NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund on behalf of the National Abortion Federation, the National Organization of Women, physicians, and women's health clinics, but denied their request to intervene in the

  8. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  9. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  10. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  11. Expert Systems Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and…

  12. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  13. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  14. Court-authorised deprivation of liberty.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom Supreme Court judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P in 2014 introduced a more inclusive 'acid test' for determining the objective element of a deprivation of liberty in cases concerning people who lack decision-making capacity. The case made clear that adults and young people who lack capacity could be deprived of their liberty in care settings other than hospitals and care homes, including the person's own home. A deprivation of liberty that occurs in a setting other than a hospital or care home must be authorised by a Court. This article explains the revised process for applying for Court authorisation of a deprivation of liberty where it occurs in supported living, Shared Lives placements or the incapable person's own home.

  15. Court upholds whistleblower's firing over plasma tests.

    PubMed

    1999-09-03

    The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has upheld the firing of a lab technician from [name removed] Corp. over an injunction she filed regarding protocols for blood plasma testing. The technician claimed that blood plasma from outside vendors was contaminated by saline and should be screened using total protein tests. This test can help prevent false negatives for HIV and hepatitis that may result from saline contamination. The technician accused [name removed] of falsely representing the plasma as safe to the Federal government. The court held that [name removed] did not misrepresent itself because it complied with all required regulations and could represent their products as safe. Further, the court held the technician's firing was not improper because her whistleblowing "verges on being frivolous", and therefore was not protected conduct under the False Claims Act.

  16. Exploring the Effects of Court Dispositions on Future Domestic Violence Offending: An Analysis of Two Specialized Domestic Violence Courts.

    PubMed

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-05-27

    This study seeks to explore the relationship between court dispositions and reoffending within and across two specialized domestic violence (DV) courts located in the United States. The samples for this study are comprised of defendants whose cases were disposed of within the two courts between 2004 and 2006. This study assessed the effects of prosecution, conviction, and sentencing decisions on the prevalence, incidence, and time-to-rearrest for a new DV offense in the 3 years post-disposition both within and across courts. Findings indicate a limited crime-control effect of court dispositions on future offending. Furthermore, despite differences in the community context, policies, and court dispositions across the two courts, the magnitude of the disposition-recidivism relationship is similar across courts. It is important to understand the findings within the context of the specific courts; a discussion of the results is provided. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Computer-Assisted Handwriting Analysis: Interaction with Legal Issues in U.S. Courts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Kenneth A.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Advances in the development of computer-assisted handwriting analysis have led to the consideration of a computational system by courts in the United States. Computer-assisted handwriting analysis has been introduced in the context of Frye or Daubert hearings conducted to determine the admissibility of handwriting testimony by questioned document examiners, as expert witnesses, in civil and criminal proceedings. This paper provides a comparison of scientific and judicial methods, and examines concerns over reliability of handwriting analysis expressed in judicial decisions. Recently, the National Research Council assessed that “the scientific basis for handwriting comparisons needs to be strengthened”. Recent studies involving computer-assisted handwriting analysis are reviewed in light of the concerns expressed by the judiciary and National Research Council. A future potential role for computer-assisted handwriting analysis in the courts is identified.

  18. Explanation production by expert planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

  19. Hanau licenses voided by German state court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.

  20. Internet free speech wins court test.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-06-21

    A U.S. District Court ruled that key provisions of the Communications Decency Act of 1996 are unconstitutional because they violate the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. The decision gives the Internet First Amendment protection instead of imposing a more restrictive standard. The Court noted that there are effective means of keeping inappropriate material away from children without restricting electronic communication among adults. The case was initiated by many companies and organizations, including the American Civil Liberties Union and AIDS organizations.

  1. Superfund awakes in state supreme courts

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.

    1998-01-01

    Superfund, often referred to as a sleeping giant, is waking up in state courts with rulings the insurance industry is on the hook for a large share of the nation`s environmental cleanup. While Congress has been quagmired in legislative reauthorization attempts, 40% of the state supreme courts (20 states) have passed laws favoring policyholders of comprehensive general liability insurance (CGL) to be compensated for their cleanup and litigation costs. These rulings vary in terms from state to state, but their collective action is giving the insurance industry grave concerns because of the increase in settlements with CGL policyholders.

  2. The readability of expert reports for non-scientist report-users: reports of DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Julian, Roberta; Kelty, Sally F; Kemp, Nenagh; Kirkbride, K Paul

    2014-04-01

    DNA evidence can be extremely compelling. With ongoing scientific advances and applications of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system, it is increasingly important that police, lawyers, and judges recognise both the limitations of DNA evidence and the strength of the evidence in particular cases. Because most forensic sciences are formally communicated via expert reports, we analysed the readability of 68 such reports of DNA evidence from 6 of 8 Australian jurisdictions. We conducted content analyses using three categories: content and sequence, language, and format. Categories contained qualitative and quantitative items drawn from theory and past research. Report styles differed by jurisdiction and by main audience - police and the courts. Reports for police were brief and few links were made between sections in these reports. Reports for courts were less brief and used either legal or scientific styles. Common sections in reports for courts included: the scientist's specialised knowledge; laboratory accreditation information; item list; results; and notes on interpretation. Sections were often not in a logical sequence, due to the use of appendices. According to Flesch Reading Ease scores, reports for police had language that was fairly difficult, and reports for courts, difficult. Difficulty was compounded by the use of specialist terms. Reports for police and the appendices of reports for court often used very small font and single line spacing. Many reports for court contained tables that spanned several pages. Suggestions based on theory and past research are provided to assist scientists to enhance the readability of reports for non-scientists.

  3. Treatment Services in Adult Drug Courts: Report on the 1999 National Drug Court Treatment Survey. Drug Courts Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pexton, Elizabeth A.; Gossweiler, Robert

    In October 1999, National Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC), in cooperation with the Office of Justice Programs, Drug Courts Program Office and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, developed and distributed a questionnaire designed to describe substance abuse…

  4. [The criteria for appointing experts in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Vojtíšek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, forensic medicine is an independent medical field, in which physicians with the appropriate attestation perform expert activities, especially in criminal proceedings, after being formally appointed by a regional court. In order to improve the quality of the activities provided by these experts, the Ministry of Justice is endeavouring to tighten up the general conditions for the appointment of new forensic experts. The individual criteria do not, however, take into account the special nature of forensic medicine as a medical field, the very essence of which involves the specialist qualifications which are necessary for the provision of expert opinions, most frequently to the police. In particular, the introduction of a strict requirement for ten-years of work experience after leaving medical school has hindered and stalled the entrance of young physicians with completed post-graduate studies into the area of forensic medicine. An inquiry sent to the regional courts has discovered that the average length of work experience for newly appointed experts in the period from 2004 to 2013 was 8.2 years, that half of them had work experience of seven years or less and that 75 percent of the newly appointed experts did not meet any set requirements for the length of their work experience at the time of their appointment. The new conditions may have a negative impact on attracting qualified graduates to forensic medicine after the completion of their medical studies and in the long term it may endanger the ability of the field of forensic medicine to provide expert opinions in criminal proceedings. In conclusion, it is the authors opinion that the appointment conditions should be set in cooperation with the professional medical associations and that they should take into account the specific characteristics of the individual medical fields, especially if they are to be set directly by means of a legal regulation within the framework of the recodification

  5. Unfitness to stand trial decision-making in the extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

    2014-06-01

    In the small number of trials for matters such as genocide and crimes against humanity that have taken place before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, by 2014 three occasions had arisen in which the fitness of the accused persons to participate in their trials had become contentious. This is hardly surprising given that the key period of Khmer Rouge government occurred a very long while ago--between 1975 and 1979. The accused persons are all aged. In two instances, the Trial Chamber of the Courts of its own motion sought expert evaluations of the accused persons' fitness to stand trial and, promptly, upon receipt of such reports, determined them to be fit by reference to criteria utilised by the Appeal Chamber of the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY). In the other instance an accused person, leng Thirith, was found unfit to stand trial and a range of important issues was traversed as to the measures that can properly be taken to try to render a person fit for trial and how legitimate the imposition of detention for that purpose is, and then how legitimate encroachments on a person's civil liberties are to monitor them if there is only a remote possibility that their mental state might improve. It is likely that the balance adopted by the Supreme Court Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia in making significant efforts to render an accused person fit for trial and then in continuing to monitor their mental state when such efforts do not bear fruit, instead of simply releasing them back into the community, will stand as an important precedent for future occasions under international criminal law when issues of fitness to stand trial and how they should be handled arise.

  6. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  7. Make yourself an expert.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm.

  8. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING 23 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD DRIVE - Hamilton Field, Tennis Courts, Escolta Avenue at Sixth Street, & Crescent Drive near South Oakwood Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  10. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING 24 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Domestic violence and dependency courts: the Greenbook demonstration experience.

    PubMed

    Malik, Neena M; Silverman, Jerry; Wang, Kathleen; Janczewski, Colleen

    2008-07-01

    This field study reports on a cross-site evaluation of dependency courts in communities receiving federal funding to implement the Greenbook initiative, a multisite demonstration for community improvement of coordinated responses to families victimized by domestic violence and child maltreatment. This article focuses on the dependency court, where child maltreatment cases are heard, specifically court participation in collaborative activities and court practice improvements. Findings indicate that perceptions of judicial leadership varied considerably by site. Cross-training appeared to increase over time, particularly with court staff. Collaborative efforts emerged across the Greenbook initiative with regard to the courts, and some innovative practices appeared within Greenbook sites, such as separate case plans for perpetrators and victims of violence in families, reducing the likelihood of controversial failure to protect charges. Results also highlight challenges inherent in changing court practices. Research and practice implications are discussed, focusing on relevance to other communities attempting to work collaboratively with the court system.

  12. 1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD QUARTERS F. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tennis Courts, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. 2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. 5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  16. 4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  17. 20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL COURT IN FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. 1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  19. 7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 (Samuel Shinn House), No. 405, No. 407 (John Elliott House), No. 409, No. 411 (David Simpson House) - Marshall's Court Area Study, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking westsouthwest (bearing 250). Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking west-southwest (bearing 250). Not that missing scones are to be returned and presently obscured ceiling is proposed for restoration. - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 97. CENTRAL COURT, MERCER MUSEUM. FROM THE THIRD FLOOR. SAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. CENTRAL COURT, MERCER MUSEUM. FROM THE THIRD FLOOR. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-68. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  4. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  5. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  6. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  7. 25 CFR 11.710 - Determination of the court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.710 Determination of the court. At the time set for hearing upon the final account, the Court of Indian Offenses shall proceed to examine all evidence relating to...

  8. Parent Group Training Programs in Juvenile Courts: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.

    1977-01-01

    This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)

  9. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Lee, Patricia A; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status hearings in court. In contrast, participants who were low risk performed equivalently regardless of the court hearings schedule. This study prospectively matches drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based on an assessment of their risk status and compares outcomes to clients randomly assigned to the standard hearings schedule. Results confirmed that participants who were high risk and matched to biweekly hearings had better during-treatment outcomes than participants assigned to status hearings as usual. These findings provide confirmation of the risk principle in drug courts and yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug courts.

  10. 96. CENTRAL COURT. MERCER MUSEUM, FROM ENTRY LEVEL SAME VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. CENTRAL COURT. MERCER MUSEUM, FROM ENTRY LEVEL SAME VIEW AS PA-107-67. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  11. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert

  12. Emergency Supply Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Supply Expert System (ESEX) is one of three studies being provided to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) under KPMG Peat Marwick delivery order F7-04...benefits of implementing ESEX. The sources of this data included an ESEX Executive Summary Report/Business Case dated February 1992, historical budget...individual AVRS engines. Methodology The study team gathered statistical data from the three sites currently operating ESEX within DLA. Through trips to two

  13. Professors' Freedoms under Assault in the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent court rulings have challenged the long-held concept of academic freedom for faculty members. As an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Kevin J. Renken says he felt obliged to speak out about his belief that administrators there were mishandling a National Science Foundation grant to him…

  14. Supplement: Supreme Court Port Gibson, Miss., Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisis, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents the recent Supreme Court Opinion No. 81-202, "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, et al., v. Claiborne Hardware Company et al.," on a case which arose from a boycott of various Port Gibson, Mississippi, businesses. Appended is a 1969 speech about the boycott by Charles Evers. (GC)

  15. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  16. Supreme Court Upholds Religious Liberty: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews a set of Supreme Court rulings that may dramatically alter the landscape of First Amendment jurisprudence: "Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah"; "Jones v. Clear Creek Independent School District"; "Lambs Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District"; and Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills…

  17. 78 FR 14017 - Courts of Indian Offenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... are Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe. The tribes to be removed from... known as CFR Courts): The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe and the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians. This rule... exercise that jurisdiction. The Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe...

  18. Supreme Court in Review--1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwendolyn H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the Supreme Court declared five acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. An overview of these decisions is offered in this article. It opens with a discussion of those acts that violated the First Amendment. These decisions dealt with the constitutionality of Arizona's "official English" statute; the Communications…

  19. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  20. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  1. Evolution, Creationism, and the Courts: 20 Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…

  2. Supreme Court in Review--1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwendolyn H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the Supreme Court declared five acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. An overview of these decisions is offered in this article. It opens with a discussion of those acts that violated the First Amendment. These decisions dealt with the constitutionality of Arizona's "official English" statute; the Communications…

  3. Bringing the High Court to High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Jamin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Marshall-Brennan Fellowship constitutional literacy project wherein 30 pairs of law students at the Washington College of Law teach a constitutional rights and responsibilities course to high school students in Washington, D.C., and Maryland public high schools. Students are also taken to hear oral arguments at the Supreme Court.…

  4. The Courts and Student Rights -- Procedural Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phay, Robert E.

    This paper traces the evolution of student rights and the judicial protection of these rights through numerous court cases. The author outlines the minimum standards of due process required in disciplinary proceedings and discusses cases that point up (1) the required specificity of rules on student conduct, (2) the requirements of notice to…

  5. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  6. Sensational Roots: The Police Court Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Warren

    Part of a broader inquiry into "Investigative Exposure in the Nineteenth Century: The Journalistic Heritage of the Muckrakers," this study traces the evolving reportorial techniques and literary style that gave journalism its form--a form combining strengths and flaws, freedom and inhibitions. Before nineteenth century police court reporting was…

  7. The Supreme Court and Public Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Scott

    1989-01-01

    Uses recent freedom of expression cases to explore the effect of public opinion and pressure on U.S. Supreme Court rulings, through a simulation for secondary students. Students are assigned a pressure group to represent, discuss the facts in small groups, and formulate their decisions and arguments for class discussion. (LS)

  8. Court Decisions and the Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Federal judge discusses role of federal courts in implementing laws concerning welfare of citizens; especially helping delivery of social services in state, mental and penal institutions. Gives various examples of real cases to illustrate his argument. Appeals to people working in social services to do their duty conscientiously. Based on speech…

  9. Court Schools: Embracing a Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paul A.; Catania, Kathryn; Nofziger, Sam

    2012-01-01

    It is ironic that the population of students on which educators have the most surveillance, either through ubiquitous video cameras or through the vigilant presence of probation officers, have been the most invisible in many educational practices. English learners who are incarcerated youth and attend county court schools throughout California are…

  10. Court decision dropping toxic substance rules stands

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    In a somewhat surprising move, the U.S. Department of Labor has decided not to appeal a court decision essentially dropping regulations established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for about 400 hazardous substances. The decision leaves unregulated or subject to reduced standards substances that range from carbon monoxide to perchloroethylene. The Labor Department had until March 22, 1993, to appeal the court decision. On July 8, 1992, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit overturned OSHA's final Air Contaminants Standard, which was promulgated in 1989. The standard established permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 428 toxic substances. In AFL-CIO vs. OSHA, the Court ruled that OSHA failed to make a separate scientific case for evaluating health risks of each chemical. Because of the decision not to appeal, PELs for more than half of the substances regulated by OSHA now are removed from the books or revert to the voluntary industry standards adopted by OSHA in 1970 and in force prior to the 1989 final rule.

  11. Status of Cases in the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The status as of October 9, 1986 of higher education-related Supreme Court litigation is outlined concerning: accreditation, affirmative action, asbestos, bar examinations, collective bargaining, creationism, racial discrimination, infectious disease, liquor sales, pensions, pregnancy benefits, revocation of degree, sexual harassment, and student…

  12. Supreme Court Deals Blow to Student Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynn, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Covers the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, which gave principals the right to censor school publications. In "One Student's Pursuit of Journalism," Alexandra Salas relates one student journalist's experience, including internships, from high school through the end of college. (LS)

  13. In the Courts: Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockenberg, Vincent

    1988-01-01

    In Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a school principal's decision to delete several stories from the school newspaper. However, the ruling failed to adequately address two related areas involving what constitutes school-sponsored speech and how broadly could schools regulate that speech. (CB)

  14. The Courts, Social Science, and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Betsy, Ed.; Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

    A conference on the courts, social science, and school desegregation attempted to clarify how social science research has been used and possibly misused in school desegregation litigation. The symposium issue addressed in this book is a product of that conference. First, the judicial evolution of the law of school desegregation from Brown V. the…

  15. Avoiding the Court of First Resort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Dennis Dailey

    1981-01-01

    Many people in our society turn to courts for the resolution of every problem. By delegating to judges the authority to declare our legal rights we diminish our individual and collective liberties. This trend of legalism can have important consequences for school administrators. Rather than resist or evade the law, school officials can obviate…

  16. The College Administrator and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Brechner, Judith A.

    Published as a companion to "The College Student and the Courts," this handbook attempts to acquaint the college or university administrator with the legal aspects of selected major areas of administration of public and private institutions of higher education. Legal aspects of college or university administration are developed through the…

  17. Children in Court: A Troubling Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lucy; Williams, Patricia Hrusa

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the reasons why children are involved in court proceedings and the effects of the experience on their well-being, especially for children who are victims or witnesses to criminal activity, violence, and abuse. Drop-in child day care is discussed as a possible program model to support families and counteract the risks to children. (MDM)

  18. Court Decisions and the Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Federal judge discusses role of federal courts in implementing laws concerning welfare of citizens; especially helping delivery of social services in state, mental and penal institutions. Gives various examples of real cases to illustrate his argument. Appeals to people working in social services to do their duty conscientiously. Based on speech…

  19. Children, Special Needs and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowicz, Jack

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses legal developments relating to the 1981 Education Act in Great Britain, focusing on court interpretation in the areas of parental rights and participation, wider integration of students with special needs into ordinary schools, defining a special educational need, reassessments, and repayment of fees. Possible future trends…

  20. Sexual Harassment: The Supreme Court Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Richard L.; Hughes, William

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court, in its June 1998 "Gebser" decision, held that school districts cannot be sued for damages under Title IX unless a school official knows about a teacher's sexual abuse of a student and fails to stop it. However, districts must comply with Title IX requirements and follow appropriate guidelines. (MLH)

  1. Courting the Best for Your Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duques, Dawn Brill

    2007-01-01

    How can a person be certain that the potential trustee he is considering is right for his board? How can that candidate be certain that one's institution and board are right for him? Answers to these questions are vital. Courting a candidate for the board of a private college or university means spending time and money, and with budgets…

  2. Schools & the Courts. Volume I: Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jack; And Others

    Eight papers examining different aspects of the effects of court decisions on education are contained in this book, the first of two volumes. The papers were solicited from scholars in the fields of law, political science, sociology, and education in conjunction with a 1979 conference held in Madison, Wisconsin. The conference was called to…

  3. Professors' Freedoms under Assault in the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent court rulings have challenged the long-held concept of academic freedom for faculty members. As an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Kevin J. Renken says he felt obliged to speak out about his belief that administrators there were mishandling a National Science Foundation grant to him…

  4. School Desegregation: The Courts and Suburban Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routh, Frederick B., Ed.; Waldo, Everett A., Ed.

    The United States Commission on Civil Rights sponsored a consultation in 1975 to review the relationship between desegregation, court orders, and suburbanization, as well as to assess what further role the Commission might play in discharging its responsibility to advance the constitutional rights of all children to a desegregated education. This…

  5. Avoiding the Court of First Resort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Dennis Dailey

    1981-01-01

    Many people in our society turn to courts for the resolution of every problem. By delegating to judges the authority to declare our legal rights we diminish our individual and collective liberties. This trend of legalism can have important consequences for school administrators. Rather than resist or evade the law, school officials can obviate…

  6. The Home School Court Report, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Home School Court Report, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Feature articles contained in the four issues of volume 6 of this periodical for families who practice home schooling concern the response of the United States Senate to political pressure from home schoolers; a "declaration of war" on religious freedom by conservative members of the U.S. Supreme Court; the likelihood that the Congress will pass a…

  7. The Burger Court in Factorial Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Thomas A.

    The attitudes of Supreme Court justices toward freedom of the press and ways in which their voting patterns affect the press were investigated in a study involving an examination of 235 nonunanimous decisions (G-cases), 199 nonunanimous civil liberties cases (C-cases), and 23 nonunanimous freedom of the press cases (P-cases) decided by the Burger…

  8. The High Court, Privacy and Teenage Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswinger, George L.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy of a recent High Court case reveals how a potpourri of legal input and reasoning resulted in a decision that could strike a blow for both understanding and positive action in the emotionally-laden, controversial area of teenage sexuality. (Author)

  9. 78 FR 49120 - Courts of Indian Offenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 11 RIN 1076-AF16 Courts of Indian Offenses AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is confirming the...

  10. In re guardianship of Hailu: The Nevada Supreme Court casts doubt on the standard for brain death diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yanke, Greg; Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2017-04-01

    In the recent court case of In Re Guardianship of Hailu, the Nevada Supreme Court cast doubt on the acceptability of the American Academy of Neurology's guidelines as a medical standard for determining brain death. The Uniform Determination of Death Act, which has been adopted in every state, requires that brain death diagnoses be made in accordance with accepted medical standards. The Court expressed concern that the guidelines fail to ensure that there is an irreversible cessation of all functions of a person's entire brain, which is a component of the Act's definition of death. Although the Nevada Supreme Court remanded the case to the District Court to hear more expert evidence concerning whether the guidelines constitute "accepted medical standards," the patient who was the subject of the case met the criteria for cardiopulmonary death several weeks prior to the hearing and the legal case became moot. As a result, the issue of whether the American Academy of Neurology guidelines, or some other criteria for determining brain death, are accepted medical standards for determining whether all brain function has ceased remains unresolved.

  11. Alternatives to In-Court Testimony in Child Abuse Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    ADOESMENNE O* ALTERNATIVES TO IN-COURT TESTIMONY IN CHILD ABUSE CASES A Thesis Presented to The Judge Advocate General’s School, United States Army...COURSE April 1992 Ob ALTERNATIVES TO IN-COURT TESTIMONY IN CHILD ABUSE CASES by CPT Paula C. Juba e ABSTRACT: Contrary to the trend in both federal and...This thesis recommends the adoption of a rule for courts-martial that would provide uniform procedural alternatives to in-court testimony in child abuse

  12. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  13. Supreme Court Decision on Right to an Education: The Case of Illegal Alien Children, "Plyler v. Doe". ERS School Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    Reproduced here are the text of the 1982 Supreme Court decision "Plyler v. Doe" and its companion cases, "In Re Alien Children Litigation." An introductory statement explains that in this opinion the Court struck down a Texas law prohibiting tuition-free education for children of illegal aliens, on the grounds that education…

  14. Veterans' psychiatric benefits: enter courts and attorneys.

    PubMed

    Sparr, L F; White, R; Friedman, M J; Wiles, D B

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the Veterans Judicial Review Act (VJRA) was signed into law, ending more than a century of Congressional measures that kept veterans' benefits claims completely out of the appellate court system. Before this new law, any decision made by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) about a veteran's claim was final, and there was no recourse for independent judgment of an appeal. The legislation modified the existing Board of Veterans Appeals (BVA) to enhance its independence from the Veterans' Administration and established a new Court of Veterans Appeals (CVA) with jurisdiction to review BVA decisions. Veterans' benefits proceedings have not only been insulated from the courts, they also have been undesirable to private attorneys, because since 1864 Congress has prohibited attorneys from charging more than $10 to advocate a VA disability claim. The new law allows attorneys to represent veterans before the CVA and receive appropriate remuneration. In 1991, the number of veterans was estimated at 26,897,000, and VA disability compensation programs spent $9.6 billion. Currently, there are about 2,179,000 veterans receiving service-connected monetary compensation; approximately 13.5 percent (293,200) have a primary psychiatric disability. The CVA is a specialized Article I court that has seven justices and sits in Washington, D.C. In its formative years, the Court has reached decisions that have had an impact on the veterans' psychiatric benefits examination process. Now more than ever, non-VA psychiatrists may be asked to offer probative opinions in veterans' benefits proceedings. The authors review VA psychiatric disability procedures and, using case examples, discuss both precedent decisions involving VA psychiatric claimants and the evolving standards of judicial review.

  15. 20 CFR 416.1485 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 416.1485... Determinations and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 416.1485 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  16. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  17. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1485 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 416.1485... Determinations and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 416.1485 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  19. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  20. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  1. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1485 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 416.1485... Determinations and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 416.1485 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1485 - Application of circuit court law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 416.1485... Determinations and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 416.1485 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which follow apply to administrative determinations or decisions on claims involving the application of circuit...

  4. High School Food Courts: A New Evolution in Student Dining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, George

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how traditional high school cafeterias have changed in recent years into food courts and dining areas usually found in shopping malls. Areas examined include food court design, traffic patterns, safety and after-hours usage, and kitchens and serving areas. How one school district turned its food court system into a successful…

  5. 100th Anniversary of the Juvenile Court, 1899-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This issue commemorates the 100th anniversary of the creation of the juvenile court and the recognition that the developmental differences between children and adults require differences in the ways they are treated by the court system. The feature article, "An Evolving Juvenile Court: On the Front Lines with Judge J. Dean Lewis," reviews the…

  6. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR... performs such other duties as the Court may direct. The Clerk is an officer of the Court....

  7. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR... performs such other duties as the Court may direct. The Clerk is an officer of the Court....

  8. 19. Historic view of court house under construction and "Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic view of court house under construction and "Bridgeport Railing". Photoengraving from Artwork of Rhode Island (Chicago: W.H. Parish Publishing Co., 1896) view east - Court Street Bridge, Court Street spanning Blackstone River & Truman Drive, Woonsocket, Providence County, RI

  9. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653...

  10. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653...

  11. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653...

  12. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  13. A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    This book tells the story of one year in the life of a juvenile court classroom. The Chicago (Illinois) juvenile court is the largest site of incarcerated youth in the world, and was the first state court provided exclusively for children. The experiences of the detention center school, focusing on the classroom of "Mr. B.," a committed…

  14. Survey of Single-Judge Municipal Court Libraries in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Cornelia

    In this age of limited resources, municipal courts scrutinize their library budgets with a view to maintaining adequate legal information sources and services at the lowest possible cost. Some courts relying on the authority of the Ohio Revised Code Section 2303.201 assess additional court costs to fund the acquisition and maintenance of…

  15. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  16. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  17. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.64 Clerk of the Court. There is a Clerk of the Court, who is...

  18. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.64 Clerk of the Court. There is a Clerk of the Court, who is...

  19. 32 CFR 935.64 - Clerk of the Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clerk of the Court. 935.64 Section 935.64 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.64 Clerk of the Court. There is a Clerk of the Court, who is...

  20. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  1. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him or...

  2. The New York Court Review of Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Trudy Bradley

    1975-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated three areas: (1) factors related to the court's determination of foster care status or availability of children for adoption; (2) the extent of agreement between agency recommendations and court orders; and (3) the impact of the court review on moving children out of foster care. (SDH)

  3. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him or...

  4. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him or...

  5. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him or...

  6. 32 CFR 700.1101 - Demand for court-martial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Demand for court-martial. 700.1101 Section 700... Standards of Conduct § 700.1101 Demand for court-martial. Except as otherwise provided in the Uniform Code of Military Justice, no person in the naval service may demand a court martial either on him or...

  7. Two Models of the Supreme Court in School Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Geel, Tyll

    This chapter suggests that a court of review, such as the United State Supreme Court, might follow either of two judicial strategies, based on a model of restraint or a model of activism. Following a discussion of these two models, the author assesses the work of the U.S. Supreme Court during the tenure of Chief Justices Warren and Burger in light…

  8. Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.…

  9. High School Food Courts: A New Evolution in Student Dining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, George

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how traditional high school cafeterias have changed in recent years into food courts and dining areas usually found in shopping malls. Areas examined include food court design, traffic patterns, safety and after-hours usage, and kitchens and serving areas. How one school district turned its food court system into a successful…

  10. 26 CFR 301.7482-1 - Courts of review; venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Courts of review; venue. 301.7482-1 Section 301.7482-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Courts of review; venue. Under section 7482(b)(2) of the Code, decisions of the Tax Court may be reviewed...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7482-1 - Courts of review; venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Courts of review; venue. 301.7482-1 Section 301.7482-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Courts of review; venue. Under section 7482(b)(2) of the Code, decisions of the Tax Court may be reviewed...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7482-1 - Courts of review; venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Courts of review; venue. 301.7482-1 Section 301.7482-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Courts of review; venue. Under section 7482(b)(2) of the Code, decisions of the Tax Court may be reviewed...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7482-1 - Courts of review; venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Courts of review; venue. 301.7482-1 Section 301.7482-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Courts of review; venue. Under section 7482(b)(2) of the Code, decisions of the Tax Court may be reviewed...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7482-1 - Courts of review; venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Courts of review; venue. 301.7482-1 Section 301.7482-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Courts of review; venue. Under section 7482(b)(2) of the Code, decisions of the Tax Court may be reviewed...

  15. 19 CFR 162.50 - Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition. 162.50....50 Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition. (a) Sale. Forfeited property decreed by the court for... cleared for sale. (c) Destruction—(1) Proceeds of sale not sufficient. Property forfeited under a...

  16. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  17. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  18. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  19. 5 CFR 1653.3 - Processing retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing retirement benefits court orders. 1653.3 Section 1653.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders §...

  20. Youth Court: A National Movement. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Youth courts spread rapidly around the country in the 1990s, sharing important goals with law-related education (LRE), including a strong potential to improve the citizenship skills of young people. Youth court is a general term describing courts that involve young people in the sentencing of their peers. This technical bulletin provides an…

  1. Court Efficiency Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Grassley, Chuck [R-IA

    2013-04-10

    04/10/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2566-2567) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. The nature of expertise in fingerprint matching: experts can do a lot with a little.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of "information" available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect-experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints-but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony.

  3. The Nature of Expertise in Fingerprint Matching: Experts Can Do a Lot with a Little

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew B.; Tangen, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of “information” available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect—experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints—but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony

  4. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

  6. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

  7. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics of expert systems (computer programs designed to replicate human expertise in a variety of areas), describes recently available expert system development tools, suggests applications within the field of special education, and reviews recent efforts to apply expert systems technology to special education…

  8. Expert systems development and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Current research in the application of expert systems to problems in the flight research environment is discussed. In what is anticipated to be a broad research area, a real time expert system flight status monitor has been identified as the initial project. This real time expert system flight status monitor is described in terms of concept, application, development, and schedule.

  9. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  10. The expert Neandertal mind.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive anthropology, and cognitive archaeology are combined to yield a picture of Neandertal cognition in which expert performance via long-term working memory is the centerpiece of problem solving. This component of Neandertal cognition appears to have been modern in scope. However, Neandertals' working memory capacity, which is the ability to hold a variety of information in active attention, may not have been as large as that of modern humans. This characteristic helps us understand features of the archaeological record, such as the rarity of innovation, and allows us to make empirically based speculations about Neandertal personality.

  11. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  12. An Expert System for Learning the National Electric Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply hypertext and expert system technology to the National Electric Code to assist with learning and using the...code’s large quantity of text. Hypertext brings to the expert system a very quick and efficient way of viewing and moving through the code. The user...controls the direction taken based on their selection of a hypertext path. The expert system , through a series of exercises, provides the training

  13. Introduction: Progress and issues in drug treatment courts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lana D; Scarpitti, Frank R

    2002-01-01

    The first drug treatment court began in Miami, Florida in 1989, in direct response to the backlog of court cases for drug possession and trafficking. By mid-2001, there were 700 operational drug treatment courts and 400 more in the planning stages in the United States. In addition to providing an overview of the growth and development of drug treatment courts in the United States, this special issue examines their development in Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The primary focus is the evaluation research conducted to date, which identifies some of the critical unresolved issues facing drug treatment courts.

  14. Expert testimony in sexual assault cases: Alcohol intoxication and memory.

    PubMed

    Connell, Mary

    2015-01-01

    At court-martial tribunals in the United States military, cases involving alcohol facilitated sexual assault often pivot on the alleged victim's level of intoxication or impairment and ability to consent to the sexual act. These cases frequently arise following a night of partying and heavy drinking among a group of friends and acquaintances, military and civilian. The determination of whether a sexual act was consensual may rest on estimates of the alleged victim's blood alcohol concentration and related behavioral indicia of impairment. Expert testimony may be presented by the prosecution and/or the defense, from forensic toxicologists and psychiatrists or psychologists regarding the potential involvement of alcohol and its impact on the participants relevant to the charges at court-martial. A review of the state of the science is offered to bring such testimony into perspective. Appellate cases illustrate that the experts' testimony may sometimes elucidate, sometimes obfuscate, and sometimes exceed professional expertise and invade the province of the factfinder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review of the impact of adult drug treatment courts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Randall T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. correctional system is overburdened by individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll in individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug court treatment programs (DTCs) are present in over 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States, as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes available descriptive information on representative drug treatment court populations, summarizes observational studies of drug court participants, and specifically reviews available experimental effectiveness literature on drug treatment courts. The review concludes by examining limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on drug treatment court interventions. Review of non-experimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of drug treatment courts point toward benefit vs. traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of drug treatment courts are scant (three identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues arise in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate consistent effect upon re-arrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in drug treatment court vs. typical adjudication. The two studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the drug treatment court group vs. those typically adjudicated. PMID:20478542

  16. Enhanced algorithms for enterprise expert search system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokanov, Valentin; Romanov, Dmitry; Tsibulsky, Valentin

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of our enterprise expert search system application to the task introduced at the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) in 2007. The expert search system is based on analysis of content and communications topology in an enterprise information space. An optimal set of weighting coefficients for three query-candidate associating algorithms is selected for achieving the best search efficiency on the search collection. The obtained performance proved to be better than at most TREC participants. The hypothesis of additional efficiency improvement by means of query classification is proposed.

  17. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  18. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential.

  19. Building a prototype expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmus, D.; Hutchinson, M.; Hall, D.

    1988-07-01

    In the past few years expert system technology has been gaining increasing respect within the world of computer science as it offers practical solutions to problems which have previously defied computerization. This paper is the culmination of a years investigation into how LBL can practically make use of this technology to solve some of the problems being faced by its scientists. To establish this and gain a greater understanding of expert system technology we attempted to build a prototype expert system using a commercially available expert system shell. The application we chose was to troubleshoot the hardware of the TPC particle detector (used by high energy physicists at LBL) using Neuron Data's expert system shell, Nexpert. This paper gives some brief overviews of the theoretical and practical work done by other people in fields relevant to this project. It includes: expert systems, their development, diagnostic expert systems, and examples of expert systems built to troubleshoot electronic devices. We describe how we selected our prototype expert system and then how we went about designing and building it. For this we have detailed the knowledge necessary to start troubleshooting the TPC and the methods used to represent that knowledge within the expert system shell. Finally we discuss the understanding of expert system technology which we have gained during this project and why we believe that this technology has a place in the future of problem solving at LBL. 31 refs.

  20. Barriers to addressing substance abuse in domestic violence court.

    PubMed

    Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.

  1. Court responses to withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and fluids.

    PubMed

    Paris, J J; Reardon, F E

    1985-04-19

    Three state court decisions since 1983 that approved the withholding or withdrawal of artificial feeding are discussed. In Barber v. Superior Court, the California Court of Appeal dismissed a murder indictment against two physicians who, at the request of the family, had removed a comatose man's respirator and intravenous (IV) feeding lines. The ruling, based on a "proportionate-disproportionate" benefit standard, marked the first time an appellate court equated discontinuation of IV feeding with removal of a respirator. The Massachusetts Appeals Court, in In re Hier, used a "substituted judgement" standard to decide that an aged patient who had repeatedly pulled out her gastrostomy tube need not undergo surgery to reinsert it. The New Jersey Supreme Court, in In re Conroy, was the first state supreme court to rule that artificial feeding may be withheld from an incompetent patient if it is disproportionately burdensome.

  2. Health courts: an alternative to traditional tort law.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    The current adversarial tort-based system of adjudicating malpractice claims is flawed. Alternate methods of compensation for birth injuries related to oxygen deprivation or mechanical injury are being utilized in Virginia and Florida. Although utilization of both of these schemes is limited, and they are not without problems in application, both have been successful in reducing the number of malpractice claims in the tort system and in reducing malpractice premiums. While the Florida and Virginia programs are primarily focused on compensation, other models outside the US focus include compensation as well as enhanced dispute resolution and potential for clinical practice change through peer review. Experts in the fields of law and public policy in the United States have evaluated a variety of approaches and have proposed models for administrative health courts that would provide both compensation and dispute resolution for medical and nursing malpractice claims. These alternative models are based on transparency and disclosure, with just compensation for injuries, and opportunities for improvements in patient safety.

  3. Environmental change: Federal courts and the EPA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, R.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a four-year study of the impact of federal court decisions on the policies and administration of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in all seven of its major statutory areas: clean air, clean water, hazardous waste cleanup, controlled pesticide use, resource conservation and recovery, safe drinking water, and control of toxic substances. The author use the Lexis and Westlaw legal data bases to generate a list of all cases in which the EPA was either a plaintiff or a defendant in each of the agency's seven major statutory areas. The author verified these data and at times supplemented them with EPA records and with environmental reporters published by the Bureau of National Affairs and the Environmental Law Institute. She derived settlement agreements from the EPA, the Department of Justice, and the courts.

  4. Court redefines standard for HIV transmission risk.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Alabama's policy of segregating inmates by HIV status. The Alabama prison system tests all entering inmates; those who are HIV-positive are sent to one of two facilities. A range of prison services, including vocational training and sports competitions is often denied to them. The Department of Corrections argued that this policy has led to one of the lowest seroconversion rates of any State correctional system. The Court's ruling is a shift in its attitude on "significant" risk of HIV transmission in disallowing people from participation in employment, public services, or public accommodations. Rulings in dissenting cases are reviewed. The American Civil Liberties Union, representing the HIV-positive inmates, called the policy of segregating inmates blatant discrimination.

  5. The current approach of the courts.

    PubMed

    Skene, Loane

    2014-01-01

    The approach of the courts when considering proprietary ('ownership') interests in human bodily material has been pragmatic and piecemeal. The general principle was initially that such material is not legally 'property' that can be 'owned', but courts have recognised many exceptions. In determining disputes between individuals in particular cases, they have stated principles that are often inconsistent with those stated in other cases with different facts. Later judges have been constrained by these decisions, especially when made at appellate level. They can distinguish the facts of one case from another to achieve a different outcome, but they cannot state new principles to be applied more widely to promote consistency. This requires the will of Parliament and legislation to introduce new principles. Experience to date suggests that such legislation will need to be wide-ranging and complex, with different principles for different circumstances. There will not be one area of law that answers all the issues that arise.

  6. Abused and neglected children in court: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Block, Stephanie D; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S

    2010-09-01

    After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in dependency court. Our main goals were to assess maltreated children's knowledge and attitudes about their court experiences and identify predictors thereof. We also examined if the maltreated children desired greater participation in dependency court decisions. Immediately after attending their dependency court hearings, 7- to 10-year-olds were interviewed about their knowledge of, attitudes concerning, and participation in dependency court. Information was also extracted from the children's dependency court files. Lack of understanding and negative attitudes were common. Age predicted court knowledge, and age, anxiety, court knowledge, abuse type, and criminal court referral predicted attitudes. Qualitative findings included that a substantial minority of children did not feel believed or listened to, and most children wanted to return home. This research is relevant to current debates about the extent to which children should be involved in legal decisions. The results suggest that maltreated children may profit from greater understanding of dependency court. Moreover, the findings indicate that children often wish to have greater influence in dependency court decisions. Professionals should consider providing children involved in dependency court hearings with age-appropriate information about the legal proceedings. Children may also benefit in dependency hearings from the opportunity, directly or indirectly (through their attorneys), to give voice to their wishes and needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Home Court Is Where the Heart Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Home-court advantage is considered as the edge that sports teams seem to gain when they play in their own arenas. Exactly why it happens, though, is a long-enduring mystery. It is a long-enduring puzzle that psychologists and coaches are at a loss to explain. Fans who paint their faces, taunt their opponents, and scream their throats raw may think…

  8. Home Court Is Where the Heart Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Home-court advantage is considered as the edge that sports teams seem to gain when they play in their own arenas. Exactly why it happens, though, is a long-enduring mystery. It is a long-enduring puzzle that psychologists and coaches are at a loss to explain. Fans who paint their faces, taunt their opponents, and scream their throats raw may think…

  9. Weakening forensic science in Spain: from expert evidence to documentary evidence.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan; Pardo-Iranzo, Virginia; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2012-07-01

    An amendment in 2002 to the Spanish Code of Criminal Procedure converted into documentary evidence the expert reports prepared by official laboratories aimed at determining the nature, weight, and purity of seized drugs. In most cases, experts are spared from appearance before the courts. This is likely to be extended to other forensic fields. After an overview of criminalistic identification in current forensic science, the objectivity and reliability concepts used by jurists and scientists are considered by comparing the paradigm of individualization with that of likelihood. Subsequently, a detailed critical study is made on the above-mentioned Spanish legal reform, and a comparison is made with the decision on the Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts case as ruled by the Supreme Court of the United States. Although the reform is in compliance with the Spanish Constitution, it is at odds with science, in particular regarding the logic underpinning the scientific evaluation of evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Georgia Supreme Court invalidates involuntary sterilization statute.

    PubMed

    Harper, T D

    1983-11-01

    In the US, the concept of eugenics has been limited to restrictions on the reproductive capabilities of criminals and the mentally defective. Moreover, the rights of persons subject to this restriction have been enhanced by recent judicial recognition of procreation as a fundamental right. Constitutional challenges have been mounted on the grounds that sterilization statutes constitute cruel or unusual punishment, a violation of the Equal Protection clause, an unlawful delegation of legislative or judicial powers, a bill of attainder, or a violation of the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These challenges have resulted in a reduction in the number of state-mandated sterilizations. This paper reviews the Georgia Supreme Court's recent invalidation of a 1970 statute authorizing the sterilization of mentally incompetent persons (O.C.G.A. 31-20-3). Motes v. Hall County Department of Family and Children Services, filed on behalf of a 21-year old retarded woman, challenged the statute as a violation of Motes' constitutional rights to due process and equal protection and contended that the state was required to prove the necessity of sterilization by more than a simple preponderance of the evidence. The Georgia Supreme Court negated both the sterilization order and the statute upon which it was based. In its decision, the Court recognized that an intrusion upon so fundamental a right as the ability to bear children requires proof by the state of at least "clear and convincing evidence" of the necessity of such an act.

  11. Perceived deterrence and outcomes in drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Foltz, Carol; Lee, Patricia A; Patapis, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    According to perceived-deterrence theory, the likelihood that an offender will engage in drug use or illegal activity is influenced by the perceived certainty of being detected for infractions or recognized for accomplishments, the perceived certainty of receiving sanctions for infractions or rewards for accomplishments, and the anticipated magnitude of the sanctions and rewards. This study evaluated drug court participants' perceived deterrence at monthly intervals during their enrollment in drug court. Exploratory cluster analysis (N=255) on the longitudinal scores yielded five subtypes of drug offenders characterized either by consistently elevated perceived-deterrence scores, consistently moderate scores, consistently low scores, increasing scores, or decreasing scores. The best outcomes were associated with consistently elevated scores, whereas the worst outcomes were associated with scores that declined over time as the participants became accustomed to the program. The clusters also differed in predicted directions on demographic variables. The correlational design does not permit inferences of causality; however, the results lend credence to perceived deterrence as a potential explanatory mechanism for the effects of drug courts.

  12. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-05-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

  13. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

  14. Expert System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a software shell for developing expert systems is designed to allow research and development of artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Originally developed by Johnson Space Center, it enables highly efficient pattern matching. A collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is built into a rule network. Additional pertinent facts are matched to the rule network. Using the program, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is monitoring chemical production machines; California Polytechnic State University is investigating artificial intelligence in computer aided design; Mentor Graphics has built a new Circuit Synthesis system, and Brooke and Brooke, a law firm, can determine which facts from a file are most important.

  15. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  16. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  17. Robotics and expert systems. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a workshop on robotics and expert systems. Topics considered at the conference include: symbolic computation expert systems for software productivity; expert systems, practices; expert systems, methods; and, technology needs and productivity.

  18. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  19. Preparing Children for Court: Effects of a Model Court Education Program on Children's Anticipatory Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Rebecca; Saywitz, Karen J

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined whether a pretrial preparation program, consisting of legal knowledge education, stress inoculation training, and a mock trial, is associated with decreased anticipatory anxiety of child witnesses. One hundred and ninety-three 4- to 17-year-olds who were awaiting impending legal proceedings attended Kids' Court School in Las Vegas, NV, one to two weeks before their court appearances. Participants completed a measure of anticipatory court-related anxiety before and after the intervention. As predicted, children's anticipatory anxiety decreased significantly from pretest to posttest. Results demonstrate the promise of a brief, unbiased, standardized program for reducing system-induced stress on child witnesses, while maintaining the integrity of the legal process. This study serves as a springboard to guide future research, practice, policy, and implementation on a larger scale.

  20. SENLEX: Sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.