Science.gov

Sample records for exploration systems aes

  1. Atmosphere Explorer (AE) spacecraft system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The principal design and performance characteristics of the AE spacecraft system designed to support the Atmosphere Explorer C, D, and E missions are summarized. It has been prepared for the information of experimenters and other participants in the Atmosphere Explorer program as a general guide for design and operational planning. The description represents the spacecraft system as defined at the conclusion of the interface definition study.

  2. Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project: Advanced Clothing Ground Study Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky; Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini

    2013-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction & Repurposing (LRR) project is to bring new ideas and technologies that will enable human presence in farther regions of space. The LRR project has five tasks: 1) Advanced Clothing System (ACS) to reduce clothing mass and volume, 2) Logistics to Living (L2L) to repurpose existing cargo, 3) Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) to reprocess materials in space, 4) Trash to Gas (TTG) to extract useful gases from trash, and 5) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) to integrate these logistical components. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The ACS task is to find ways to further reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The ACS task has been broken into a series of studies on length of wear of various garments: 1) three small studies conducted through other NASA projects (MMSEV, DSH, HI-SEAS) focusing on length of wear of garments treated with an antimicrobial finish; 2) a ground study, which is the subject of this report, addressing both length of wear and subject perception of various types of garments worn during aerobic exercise; and 3) an ISS study replicating the ground study, and including every day clothing to collect information on perception in reduced gravity in which humans experience physiological changes. The goal of the ground study is first to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment, and second to learn why. Human factors considerations included in the study consist of the Institutional Review Board approval, test protocol and participants' training, and a web

  3. AE-5 end of mission tests report. [Explorer 55 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, T. H.; Kissel, F.; Schaefer, J.; Kalil, F.

    1981-01-01

    A spin up test and a TDRS tracking simulation were performed on the AE-5 spacecraft before its end of mission. the spin up test showed that the Body Horizon Scanner could be successfully used on other spacecraft with spin rates up to 10 RPM. the TDRS tracking simulation showed that an AE-5 type attitude control system could be successfully used to point the spacecraft towards a TDRS for the purpose of transmitting/relaying data via the TDRS.

  4. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, electronic filing of export information. The AES shall serve as the...

  5. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30 Section 120.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department...

  6. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30 Section 120.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department...

  7. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30 Section 120.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department...

  8. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics... Administration Regulations (EAR) and Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR). These procedures and safeguards... § 750.8(b) of the EAR, if requested; (v) Compliance with the destination control statement provisions...

  9. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2 Section 758.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  10. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2 Section 758.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  11. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Commerce, Bureau of Census, electronic filing of export information. The AES shall serve as the primary...). Also, requests for special reporting may be made by DDTC on a case-by-case basis, (e.g.,...

  12. Automated Estimating System (AES): Version 6.1: User`s manual. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document describes Version 6.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of Central Engineering Services of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems,Inc. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user through the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  13. Automated Estimating System (AES) version 6.0 - user`s manual. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, D.A.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes Version 6.0 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of Central Engineering Services of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user through the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  14. Ultrasonic fatigue process analyzed by using LVD and continuous ae waveform analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiwa, M.; Furuya, Y.; Yamawaki, H.; Ito, K.; Enoki, M.

    2012-05-01

    Non-linear ultrasonic parameter β and acoustic emission signals of ultrasonic fatigue testing were analyzed by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer and continuous AE waveform analysis system. Notched specimens of the high-strength low-alloy steel were prepared for the ultrasonic fatigue testing with exciting vibration frequency of 20 kHz. The AE events for each broken specimens were detected prior to the increase of β parameter.

  15. Data mining based full ceramic bearing fault diagnostic system using AE sensors.

    PubMed

    He, David; Li, Ruoyu; Zhu, Junda; Zade, Mikhail

    2011-12-01

    Full ceramic bearings are considered the first step toward full ceramic, oil-free engines in the future. No research on full ceramic bearing fault diagnostics using acoustic emission (AE) sensors has been reported. Unlike their steel counterparts, signal processing methods to extract effective AE fault characteristic features and fault diagnostic systems for full ceramic bearings have not been developed. In this paper, a data mining based full ceramic bearing diagnostic system using AE based condition indicators (CIs) is presented. The system utilizes a new signal processing method based on Hilbert Huang transform to extract AE fault features for the computation of CIs. These CIs are used to build a data mining based fault classifier using a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Seeded fault tests on full ceramic bearing outer race, inner race, balls, and cage are conducted on a bearing diagnostic test rig and AE burst data are collected. The effectiveness of the developed fault diagnostic system is validated using real full ceramic bearing seeded fault test data.

  16. Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

  17. iPAS: AES Flight System Technology Maturation for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Othon, William L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the vision of expanding human presence in space, NASA will develop new technologies that can enable future crewed spacecraft to go far beyond Earth orbit. These technologies must be matured to the point that future project managers can accept the risk of incorporating them safely and effectively within integrated spacecraft systems, to satisfy very challenging mission requirements. The technologies must also be applied and managed within an operational context that includes both on-board crew and mission support on Earth. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program is one part of the NASA strategy to identify and develop key capabilities for human spaceflight, and mature them for future use. To support this initiative, the Integrated Power Avionics and Software (iPAS) environment has been developed that allows engineers, crew, and flight operators to mature promising technologies into applicable capabilities, and to assess the value of these capabilities within a space mission context. This paper describes the development of the integration environment to support technology maturation and risk reduction, and offers examples of technology and mission demonstrations executed to date.

  18. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA’s Habitability Architecture Team.

  19. An up-to-date instrumentation system for detection, location and characterization of AE signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcredi, D.; Sala, A.; Tornelli, C.

    1988-11-01

    An acoustic emission data overseeing system (AEDOS) has been developed for detection, location, and multiparametrical analysis of AE events such as amplitude, rise time, duration, energy, and delay time. The equipment comprises three main sections: the 'in field part' to detect and condition the AE events; the 'front end' that collects all the signals, makes the first screening among the signals, and measures the main parameters of the events; and the 'computer' to set up the system, to store the data, to analyze and display parametric isthograms, graphics, and location maps, and to supply an easy menu driven interface to the operator. A detailed functional description including performance specification of the system is given.

  20. Exploration geochemical technique for the determination of preconcentrated organometallic halides by ICP-AES

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Motooka, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    An atomic absorption extraction technique which is widely used in geochemical exploration for the determination of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn has been modified and adapted to a simultaneous inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission instrument. the experimental and operating parameters are described for the preconcentration of the metals into their organometallic halides and for the determination of the metals. Lower limits of determination are equal to or improved over those for flame atomic absorption (except Au) and ICP results are very similar to the accepted AA values, with precision for the ICP data in excess of that necessary for exploration purposes.

  1. [Correction of spectral interferences by ICP-AES primary expert system].

    PubMed

    Ying, H; Yang, P; Wang, X; Huang, B

    1998-12-01

    A subpackage for spectral interference correction has been set up in ICP-AES primary expert system. Some numerical recipes have been applied in this subpackage, such as curve smoothing, derivative spectrum, FFT technique, spectral resolving etc. A comprehensive method for spectral interference correction is presented. All these numeric recipes have been tested with simulated data and also utilized in several typical examples of real spectra. Results are satisfactory.

  2. Validation of the French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES) for mental E-health systems.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sauteraud, Alain; Olive, Jérôme; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Despite the increasing use of E-health systems for mental-health organizations, there is a lack of psychometric tools to evaluate their acceptability by patients with mental disorders. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate a French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES), a 6-item self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which patients find E-health systems acceptable. A forward-backward translation of the AES was performed. The psychometric properties of the French AES version, with construct validity, internal structural validity and external validity (Pearson's coefficient between AES scores and depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II) were analyzed. In a sample of 178 patients (mean age=46.51 years, SD=12.91 years), the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: factor analysis revealed two factors: "Satisfaction" (3 items) and "Usability" (3 items) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. No significant relation was found between AES scores and depression symptoms. The French version of the AES revealed a two-factor scale that differs from the original version. In line with the importance of acceptability in mental health and with a view to E-health systems for patients with mental disorders, the use of the AES in psychiatry may provide important information on acceptability (i.e., satisfaction and usability).

  3. AE 941.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    AE 941 [Arthrovas, Neoretna, Psovascar] is shark cartilage extract that inhibits angiogenesis. AE 941 acts by blocking the two main pathways that contribute to the process of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteases and the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway. When initial development of AE 941 was being conducted, AEterna assigned the various indications different trademarks. Neovastat was used for oncology, Psovascar was used for dermatology, Neoretna was used for ophthalmology and Arthrovas was used for rheumatology. However, it is unclear if these trademarks will be used in the future and AEterna appears to only be using the Neovastat trademark in its current publications regardless of the indication. AEterna Laboratories signed commercialisation agreements with Grupo Ferrer Internacional SA of Spain and Medac GmbH of Germany in February 2001. Under the terms of the agreement, AEterna has granted exclusive commercialisation and distribution rights to AE 941 in oncology to Grupo Ferrer Internacional for the Southern European countries of France, Belgium, Spain, Greece, Portugal and Italy. It also has rights in Central and South America. Medac GmbH will have marketing rights in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands and Eastern Europe. In October 2002, AEterna Laboratories announced that it had signed an agreement with Australian healthcare products and services company Mayne Group for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Mexico. In March 2003, AEterna Laboratories announced it has signed an agreement with Korean based LG Life Sciences Ltd for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in South Korea. The agreement provides AEterna with upfront and milestone payments, as well as a return on manufacturing and sales of AE 941. AEterna Laboratories had granted Alcon Laboratories an exclusive worldwide licence for AE 941 for ophthalmic products. However, this licence has been terminated. In

  4. AES Cardless Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Biometric Security System Design Using FPGA Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Rifen, A. Aminurdin M.; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet that allows bank customers to complete a banking transactions without the aid of any bank official or teller. Several problems are associated with the use of ATM card such card cloning, card damaging, card expiring, cast skimming, cost of issuance and maintenance and accessing customer account by third parties. The aim of this project is to give a freedom to the user by changing the card to biometric security system to access the bank account using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The project is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) DE2-115 board with Cyclone IV device, fingerprint scanner, and Multi-Touch Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Second Edition (MTL2) using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware (VHSIC) Description Language (VHDL). This project used 128-bits AES for recommend the device with the throughput around 19.016Gbps and utilized around 520 slices. This design offers a secure banking transaction with a low rea and high performance and very suited for restricted space environments for small amounts of RAM or ROM where either encryption or decryption is performed.

  5. Implementation of the AES as a Hash Function for Confirming the Identity of Software on a Computer System

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Randy R.; Bass, Robert B.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Mileson, Nicholas D.

    2003-01-20

    This paper provides a brief overview of the implementation of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as a hash function for confirming the identity of software resident on a computer system. The PNNL Software Authentication team chose to use a hash function to confirm software identity on a system for situations where: (1) there is limited time to perform the confirmation and (2) access to the system is restricted to keyboard or thumbwheel input and output can only be displayed on a monitor. PNNL reviewed three popular algorithms: the Secure Hash Algorithm - 1 (SHA-1), the Message Digest - 5 (MD-5), and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and selected the AES to incorporate in software confirmation tool we developed. This paper gives a brief overview of the SHA-1, MD-5, and the AES and sites references for further detail. It then explains the overall processing steps of the AES to reduce a large amount of generic data-the plain text, such is present in memory and other data storage media in a computer system, to a small amount of data-the hash digest, which is a mathematically unique representation or signature of the former that could be displayed on a computer's monitor. This paper starts with a simple definition and example to illustrate the use of a hash function. It concludes with a description of how the software confirmation tool uses the hash function to confirm the identity of software on a computer system.

  6. Optimal exploration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.

    This dissertation studies optimal exploration, defined as the collection of information about given objects of interest by a mobile agent (the explorer) using imperfect sensors. The key aspects of exploration are kinematics (which determine how the explorer moves in response to steering commands), energetics (which determine how much energy is consumed by motion and maneuvers), informatics (which determine the rate at which information is collected) and estimation (which determines the states of the objects). These aspects are coupled by the steering decisions of the explorer. We seek to improve exploration by finding trade-offs amongst these couplings and the components of exploration: the Mission, the Path and the Agent. A comprehensive model of exploration is presented that, on one hand, accounts for these couplings and on the other hand is simple enough to allow analysis. This model is utilized to pose and solve several exploration problems where an objective function is to be minimized. Specific functions to be considered are the mission duration and the total energy. These exploration problems are formulated as optimal control problems and necessary conditions for optimality are obtained in the form of two-point boundary value problems. An analysis of these problems reveals characteristics of optimal exploration paths. Several regimes are identified for the optimal paths including the Watchtower, Solar and Drag regime, and several non-dimensional parameters are derived that determine the appropriate regime of travel. The so-called Power Ratio is shown to predict the qualitative features of the optimal paths, provide a metric to evaluate an aircrafts design and determine an aircrafts capability for flying perpetually. Optimal exploration system drivers are identified that provide perspective as to the importance of these various regimes of flight. A bank-to-turn solar-powered aircraft flying at constant altitude on Mars is used as a specific platform for

  7. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  8. Advanced Exploration Systems Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems that enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near-term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness-level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near- and long-term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit Environmental Control and Life Support Systems definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as identifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II focused on the near-term space exploration objectives by establishing an International Space Station-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long-term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  9. 76 FR 4089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... basis for the official U.S. export trade statistics. These statistics are used to determine the balance... complete and accurate export statistics, as well as strengthening export controls. In spite of new filing... the Bureau of Industry and Security when valued over $2,500 per Schedule B. The AES program is...

  10. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  11. Exploring the Physical, Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of a New Potentially Insensitive High Explosive: RX-55-AE-5

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Turner, H C; Tran, T D

    2006-06-05

    Current work at the Energetic Materials Center, EMC, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes both understanding properties of old explosives and measuring properties of new ones [1]. The necessity to know and understand the properties of energetic materials is driven by the need to improve performance and enhance stability to various stimuli, such as thermal, friction and impact insult. This review will concentrate on the physical properties of RX-55-AE-5, which is formulated from heterocyclic explosive, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide, LLM-105, and 2.5% Viton A. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure a specific heat capacity, C{sub p}, of {approx} 0.950 J/g{center_dot} C and a thermal conductivity, {kappa}, of {approx} 0.475 W/m{center_dot} C. The LLNL kinetics modeling code Kinetics05 and the Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions (AKTS) code Thermokinetics were both used to calculate Arrhenius kinetics for decomposition of LLM-105. Both obtained an activation energy barrier E {approx} 180 kJ mol{sup -1} for mass loss in an open pan. Thermal mechanical analysis, TMA, was used to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The CTE for this formulation was calculated to be {approx} 61 {micro}m/m{center_dot} C. Impact, spark, friction are also reported.

  12. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  13. The role of random fluctuations in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system: a dynamic stochastic model for AE-index variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Klimas, A.; Vassiliadis, D.; Uritsky, V.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of bursts of activity in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system has been one of the central challenges in space physics since, and even prior to the introduction of the term "substorm". An extensive amount of work has been put to the characterization of the average near-space plasma environment behavior during substorms and several more or less deterministic models have been introduced to explain the observations. However, although most of substorms seem to have some common characteristics (otherwise any classification would be completely meaningless), like intensification of auroral electric currents, dipolarization of the magnetotail and injections of plasma sheet charged particles, each substorm has its distinct features in terms of strong fluctuations around the average "typical" behavior. This highly complex nature of individual substorms suggests that stochastic processes may play a role, even a central one in the evolution of substorms. In this work, we develop a simple stochastic model for the AE-index variations to investigate the role of random fluctuations in the substorm phenomenon. We show that by the introduction of a stochastic component, we are able to capture some fundamental features of the AE-index variations. More specifically, complex variations associated with individual bursts are a central part of the model. It will be demonstrated that by analyzing the structure of the constructed stochastic model some presently open questions about substorm-related bursts of the AE-index can be addressed quantitatively. First and foremost, it will be shown that the stochastic fluctuations are a fundamental part of the AE-index evolution and cannot be neglected even when the average properties of the index are of interest.

  14. Atmosphere Explorer control system software (version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, A.

    1972-01-01

    The basic design is described of the Atmosphere Explorer Control System (AECS) software used in the testing, integration, and flight contol of the AE spacecraft and experiments. The software performs several vital functions, such as issuing commands to the spacecraft and experiments, receiving and processing telemetry data, and allowing for extensive data processing by experiment analysis programs. The major processing sections are: executive control section, telemetry decommutation section, command generation section, and utility section.

  15. NASA's Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, James

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) Solar System Exploration with Highlights and Status of Programs; 2) Technology Drivers and Plans; and 3) Summary

  16. Exploration Medical System Technical Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, K.; Middour, C.; Cerro, J.; Burba, T.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Mindock, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element systems engineering goals include defining the technical system needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars. This past year, scenarios captured in the medical system concept of operations laid the foundation for systems engineering technical development work. The systems engineering team analyzed scenario content to identify interactions between the medical system, crewmembers, the exploration vehicle, and the ground system. This enabled the definition of functions the medical system must provide and interfaces to crewmembers and other systems. These analyses additionally lead to the development of a conceptual medical system architecture. The work supports the ExMC community-wide understanding of the functional exploration needs to be met by the medical system, the subsequent development of medical system requirements, and the system verification and validation approach utilizing terrestrial analogs and precursor exploration missions.

  17. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

  18. Exploration Systems Town Hall Meeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, discusses the future during a question and answer session with employees at NASA Headquarters on April 19, 2010.

  19. Exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

    1974-01-01

    A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

  20. Planetary exploration sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the instruments that have been used in planetary exploration have been either spectrometers or imaging devices. Instruments of these types are being developed for the Galileo and VOIR (Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar) missions. Galileo will take advantage of new CCD (charge-coupled device) technology, and VOIR will use techniques of synthetic aperture radar developed for Seasat. For determining the macrostructure of mineral resources, the best approach is believed to involve acoustic imaging, essentially a seismic data processing technique. Determinations of microstructure would require a light microscope and an electron microscope. For determining the nature and form of volatiles, a differential scanning calorimeter could be used. To determine the mineral composition, an electron beam microprobe with X-ray fluorescence and spectroscopy would be used.

  1. Data exploration systems for databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.

  2. [Determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal system by sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Xin, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Long, Rui-Jun

    2010-02-01

    The contents of inorganic elements including K, Ca, Na, Mg, P, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, and Co in the soil-grass-animal mineral system from Qinghai Tibetan Plateau were determined by ICP-AES using high pressure system-sealed microwave digestion. The sample of soil was digested with HNO3-HF-H2O2 acids system, but others including pasture, animal fur, liver, and serum were digested with HNO3-H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified and the blank value would be decreased with the above acids systems. The results were proved to be reliable with the relative standard deviation being 0.271%-2.633% for Ca, 2.971%-4.854% for Co, 0.372%-2.874% for Cu, 0.600%-3.683% for Fe, 0.347%-2.829% for K, 0.626%-2.593% for Mg, 0.705%-4.828% for Mn, 2.946%-4.622% for Mo, 0.689%-3.621% for Na, 0.422%-3.890% for P, and 0.143%-4.622% for S, 0.166%-2.399% for Zn, and all of them were less than 5% for all the elements, and the recovery being 97.1%-101.4% for Ca, 93.5%-112.5% for Co, 95.2%-104.0% for Cu, 96.9%-104.2% for Fe, 96.1%-105.6% for K, 96.2%-102.8% for Mg, 91.5%-108.9% for Mn, 95.0%-113.5% for Mo, 95.2%-101.8% for Na, 94.7%-100.7% for P, 98.3%-108.4% for S, and 97.5%-102.0% for Zn by adding standard recovery experiment. The results of determination were proved that the method of sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES was sensitive, precise, easy to operate and rapid for the determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal mineral system, and could satisfy the sample examination request. The methods and results were meaningful to research on the soil-pasture-animal mineral system including the contents of mineral elements, the circulation of mineral elements, the interaction, and the application of mineral additive.

  3. Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S.; Neidholdt, E.; Simcic, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES), a mass spectrometer based instrument for atmospheric probe missions (e.g. Venus and ice giant) that can determine abundances and isotopic ratios of the noble-gases and trace species.

  4. Exobiology in Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C. (Editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (Editor); Huntington, Judith L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

  5. Sorbent Structural Impacts Due to Humidity on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Stanley, Christine M.; Bush, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program builds upon the work performed under the AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project focusing on the numerous technology development areas. The CO2 removal and associated air drying development efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station (ISS) utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. A component of the CO2 removal effort encompasses structural stability testing of existing and emerging sorbents. Testing will be performed on dry sorbents and sorbents that have been conditioned to three humidity levels. This paper describes the sorbent structural stability screening efforts in support of the LSS Project within the AES Program.

  6. Fission Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

    2012-01-01

    Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

  7. AES chemunex ADIAFOOD detection system for Listeria spp. environmental sample testing.

    PubMed

    Plante, Daniel; Côté, Yvan P; Giovannetti, Louisiane

    2012-01-01

    The ADIAFOOD Detection System for the detection of Listeria species from environmental surfaces is based on real-time PCR technology and allows rapid pathogen detection within 21 h. The strength of the ADIAFOOD technology resides in its ability to rapidly and accurately detect Listeria species present on surfaces, such as stainless steel, plastic, ceramic, and sealed concrete. The technology is easy to use and versatile.

  8. [Application of ICP-AES in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Dan

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied the innovative applications of the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis. After having determined Fe, Cu and Al content in the four groups of Buick Regal 2.4 main metal power-steering fluid whose travel course was respectively 2-9 thousand kilometers, 11-18 thousand kilometers, 22-29 thousandkilometers, and 31-40 thousand kilometers, and the database of primary metal content in the Buick Regal 2.4 different mileage power-steering fluid was established. The research discovered that the main metal content increased with increasing mileage and its normal level is between the two trend lines. Determination of the power-steering fluid main metal content and comparison with its database value can not only judge the wear condition of the automotive hydraulic power steering system and maintain timely to avoid the traffic accident, but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced vehicle maintenance costs, and improved service quality.

  9. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  10. Exploration of the Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Arthur, Jr., Ed.; Grey, Jerry, Ed.

    This review is one of a series of assessments and reviews prepared in the public interest by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The purpose of this review is to outline the potential achievements of solar system exploration and suggest a course of action which will maximize the rewards to mankind. A secondary purpose is…

  11. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  12. Power systems for space exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Outreach Program was designed to solicit creative ideas from academia, research institutions, private enterprises, and the general public and is intended to be helpful in defining promising technical areas and program paths for more detailed study. To the Outreach Program, a number of power system concepts were proposed. In conclusion, there are a number of advanced concepts for space power and propulsion sources that deserve study if we want to expand our ability to not only explore space, but to utilize it. Advanced nuclear concepts and power beaming concepts are two areas worthy of detailed assessments.

  13. Power systems for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipbaugh, Calvin; Solomon, Kenneth A.

    The Outreach Program was designed to solicit creative ideas from academia, research institutions, private enterprises, and the general public and is intended to be helpful in defining promising technical areas and program paths for more detailed study. To the Outreach Program, a number of power system concepts were proposed. In conclusion, there are a number of advanced concepts for space power and propulsion sources that deserve study if we want to expand our ability to not only explore space, but to utilize it. Advanced nuclear concepts and power beaming concepts are two areas worthy of detailed assessments.

  14. Implementation of Digital Signature Using Aes and Rsa Algorithms as a Security in Disposition System af Letter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, H.; Junaeti, E.; Hayatno, T.

    2017-03-01

    Activities correspondence is often used by agencies or companies, so that institutions or companies set up a special division to handle issues related to the letter management. Most of the distribution of letters using electronic media, then the letter should be kept confidential in order to avoid things that are not desirable. Techniques that can be done to meet the security aspect is by using cryptography or by giving a digital signature. The addition of asymmetric and symmetric algorithms, i.e. RSA and AES algorithms, on the digital signature had been done in this study to maintain data security. The RSA algorithm was used during the process of giving digital signature, while the AES algorithm was used during the process of encoding a message that will be sent to the receiver. Based on the research can be concluded that the additions of AES and RSA algorithms on the digital signature meet four objectives of cryptography: Secrecy, Data Integrity, Authentication and Non-repudiation.

  15. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  16. Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    2009 Carnegie Mellon University Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures Software Engineering Institute...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  17. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  18. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  19. NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

  20. AE-941 (AEterna).

    PubMed

    Dredge, Keith

    2004-06-01

    AEterna is developing AE-941, an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from the ultrafiltration of liquid shark cartilage, with matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitory properties, for the potential treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.

  1. Mineralogical basis for the interpretation of multi-element (ICP-AES), oxalic acid, and aqua regia partial digestions of stream sediments for reconnaissance exploration geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Mosier, E.L.; Motooka, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have applied partial digestion procedures, primarily oxalic acid and aqua regia leaches, to several regional geochemical reconnaissance studies carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analytical methods. We have chosen to use these two acids because the oxalic acid primarily attacks those compounds formed during secondary geochemical processes, whereas aqua regia will digest the primary sulfide phases as well as secondary phases. Application of the partial digestion technique has proven superior to total digestion because the concentration of metals in hydromorphic compounds and the sulfides is enhanced relative to the metals bound in the unattacked silicate phases. The aqua regia digestion attacks and leaches metals from the mafic chain silicates and the phyllosilicates (coordination number of VI or more), yielding a characteristic geochemical signature, but does not leach appreciable metal from many other silicates. In order to interpret the results from these leach studies, we have initiated an investigation of a large suite of hand-picked mineral separates. The study includes analyses of about two hundred minerals representing the common rock-forming minerals as well as end-member compositions of various silicates, oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, and some vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and phosphates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leaching by acids of particular lattice sites in specific mineral structures. ?? 1987.

  2. Solar System Exploration with LUVOIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    The Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four mission concepts under study as a next-generation space observatory in the post Webb Telescope era. LUVOIR is envisioned as a large, 10 m class, remotely serviceable observatory with a suite of advanced-technology instruments designed to leap beyond the current generation of space-based telescopes to explore fundamental astrophysical phenomena on all scales. A 24-member science and technology definition team (STDT) represents all sectors of the astronomy and technologist communities, and it is charged with identifying the observational challenges best addressed with LUVOIR and the instrumental innovations that are required to achieve them.This presentation describes the developing science case for LUVOIR as a Solar System observatory for the study of Sun-planet interactions, thick and sublimation based atmospheres, the small body populations in the inner and outer solar system, surface volatility, and planet/satellite surfaces. We will provide an overview of several key science and technical drivers for each scientific target and how they can be addressed with a LUVOIR facility. We also solicit community input to refine these individual programs and to identify additional areas of emphasis in the development of a final report to NASA.

  3. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  4. Computer Simulation and Modeling of CO2 Removal Systems for Exploration 2013-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, R.; Knox, J.; Gomez, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was initiated in September of 2011 as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Under the ARREM project and the follow-on Life Support Systems (LSS) project, testing of sub-scale and full-scale systems has been combined with multiphysics computer simulations for evaluation and optimization of subsystem approaches. In particular, this paper will describes the testing and 1-D modeling of the combined water desiccant and carbon dioxide sorbent subsystems of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). The goal is a full system predictive model of CDRA to guide system optimization and development.

  5. Exploring the Inner Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chief Scientist of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Jim Garvin, takes us on a journey of Earth, the moon, and our neighboring planets. Why does space matter? Why is exploring these destinati...

  6. Exploration Systems Development Division Quarterly

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is continuing to make great strides towards sending humans farther than we have ever gone before. Take a look at the work being done by teams all across the nation on NASA’s exploration prog...

  7. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

  8. Comparison of theory and in situ observations for electron and ion distributions in the near wake of the Explorer 31 and AE-C satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samir, U.; Fontheim, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of electron density, plasma potential, and mean ion mass from the Explorer 31 satellite, and measurements of ion current, plasma potential, and ion composition from the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite were used in a comparative study with Parker's theory regarding the charged particle distribution in the near wake of an ionospheric satellite (1976). It is shown that theory and experiment agree fairly well in the angle-of-attack range between 90 and 135 deg. In the maximum rarefaction zone (between 145 and 180 deg), however, the theoretical model overestimates the measured ion depletion by several orders of magnitude. A comparison between theory and the Explorer 31 electron measurements shows that the theory again overestimates the electron depletion. These discrepancies are mainly due to the use of a steady-state theory and a single ion equation (using a mean ion mass). Improved agreement between theory and experiment can be obtained by the use of the time-dependent Vlasov-Poisson equations with separate equations for the various ion species.

  9. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  10. Petrologic Constraints on Amorphous and Crystalline Magnesium Silicates: Dust Formation and Evolution in Selected Herbig Ae/Be Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and "amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry" around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting "astronomical nomenclature" and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the "Principle of Actualism" that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite ± tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  11. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Rubin, David; Reyes, David; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will present significant new challenges to crew health management during a mission compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system guiding principles, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Mobel-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  12. Galileo: Exploration of Jupiter's system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Yeates, C. M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F. P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

  13. Using patient passports to improve A&E asthma care.

    PubMed

    Newell, Karen; Bunce, Rebecca; Hume, Shenagh

    The asthma patient passport (APP) is a patient-specific asthma plan that details what to do when asthma is out of control. It helps patients who have severe, difficult-to-manage asthma, and health professionals when these patients present at accident and emergency. This article shows that, while the APP acts as a patient's advocate, it also facilitates accessing emergency care by making it more streamlined. Case studies explore why people with asthma have avoided going to A&E, putting their lives at risk, and provide an insight into how difficult it can be for people to navigate the healthcare system when they are at their most vulnerable.

  14. SIM_EXPLORE: Software for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael; Wang, Esther; Enke, Brian; Merline, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based numerical simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. While such codes may provide the highest- fidelity representation of system behavior, they are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. Trying to understand the effects of inputs on outputs by conducting an exhaustive grid-based sweep over the input parameter space is simply too time-consuming. An alternative approach called "directed exploration" has been developed to harvest information from numerical simulators more efficiently. The basic idea is to employ active learning and supervised machine learning to choose cleverly at each step which simulation trials to run next based on the results of previous trials. SIM_EXPLORE is a new computer program that uses directed exploration to explore efficiently complex systems represented by numerical simulations. The software sequentially identifies and runs simulation trials that it believes will be most informative given the results of previous trials. The results of new trials are incorporated into the software's model of the system behavior. The updated model is then used to pick the next round of new trials. This process, implemented as a closed-loop system wrapped around existing simulation code, provides a means to improve the speed and efficiency with which a set of simulations can yield scientifically useful results. The software focuses on the case in which the feedback from the simulation trials is binary-valued, i.e., the learner is only informed of the success or failure of the simulation trial to produce a desired output. The software offers a number of choices for the supervised learning algorithm (the method used to model the system behavior given the results so far) and a number of choices for the active learning strategy (the method used to choose which new simulation trials to run given the current behavior model). The software

  15. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future.

  16. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  17. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  18. Indonesian petroleum systems and exploration efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.V.C.; Tisnawijaya, S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Republic of Indonesia has over 40 productive petroleum systems and more than 100 speculative petroleum systems. Since the first oil discoveries in the 1880's, cumulative discovered ultimately recoverable petroleum resources in Indonesia have reached 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent. There are eight principal producing areas and nearly 1,000 oil and gas fields. Most of these resources have been found in the last 50 years. Successful exploration continues; at least two discoveries per year are made which exceed 50 million barrels of oil equivalent reserves. Productive petroleum system source types are split almost equally between marine and deltaic-lacustrine facies. The majority of source rocks are Tertiary in age; Mesozoic source rocks are restricted to Eastern Indonesia. Discovery process analysis indicates generally high exploration efficiency in Indonesia. An upwardly convex discovery process curve typifies many systems, reflecting both exploration efficiency and maturity; this pattern is well displayed in areas such as Central Sumatra and Salawati. A much more random or straight line process curve, as seen in West Natuna, occurs where more complex petroleum systems have inhibited exploration efficiency. An inverted, or concave upward curve, seen in some Java petroleum systems, is probably economically driven, related to development of domestic Indonesian gas markets. Several curves, such as those for the North Sumatra:Bampo-Peutu and East Kalimantan:Tanjung systems are dominated by single fields. Different exploration phases can be recognized in many systems, each phase having its own specific exploration statistics.

  19. Indonesian petroleum systems and exploration efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.V.C.; Tisnawijaya, S.

    1996-12-31

    The Republic of Indonesia has over 40 productive petroleum systems and more than 100 speculative petroleum systems. Since the first oil discoveries in the 1880`s, cumulative discovered ultimately recoverable petroleum resources in Indonesia have reached 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent. There are eight principal producing areas and nearly 1,000 oil and gas fields. Most of these resources have been found in the last 50 years. Successful exploration continues; at least two discoveries per year are made which exceed 50 million barrels of oil equivalent reserves. Productive/petroleum system source types are split almost equally between marine and deltaic-lacustrine facies. The majority of source rocks are Tertiary in age; Mesozoic source rocks are restricted to Eastern Indonesia. Discovery process analysis indicates generally high exploration efficiency in Indonesia. An upwardly convex discovery process curve typifies many systems, reflecting both exploration efficiency and maturity; this pattern is well displayed in areas such as Central Sumatra and Salawati. A much more random or straight line process curve, as seen in West Natuna, occurs where more complex petroleum systems have inhibited exploration efficiency. An inverted, or concave upward curve, seen in some Java petroleum systems, is probably economically driven, related to development of domestic Indonesian gas markets. Several curves, such as those for the North Sumatra:Bampo-Peutu and East Kalimantan:Tanjung systems are dominated by single fields. Different exploration phases can be recognized in many systems, each phase having its own specific exploration statistics.

  20. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  1. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  2. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  3. Th Mt. Erebus Explorer Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Erebus Project to explore an active vol- cano, Mount Erebus , Antarctica at year-end 1992. The summit of Mount Erebus at 3794m opens into a main...crater. A more detailed descriptions of the robot and its mission are available in "Exploring Mount Erebus by Walking Robot"[ 1]. 1. Erebus is... Mount Erebus by Walking Robot." Intelligent Autonomous Systems 93 (1993). [2] Franklin, Powel, Enamini-Naeini "Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems." Addison Wesley

  4. Terrestrial analogs for space exploration habitation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Paul D.; Brown, Jeri W.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) can use early earth-based analogs to simulate many aspects of space flight missions and system operation. These analogs can thus provide information supporting future missions to the moon and to Mars. A study was performed to investigate the potential of terrestrial analogs in simulating human space exploration missions. The study resulted in preliminary requirements and concepts for analog habitation systems, and further study in this area is necessary for SEI terrestrial analog development.

  5. Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sanita

    2003-01-01

    The multidisciplinary concept of "bioinspired engineering of exploration systems" (BEES) is described, which is a guiding principle of the continuing effort to develop biomorphic explorers as reported in a number of articles in the past issues of NASA Tech Briefs. The intent of BEES is to distill from the principles found in successful nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods but that are accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms. The intent is not just to mimic operational mechanisms found in a specific biological organism but to imbibe the salient principles from a variety of diverse bio-organisms for the desired crucial function. Thereby, we can build explorer systems that have specific capabilities endowed beyond nature, as they will possess a combination of the best nature-tested mechanisms for that particular function. The approach consists of selecting a crucial function, for example, flight or some selected aspects of flight, and develop an explorer that combines the principles of those specific attributes as seen in diverse flying species into one artificial entity. This will allow going beyond biology and achieving unprecedented capability and adaptability needed in encountering and exploring what is as yet unknown. A classification of biomorphic flyers into two main classes of surface and aerial explorers is illustrated in the figure, with examples of a variety of biological organisms that provide the inspiration in each respective subclass. Such biomorphic explorers may possess varied mobility modes: surface-roving, burrowing, hopping, hovering, or flying, to accomplish surface, subsurface, and aerial exploration. Preprogrammed for a specific function, they could serve as one-way communicating beacons, spread over the exploration site, autonomously looking for/at the targets of interest. In a hierarchical organization, these biomorphic explorers would report to the next

  6. Multielement extraction system for determining 19 trace elements in gold exploration samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J. Robert; Viets, John G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A multielement extraction system is being used successfully to provide essentially interference-free geochemical analyses to aid in gold exploration. The Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system separates Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, and Zn from interfering geological matrices. Quantitative extraction of these elements is accomplished over a broad range of acid normality making it possible to economically determine all 19 elements from a single digestion or leach solution. The resulting organic extracts are amenable to analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). For many years the principal shortcoming of ICP-AES was the complex spectral and stray-light interferences that were caused by the extreme variability of components such as Fe, Na, and Ca in common geological matrices. The MAGIC extraction allows determination of the extracted elements with enhanced sensitivity, from a virtually uniform matrix, by ICP-AES and FAAS. Because of its simultaneous multichannel capabilities, ICP-AES is the ideal instrumental technique for determining these 19 extracted elements. Ultratrace (sub-part-per-billion) determinations of Au and many of the other extracted elements can be made by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS), following back stripping of the extracts. The combination of the extraction followed by stripping of the organic phase eliminates 99.999% of potential interferences for Au. Gold determination by GFAAS from these extracts under the specified conditions yields a fourfold improvement in sensitivity over conventional GFAAS methods. This sensitivity enhancement and the interference-free matrix allow highly reliable determinations well into the parts-per-trillion range.

  7. Evaluation of Externally-Powered Hybrid System: Viennatone Hand, EMG and Switch Control, Hosmer E400 Elbow, AE Prosthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A prosthetic hybrid system consisting of an above elbow prosthesis containing an externally-powered electromechanical hand and a conventional...mechanical elbow was functionally evaluated. Two different means of controlling the terminal device were provided. The hand was first controlled by EMG

  8. A perception system for a planetary explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, M.; Krotkov, E.; Kanade, T.

    1989-01-01

    To perform planetary exploration without human supervision, a complete autonomous robot must be able to model its environment and to locate itself while exploring its surroundings. For that purpose, the authors propose a modular perception system for an autonomous explorer. The perception system maintains a consistent internal representation of the observed terrain from multiple sensor views. The representation can be accessed from other modules through queries. The perception system is intended to be used by the Ambler, a six-legged vehicle being built at CMU. A partial implementation of the system using a range scanner is presented as well as experimental results on a testbed that includes the sensor, one computer-controlled leg, and obstacles on a sandy surface.

  9. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Design Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam C.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. The CDS provides a similar function to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD) currently employed on the International Space Station, but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be more straightforward and simpler to implement into a more reliable and efficient system. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). A preliminary design fo the CDS 2.0 was presented to the project in September 2014. Following this review, detailed design of the system continued. The existing ground test prototype was used as a platform to demonstrate key 2.0 design and operational concepts to support this effort and mitigate design risk. A volumetric prototype was also developed to evaluate the packaging design for operability and maintainability. The updated system design was reviewed by the AES LSS Project and other key stakeholders in September 2015. This paper details the status of the CDS 2.0 design.

  10. Managing with A/E Ease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    provides a very good foundation on which to build the EASE programs. EASE application programs are a supplementary menu system to Enable’s own menus...mainframe computer systems. Other Peripherals Plotters provide the color graphics output necessary for A/E drawings , which is far superior to that of...for interactive drawing on the display. The EASE program was not designed to be driven by a mouse, but this possibility is currently being studied

  11. Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uckun, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

  12. Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1992-01-01

    In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

  13. The Global Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Jim

    1992-08-01

    A Global Solar System Exploration Program is proposed which is based on recent post-Cold War models involving collective actions of nations to achieve international burden sharing. Each participating space agency would provide complementary missions and capabilities incorporating traditional models of space cooperation. A new international coordination agency is proposed to facilitate the unprecedented degree of international cooperation necessary for the global program.

  14. The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

  15. A System of Systems Approach for Martian Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semrud, E. B.; Evans, B. W.; Fredericks, B.; Wells, D.

    2012-06-01

    A system of systems is designed for characterization of the Martian atmosphere and exploration of lava tubes in preparation for human colonization. Multiple expendable deployable sensor packages ensure mission success with a high level of redundancy.

  16. The Small Explorer power system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakermanji, G.; Carlsson, U.; Temkin, D.; Culver, H.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Ahmad, A.

    1991-01-01

    The power system electronics for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Small Explorer Satellites are intended to satisfy various planned missions. The selected topology is a direct energy transfer (DET) system with the battery connected directly to the bus. The shunt control technique is a linear sequential full shunt which provides a simple solar array interface and can support both 3 axis stabilized and spinner satellites. In addition, it can meet stringent electromagnetic interference requirements which are expected on some Small Explorer Missions. The Power Systems Electronics (PSE) performs battery charge control using both temperature compensated charge/discharge ratio ampere hour integration and voltage-temperature control. The PSE includes all the circuits needed to perform telemetry and command functions using an optical MIL-STD-1773 interface.

  17. The binarity of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with Adaptive Optics and spectroscopy. A study of the triple system TY CrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corporon, Patrice

    1998-03-01

    Multiplicity is a major issue in stellar astrophysics. Firstly, any stellar formation theory must explain the large abundance of multiple systems among Main Sequence and young low-mass T Tauri stars. Secondly, binary studies allow the direct determination of physical parameters. In the case of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars, the binarity status is not well known; furthermore, direct mass determination are required to test stellar evolution models for these young intermediate mass objects. The first part of the thesis presents the results of a systematic search for HAeBe binaries in both hemispheres. Two complementary techniques were used to cover a large range of orbital period P: high angular resolution imaging with Adaptive Optics (AO) (binary separation ρ between 0.12'' and few arcseconds, i.e. P ≅ many years), and high resolution visible spectroscopy to study short orbital period (P ≅few hours to few months). Among the 68 HAeBe stars observed with ADONIS--ESO and PUEO--CFH AO instruments, 30 binaries (18 discovered) have been detected. 42 HAeBe stars have been surveyed with the CES--ESO and 'ELODIE, AURéLIE--OHP spectrographs. Radial velocity variations were found in 7 targets (4 are new spectroscopic binaries, 3 d. < P < 166 d.). In addition, the 7Li 6 708 Å absorption line (absent feature in simple HAeBe stars spectra) indicates the presence of a cooler companion in 6 HAeBe spectrum binaries, 4 of which are new detections. The observed visual binary frequency for HAeBe stars is of the order of 50%. For short period spectroscopic binaries (P < 100 days), the observed frequency is about 10%. Considering observational bias effects, these estimates are regarded as lower limits for the true HAeBe binary frequency. Based on our multi-color AO images, spectral types of twenty-two visual companions have been determined. A trend is found such that companions of Ae stars are low-mass T Tauri stars (spectral type K--M), while companions of Be stars are intermediate

  18. (abstract) Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    AES is a low-cost analog of the TES downlooking modes. Because AES operates at ambient temperature, limb-viewing is not possible. The first flight of AES took place in April 1994 on the NASA P3B aircraft out of Wallops Island, VA. While planned as an engineering test flight, spectra were successfully acquired both over the Atlantic Ocean and the area of the Great Dismal Swamp on the Virginia-North Carolina border. At this writing (July 1994), a second series of flights on the NASA DC8 aircraft out of Ames RC,CA is in progress. By the time of the workshop, a third series using the NASA C130 should have been accomplished.

  19. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  20. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  1. Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

  2. AE Recorder Characteristics and Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, Michael E.; Curtis, Shane Keawe; McGrogan, David Paul

    2016-11-01

    The Anomalous Environment Recorder (AE Recorder) provides a robust data recording capability for multiple high-shock applications including earth penetrators. The AE Recorder, packaged as a 2.4" di ameter cylinder 3" tall, acquires 12 accelerometer, 2 auxiliary, and 6 discrete signal channels at 250k samples / second. Recording depth is 213 seconds plus 75ms of pre-trigger data. The mechanical, electrical, and firmware are described as well as support electro nics designed for the first use of the recorder.

  3. Optics for future solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D. D.; Vescelus, F. E.; Wellman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The optics technology necessary for future solar system exploration is discussed. To satisfy the various mission objectives, optical components need to be of low weight, provide adequate spatial resolution and mapping coverage, provide necessary spectral resolution, provide means to perform adaptable mapping spectrometry, operate under low light levels, provide color images of high fidelity and operate under high temperatures. Future near-infrared mapping spectrometers are examined, and the use of focal-plane detectors to improve their sensitivity is discussed.

  4. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, Erik; Hanson, Andrea; Shah, Ronak; Reed, Rebekah; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight, such as NASA's proposed three-year mission to Mars, provides unique and novel challenges when compared with human spaceflight to date. Extended distance and multi-year missions introduce new elements of operational complexity and additional risk. These elements include: inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, uncharted psychosocial conditions, and communication delays that create a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these unique challenges, the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a Mars mission. On a Mars mission, resource limitations will significantly constrain available medical capabilities, and require a paradigm shift in the approach to medical system design and risk mitigation for crew health. To respond to this need for a new paradigm, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element is assessing each Mars mission phase-transit, surface stay, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and return-to identify and prioritize medical needs for the journey beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). ExMC is addressing both planned medical operations, and unplanned contingency medical operations that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. This assessment is being used to derive a gap analysis and studies to support meaningful medical capabilities trades. These trades, in turn, allow the exploration medical system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach, and to manage the risks associated with the medical limitations inherent in an exploration class mission. This paper outlines the conceptual drivers used to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this paradigm. Keywords: (Max 6 keywords: exploration, medicine, spaceflight, Mars, research, NASA)

  5. The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and

  6. Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project under the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element managed by the Human Research Program (HRP). The vision for the EMSD is to utilize ISS as a test bed to show that several medical technologies needed for an exploration mission and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making can be integrated into a single system and used by the on-orbit crew in an efficient and meaningful manner. Objectives: a) Reduce and even possibly eliminate the time required for on-orbit crew and ground personnel (which include Surgeon, Biomedical Engineer (BME) Flight Controller, and Medical Operations Data Specialist) to access and move medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information using an intuitive and crew-friendly software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management framework and architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities.

  7. Launchable and retrievable tetherbot exploration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younse, P.

    2008-04-01

    A launchable and retrievable tetherbot exploration system for low-gravity environments is proposed where a small, tethered robot is launched from a base lander or vehicle to a desired position up to 50 m away. When its exploration mission is complete, it hops vertically above the surface and is simultaneously reeled back in by the base vehicle while still above ground. Benefits include the ability to traverse long distances in short amounts of time and minimal energy expense independent of terrain roughness. This technique has the capability to reach locations too difficult, too dangerous, or unreachable by the base vehicle. Prototypes of a steerable six-legged hopping robot and electric reel were developed. A dynamic simulation demonstrated the capabilities of launching and tether retrieval.

  8. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  9. Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

    2007-04-01

    When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning.

  10. Resistance to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in ae3 −/− mice, deficient in the AE3 Cl−/HCO3− exchanger

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac hypertrophy is central to the etiology of heart failure. Understanding the molecular pathways promoting cardiac hypertrophy may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Sodium-proton exchanger (NHE1) activity and expression levels in the heart are elevated in many models of hypertrophy through protein kinase C (PKC)/MAPK/ERK/p90RSK pathway stimulation. Sustained NHE1 activity, however, requires an acid-loading pathway. Evidence suggests that the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, AE3, provides this acid load. Here we explored the role of AE3 in the hypertrophic growth cascade of cardiomyocytes. Methods AE3-deficient (ae3 −/− ) mice were compared to wildtype (WT) littermates to examine the role of AE3 protein in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mouse hearts were assessed by echocardiography. As well, responses of cultured cardiomyocytes to hypertrophic stimuli were measured. pH regulation capacity of ae3 −/− and WT cardiomyocytes was assessed in cultured cells loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF-AM. Results ae3 −/− mice were indistinguishable from wild type (WT) mice in terms of cardiovascular performance. Stimulation of ae3 −/− cardiomyocytes with hypertrophic agonists did not increase cardiac growth or reactivate the fetal gene program. ae3 −/− mice are thus protected from pro-hypertrophic stimulation. Steady state intracellular pH (pHi) in ae3 −/− cardiomyocytes was not significantly different from WT, but the rate of recovery of pHi from imposed alkalosis was significantly slower in ae3 −/− cardiomyocytes. Conclusions These data reveal the importance of AE3-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange in cardiovascular pH regulation and the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Pharmacological antagonism of AE3 is an attractive approach in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25047106

  11. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  12. Participatory Systems Modeling to Explore Sustainable ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Decision makers often need assistance in understanding dynamic interactions and linkages among economic, environmental and social systems in coastal watersheds. They also need scientific input to better evaluate potential costs and benefits of alternative policy interventions. The US EPA is applying sustainability science to address these needs. Triple Value (3V) Scoping and Modeling projects bring a systems approach to understand complex environmental problems, incorporate local knowledge, and allow decision-makers to explore policy scenarios. This leads to better understanding of feedbacks and outcomes to both human and environmental systems. The Suffolk County, NY (eastern Long Island) 3V Case uses SES interconnections to explore possible policy options and scenarios for intervention to mitigate the effects of excess nitrogen (N) loading to ground, surface, and estuarine waters. Many of the environmental impacts of N pollution negatively affect social and economic well-being and productivity. Key are loss of enjoyment and recreational use of local beach environments and loss of income and revenues from tourism and local fisheries. Stakeholders generated this Problem Statement: Suffolk County is experiencing widespread degradation to groundwater and the coastal marine environment caused by excess nitrogen. How can local stakeholders and decision makers in Suffolk County arrest and reverse this degradation, restore conditions to support a healthy thriving ecos

  13. A Water Recovery System Evolved for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Perry, Jay L.; Carter, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    A new water recovery system designed towards fulfillment of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is presented. This water recovery system is an evolution of the current state-of-the-art system. Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing technology to higher levels of optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold: Volatile organic contaminants will be removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase, and vapor compression distillation technology will be used to process the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treatment of the various waste streams by VCD will reduce the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follow, and on the aqueous-phase volatile removal assembly further downstream. Incorporating these advantages will reduce the weight, volume, and power requirements of the system, as well as resupply.

  14. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  15. Optimization of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA-4EU) in Support of the International Space System and Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Stanley, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program builds upon the work performed under the AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project focusing on the numerous technology development areas. The Carbon Dioxide (CO2) removal and associated air drying development efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station (ISS) utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. A component of the CO2 removal effort utilizes a virtual Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, revision 4 (CDRA-4) test bed to test a large number of potential operational configurations with independent variations in flow rate, cycle time, heater ramp rate, and set point. Initial ground testing will provide prerequisite source data and provide baseline data in support of the virtual CDRA. Once the configurations with the highest performance and lowest power requirements are determined by the virtual CDRA, the results will be confirmed by testing these configurations with the CDRA-4EU ground test hardware. This paper describes the initial ground testing of select configurations. The development of the virtual CDRA under the AES-LSS Project will be discussed in a companion paper.

  16. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy

  17. Exploring the opioid system by gene knockout.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire

    2002-04-01

    The endogenous opioid system consists of three opioid peptide precursor genes encoding enkephalins (preproenkephalin, Penk), dynorphins (preprodynorphin, Pdyn) and beta-endorphin (betaend), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and three receptor genes encoding mu-opiod receptor (MOR), delta-opiod receptor (DOR) and kappa-opiod receptor (KOR). In the past years, all six genes have been inactivated in mice by homologous recombination. The analysis of spontaneous behavior in mutant mice has demonstrated significant and distinct roles of each gene in modulating locomotion, pain perception and emotional behaviors. The observation of opposing phenotypes of MOR- and DOR-deficient mice in several behaviors highlights unexpected roles for DOR to be further explored genetically and using more specific delta compounds. The analysis of responses of mutant mice to exogenous opiates has definitely clarified the essential role of MOR in both morphine analgesia and addiction, and demonstrated that DOR and KOR remain promising targets for pain treatment. These studies also show that prototypic DOR agonists partially require MOR for their biological activity and provide some support for the postulated mu-delta interactions in vivo. Finally, data confirm and define a role for several genes of the opioid system in responses to other drugs of abuse, and the triple opioid receptor knockout mutant allows exploring non-classical opioid pharmacology. In summary, the study of null mutant mice has extended our previous knowledge of the opioid system by identifying the molecular players in opioid pharmacology and physiology. Future studies should involve parallel behavioral analysis of mice lacking receptors and peptides and will benefit from more sophisticated gene targeting approaches, including site-directed and anatomically-restricted mutations.

  18. Logistics Modeling for Lunar Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe; Earle, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The extensive logistics required to support extended crewed operations in space make effective modeling of logistics requirements and deployment critical to predicting the behavior of human lunar exploration systems. This paper discusses the software that has been developed as part of the Campaign Manifest Analysis Tool in support of strategic analysis activities under the Constellation Architecture Team - Lunar. The described logistics module enables definition of logistics requirements across multiple surface locations and allows for the transfer of logistics between those locations. A key feature of the module is the loading algorithm that is used to efficiently load logistics by type into carriers and then onto landers. Attention is given to the capabilities and limitations of this loading algorithm, particularly with regard to surface transfers. These capabilities are described within the context of the object-oriented software implementation, with details provided on the applicability of using this approach to model other human exploration scenarios. Some challenges of incorporating probabilistics into this type of logistics analysis model are discussed at a high level.

  19. Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

  20. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  1. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, E.; Canga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight provides unique challenges that have not been encountered in prior spaceflight experience. Extended distance and timeframes introduce new challenges such as an inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, and communication delays that introduce a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these challenges the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a proposed three year Mars mission. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the approach to medical risk mitigation for crew health and mission objectives threatened by inadequate medical capabilities in the setting of severely limited resources. A conceptual approach is outlined to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this new paradigm. Using NASA Design Reference Missions this process assesses each mission phase to deconstruct medical needs at any point during a mission. Two operational categories are proposed, nominal operations (pre-planned activities) and contingency operations (medical conditions requiring evaluation) that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. These definitions are used to derive a task level analysis to support quantifiable studies into a medical capabilities trade. This trade allows system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach to medical limitations in an exploration class mission.

  2. Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational

  3. Exploring our outer solar system - The Giant Planet System Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Sturner, S. J.; Pitman, J. T.

    As space-faring peoples now work together to plan and implement future missions that robotically prepare for landing humans to explore the Moon, and later Mars, the time is right to develop evolutionary approaches for extending this next generation of exploration beyond Earth's terrestrial planet neighbors to the realm of the giant planets. And while initial fly-by missions have been hugely successful in providing exploratory surveys of what lies beyond Mars, we need to consider now what robotic precursor mission capabilities we need to emplace that prepare us properly, and comprehensively, for long-term robotic exploration, and eventual human habitation, beyond Mars to the outer reaches of our solar system. To develop practical strategies that can establish prioritized capabilities, and then develop a means for achieving those capabilities within realistic budget and technology considerations, and in reasonable timeframes, is our challenge. We suggest one component of such an approach to future outer planets exploration is a series of Giant Planets System Observer (GPSO) missions that provide for long- duration observations, monitoring, and relay functions to help advance our understanding of the outer planets and thereby enable a sound basis for planning their eventual exploration by humans. We envision these missions as being comparable to taking Hubble-class remote-sensing facilities, along with the space physics capabilities of long-lived geospace and heliospheric missions, to the giant planet systems and dedicating long observing lifetimes (HST, 16 yr.; Voyagers, 29 yr.) to the exhaustive study and characterization of those systems. GPSO missions could feature 20-yr+ extended mission lifetimes, direct inject trajectories to maximize useful lifetime on target, placement strategies that take advantage of natural environment shielding (e.g., Ganymede magnetic field) where possible, orbit designs having favorable planetary system viewing geometries, comprehensive

  4. An atmospheric visual analysis and exploration system.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyan; Ye, Jing; Svakhine, Nikolai; Lasher-Trapp, Sonia; Baldwin, Mike; Ebert, David S

    2006-01-01

    Meteorological research involves the analysis of multi-field, multi-scale, and multi-source data sets. In order to better understand these data sets, models and measurements at different resolutions must be analyzed. Unfortunately, traditional atmospheric visualization systems only provide tools to view a limited number of variables and small segments of the data. These tools are often restricted to two-dimensional contour or vector plots or three-dimensional isosurfaces. The meteorologist must mentally synthesize the data from multiple plots to glean the information needed to produce a coherent picture of the weather phenomenon of interest. In order to provide better tools to meteorologists and reduce system limitations, we have designed an integrated atmospheric visual analysis and exploration system for interactive analysis of weather data sets. Our system allows for the integrated visualization of 1D, 2D, and 3D atmospheric data sets in common meteorological grid structures and utilizes a variety of rendering techniques. These tools provide meteorologists with new abilities to analyze their data and answer questions on regions of interest, ranging from physics-based atmospheric rendering to illustrative rendering containing particles and glyphs. In this paper, we will discuss the use and performance of our visual analysis for two important meteorological applications. The first application is warm rain formation in small cumulus clouds. Here, our three-dimensional, interactive visualization of modeled drop trajectories within spatially correlated fields from a cloud simulation has provided researchers with new insight. Our second application is improving and validating severe storm models, specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This is done through correlative visualization of WRF model and experimental Doppler storm data.

  5. Active Thermal Control System Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westheimer, David

    2007-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been actively developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  6. Whipple: Exploring the Solar System Beyond Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Charles; Whipple Science Team

    2010-10-01

    Whipple is a Discovery-class mission that will explore the outer Solar System by searching for the occultations of bright (R<14) stars by small bodies. Whipple will test current theoretical models of the origin of our Solar System by studying directly the populations of small objects that lie beyond the orbit of Neptune, including the Kuiper Belt and scattered disk, the region surrounding Sedna, and the Oort Cloud. Whipple will measure size distributions as a function of (three dimensional) position for these populations. These data will help elucidate the process of formation of macroscopic bodies in the primitive solar system, the history of giant planet migration, and the interactions of planet scattering with the local stellar environment that led to the population of the Oort Cloud, and possibly during the first few million years, of the Sedna region. Whipple will employ a photometer comprising a Schmidt-Cassegrain optical design with a 77 cm aperture, imaging onto a focal plane subtending 37 square degrees. The focal plane will comprise nine CMOS devices that can be read out at high cadence. The spacecraft will be launched into an Earth-leading solar orbit, and will be able to stare at fields distributed over a wide range of ecliptic latitudes and longitudes. Whipple will image star fields and produce high signal-to-noise photometric light curves for stars at a variety of cadences: 10,000 stars at 40 Hz, 20,000 stars at 20 Hz, or 40,000 stars at 10 Hz. These light curves will be examined on the spacecraft for possible events of interest, which will then be transmitted to ground for further analysis.

  7. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project strives to enable a largely mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. The goals are to engineer logistics materials, common crew consumables, and container configurations to meet the following five basic goals: 1. Minimize intrinsic logistics mass and improve ground logistics flexibility. 2. Allow logistics components to be directly repurposed for on-orbit non-logistics functions (e.g., crew cabin outfitting) thereby indirectly reducing mass/volume. 3. Compact and process logistics that have not been directly repurposed to generate useful on-orbit components and/or compounds (e.g., radiation shielding, propellant, other usable chemical constituents). 4. Enable long-term stable storage and disposal of logistics end products that cannot be reused or repurposed (e.g., compaction for volume reduction, odor control, and maintenance of crew cabin hygienic conditions). 5. Allow vehicles in different mission phases to share logistics resources. This paper addresses the work being done to meet the second goal, the direct repurposing of logistics components to meet other on-orbit needs, through a strategy termed Logistics to Living (L2L). L2L has several areas but can be defined as repurposing or converting logistical items (bags, containers, foam, components, etc.) into useful crew items or life support augmentation on-orbit after they have provided their primary logistics function. The intent is that by repurposing items, dedicated crew items do not have to be launched and overall launch mass is decreased. For non-LEO missions, the vehicle interior volume will be relatively fixed so L2L will enable this volume to be used more effectively through reuse and rearrangement of logistical components. Past work in the area of L2L has already conceptually developed several potential technologies [Howe

  8. Influence of the operating parameters and of the sample introduction system on time correlation of line intensities using an axially viewed CCD-based ICP-AES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotti, Marco; Todolí, José Luis; Mermet, Jean Michel

    2010-02-01

    The influence of the acquisition and operating parameters on time correlation between emission line intensities was investigated using axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-multichannel-based emission spectrometry and various sample introduction systems. It was found that to obtain flicker-noise limited signals, necessary to compensate for time-correlated signal fluctuations by internal standardization, the flicker-noise magnitude of the sample introduction system, the integration time and the emission line intensity had to be considered. The highest correlation between lines was observed for ultrasonic nebulization with desolvatation, the noisiest system among those considered, for which the contribution of the uncorrelated shot-noise was negligible. In contrast, for sample introduction systems characterized by lower flicker-noise levels, shot-noise led to high, non-correlated RSD values, making the internal standard method to be much less efficient. To minimize shot-noise, time correlation was improved by increasing the emission line intensities and the integration time. Improvement in repeatability did not depend only on time correlation, but also on the ratio between the relative standard deviations of the analytical and reference lines. The best signal compensation was obtained when RSD values of the reference and analytical lines were similar, which is usually obtained when the system is flicker-noise limited, while departure from similarity can lead to a degradation of repeatability when using the internal standard method. Moreover, the use of so-called robust plasma conditions, i.e. a high power (1500 W) along with a low carrier gas flow rate (0.8 L/min) improved also the compensation. Finally, high correlation and consequent improvement in repeatability by internal standardization was observed also in the presence of complex matrices (sediment and soil samples), although a matrix-induced degradation of the correlation between lines was generally

  9. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  10. Near-Infrared Interferometric Images of the Solar System Sized Disk Surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be Star MWC 349A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, W.C.; Tuthill, P. G.; Monnier, J. D.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present images of the Herbig Ae/Be star MWC 349A at 1.65 and 2.27, and 3.08 micrometers, reconstructed from complex visibility data obtained with an aperture masking interferometric technique on the Keck I telescope. These images have an approximately elliptical shape, and are consistent with the expected shape of a nearly edge-on Keplerian disk. Visibility data were fitted with uniform ellipses with major axes 36 +/- 2, 47 +/- 2, and 62 +/- 1 mas, respectively. The axial ratio of the ellipses is approximately 0.5 +/- 0.1, and the major axis is at a position angle of 100 +/- 3 degrees, consistent with the position angle of the dark lane observed previously in the Very Large Array (VLA) radio continuum maps at 8 and 22 GHz, perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the bipolar lobes of H66(alpha) recombination line emission, and consistent with positions of the recombination line maser spots at 1.3 mm. At an assumed distance of 1.2 kpc, the linear sizes of the disk are 44 and 57 AU at 1.65 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively. The disk is the presumed source of ionized material in the bipolar outflow and ultracompact HII region around the star.

  11. Chromosome isolation by flow sorting in Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata.

    PubMed

    Molnár, István; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Cseh, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of flow cytometry for chromosome sorting in two wild diploid wheats Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. Flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of DAPI-stained chromosomes were characterized and content of chromosome peaks was determined. Peaks of chromosome 1U could be discriminated in flow karyotypes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. biuncialis and the chromosome could be sorted with purities exceeding 95%. The remaining chromosomes formed composite peaks and could be sorted in groups of two to four. Twenty four wheat SSR markers were tested for their position on chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. comosa using PCR on DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes and genomic DNA of wheat-Ae. geniculata addition lines, respectively. Six SSR markers were located on particular Aegilops chromosomes using sorted chromosomes, thus confirming the usefulness of this approach for physical mapping. The SSR markers are suitable for marker assisted selection of wheat-Aegilops introgression lines. The results obtained in this work provide new opportunities for dissecting genomes of wild relatives of wheat with the aim to assist in alien gene transfer and discovery of novel genes for wheat improvement.

  12. Chromosome Isolation by Flow Sorting in Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and Their Allotetraploid Hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Cseh, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of flow cytometry for chromosome sorting in two wild diploid wheats Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. Flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of DAPI-stained chromosomes were characterized and content of chromosome peaks was determined. Peaks of chromosome 1U could be discriminated in flow karyotypes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. biuncialis and the chromosome could be sorted with purities exceeding 95%. The remaining chromosomes formed composite peaks and could be sorted in groups of two to four. Twenty four wheat SSR markers were tested for their position on chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. comosa using PCR on DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes and genomic DNA of wheat-Ae. geniculata addition lines, respectively. Six SSR markers were located on particular Aegilops chromosomes using sorted chromosomes, thus confirming the usefulness of this approach for physical mapping. The SSR markers are suitable for marker assisted selection of wheat-Aegilops introgression lines. The results obtained in this work provide new opportunities for dissecting genomes of wild relatives of wheat with the aim to assist in alien gene transfer and discovery of novel genes for wheat improvement. PMID:22132127

  13. DESM: portal for microbial knowledge exploration systems

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Adil; Essack, Magbubah; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Bougouffa, Salim; Antunes, Andre; Simoes, Marta Filipa; Lafi, Feras F.; Motwalli, Olaa A.; Bokhari, Ameerah; Malas, Tariq; Amoudi, Soha Al; Othum, Ghofran; Allam, Intikhab; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gao, Xin; Hoehndorf, Robert; C. Archer, John A.; Gojobori, Takashi; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms produce an enormous variety of chemical compounds. It is of general interest for microbiology and biotechnology researchers to have means to explore information about molecular and genetic basis of functioning of different microorganisms and their ability for bioproduction. To enable such exploration, we compiled 45 topic-specific knowledgebases (KBs) accessible through DESM portal (www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desm). The KBs contain information derived through text-mining of PubMed information and complemented by information data-mined from various other resources (e.g. ChEBI, Entrez Gene, GO, KOBAS, KEGG, UniPathways, BioGrid). All PubMed records were indexed using 4 538 278 concepts from 29 dictionaries, with 1 638 986 records utilized in KBs. Concepts used are normalized whenever possible. Most of the KBs focus on a particular type of microbial activity, such as production of biocatalysts or nutraceuticals. Others are focused on specific categories of microorganisms, e.g. streptomyces or cyanobacteria. KBs are all structured in a uniform manner and have a standardized user interface. Information exploration is enabled through various searches. Users can explore statistically most significant concepts or pairs of concepts, generate hypotheses, create interactive networks of associated concepts and export results. We believe DESM will be a useful complement to the existing resources to benefit microbiology and biotechnology research. PMID:26546514

  14. The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

    2013-01-01

    Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

  15. Role of AE2 for pHi regulation in biliary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Concepcion, Axel R.; Lopez, María; Ardura-Fabregat, Alberto; Medina, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    The Cl−/HCO−3anion exchanger 2 (AE2) is known to be involved in intracellular pH (pHi) regulation and transepithelial acid-base transport. Early studies showed that AE2 gene expression is reduced in liver biopsies and blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a disease characterized by chronic non-suppurative cholangitis associated with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and other autoimmune phenomena. Microfluorimetric analysis of the Cl−/HCO−3 anion exchange (AE) in isolated cholangiocytes showed that the cAMP-stimulated AE activity is diminished in PBC compared to both healthy and diseased controls. More recently, it was found that miR-506 is upregulated in cholangiocytes of PBC patients and that AE2 may be a target of miR-506. Additional evidence for a pathogenic role of AE2 dysregulation in PBC was obtained with Ae2−/−a,b mice, which develop biochemical, histological, and immunologic alterations that resemble PBC (including development of serum AMA). Analysis of HCO−3 transport systems and pHi regulation in cholangiocytes from normal and Ae2−/−a,b mice confirmed that AE2 is the transporter responsible for the Cl−/HCO−3exchange in these cells. On the other hand, both Ae2+/+a,b and Ae2−/−a,b mouse cholangiocytes exhibited a Cl−-independent bicarbonate transport system, essentially a Na+-bicarbonate cotransport (NBC) system, which could contribute to pHi regulation in the absence of AE2. PMID:24478713

  16. MatrixExplorer: a dual-representation system to explore social networks.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nathalie; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2006-01-01

    MatrixExplorer is a network visualization system that uses two representations: node-link diagrams and matrices. Its design comes from a list of requirements formalized after several interviews and a participatory design session conducted with social science researchers. Although matrices are commonly used in social networks analysis, very few systems support the matrix-based representations to visualize and analyze networks. MatrixExplorer provides several novel features to support the exploration of social networks with a matrix-based representation, in addition to the standard interactive filtering and clustering functions. It provides tools to reorder (layout) matrices, to annotate and compare findings across different layouts and find consensus among several clusterings. MatrixExplorer also supports Node-link diagram views which are familiar to most users and remain a convenient way to publish or communicate exploration results. Matrix and node-link representations are kept synchronized at all stages of the exploration process.

  17. Optimization of System Maturity and Equivalent System Mass for Exploration Systems Development Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnaye, Romulo; Tan, Weiping; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose; Sauser, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently pursuing the development of the next generation of human spacecraft and exploration systems throughout the Constellation Program. This includes, among others, habitation technologies for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. The key to these systems is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) system that composes several technology development projects related to atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management and habitation. The proper functioning of these technologies is meant to produce sufficient and balanced resources of water, air, and food to maintain a safe and comfortable environment for long-term human habitation and exploration of space.

  18. AE8/AP8 Implementations in AE9/AP9, IRBEM, and SPENVIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    radiation belt model, SHIELDOSE, AE8/AP8 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...a wide range of locations within the radiation belts . The new AE9/AP9 model application includes the ability to query the legacy AE8 and AP8 models...trapped particle fluxes with the NASA models AP-8 and AE-8, Radiat . Meas., 26, pp. 947-952. International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy

  19. A Comparison of Van Allen Belt Radiation Environment Modeling Programs: AE8/AP8 Legacy, AE9/AP9, and SPENVIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Evan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the space surrounding Earth there exists an active radiation environment consisting mostly of electrons and protons that have been trapped by Earths magnetic field. This radiation, also known as the Van Allen Belts, has the potential to damage man-made satellites in orbit; thus, proper precautions must be taken to shield NASA assets from this phenomenon. Data on the Van Allen Belts has been collected continuously by a multitude of space-based instruments since the beginning of space exploration. Subsequently, using theory to fill in the gaps in the collected data, computer models have been developed that take in the orbital information of a hypothetical mission and output the expected particle fluence and flux for that orbit. However, as new versions of the modeling system are released, users are left wondering how the new version differs from the old. Therefore, we performed a comparison of three different editions of the modeling system: AE8/AP8 (legacy), which is included in the model 9 graphical user interface as an option for ones calculations, AE9/AP9, and the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS), which is an online-based form of AE8/AP8 developed by NASA and the European Space Agency that changed the code to allow the program to extrapolate data to predict fluence and flux at higher energies. Although this evaluation is still ongoing, it is predicted that the model 8 (legacy) and SPENVIS version will have identical outputs with the exception of the extended energy levels from SPENVIS, while model 9 will provide different fluences than model 8 based on additional magnetic field descriptions and on-orbit data.

  20. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  1. Power Systems for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Power system options were reviewed for their appropriateness to meet mission requirements and guidelines. Contending system technologies include: solar, nuclear, isotopic, electro-chemical and chemical. Mission elements can basically be placed into two categories; in-space transportation systems, both cargo and piloted; and surface systems, both stationary and mobile. All transportation and surface element power system requirements were assessed for application synergies that would suggest common hardware (duplicates of the same or similar design) or multi-use (reuse system in a different application/location), wherever prudent.

  2. Covering the Bases: Exploring Alternative Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the understanding of how the base 10 system works has been encouraged through alternative base systems (Price 1995; Woodward 2004). If high school students are given opportunities to learn other base systems and analyze what they denote, we believe that they will better understand the structure of base 10 and its operations…

  3. The AE-8 trapped electron model environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The machine sensible version of the AE-8 electron model environment was completed in December 1983. It has been sent to users on the model environment distribution list and is made available to new users by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). AE-8 is the last in a series of terrestrial trapped radiation models that includes eight proton and eight electron versions. With the exception of AE-8, all these models were documented in formal reports as well as being available in a machine sensible form. The purpose of this report is to complete the documentation, finally, for AE-8 so that users can understand its construction and see the comparison of the model with the new data used, as well as with the AE-4 model.

  4. 19 CFR 192.11 - Description of the AES.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Filing of Export Information Through the Automated Export System (AES... commodity export information (see, 15 CFR 30.16) to submit such information electronically, rather than...

  5. A New Direction for NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Combining Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Daou, D.; Schmidt, G.; Pendleton, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the research efforts of the new nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. complement of the Institute and how we will engage the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  6. Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Lohn, Jason; Kaneshige, John

    2004-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to air& control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent system technologies and expand on the role of intelligent systems in NASA's missions. We will also present several examples of which some are highlighted m this extended abstract.

  7. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  8. Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

  9. Solar System Exploration -- What Comes Next?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you think we already know everything about our solar system? Think again. We've barely scratched the surface of what there is to learn. Join NASA as it sends missions to the far ends of the sola...

  10. Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

  11. Electrical system options for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

  12. Waveform Analysis of AE in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been developed to evaluate damage mechanisms in the testing of composite materials. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. Much more precise source location can also be obtained in comparison to conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. Two successful examples of the application of Modal AE are presented in this work. In the first, the initiation of transverse matrix cracking in cross-ply, tensile coupons was monitored. In these tests, it was documented that the same source mechanism, matrix cracking, can produce widely different AE signal amplitudes dependent on laminate stacking sequence and thickness. These results, taken together with well known propagation effects of attenuation and dispersion of AE signals in composite laminates, cast further doubt on the validity of simple amplitude or amplitude distribution analysis for AE source determination. For the second example, delamination propagation in composite ring specimens was monitored. Pressurization of these composite rings is used to simulate the stresses in a composite rocket motor case. AE signals from delamination propagation were characterized by large amplitude flexural plate mode components which have long signal durations because of the large dispersion of this mode.

  13. Combustion and Reacting Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the foloving: 1. Spacecraft Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression. 2. Advanced Life Support. Air/water revitalization, waste management. 3. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Fuel/consumables from regolith/atmosphere. 4. Extra vehicular Activity. Air revitalization, power systems (MEMS scale combustors). 5. In-situ Fabrication and Repair.Of these we have the lead responsibility in Fire Safety.

  14. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  15. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  16. Exploration Medical Capability System Engineering Introduction and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, J.; Reilly, J.

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This talk will briefly introduce the discipline of systems engineering and key points in its application to exploration medical capability development. It will elucidate technical medical system needs to be met by the systems engineering work, and the structured and integrative science and engineering approach to satisfying those needs, including the development of shared mental and qualitative models within and external to the human health and performance community. These efforts are underway to ensure relevancy to exploration system maturation and to establish medical system development that is collaborative with vehicle and mission design and engineering efforts.

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  18. Exploring student response systems in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Zurmehly, Joyce; Leadingham, Camille

    2008-01-01

    Using software products in the classroom can be an effective component in an overall technology integration plan. Choosing the right software for the subject area and classroom, however, can be a formidable task if undertaken without preplanning. In this article, we describe the developing process experienced professionally and personally with the student response system. The Internet and other new digital technologies have changed the way we respond to information. These changes are making an impact on students' learning styles and preferences. How to address this issue might be found in an endeavor that places the student at the center of the learning process and facilitates a more active experience: the interactive student response system. Imagine classrooms where teachers electronically introduce assignments using receivers and students beam information from pocket-sized remote controls. Imagine students working on group projects exchanging information without pen or paper.

  19. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Combining Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Schmidt, G.; Daou, D.; Pendleton, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science andexploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. complement of the Institute and how we will engage the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  20. The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2011-06-01

    We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

  1. GLODAPv2 data exploration and extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, Misha; Kozyr, Alex; Boden, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort of investigators funded for ocean synthesis and modeling projects by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Energy (DOE), and National Science Foundation (NSF). Cruises conducted as part of the WOCE, JGOFS, and NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) over the decade of the 1990s generated oceanographic data of unparalleled quality and quantity. GLODAPv2 is a uniformly calibrated open-ocean data product containing inorganic carbon and carbon-relevant variables. This new product includes data from approximately one million individual seawater samples collected from over 700 cruises during the period 1972-2013. Extensive quality control and subsequent calibration were carried out for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, pH, and chlorofluorocarbon data. The Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC), serving as the primary DOE disseminator for climate data and information, developed database and web accessible systems that permit users worldwide to query and retrieve data from the GLODAPv2 collection. This presentation will showcase this new system, discuss technologies used to build the GLODAPv2 resource, and describe integration with a metadata search engine provided by CDIAC as well.

  2. Exoproteomics: exploring the world around biological systems.

    PubMed

    Armengaud, Jean; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Clair, Gérémy; Malard, Véronique; Duport, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    The term 'exoproteome' describes the protein content that can be found in the extracellular proximity of a given biological system. These proteins arise from cellular secretion, other protein export mechanisms or cell lysis, but only the most stable proteins in this environment will remain in abundance. It has been shown that these proteins reflect the physiological state of the cells in a given condition and are indicators of how living systems interact with their environments. High-throughput proteomic approaches based on a shotgun strategy, and high-resolution mass spectrometers, have modified the authors' view of exoproteomes. In the present review, the authors describe how these new approaches should be exploited to obtain the maximum useful information from a sample, whatever its origin. The methodologies used for studying secretion from model cell lines derived from eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, virulence determinants of pathogens and environmental bacteria and their relationships with their habitats are illustrated with several examples. The implication of such data, in terms of proteogenomics and the discovery of novel protein functions, is discussed.

  3. Participatory Exploration: The Role of the User Contribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explores how NASA can apply the global shift in demographics, the popularity of collaborative technology and the desire for participation to the future of space exploration. Included in this is a review of the evolution of work, the engagement gap, user contribution systems and a case study concerning the "digital astronaut".

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  5. Power System for Venus Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep electronic components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling parameters are the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density (90 bar CO2) atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus, with a small contribution of heat generation from electronics and sensors. Both thermoelectric (RTG) and dynamic power conversion systems were analyzed, based on use of a standard isotope (General-purpose heat source, or GPHS) brick. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500-watt power class, laboratory-tested Stirling engines. The overall efficiency is calculated to be 23.36 %. The mass of the power converter is estimated at approximately 21.6 kg

  6. Rare-earth metals (REMs) in nickel aluminide-based alloys: I. Physicochemical laws of interaction in the Ni-Al-REM and Ni x Al y -REM-AE (alloying element) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarova, K. B.; Kazanskaya, N. K.; Drozdov, A. A.; Morozov, A. E.

    2008-02-01

    The data on the Ni-Al- R ( R = REM Sc, Y, La, lanthanides) binary and ternary systems and the interactions of three rare-earth metals (yttrium, lanthanum, cerium) with the main alloying elements (Ti (Zr, Hf), Cr (Mo, W) that are introduced into Ni3Al-based VKNA alloys are analyzed. The binary aluminides of REMs in the Ni-Al- R ternary systems are shown to be in equilibrium with neither NiAl nor Ni3Al. The solid solution of aluminum in RNi5, which penetrates deep into these ternary systems, is the most stable phase in equilibrium with Ni3Al. In the NiAl (Ni3Al)-AE- R systems, REM precipitation (segregation) on various defects and interfaces in nickel aluminides is likely to be the most probable, and REMs are thought to interact with the most active impurities in real alloys (C, O, N), since REMs have a large atomic radius and, thus, are virtually undissolved in nickel, aluminum, and nickel aluminides.

  7. Gel-forming METKAxAE system for selective water shutoff and enhanced oil recovery from Permocarbonic deposit in Usinskoye oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Stasyeva, L. A.; Kozlov, V. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Presented are the results on the study of a gel-forming METKA® system. The kinetics of gelation and rheological properties have been investigated in the system "methylcellulose-aqueous phase" in the temperature range of 20-250°C. The efficiency of applying the gel-forming METKA® system at filtration through water-saturated models and in the process of residual oil after-washing from two parallel columns with different permeability have been estimated.

  8. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom; Elliott, John; Balint, Tibor; Donahue, Ben; McCormick, Dave; Smith, David B.; Tandon, Sunil; Woodcock, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The following sections describe Ares V performance and its payoff to a wide array of potential solar system exploration missions. Application to potential Astrophysics missions is addressed in Reference 3.

  9. Scanning Laser Radar Development for Solar System Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, D.; Menzies, R.; Bartman, R.; Hemmati, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has recently established an accelerated development initiative to enable high-resolution active optical ranging and terrain mapping capabilities for a series of upcoming Solar System exploration missions.

  10. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  11. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  13. Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2008-12-01

    During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall

  14. Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183

  15. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  16. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  18. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    Ares V would revolutionize the way we accomplish solar system exploration -Shift to a better balance of field data acquisition and laboratory analysis -Greatly improve field data acquisition ?Better instruments, better instrument complements. Larger data volumes returned. Would require a new fiscal paradigm. "Ares V Solar System Science" workshop helped expand the set of possibly-enabled missions.

  19. The CAPA Integrative Online System for College Major Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment has advanced on several fronts, enabling a CAPA integrative online system for exploring college majors with unprecedented precision and utility. The key inventories in the system are the CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI), with its 6 general and 27 specific scales, and the CAPA Interest Inventory, with its 6 general and 35 specific…

  20. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  1. Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffel, A. William; VanSteenberg, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor web to collect the scientific data needed to further exploration is a major and efficient asset to any exploration effort. This is true not only for lunar and planetary environments, but also for interplanetary and liquid environments. Such a system would also have myriad direct commercial spin-off applications. The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web or HEAP-SW like the ANTS concept is a Sensor Web concept. The HEAP-SW is conceptually and practically a very different system. HEAP-SW is applicable to any environment and a huge range of exploration tasks. It is a very robust, low cost, high return, solution to a complex problem. All of the technology for initial development and implementation is currently available. The HEAP Sensor Web or HEAP-SW consists of three major parts, The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platforms or HEAP, the Sensor Web or SW and the immobile Data collection and Uplink units or DU. The HEAP-SW as a whole will refer to any group of mobile agents or robots where each robot is a mobile data collection unit that spends most of its time acting in concert with all other robots, DUs in the web, and the HEAP-SWs overall Command and Control (CC) system. Each DU and robot is, however, capable of acting independently. The three parts of the HEAP-SW system are discussed in this paper. The Goals of the HEAP-SW system are: 1) To maximize the amount of exploration enhancing science data collected; 2) To minimize data loss due to system malfunctions; 3) To minimize or, possibly, eliminate the risk of total system failure; 4) To minimize the size, weight, and power requirements of each HEAP robot; 5) To minimize HEAP-SW system costs. The rest of this paper discusses how these goals are attained.

  2. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  3. Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2001-01-01

    Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

  5. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  6. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; Busto, J.; Cohen, B.; Caldwell, B.; Jones, A. J. P.; Johnson, S.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  7. [Modern spectral estimation of ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Jia, Q; Liu, S; Guo, L; Chen, H; Zeng, X

    2000-06-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and its signal characteristics were discussed using modern spectral estimation technique. The power spectra density (PSD) was calculated using the auto-regression (AR) model of modern spectra estimation. The Levinson-Durbin recursion method was used to estimate the model parameters which were used for the PSD computation. The results obtained with actual ICP-AES spectra and measurements showed that the spectral estimation technique was helpful for the better understanding about spectral composition and signal characteristics.

  8. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  9. Intelligent systems for the autonomous exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furfaro, Roberto; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Fink, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Future planetary exploration of the outer satellites of the Solar System will require higher levels of onboard automation, including autonomous determination of sites where the probability of significant scientific findings is highest. Generally, the level of needed automation is heavily influenced by the distance between Earth and the robotic explorer(s) (e.g. spacecraft(s), rover(s), and balloon(s)). Therefore, planning missions to the outer satellites mandates the analysis, design and integration within the mission architecture of semi- and/or completely autonomous intelligence systems. Such systems should (1) include software packages that enable fully automated and comprehensive identification, characterization, and quantification of feature information within an operational region with subsequent target prioritization and selection for close-up reexamination; and (2) integrate existing information with acquired, "in transit" spatial and temporal sensor data to automatically perform intelligent planetary reconnaissance, which includes identification of sites with the highest potential to yield significant geological and astrobiological information. In this paper we review and compare some of the available Artificial Intelligence (AI) schemes and their adaptation to the problem of designing expert systems for onboard-based, autonomous science to be performed in the course of outer satellites exploration. More specifically, the fuzzy-logic framework proposed is analyzed in some details to show the effectiveness of such a scheme when applied to the problem of designing expert systems capable of identifying and further exploring regions on Titan and/or Enceladus that have the highest potential to yield evidence for past or present life. Based on available information (e.g., Cassini data), the current knowledge and understanding of Titan and Enceladus environments is evaluated to define a path for the design of a fuzzy-based system capable of reasoning over

  10. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  11. The Environment of the Optically Brightest Herbig Ae Star, HD 104237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B.; Torres, Carlos A. O.; Henning, Th.; Apai, D.; Rodmann, J.; Wang, Hongchi; Stecklum, B.; Linz, H.; Williger, G. M.; Brown, A.; Wilkinson, E.; Harper, G. M.; Herczeg, G. J.; Danks, A.; Vieira, G. L.; Malumuth, E.; Collins, N. R.; Hill, R. S.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the environment of the nearest Herbig Ae star, HD 104237, with a multiwavelength combination of optical coronagraphic, near-IR, and mid-IR imaging supported by optical, UV, and far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. We confirm the presence of T Tauri stars associated with the Herbig Ae star HD 104237, noted by Feigelson et al. We find that two of the stars within 15" of HD 104237 have IR excesses, potentially indicating the presence of circumstellar disks, in addition to the Herbig Ae star itself. We derive a new spectral type of A7.5Ve-A8Ve for HD 104237 and find log(L/Lsolar)=1.39. With these data, HD 104237 has an age of t~5 Myr, in agreement with the estimates for the other members of the association. HD 104237 is still actively accreting, with a conspicuous UV/far-UV excess seen down to 1040 Å, and is driving a bipolar microjet termed HH 669. This makes it the second, older Herbig Ae star now known to have a microjet. The presence of the microjet enables us to constrain the circumstellar disk to r<=0.6" (70 AU) with an inclination angle of i=18deg+14-11 from pole-on. The absence of a spatially extended continuum and fluorescent H2 emission near Lyα is in agreement with the prediction of shadowed disk models for the IR spectral energy distribution. With the high spatial density of disks in this group of stars, proximity, and minimal reddening, HD 104237 and its companions should serve as ideal laboratories for probing the comparative evolution of planetary systems. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA Contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations made with ESO's TIMMI2 camera on La Silla, Chile, under program ID 71.C-0438. Based on observations made with the ESO VLT and the Near-IR Adaptive Optics System+Conica, under program ID 71.C-0143. Based on observations made under the ON-ESO agreement for the joint operation of the 1.52 m

  12. Assessing Magnetospheric Accretion in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Alicia; Monnier, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent large spectropolarimetric surveys have found low magnetic field detection rates in Herbig Ae/Be stars. Efforts to measure and map young stars' magnetic fields have also noted that field structure and strength dramatically change with increasing stellar mass. These results are highly suggestive that the mechanisms for accretion and outflow in Herbig Ae/Be star+disk systems may differ from the magnetospheric accretion paradigm as envisaged for T Tauri star+disk systems. We have performed a high resolution optical spectroscopic campaign of ~60 Herbig AeBe stars including some multi-epoch observations; the timescales sampled range from high cadence (~minutes) to observations taken years spart, covering a wide range of kinematic processes. We find that the strength of variability increases with the cadence of the observations, and over all timescales sampled, the strongest variability occurs within the blueshifted absorption components of the Balmer series lines. We see no inverse P-Cygni signatures as are often seen in lower mass T Tauri stars and generally thought to be diagnostic of infall in accretion streams along the line of sight. We discuss the implications of these results in context of recent spectropolarimetric surveys for our understanding of how accretion is occurring in these objects, as well as ongoing radiative transfer modeling.

  13. Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

  14. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  15. The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Juan; Zhao, Gang

    2005-09-01

    With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular, we present detailed interpretations of the results by the radial velocity method. With the launch of some specific small satellites, we can predict the discovery of a large number of candidates of the extra-solar planetary systems. We can expect that the exploring of extra-solar planetary systems will have a prospective era in the near future.

  16. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  17. Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and the power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  18. Nuclear power systems for Lunar and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Sovie, R.J.; Bozek, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems - whether solar, chemical or nuclear - to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems were identified as critical needs for these missions. This paper discusses these mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements; the power system options considered and identifies the significant potential benefits of nuclear power for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  19. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  20. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several subelements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids. The current paper will provide an update to a similar overview paper published at last year s International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES).

  1. Nuclear Power System Evolution: MARS Robotics Outposts to Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    NASA has been studying various architectures to explore Mars encompassing sample return; robotic outpost with extended range exploration and possibly leading to eventual human exploration missions. The more demanding missions with longer-range mobility, enhanced surface operations, high rate communications, propellant production, deep drilling at multiple sites, etc., will require larger and more robust power systems beyond the current capability of today's multi-hundred watt space nuclear power systems. The relatively low power levels of the current suite of Mars' missions are met by photovoltaic solar arrays. As the desire for continuous day and night operations, high latitude exploration and extended mission lifetimes increase, the power system designs will also have to change to meet these increased science demands. While future mission planning continues and requirements continue to evolve, one can assess several power system technologies to satisfy both mobile and stationary applications. Certain technologies tend to optimize at different power levels and lifetimes. While current landers require 100's of watts, a human mission could require 100's of kilowatts. The harsh environment of Mars (dust storms, temperature cycling, CO2 atmosphere, dust settling, wind, low atmospheric pressure, etc.) will also pose some significant design challenges to overcome. This paper will discuss the challenges facing solar, isotope and nuclear power systems.

  2. AE mass spectrometer antechamber study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    The formation of CO2 and H2O in a gold plated antechamber was investigated when a beam of oxygen is introduced. It was found that at room temperature the formation of CO2 and H2O is negligibly small. However, at the top temperature (197 C) which could be achieved with the existing system, both products were formed in significant quantities. Desorption of CO2 and H2O at this temperature is still slow and incomplete which accounts for the delayed response to the beam conditions. Although the catalytic reactions take place already with molecular oxygen, the reactions are significantly enhanced if the oxygen beam is partially dissociated.

  3. Acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring of large-scale composite bridge components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, E.; Klein, D. J.; Robinson, M. J.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    2008-03-01

    Acoustic Emissions (AE) has been successfully used with composite structures to both locate and give a measure of damage accumulation. The current experimental study uses AE to monitor large-scale composite modular bridge components. The components consist of a carbon/epoxy beam structure as well as a composite to metallic bonded/bolted joint. The bonded joints consist of double lap aluminum splice plates bonded and bolted to carbon/epoxy laminates representing the tension rail of a beam. The AE system is used to monitor the bridge component during failure loading to assess the failure progression and using time of arrival to give insight into the origins of the failures. Also, a feature in the AE data called Cumulative Acoustic Emission counts (CAE) is used to give an estimate of the severity and rate of damage accumulation. For the bolted/bonded joints, the AE data is used to interpret the source and location of damage that induced failure in the joint. These results are used to investigate the use of bolts in conjunction with the bonded joint. A description of each of the components (beam and joint) is given with AE results. A summary of lessons learned for AE testing of large composite structures as well as insight into failure progression and location is presented.

  4. System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

  5. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems (LSS) project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several subelements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of approximately six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

  6. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

  7. Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2006-01-20

    Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

  8. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  9. Exploring Alternative Categories of Users of Computer Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Alejandra

    1991-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study conducted with graduate students at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) to describe patterns of computer-mediated communication (CMC) usage and to explore alternative ways of describing users of communication systems. Patterns of CMC usage are described, and dynamics of online communication are…

  10. Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  12. A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

  13. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Schmidt, G. K.; Bailey, B. E.; Minafra, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration, and was created to enable a deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies. SSERVI is supported jointly by NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The institute currently focuses on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, but the institute goals may expand, depending on NASA's needs, in the future. The 9 initial teams, selected in late 2013 and funded from 2014-2019, have expertise across the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences. Their research includes various aspects of the surface, interior, exosphere, near-space environments, and dynamics of these bodies. NASA anticipates a small number of additional teams to be selected within the next two years, with a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) likely to be released in 2016. Calls for proposals are issued every 2-3 years to allow overlap between generations of institute teams, but the intent for each team is to provide a stable base of funding for a five year period. SSERVI's mission includes acting as a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships. The SSERVI central office is located at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. The administrative staff at the central office forms the organizational hub for the domestic and international teams and enables the virtual collaborative environment. Interactions with geographically dispersed teams across the U.S., and global partners, occur easily and frequently in a collaborative virtual environment. This poster will provide an overview of the 9 current US teams and

  14. Exploring the Art and Science of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    There has been much discussion of late in the NASA systems engineering community about the fact that systems engineering cannot be just about process and technical disciplines. The belief is that there is both an art and science to systems engineering, and that both aspects are necessary for designing and implementing a successful system or mission. How does one go about differentiating between and characterizing these two aspects? Some say that the art of systems engineering is about designing systems that not only function well, but that are also elegant, beautiful and engaging. What does that mean? How can you tell when a system has been designed with that holistic "art" component? This paper attempts to answer these questions by exploring various ways of looking at the Art and Science of Systems Engineering.

  15. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  16. Human Exploration of the Solar System by 2100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the U.S., in concert with private entities and international partners, set itself on a course to accomplish human exploration of the solar system by the end of this century. This is a strikingly bold vision intended to revitalize the aspirations of HSF in service to the security, economic, and scientific interests of the nation. Solar system distance and time scales impose severe requirements on crewed space transportation systems, however, and fully realizing all objectives in support of this goal will require a multi-decade commitment employing radically advanced technologies - most prominently, space habitats capable of sustaining and protecting life in harsh radiation environments under zero gravity conditions and in-space propulsion technologies capable of rapid deep space transits with earth return, the subject of this paper. While near term mission destinations such as the moon and Mars can be accomplished with chemical propulsion and/or high power SEP, fundamental capability constraints render these traditional systems ineffective for solar system wide exploration. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, very long term HSF objectives for solar system wide exploration are examined in relation to the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape including foundational science, technical/engineering challenges, and developmental prospects.

  17. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Biringer, K.L. ); Bartine, D.E. ); Buden, D. ); Foreman, J. ); Harrison, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  18. The Jupiter System Observer: Exploring the Origins of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, Louise; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, C.; Kivelson, M.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) is one of four studies commissioned by NASA's Science Mission Directorate to examine the potential science return from a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system. JSO is a long-duration mission that will study the entire Jupiter system, focusing on both its individual components, including Jupiter's atmosphere, rocky and icy moons, rings, and magnetospheric phenomena, and the interactions between them. The wealth of data to be returned by JSO will enable a fuller understanding of a variety of magnetospheric, atmospheric, and geological processes, and will illuminate the question of how planetary systems form and evolve. The science team has outlined a number of significant science goals that can be accomplished by a spacecraft that tours the Jovian system for several years before ultimately ending up in Ganymede orbit. Ganymede was selected as the final destination for JSO because of its unique place in the Jovian system and the solar system - it is only the third body known to have its own dynamo-generated magnetic field. Ganymede is thought to contain a subsurface ocean and exhibits a surface with a variety of older and younger terrains, making it an excellent target for understanding the formation and evolution of icy satellites. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's atmosphere and rings, Io's volcanism and torus, and high-resolution flyby imaging of Europa, Callisto and Io will enable an unprecedented study of the Jovian system as a solar system analog, and enables cross-cutting scientific objectives in the fields of atmospheres, geology, magnetospheres, and geophysics.

  19. Exploring various flux vector splittings for the magnetohydrodynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Montecinos, Gino I.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we explore flux vector splittings for the MHD system of equations. Our approach follows the strategy that was initially put forward in Toro and Vázquez-Cendón (2012) [55]. We split the flux vector into an advected sub-system and a pressure sub-system. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the split sub-systems are then studied for physical suitability. Not all flux vector splittings for MHD yield physically meaningful results. We find one that is completely useless, another that is only marginally useful and one that should work well in all regimes where the MHD equations are used. Unfortunately, this successful flux vector splitting turns out to be different from the Zha-Bilgen flux vector splitting. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this favorable FVS are explored in great detail in this paper. The pressure sub-system holds the key to finding a successful flux vector splitting. The eigenstructure of the successful flux vector splitting for MHD is thoroughly explored and orthonormalized left and right eigenvectors are explicitly catalogued. We present a novel approach to the solution of the Riemann problem formed by the pressure sub-system for the MHD equations. Once the pressure sub-system is solved, the advection sub-system follows naturally. Our method also works very well for the Euler system. Our FVS successfully captures isolated, stationary contact discontinuities in MHD. However, we explain why any FVS for MHD is not adept at capturing isolated, stationary Alfvenic discontinuities. Several stringent one-dimensional Riemann problems are presented to show that the method works successfully and can effectively capture the full panoply of wave structures that arise in MHD. This includes compound waves and switch-on and switch-off shocks that arise because of the non-convex nature of the MHD system.

  20. Data explorer: a prototype expert system for statistical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Aliferis, C.; Chao, E.; Cooper, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    The inadequate analysis of medical research data, due mainly to the unavailability of local statistical expertise, seriously jeopardizes the quality of new medical knowledge. Data Explorer is a prototype Expert System that builds on the versatility and power of existing statistical software, to provide automatic analyses and interpretation of medical data. The system draws much of its power by using belief network methods in place of more traditional, but difficult to automate, classical multivariate statistical techniques. Data Explorer identifies statistically significant relationships among variables, and using power-size analysis, belief network inference/learning and various explanatory techniques helps the user understand the importance of the findings. Finally the system can be used as a tool for the automatic development of predictive/diagnostic models from patient databases. PMID:8130501

  1. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  2. Variations in lowstand systems tracts: Constraints on exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    Results of worldwide exploration of lowstand systems tracts support continued application and evaluation of Exxon's cyclic sequence concepts but indicate the need for a better understanding of erosional and depositional variations possible along ancient lowstand coastlines. Exxon's idealized siliciclastic (type 1) model applies where a major highstand fluvial system was entrenched during falling relative sea level, eroding canyons and contributing sediments to lowstand depositional systems. Canyons and incised valleys were filled by late lowstand and retrogradational (transgressive) systems. Not explicit in Exxon's scenario are lowstand tracts at sites of minor entrenched coastal-plain streams or along interdeltaic or nondeltaic margins. A spectrum of systems tracts, identified along ancient basin margins, provides clues for predicting lowstand targets. In the absence of rivers, basin-floor sediments were supplied locally by headward-slumping submarine canyons and erosion of contributary valleys into subaerially exposed highstand shelf and/or strandline systems. Submarine erosion typically continued during subsequent rise and highstand of sea level, and sediments may have been introduced to basin floors through canyons from active retrogradational and highstand longshore systems. Headwardly eroded canyons and valleys were not always filled during subsequent transgression and highstand, leading to long-term multiple erosional/depositional cycles to produce some of the world's major ancient canyon complexes. The type and distribution of highstand systems tracts strongly influenced the quality and distribution of sandstone reservoir potential in subsequent lowstand tracts and, therefore, may help guide deep-water exploration along ancient basin margins.

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventually landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. The vehicle will be able to deliver greater mass to orbit than any contemporary launch vehicle. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads.

  4. Simulation Based Acquisition for NASA's Office of Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joe

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, President George W. Bush unveiled his vision for NASA to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. This vision includes the goal to extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon no later than 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. In response to this vision, NASA has created the Office of Exploration Systems (OExS) to develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures to explore and support decisions about human exploration destinations, including the development of a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Within the OExS organization, NASA is implementing Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), a robust Modeling & Simulation (M&S) environment integrated across all acquisition phases and programs/teams, to make the realization of the President s vision more certain. Executed properly, SBA will foster better informed, timelier, and more defensible decisions throughout the acquisition life cycle. By doing so, SBA will improve the quality of NASA systems and speed their development, at less cost and risk than would otherwise be the case. SBA is a comprehensive, Enterprise-wide endeavor that necessitates an evolved culture, a revised spiral acquisition process, and an infrastructure of advanced Information Technology (IT) capabilities. SBA encompasses all project phases (from requirements analysis and concept formulation through design, manufacture, training, and operations), professional disciplines, and activities that can benefit from employing SBA capabilities. SBA capabilities include: developing and assessing system concepts and designs; planning manufacturing, assembly, transport, and launch; training crews, maintainers, launch personnel, and controllers; planning and monitoring missions; responding to emergencies by evaluating effects and exploring solutions; and communicating across the OEx

  5. Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Lee, Wayne; Steltzner, Adam; SanMartin, Alejanhdro

    2004-01-01

    System validation for a Mars entry, descent, and landing system is not simply a demonstration that the electrical system functions in the associated environments. The function of this system is its interaction with the atmospheric and surface environment. Thus, in addition to traditional test-bed, hardware-in-the-loop, testing, a validation program that confirms the environmental interaction is required. Unfortunately, it is not possible to conduct a meaningful end-to-end test of a Mars landing system on Earth. The validation plan must be constructed from an interconnected combination of simulation, analysis and test. For the Mars Exploration Rover mission, this combination of activities and the logic of how they combined to the system's validation was explicitly stated, reviewed, and tracked as part of the development plan.

  6. Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S. G. M.

    This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, scheduled for first launch in 2017, will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created

  8. NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space

  9. Investigation of AE Features in Grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xun; Mohammed, Arif; Oluwajobi, Akinjide

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents recent investigation of acoustic emission (AE) behaviours in grinding processes. It demonstrated the acoustic emission features characterized in time and frequency domain are influenced by thermal behaviours of materials. By control laser conditions, the temperature elevation under laser irradiation can be similar to that in a grinding process. Therefore, an innovative concept that grinding process can be monitored by using thermal AE signatures from laser irradiation tests has been proposed. Accordingly, an artificial neural network (ANN), built on laser irradiation tests, was applied to monitor grinding thermal performance. The results showed that grinding performance variation due to wheel wear can be identified by using the ANN. This development could bring great benefits by reducing experimental works in the preparation of an ANN for grinding monitoring.

  10. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  12. Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, A.

    Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

  13. Framework for the Parametric System Modeling of Space Exploration Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, David R.; Hoffman, Jim; Olds, Aaron D.; Seal, Mike D., II

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for performing architecture definition and assessment prior to, or during, program formulation that utilizes a centralized, integrated architecture modeling framework operated by a small, core team of general space architects. This framework, known as the Exploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), enables: 1) a significantly larger fraction of an architecture trade space to be assessed in a given study timeframe; and 2) the complex element-to-element and element-to-system relationships to be quantitatively explored earlier in the design process. Discussion of the methodology advantages and disadvantages with respect to the distributed study team approach typically used within NASA to perform architecture studies is presented along with an overview of EXAMINE s functional components and tools. An example Mars transportation system architecture model is used to demonstrate EXAMINE s capabilities in this paper. However, the framework is generally applicable for exploration architecture modeling with destinations to any celestial body in the solar system.

  14. Space Launch System: Building the Future of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Markeeva

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a new era of human space exploration, with the goal of landing humans on Mars. To carry out that mission, NASA is building the Space Launch System, the world's most powerful rocket. Space Launch System is currently under construction, with substantial amounts of hardware already created and testing well underway. Because of its unrivaled power, SLS can perform missions no other rocket can, like game-changing science and human landings on Mars. The Journey to Mars has begun; NASA has begun a series of missions that will result in astronauts taking the first steps on the Red Planet.

  15. The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Soldán, J.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Rezek, T.; Hudec, R.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; de La Morena, B.; Berná, J. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Peña, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, A.

    1999-09-01

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES) is considered as a part of the preparations for the ESA's satellite INTEGRAL, and is currently being developed in Spain, in collaboration with two Czech institutions. It makes use of two sets of wide-field cameras 240 kms apart, and two robotic 0.3-m telescopes. The first observing station (BOOTES-1) is located in Huelva (Spain) and the first light was obtained in July 1998. During the test phase, it has provided rapid follow-up observations for 5 GRBs detected by the BATSE aboard the CGRO. The system will fully operate in late 1999.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventually landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the "proving ground" of lunar-vicinity space to enabling high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO). Preparations are also underway to evolve the vehicle into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO. Even the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver greater mass to orbit than any contemporary launch vehicle, and the evolved configuration will have greater performance than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. The basic capabilities of SLS have been driven by studies on the requirements of human deep-space exploration missions, and continue to be validated by maturing analysis of Mars mission options, including the Global Exploration Roadmap. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. As SLS draws closer to its first launch, the Program is maturing concepts for future capability upgrades, which could begin being available within a decade. These upgrades, from multiple unique payload accommodations to an upper stage providing more power for inspace propulsion, have ramifications for a variety of

  17. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

  18. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  19. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2016-10-01

    Established in 2013, through joint funding from the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on science at the intersection of these two enterprises. Addressing questions of value to the human exploration program that also represent important research relevant to planetary science, SSERVI creates a bridge between HEOMD and SMD. The virtual institute model reduces travel costs, but its primary virtue is the ability to join together colleagues who bring the right expertise, techniques and tools, regardless of their physical location, to address multi-faceted problems, at a deeper level than could be achieved through the typical period of smaller research grants. In addition, collaboration across team lines and international borders fosters the creation of new knowledge, especially at the intersections of disciplines that might not otherwise overlap.SSERVI teams investigate the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars, addressing questions fundamental to these target bodies and their near space environments. The institute is currently composed of nine U.S. teams of 30-50 members each, distributed geographically across the United States, ten international partners, and a Central Office located at NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, CA. U.S. teams are competitively selected through peer-reviewed proposals submitted to NASA every 2-3 years, in response to a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN). The current teams were selected under CAN-1, with funding for five years (2014-2019). A smaller, overlapping set of teams are expected to be added in 2017 in response to CAN-2, thereby providing continuity and a firm foundation for any directional changes NASA requires as the CAN-1 teams end their term. This poster describes the research areas and composition of the institute to introduce SSERVI to the broader planetary

  20. NASA'S Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA’s future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle’s potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle’s evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to

  1. NASA's Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA's future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency's Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle's evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to deep space.

  2. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  3. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2015-11-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration, and was created to enable a deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies. SSERVI is supported jointly by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The institute currently focuses on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, but the institute goals may expand, depending on NASA's needs, in the future. The 9 initial teams, selected in late 2013 and funded from 2014-2019, have expertise across the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences. Their research includes various aspects of the surface, interior, exosphere, near-space environments, and dynamics of these bodies.NASA anticipates a small number of additional teams to be selected within the next two years, with a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) likely to be released in 2016. Calls for proposals are issued every 2-3 years to allow overlap between generations of institute teams, but the intent for each team is to provide a stable base of funding for a five year period. SSERVI's mission includes acting as a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships.The SSERVI central office is located at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. The administrative staff at the central office forms the organizational hub for the domestic and international teams and enables the virtual collaborative environment. Interactions with geographically dispersed teams across the U.S., and global partners, occur easily and frequently in a collaborative virtual environment. This poster will provide an overview of the 9 current US teams and

  4. Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration in Space System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. M.; Hastings, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity inherent in space systems necessarily requires intense expenditures of resources both human and monetary. The high level of ambiguity present in the early design phases of these systems causes long, highly iterative, and costly design cycles. This paper looks at incorporating decision theory methods into the early design processes to streamline communication of wants and needs among stakeholders and between levels of design. Communication channeled through formal utility interviews and analysis enables engineers to better understand the key drivers for the system and allows a more thorough exploration of the design tradespace. Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration (MATE), an evolving process incorporating decision theory into model and simulation- based design, has been applied to several space system case studies at MIT. Preliminary results indicate that this process can improve the quality of communication to more quickly resolve project ambiguity, and enable the engineer to discover better value designs for multiple stakeholders. MATE is also being integrated into a concurrent design environment to facilitate the transfer knowledge of important drivers into higher fidelity design phases. Formal utility theory provides a mechanism to bridge the language barrier between experts of different backgrounds and differing needs (e.g. scientists, engineers, managers, etc). MATE with concurrent design couples decision makers more closely to the design, and most importantly, maintains their presence between formal reviews.

  5. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.

  6. NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  7. NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  8. Artificial epi-Retinal Prosthesis (AeRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorish, John F.

    2006-09-01

    There are several research projects going on around the world, which are attempting to develop a prosthetic device to restore sight to the blind. This paper describes the efforts of Second Sight of New York, Inc. The device being developed is called an Artificial epi-Retinal Prosthesis (AeRP), which is basically a small optical computer that fits into the intraocular space of the eye. The AeRP is designed to draw light into the device by specially designed fibre optics. The light is ‘digitized’ by the fibre optic system and then directed to individual photodiode cells making up concentric cylinders thus providing several hundred photodiode cells in the device. The produced electrical stimulation from each cell is then delivered to the retinal ganglion cells by a specially designed delivery system utilizing electrically conducting polymer strands (ECP), which sit on an ‘umbrella’ at the back of the device. The retinal ganglion cells receive the electrical stimulation, which would then be transmitted through the visual system of the brain. There are several innovations in this approach as compared to the other projects. They include, first the design, which will allow for a high number of PC to produce electrical stimulation that will stimulate multiple RGC per PC; the use of the ECP strands has not been used in such an approach before this. Tests have revealed that nerve cells have a good affinity for the material of the ECP. The use of the ECP as well as the fact that the AeRP is completely photovoltaic, with no external power sources, implies that there will not be high heat build-up in the back of the eye, which might damage RGC. A smaller version of the AeRP called the Mini epi-Retinal Prosthesis (MeRP) is the subject of a complimentary paper. It is being built now and will be tested in cell culture studies to determine the efficacy of the design and materials. No actual implants have been performed yet.

  9. Mutation of the maize sbe1a and ae genes alters morphology and physical behavior of wx-type endosperm starch granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hong; Guiltinan, Mark J; Thompson, Donald B

    2007-12-10

    In maize, three isoforms of starch-branching enzyme, SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb, are encoded by the Sbe1a, Sbe2a, and Amylose extender (Ae) genes, respectively. The objective of this research was to explore the effects of null mutations in the Sbe1a and Ae genes alone and in combination in wx background on kernel characteristics and on the morphology and physical behavior of endosperm starch granules. Differences in kernel morphology and weight, starch accumulation, starch granule size and size distribution, starch microstructure, and thermal properties were observed between the ae wx and sbe1a ae wx plants but not between the sbe1a wx mutants when compared to wx. Starch from sbe1a ae wx plants exhibited a larger granule size with a wider gelatinization temperature range and a lower endotherm enthalpy than ae wx. Microscopy shows weaker iodine staining in sbe1a ae wx starch granules. X-ray diffraction revealed A-type crystallinity in wx and sbe1a wx starches and B-type in sbe1a ae wx and ae wx. This study suggests that, while the SBEIIb isoform plays a dominant role in maize endosperm starch synthesis, SBEI also plays a role, which is only observable in the presence of the ae mutation.

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  11. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

  12. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 t to LEO or comanifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 t to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6U smallsat payloads, representing multiple

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry; Hitt, David

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 tons to LEO or co-manifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 tons to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6-unit smallsat payloads

  15. Exploration Clinical Decision Support System: Medical Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Tony; Shetye, Sandeep; Shaw, Tianna (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Clinical Decision Support (ECDS) System project is intended to enhance the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element for extended duration, deep-space mission planning in HRP. A major development guideline is the Risk of "Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Conditions". ECDS attempts to mitigate that Risk by providing crew-specific health information, actionable insight, crew guidance and advice based on computational algorithmic analysis. The availability of inflight health diagnostic computational methods has been identified as an essential capability for human exploration missions. Inflight electronic health data sources are often heterogeneous, and thus may be isolated or not examined as an aggregate whole. The ECDS System objective provides both a data architecture that collects and manages disparate health data, and an active knowledge system that analyzes health evidence to deliver case-specific advice. A single, cohesive space-ready decision support capability that considers all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available at present. Hence, this Task is a newly coordinated development effort by which ECDS and its supporting data infrastructure will demonstrate the feasibility of intelligent data mining and predictive modeling as a biomedical diagnostic support mechanism on manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations has been the research and development of both image and clinical text-based computer-aided patient diagnosis. Human anatomical images displaying abnormal/pathological features have been annotated using controlled terminology templates, marked-up, and then stored in compliance with the AIM standard. These images have been filtered and disease characterized based on machine learning of semantic and quantitative feature vectors. The next phase will evaluate disease treatment response via quantitative linear

  16. An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

  17. Exploring Asynchronous Many-Task Runtime Systems toward Extreme Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Samuel; Baker, Gavin Matthew; Gamell, Marc; Hollman, David; Sjaardema, Gregor; Kolla, Hemanth; Teranishi, Keita; Wilke, Jeremiah J; Slattengren, Nicole; Bennett, Janine Camille

    2015-10-01

    Major exascale computing reports indicate a number of software challenges to meet the dramatic change of system architectures in near future. While several-orders-of-magnitude increase in parallelism is the most commonly cited of those, hurdles also include performance heterogeneity of compute nodes across the system, increased imbalance between computational capacity and I/O capabilities, frequent system interrupts, and complex hardware architectures. Asynchronous task-parallel programming models show a great promise in addressing these issues, but are not yet fully understood nor developed su ciently for computational science and engineering application codes. We address these knowledge gaps through quantitative and qualitative exploration of leading candidate solutions in the context of engineering applications at Sandia. In this poster, we evaluate MiniAero code ported to three leading candidate programming models (Charm++, Legion and UINTAH) to examine the feasibility of these models that permits insertion of new programming model elements into an existing code base.

  18. Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

  19. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  20. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W.

    1996-12-31

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  1. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling.

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  3. Overview of an Integrated Medical System for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Rubin, David

    2013-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with addressing the risk of unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of inflight medical capabilities. The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project within the ExMC element aimed at reducing this risk by improving the medical capabilities available for exploration missions. The EMSD project will demonstrate, on the ground and on ISS, the integration of several components felt to be essential to the delivery of medical care during long ]duration missions outside of low Earth orbit. The components of the EMSD include the electronic medical record, assisted medical procedure software, medical consumables tracking technology and RFID ] tagged consumables, video conferencing capability, ultrasound device and probes (ground demonstration only), peripheral biosensors, and the software to allow communication among the various components (middleware). This presentation seeks to inform our international partners of the goals and objectives of the EMSD and to foster collaboration opportunities related to this and future projects.

  4. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  5. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

  6. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  7. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  8. The Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX); A proposal to explore Didymos system using Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatekin, Özgür

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel concept for ESA's CubeSat Opportunity Payload Intersatellite Network Sensors (COPINS) planned to be deployed from the ESA AIM spacecraft at the Didymos binary asteroid system: the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX). AGEX includes two 3-U CubeSats with geophysical packages that will land on the surface of the small moon of the Didymos system. These geophysical packages will work in synergy on the secondary's surface to fulfill a rich set of scientific and technological mission goals. This includes the measurement of mass during the ballistic descent and landing, and determination of dynamical state, local gravity, geophysical surface properties and sub-surface structure following the landing. As a secondary objective, the assessment of the DART impact on the asteroid dynamical properties will be performed. AGEX will help AIM to meet its science and technology objectives, and will demonstrate the benefits of the deployment of a network of sensors while simultaneously developing technology of relevance to future ESA missions.

  9. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

    2010-01-01

    A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

  11. Performance Assessment of the Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter. D. Layne; Tabb, David; Perry, Jay

    2008-01-01

    A new water recovery system architecture designed to fulfill the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Exploration Policy has been tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This water recovery system architecture evolved from the current state-of-the-art system developed for the International Space Station (ISS). Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing system optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold. First, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase. Second, vapor compression distillation (VCD) technology processes the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removing VOCs from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treating the various waste streams by VCD reduces the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follows, as well as the aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation process further downstream. This paper documents the results of testing this new architecture.

  12. Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

  13. A personal airbag system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0° impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0° impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30° indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  14. Mid-IR Spectra Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars, the higher mass analogues to the T Tauri stars. Because of their higher mass, they are expected form more rapidly than the T Tauri stars. Whether the Herbig Ae/Be stars accrete only from collapsing infalling envelopes or whether accrete through geometrically flattened viscous accretion disks is of current debate. When the Herbig Ae/Be stars reach the main sequence they form a class called Vega-like stars which are known from their IR excesses to have debris disks, such as the famous beta Pictoris. The evolutionary scenario between the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars and the main sequence Vega-like stars is not yet revealed and it bears on the possibility of the presence of Habitable Zone planets around the A stars. Photometric studies of Herbig Ae/Be stars have revealed that most are variable in the optical, and a subset of stars show non-periodic drops of about 2 magnitudes. These drops in visible light are accompanied by changes in their colors: at first the starlight becomes reddened, and then it becomes bluer, the polarization goes from less than 0.1 % to roughly 1% during these minima. The theory postulated by V. Grinnin is that large cometary bodies on highly eccentric orbits occult the star on their way to being sublimed, for systems that are viewed edge-on. This theory is one of several controversial theories about the nature of Herbig Ae/Be stars. A 5 year mid-IR spectrophotometric monitoring campaign was begun by Wooden and Butner in 1992 to look for correlations between the variations in visible photometry and mid-IR dust emission features. Generally the approximately 20 stars that have been observed by the NASA Ames HIFOGS spectrometer have been steady at 10 microns. There are a handful, however, that have shown variable mid-IR spectra, with 2 showing variations in both the continuum and features anti-correlated with visual photometry, and 3 showing variations in the emission

  15. Decryption-decompression of AES protected ZIP files on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Tan Nhat; Pham, Phong Hong; Nguyen, Duc Huu; Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Le, Hung Duc

    2011-10-01

    AES is a strong encryption system, so decryption-decompression of AES encrypted ZIP files requires very large computing power and techniques of reducing the password space. This makes implementations of techniques on common computing system not practical. In [1], we reduced the original very large password search space to a much smaller one which surely containing the correct password. Based on reduced set of passwords, in this paper, we parallel decryption, decompression and plain text recognition for encrypted ZIP files by using CUDA computing technology on graphics cards GeForce GTX295 of NVIDIA, to find out the correct password. The experimental results have shown that the speed of decrypting, decompressing, recognizing plain text and finding out the original password increases about from 45 to 180 times (depends on the number of GPUs) compared to sequential execution on the Intel Core 2 Quad Q8400 2.66 GHz. These results have demonstrated the potential applicability of GPUs in this cryptanalysis field.

  16. AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Yang, B.; Jackson, B.

    2011-12-01

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996. The network provides continuous observations of ecosystem-level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. The current network, including both active and inactive sites, consists of 141 sites in North, Central, and South America. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides data management support for the AmeriFlux network including long-term data storage and dissemination. AmeriFlux offers a broad suite of value-added data products: Level 1 data products at 30 minute or hourly time intervals provided by the site teams, Level 2 data processed by CDIAC and Level 3 and 4 files created using CarboEurope algorithms. CDIAC has developed a relational database to house the vast array of AmeriFlux data and information and a web-based interface to the database, the AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System (http://ameriflux.ornl.gov), to help users worldwide identify, and more recently, download desired AmeriFlux data. AmeriFlux and CDIAC offer numerous value-added AmeriFlux data products (i.e., Level 1-4 data products, biological data) and most of these data products are or will be available through the new data system. Vital site information (e.g., location coordinates, dominant species, land-use history) is also displayed in the new system. The data system provides numerous ways to explore and extract data. Searches can be done by site, location, measurement status, available data products, vegetation types, and by reported measurements just to name a few. Data can be accessed through the links to full data sets reported by a site, organized by types of data products, or by creating customized datasets based on user search criteria. The new AmeriFlux download module contains features intended to ease compliance of the AmeriFlux fair-use data policy, acknowledge the contributions of submitting

  17. Utilizing Radioisotope Power Systems for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has a goal of sending crewed missions to the lunar surface as early as 2015 and no later than 2020. The use of nuclear power sources could aid in assisting crews in exploring the surface and performing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) activities. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide constant sources of electrical power and thermal energy for space applications. RPSs were carried on six of the crewed Apollo missions to power surface science packages, five of which still remain on the lunar surface. Future RPS designs may be able to play a more active role in supporting a long-term human presence. Due to its lower thermal and radiation output, the planned Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) appears particularly attractive for manned applications. The MCNPX particle transport code has been used to model the current SRG design to assess its use in proximity with astronauts operating on the surface. Concepts of mobility and ISRU infrastructure were modeled using MCNPX to analyze the impact of RPSs on crewed mobility systems. Strategies for lowering the radiation dose were studied to determine methods of shielding the crew from the RPSs.

  18. The Exploration of the Pluto System by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan; NASA New Horizons Team

    2016-01-01

    The Pluto system was recently explored by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, making closest approach on 14 July 2015. Pluto's surface displays diverse landforms, terrain ages, albedos, colors, and composition gradients. Evidence is found for a water-ice crust, geologically young surface units, surface ice convection, wind streaks, volatile transport, and glacial flow. Pluto's atmosphere is highly extended, with trace hydrocarbons, a global haze layer, and a surface pressure near 10 microbars. Pluto's diverse surface geology and long term activity raise fundamental questions about how small planets remain active many billions of years (Gyr) after formation. Pluto's large moon Charon displays tectonics and evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition; its North Pole displays puzzling dark terrain. Small satellites Hydra and Nix have higher albedos than expected. In this talk I will summarize the objectives of the New Horizons mission, its scientific payload, and survey key results obtained to date about Pluto and its system of moons.

  19. Announcing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

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  20. Fission Power System Technology for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA is conducting a project to mature Fission Power System (FPS) technology. A primary project goal is to develop viable system options to support future NASA mission needs for nuclear power. The main FPS project objectives are as follows: 1) Develop FPS concepts that meet expected NASA mission power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. 2) Establish a hardware-based technical foundation for FPS design concepts and reduce overall development risk. 3) Reduce the cost uncertainties for FPS and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. 4) Generate the key products to allow NASA decisionmakers to consider FPS as a preferred option for flight development. In order to achieve these goals, the FPS project has two main thrusts: concept definition and risk reduction. Under concept definition, NASA and DOE are performing trade studies, defining requirements, developing analytical tools, and formulating system concepts. A typical FPS consists of the reactor, shield, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). Studies are performed to identify the desired design parameters for each subsystem that allow the system to meet the requirements with reasonable cost and development risk. Risk reduction provides the means to evaluate technologies in a laboratory test environment. Non-nuclear hardware prototypes are built and tested to verify performance expectations, gain operating experience, and resolve design uncertainties.

  1. Orbital Stability of Spacecraft Exploring Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Keaton; Marchis, F.; Bellerose, J.

    2011-05-01

    Space missions to study the composition and formation histories of multiple asteroid systems require the identification of safe orbits for the observing spacecraft. To identify regions of orbital stability, we developed an n-body simulation and Monte Carlo scheme to test a large selection of orbits around the components of multiple asteroid systems. Our n-body program integrates the equations of motion of the spacecraft, asteroid system components, and the sun for 20 days, taking into account solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft and modeling asteroids as systems of rigid points when their shape model is known. We utilized a Monte Carlo scheme to test the stability of polar and retrograde orbits from uniformly distributed starting positions with normally distributed tangential velocities around each component. We present preliminary results of simulations testing hundreds of thousands of polar and retrograde orbits around the components of the 2001 SN263 near-earth triple asteroid system, and the (90) Antiope doublet and (45) Eugenia triple systems in the main-belt. These systems are potential targets for several space mission concepts, including: the Amor mission to visit and land on the components of 2001 SN263, Jones et al. (LPSC 42, #2695, 2011), the Diversity mission to explore several asteroid systems including (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope, Marchis et al. (LPSC 42, #2062, 2011), and the ASTER mission to visit a NEA multiple asteroid, Sukhanov et al. (Cosmic Research 48-5, p. 443-450, 2010). Analysis of stable regions in position and velocity may assist in planning scientific orbits and instrumental specifications for such missions.

  2. Organizing for empowerment: an interview with AES's Roger Sant and Dennis Bakke. Interview by Suzy Wetlaufer.

    PubMed

    Sant, R; Bakke, D

    1999-01-01

    The topic of empowerment is receiving a lot of attention, but how many employees are truly empowered? At the global electricity giant AES Corporation, the answer is all 40,000 of them. In this interview, chairman Roger Sant and CEO Dennis Bakke reflect on their trials and triumphs in creating an exceptional company and explain how their employee-run company works. When they founded AES in 1981, Sant and Bakke set out to create a company where people could have engaging experiences on a daily basis--a company that embodied the principles of fairness, integrity, social responsibility, and fun. Putting those principles into action has created something unique--an ecosystem of real empowerment. What does that system look like? Rather than having a traditional hierarchical chain of command, AES is organized around small teams that are responsible for operations and maintenance. Moreover, AES has eliminated functional departments; there's no corporate marketing division or human resources department. For the system to work, every person must become a well-rounded generalist--a mini-CEO. That, in turn, redefines the jobs of the people at headquarters. Instead of setting strategy and making the "the big decisions," Sant and Bakke act as advisers, guardians of the principles, accountability officers, and chief encouragers. Can other companies successfully adopt the mechanics of such a system? Not unless they first adopt the shared principles that have guided AES since its inception. "Empowerment without values isn't empowerment," says Sant. "It's just technique," adds Bakke.

  3. Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Approach to Enterprise Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauder, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Division has implemented an innovative approach to Enterprise Risk Management under a unique governance structure and streamlined integration model. ESD's mission is to design and build the capability to extend human existence to deep space. The Enterprise consists of three Programs: Space Launch System (SLS), Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). The SLS is a rocket and launch system that will be capable of powering humans, habitats, and support systems to deep space. Orion will be the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. GSDO is modernizing Kennedy's spaceport to launch spacecraft built and designed by both NASA and private industry. ESD's approach to Enterprise Risk Management is commensurate with affordability and a streamlined management philosophy. ESD Enterprise Risk Management leverages off of the primary mechanisms for integration within the Enterprise. The Enterprise integration approach emphasizes delegation of authority to manage and execute the majority of cross-program activities and products to the individual Programs, while maintaining the overall responsibility for all cross-program activities at the Division. The intent of the ESD Enterprise Risk Management approach is to improve risk communication, to avoid replication and/or contradictory strategies, and to minimize overhead process burden. This is accomplished by the facilitation and integration of risk information within ESD. The ESD Division risks, Orion risks, SLS risks, and GSDO risks are owned and managed by the applicable Program. When the Programs have shared risks with multiple consequences, they are jointly owned and managed. When a risk is associated with the integrated system that involves more than one Program in condition, consequence, or mitigation plan, it is considered an Exploration Systems Integration

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial

  5. A personal exploration of the German hospice system.

    PubMed

    Farnon, C

    1996-01-01

    While on vacation in Germany, I explored the German hospice system and its differences from that in the United States. I conducted an informal survey asking 10 individuals who were not associated with hospice work, about end-of-life issues. Knowledge of the hospice movement and of advance directives was found to be quite low. Through contact with German hospice associations, I learned that the modern German hospice movement was inspired by the British example. After a difficult beginning, the German hospice system is growing steadily. Professional providers of end-of-life care are paid according to the traditional fee-for-service system. As suggested by the World Health Organization, pain management is provided according to the three-step analgesic ladder. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal as it is in the United States. A federal self-determination law has not yet been enacted. Overall, the German hospice system has many similarities and a few interesting dissimilarities with that in the United States.

  6. Avionic architecture requirements for Space Exploration Initiative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbella, C. G.; Brown, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group (SATWG) and the results of the first study commissioned by the SATWG, the Space Avionics Requirements Study (SARS). The goal of the SARS task was to show that an open avionics architecture, using modular, standardized components, could be applied across the wide range of systems that comprise the Space Exploration Initiative. The study addressed systems ranging from expendable launch vehicles and the space station to surface systems such as Mars or lunar rovers and habitats. Top-level avionics requirements were derived from characterizations of each of the systems considered. Then a set of avionics subsystems were identified, along with estimates of the numbers and types of modules needed to meet the requirements. Applicability of these results across the infrastructure was then illustrated. In addition to these tasks, critical technologies were identified, characterized, and assessed in terms of their criticality and impact on the program. Design, development, test, and evaluation methods were addressed to identify potential areas of improvement.

  7. Active Learning for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.; Wang, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Physics-based simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. Such codes provide the highest-fidelity representation of system behavior, but are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. For example, conducting an exhaustive sweep over a d-dimensional input parameter space with k-steps along each dimension requires k(sup d) simulation trials (translating into k(sup d) CPU-days for one of our current simulations). An alternative is directed exploration in which the next simulation trials are cleverly chosen at each step. Given the results of previous trials, supervised learning techniques (SVM, KDE, GP) are applied to build up simplified predictive models of system behavior. These models are then used within an active learning framework to identify the most valuable trials to run next. Several active learning strategies are examined including a recently-proposed information-theoretic approach. Performance is evaluated on a set of thirteen synthetic oracles, which serve as surrogates for the more expensive simulations and enable the experiments to be replicated by other researchers.

  8. A tenuous X-ray corona enveloping AE Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, L. A.; Meintjes, P. J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we propose that the observed unpulsed X-ray emission in AE Aquarii is the result of a very tenuous hot corona associated with the secondary star, which is pumped magnetohydrodynamically by the propeller action of the fast rotating white dwarf. It is shown that the closed coronal field of the secondary star envelops a substantial portion of the binary system, including the fast rotating magnetized white dwarf. This implies that the propeller outflow of material in AE Aquarii is initiated inside an enveloping magnetic cavity. The outflow crossing the secondary dead-zone field constitutes a βgen = (8πρv2esc/B2) >> 1 plasma, acting as a magnetohydrodynamic generator resulting in the induction of field-aligned currents in these closed magnetospheric circuits where βcir = (8πnkT/B2) << 1. The Ohmic heating of the coronal circuit can readily account for a Tx >= 107 K plasma in the coronal flux tubes connecting the generator and the stellar surface. Further, the bremsstrahlung losses of the thermal electrons in the coronal circuit can readily drive the observed unpulsed X-ray luminosity of Lx ~ 1031 ergs -1, which correlates with the luminosity and relatively large source implied by recent XMM-Newton observations.

  9. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A number of problems related to the design, construction and evaluation of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle and its control and operating systems intended for an unmanned exploration of Mars are studied. Vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain sensing and modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of samples are included.

  10. The Exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  11. Locating the Accretion Footprint on a Herbig Ae Star: MWC 480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Hamaguchi, K.; Schneider, G.; Stecklum, B.; Woodgate, B. E.; McCleary, J. E.; Williger, G. M.; Sitko, M. L.; Menard, F.; Henning, Th.; Brittain, S.; Troutmann, M.; Donehew, B.; Hines, D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Rudy, R. J.; Day, A. M.; Shenoy, A.; Wilner, D.; Silverston, M.; Bouret, J.-C.; Clampin, M.; Petre, R.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion is a fundamental process which establishes the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk and the final properties of the forming star. In solar-type stars, the star-disk coupling is determined by the magnetic field structure, which is responsible for funneling material from the disk midplane to higher latitudes on the star. Here, we use pan-chromatic data for the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 to address whether similar processes occur in intermediate-mass stars. MWC 480 has X-ray emission typical of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, but with 5-9 x more photoelectric absorption than expected from optical and FUV data. We consider 3 sources for the absorption: the disk absorption in a wind or jet, and accretion. While we detect the disk in scattered light in are-analysis of archival HST data. the data are consistent with grazing illumination of the dust disk. We find that MWC 480's disk is stratified, geometrically thin, and is not responsible for the observed photoelectric absorption. MWC 480 drives a bipolar jet, but with a mass loss rate which is low compared to other Herbig Ae stars, where the outflow is more favorably oriented and enhanced photoelectric absorption is not seen. This excludes a jet or wind origin for the enhanced photoelectric absorption. We compare MWC 480's 0 VI emission with other Herbig Ae stars. The distribution of the emission in inclination, and lack of a correlation of profile shape and system inclination excludes equatorially-confined accretion for the FUSE Herbig Ae stars. The photoelectric absorption data further suggest that the accretion footprint on MWC 480 and other Herbig Ae stars is located at high temperate, rather than polar, latitudes. These findings support the presence of funneled accretion in MWC 480 and Herbig Ae stars, strengthening the parallel to T Tauri stars.

  12. Crustal stress, seismicity, acoustic emission (AE), and tectonics: the Kefallinì;a (Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; Ventrice, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.

    2009-04-01

    New inferences - confirming previous results (see references)- are presented dealing with a few years Acoustic Emission (AE) records collected at Kefallinìa (Ionian Islands, Greece). A physical distinction between HF (high frequency) vs. LF (low frequency) AE is required. Step-wise changes of the AE underground conductivity are evidenced, and can be suitably handled. "Smooth" results concern (i) the annual variation, (ii) some long-lasting stress "solitons" crossing through the area, and (iii) tidal effects. In particular, every AE station can be operated like a monitoring station both for Earth's tides and for the free oscillations of the Earth. In addition, Kefallinìa exhibits a much peculiar groundwater circulation, in which conduit flow is dominant, that originates a specific (and unique) AE effect. By means of AE time-series analysis, "extreme" or "catastrophic" events can be also monitored and possibly related to relevant tectonic occurrences (either earthquakes, or maybe other occasional phenomena). They can be investigated, and have a regional - rather than local - character. Therefore, every interpretation based on a single station record - being biased by some arbitrariness - can only result indicative. A standardized procedure and software is proposed for routine AE data handling and analysis. References.: Lagios et al., 2004. In Proc. SCI 2004 (The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatic), Orlando, Florida, July 1004, 6 pp. Poscolieri et al., 2006. In. G. Cello and B. D. Malamud, (eds), 2006. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publ., 261, 63-78. Poscolieri et al., 2006a. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 961-971.

  13. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  14. UWB Tracking System Design for Lunar/Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar/Mars rovers during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. The UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties such as high data rate, fine time resolution, low power spectral density, and multipath immunity. A two-cluster prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Angle Of Arrival (AOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. An AOA technique using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) information is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. After the UWB radio at each cluster is used to obtain the TDOA estimates from the UWB signal sent from the target, the TDOA data is converted to AOA data to find the angle of arrival, assuming this is a far field application. Since the distance between two clusters is known, the target position is computed by a simple triangulation. Simulations show that the average tracking error at a range of 610 meters is 2.7595 meters, less than 0.5% of the tracking range. Outdoor tests to track the SCOUT vehicle (The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed) near the Meteor Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona were performed on September 12-13, 2005. The tracking performance was obtained with less than 1% tracking error at ranges up to 2000 feet. No RF interference with on-board GPS, video, voice and telemetry systems was detected. Outdoor tests demonstrated the UWB tracking capability.

  15. Exploring the properties of the DDO system using synthetic colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripicco, Michael J.; Bell, R. A.

    1991-08-01

    The properties of the David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) system (which uses bandpasses centered at about 3450, 3800, 4180, 4250, 4500, 4850, and 5150 A, referred to as 35, 38, 41, 42, 45, 48, and 51 filters) are explored by applying synthetic colors. Using DDO colors for a sample of stars for which spectrophotometric data were reported by Gunn and Stryker (1983), the correctness of the transmission profiles of the filters was established. It is shown that the presence of MgH lines in the 48 bandpass is an important reason why cool dwarfs and giants are separated in the C(45-48) vs C(42-45) diagram. It was found that including SiH lines in the spectra improved the agreement between observed and computed C(41-45) colors for dwarfs.

  16. Mission building blocks for outer solar system exploration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D.; Tarver, P.; Moore, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the technological building blocks required for exploring the outer planets with maximum scientific yields under stringent resource constraints. Two generic spacecraft types are considered: the Mariner and the Pioneer. Following a discussion of the outer planet mission constraints, the evolutionary development of spacecraft, probes, and propulsion building blocks is presented. Then, program genealogies are shown for Pioneer and Mariner missions and advanced propulsion systems to illustrate the soundness of a program based on spacecraft modification rather than on the development of new spacecraft for each mission. It is argued that, for minimum costs, technological advancement should occur in an evolutionary manner from mission to mission. While this strategy is likely to result in compromises on specific missions, the realization of the overall objectives calls for an advance commitment to the entire mission series.

  17. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both the 105 t Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, offer opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads and a new class of secondary payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle, delivering unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3.

  18. AE Monitoring and Analysis of HVOF Thermal Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, N. H.; Ahmed, R.; Reuben, R. L.; Allcock, B.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents an in situ monitoring of HVOF thermal spraying process through an acoustic emission (AE) technique in an industrial coating chamber. Single layer thermal spraying on substrate was carried out through slits. Continuous multilayer thermal spraying onto the sample without slit was also conducted. The AE was measured using a broadband piezoelectric AE sensor positioned on the back of the substrate. A mathematical model has been developed to determine the total kinetic energy of particles impacting the substrate through slits. Results of this work demonstrate that AE associated with particle impacts can be used for in situ monitoring of coating process. Results also show that the amplitude and AE energy is related to the spray gun transverse speed and the oxy-fuel pressure. The measured AE energy was found to vary with the number of particles impacting the substrate, determined using the mathematical model.

  19. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  20. Systems budgets architecture and development for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Shan; Flagey, Nicolas; Szeto, Kei; Murowinski, Rick; McConnachie, Alan

    2016-08-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project is an enterprise to upgrade the existing Canada-France- Hawaii observatory into a spectroscopic facility based on a 10 meter-class telescope. As such, the project relies on engineering requirements not limited only to its instruments (the low, medium and high resolution spectrographs) but for the whole observatory. The science requirements, the operations concept, the project management and the applicable regulations are the basis from which these requirements are initially derived, yet they do not form hierarchies as each may serve several purposes, that is, pertain to several budgets. Completeness and consistency are hence the main systems engineering challenges for such a large project as MSE. Special attention is devoted to ensuring the traceability of requirements via parametric models, derivation documents, simulations, and finally maintaining KAOS diagrams and a database under IBM Rational DOORS linking them together. This paper will present the architecture of the main budgets under development and the associated processes, expand to highlight those that are interrelated and how the system, as a whole, is then optimized by modelling and analysis of the pertinent system parameters.

  1. Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Peña, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

  2. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.

    2012-04-01

    Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System Misha Krassovski and Tom Boden Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production each year at global, regional, and national spatial scales. These estimates are vital to climate change research given the strong evidence suggesting fossil-fuel emissions are responsible for unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. The CDIAC fossil-fuel emissions time series are based largely on annual energy statistics published for all nations by the United Nations (UN). Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751 before the Industrial Revolution. From these core fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series, CDIAC has developed a number of additional data products to satisfy modeling needs and to address other questions aimed at improving our understanding of the global carbon cycle budget. For example, CDIAC also produces a time series of gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates and isotopic (e.g., C13) emissions estimates. The gridded data are generated using the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011) and provide monthly and annual estimates for 1751-2008 at 1° latitude by 1° longitude resolution. These gridded emission estimates are being used in the latest IPCC Scientific Assessment (AR4). Isotopic estimates are possible thanks to detailed information for individual nations regarding the carbon content of select fuels (e.g., the carbon signature of natural gas from Russia). CDIAC has recently developed a relational database to house these baseline emissions estimates and associated derived products and a web-based interface to help users worldwide query these data holdings. Users can identify, explore and download desired CDIAC

  3. Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carlé Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners

  4. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  5. Polarimetric Exploration of Solar System Small Bodies: Search for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2015-08-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of our solar system and exoplanetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. These goals can be realized with the inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures, like fingerprints, much can be learned about the scattering object. Although polarization, in general, is elliptical by nature, special cases such as linear and circular polarimetric signatures provide insight into the various types of scattering media and are valuable tools to be developed. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. The search for habitability can benefit from spectrophotopolarimetry. While linear polarization of reflected light by solar system objects (planetary atmospheres, satellites, rings systems, comets, asteroids, dust, etc.) provides insight into the scattering characteristics of aerosols and hazes in atmospheres and surficial properties of atmosphereless objects, circular polarization and related chirality) or handedness, a property of molecules that exhibit mirror-image symmetry, similar to right and left hands) can serve as diagnostic of biological activity. All known life forms on earth are chiral and pre-dominantly left-handed. However, many of these applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numerical/retrieval methods. I will present a review of the field, with advances made in instrumentation, measurements and applications to prospective missions.

  6. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver an overhead crane toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite standing between vertical workstands. The crane will lift FUSE to move it onto the Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  7. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Suspended by a crane in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is lowered onto a circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF). FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  8. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While a crane lifts NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, help guide it toward the circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  9. Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin

    Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.

  10. Time-frequency Analyses of AE Signals in YBCO Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Takemoto, N.

    AE (Acoustic Emission) measurements are well known methods to detect mechanical signals from superconducting coil The mechanical signals could be generated by micro cracks of epoxy resins, the motion of superconductors and the thermal expansion of superconductors, which were generated before and/or after a quench. We have presented a time-frequency visualization of AE signals as a method to detect the quench. We can detect very small AE signals regardless of lectromagnetic noises and can find the time of the AE occurrence and the frequency bands of AE signals by using this method. Recently it has been presented that YBCO superconductors are delaminated and degraded by a transverse tensile stress. The delamination is accompanied with AE signals. Also, it is known that amplitudes and frequency bands of AE signals vary with causes of AE occurrence. In this paper, we present time-frequency analyses of AE signa s caused by the delamination of a YBCO superconductor and the micro of epoxy resins.

  11. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  13. MEASURING THE STELLAR ACCRETION RATES OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Donehew, Brian; Brittain, Sean E-mail: sbritt@clemson.edu

    2011-02-15

    The accretion rate of young stars is a fundamental characteristic of these systems. While accretion onto T Tauri stars has been studied extensively, little work has been done on measuring the accretion rate of their intermediate-mass analogs, the Herbig Ae/Be stars. Measuring the stellar accretion rate of Herbig Ae/Bes is not straightforward both because of the dearth of metal absorption lines available for veiling measurements and the intrinsic brightness of Herbig Ae/Be stars at ultraviolet wavelengths where the brightness of the accretion shock peaks. Alternative approaches to measuring the accretion rate of young stars by measuring the luminosity of proxies such as the Br {gamma} emission line have not been calibrated. A promising approach is the measurement of the veiling of the Balmer discontinuity. We present measurements of this veiling as well as the luminosity of Br {gamma}. We show that the relationship between the luminosity of Br {gamma} and the stellar accretion rate for classical T Tauri stars is consistent with Herbig Ae stars but not Herbig Be stars. We discuss the implications of this finding for understanding the interaction of the star and disk for Herbig Ae/Be stars.

  14. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  15. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  16. ATHLETE: A Limbed Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems project funded by NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb.

  17. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Spilker, Thomas; Reh, Kim; Smith, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The development of the Ares V launch vehicle will provide levels of performance unseen since the days of Apollo. This capability, like the Saturn V before it, is being developed primarily for crewed lunar missions. However, the tremendous jump in performance offered by the Ares V launch system has tremendous potential for the furtherance of robotic solar system exploration missions as well. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that Ares V could deliver 5 times the payload to Mars as compared to the most capable US expendable launch vehicle available today. Beyond Mars, the outer planets offer a number of high-priority investigations with compelling science. Presently, missions to these destinations are only achievable using indirect flights with gravity assist trajectories and, in many cases, suffer from long flight times. An Ares V with an upper stage could capture these missions using direct flights with shorter interplanetary transfer times that would enable extensive in situ investigations and possibly the return of samples to Earth. This paper lays out an estimate of Ares V performance for moderate and high C3 missions, and goes on to discuss a range of revolutionary mission concepts that could be enabled by this significant in-crease in launch capability.

  18. Autonomous exploration system: Techniques for interpretation of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Gigi; Eberlein, Susan

    1989-01-01

    An on-board autonomous exploration system that fuses data from multiple sensors, and makes decisions based on scientific goals is being developed using a series of artificial neural networks. Emphasis is placed on classifying minerals into broad geological categories by analyzing multispectral data from an imaging spectrometer. Artificial neural network architectures are being investigated for pattern matching and feature detection, information extraction, and decision making. As a first step, a stereogrammetry net extracts distance data from two gray scale stereo images. For each distance plane, the output is the probable mineral composition of the region, and a list of spectral features such as peaks, valleys, or plateaus, showing the characteristics of energy absorption and reflection. The classifier net is constructed using a grandmother cell architecture: an input layer of spectral data, an intermediate processor, and an output value. The feature detector is a three-layer feed-forward network that was developed to map input spectra to four geological classes, and will later be expanded to encompass more classes. Results from the classifier and feature detector nets will help to determine the relative importance of the region being examined with regard to current scientific goals of the system. This information is fed into a decision making neural net along with data from other sensors to decide on a plan of activity. A plan may be to examine the region at higher resolution, move closer, employ other sensors, or record an image and transmit it back to Earth.

  19. Imaging Spectroscopy Instrumentation for Earth Science and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert; Vane, Gregg

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method based in physics that is used to investigate questions and test hypotheses across an extraordinary range of scientific disciplines as well as for quantitative applications. In the late 1970's the concept for an instrument that measured spectra for every point in an image was conceived and proposed using the most advanced infrared detector array available at the time. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer as developed and first flew in 1982. New discoveries were made with the first flights of this instrument. Since that time increasingly advanced airborne and space imaging spectrometer have been developed and deployed. These instruments have been used for science and applications on Earth and for science and exploration throughout the solar system. This talk presents the advances in imaging spectrometer instrumentation and key discoveries of imaging spectrometers for Earth and elsewhere in our solar system. It also presents examples of new imaging spectrometer architectures enabled by new detectors and spectrometer design forms as well as some of the science and applications objectives that can be pursued ranging 50 micron spatial imaging for planetary surface rovers to spectroscopic instruments measuring exoplanet composition and structure.

  20. PDS 144: The First Confirmed Herbig Ae-Herbig Ae Wide Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbeck, J. B.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Tofflemire, B. M.; Brown, A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Arraki, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Woodgate, B.; Petre, R.; Daly, B.; Grogin, N. A.; Bonfield, D. G.; Williger, G. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5.35" on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83 deg inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N - the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch HST imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 yr baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N & S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 +/- 2 pc with an age of 5 - 10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of HH knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7 deg +/- 6 deg on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane with radial velocity data, we measure the inclination of PDS 144 S to be i = 73 deg +/- 7 deg. The radial velocity of the jets from PDS 144 N & S indicates they, and therefore their disks, are misaligned by 25 deg +/- 9 deg.. This degree of misalignment is similar to that seen in T-Tauri wide binaries.

  1. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and

  2. Design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Curt; Chitwood, Denny; Demann, Brian; Ducheny, Jordan; Hampton, Richard; Kuhns, Jesse; Mercer, Amy; Newman, Shawn; Patrick, Chris; Polakowski, Tony

    1994-01-01

    The design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system is presented. The system elements include subsystems for transportation of material from earth to Mars, study of the Martian north pole, power generation, and communications. Early next century, three Atlas 2AS launch vehicles will be used to insert three Earth-Mars transfer vehicles, or buses, into a low-energy transfer orbit. Capture at Mars will be accomplished by aerobraking into a circular orbit. Each bus contains four landers and a communications satellite. Six of the twelve total landers will be deployed at 60 deg intervals along 80 deg N, and the remaining six landers at 5 deg intervals along 30 deg E from 65 deg N to 90 deg N by a combination of retrorockets and parachutes. The three communications satellites will be deployed at altitudes of 500 km in circular polar orbits that are 120 deg out of phase. These placements maximize the polar coverage of the science and communications subsystems. Each lander contains scientific equipment, two microrovers, power supplies, communications equipment, and a science computer. The lander scientific equipment includes a microweather station, seismometer, thermal probe, x-ray spectrometer, camera, and sounding rockets. One rover, designed for short-range (less than 2 km) excursions from the lander, includes a mass spectrometer for mineral analysis, an auger/borescope system for depth profiling, a deployable thermal probe, and charge coupled device cameras for terrain visualization/navigation. The second rover, designed for longer-range (2-5 km) excursions from the lander, includes radar sounding/mapping equipment, a seismometer, and laser ranging devices. Power for all subsystems is supplied by a combination of solar cells, Ni-H batteries, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Communications are sequenced from rovers, sounding rockets, and remote sensors to the lander, then to the satellites, through the Deep Space Network to and from earth.

  3. Fracture Analysis Based on Quantitative Evaluation of Microcracking in Ceramics Using AE Source Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Shuichi; Ishiwata, Kohei

    Quantitative detection of microcracks during fracture process of alumina was carried out by AE source characterization, which enables the quantitative characterization of the size, nucleation velocity and fracture mode, as well as nucleation time and location of individual microcracks. Fracture toughness tests of SENB specimens of two types of alumina with different grain size and purity were carried out in air and water. AE signals emitted from microcrackings were detected by piezoelectric transducers. The combined response function of the specimen and measurement system was experimentally determined using a pencil lead breaking as a simulated source. Then AE source function which describes the nature of microcrack nucleation was determined by the inverse calculation using obtained response function and detected signal. Consequently, it was clarified that the size of microcrack in water was larger than that in air for both alumina and larger microcracks nucleated in water resulted in the degradation of fracture resistance.

  4. The application of spread-spectrum system in the area of remote space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Xiaonan

    2009-12-01

    Following the great success of satellite application and aerospace engineering,China has formally startedup moon exploration project,in the future China will execute exploration of more remote object.In this paper, combining the development step of Chinese deep space exploration, the author introduces the current situation of deep exploration techniques home and abroad, meanwhile the author briefly compares the advantage and disadvantage of spread-spectrum deep exploration system and USB deep exploration system, and the author also briefly describes the important status of intending spread-spectrum deep exploration system in the area of deep space exploration. According to the characteristic of deep space exploration, this paper analyzes the problem and key techniques such as spread-spectrum measurement system of remote space orbit, reception of the weak signal and high efficient coding and decoding, super large aperture antenna and antenna array combination technique, high power control amplifier technique, insulating of transmitting and receiving signals applied in deep space exploration,at the same time,the author proposes evolution suggestion of spread-spectrum exploration technique applied in deep space exploration. Meanwhile,through combining the current situation of spread-spectrum exploration system home and abroad,the author analyzes a few key techniques of spread-spectrum exploration system applied in deep space exploration.

  5. Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing team: An examination of LA-ICP-AES in a mobile configuration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for field-deployable elemental analysis devices that are safer, faster, and less expensive than the fixed laboratory procedures now used to screen hazardous waste sites. As a response to this need, the Technology Integration Program (TIP) created a mobile, field-deployable laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) sampling and analysis prototype. Although the elemental. screening prototype has been successfully field-tested, continued marketing and technical development efforts are required to transfer LA-ICP-AES technology to the commercial sector. TIP established and supported a student research and design group called the Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing (IDMM) team to advance the technology transfer of mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES. The IDMM team developed a conceptual design (which is detailed in this report) for a mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES sampling and analysis system, and reports the following findings: Mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES is commercially viable. Eventual regulatory acceptance of field-deployable LA-ICP-AES, while not a simple process, is likely. Further refinement of certain processes and components of LA-ICP-AES will enhance the device`s sensitivity and accuracy.

  6. A Ribosomal Protein AgRPS3aE from Halophilic Aspergillus glaucus Confers Salt Tolerance in Heterologous Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xilong; Liu, Yiling; Xie, Lixia; Liu, Xiaodan; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    High salt in soils is one of the abiotic stresses that significantly reduces crop yield, although saline lands are considered potential resources arable for agriculture. Currently, genetic engineering for enhancing salt tolerance is being tested as an efficient and viable strategy for crop improvement. We previously characterized a large subunit of the ribosomal protein RPL44, which is involved in osmotic stress in the extremely halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. Here, we screened another ribosomal protein (AgRPS3aE) that also produced high-salt tolerance in yeast. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that AgRPS3aE encodes a 29.2 kDa small subunit of a ribosomal protein belonging to the RPS3Ae family in eukaryotes. To further confirm its protective function against salinity, we expressed AgRPS3aE in three heterologous systems, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and two model plants Arabidopsis and tobacco. Overexpression of AgRPS3aE in all tested transformants significantly alleviated stress symptoms compared with controls, suggesting that AgRPS3aE functions not only in fungi but also in plants. Considering that ribosomal proteins are housekeeping components in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, we propose that AgRPS3aE is one of the optimal genes for improving high-salt tolerance in crops. PMID:25642759

  7. Uses of AES and RGA to study neutron-irradiation-enhanced segregation to internal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gessel, G.R.; White, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The high flux of point defects to sinks during neutron irradiation can result in segregation of impurity or alloy additions to metals. Such segregants can be preexisting or produced by neutron-induced transmutations. This segregation is known to strongly influence swelling and mechanical properties. Over a period of years, facilities have been developed at ORNL incorporating AES and RGA to examine irradiated materials. Capabilities of this system include in situ tensile fracture at elevated temperatures under ultrahigh vacuum 10/sup -10/ torr and helium release monitoring. AES and normal incidence inert ion sputtering are exploited to examine segregation at the fracture surface and chemical gradients near the surface.

  8. NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  9. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to control of a mobile planetary vehicle according to a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: (1) overall systems analysis; (2) vehicle configuration and dynamics; (3) toroidal wheel design and evaluation; (4) on-board navigation systems; (5) satellite-vehicle navigation systems; (6) obstacle detection systems; (7) terrain sensing, interpretation and modeling; (8) computer simulation of terrain sensor-path selection systems; and (9) chromatographic systems design concept studies. The specific tasks which have been undertaken are defined and the progress which has been achieved during the period July 1, 1971 to December 31, 1971 is summarized.

  10. NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle, Thermal Protection System, Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Reuther, James

    2008-01-01

    -Destructive Evaluation (NDE), and in integration of and manufacturing heat shield as a system. The capabilities of the two heat shield systems including failure modes via testing and analysis, once established, can serve the Probe Community and future mission designers to inner and outer planetary exploration very well. For example, missions to Venus, Mars and Titan can use either one of the system by selecting the mission design parameters that utilizes the full characteristics of these system to make use of system efficiency that will result in reduced heat shield mass, system robustness that will enhance mission success and cost. We plan to present significant progresses of the past three years and highlight the significant contributions CEV TPS ADP Project has made to advance the state of the art in Thermal Protection System technology that has and will continue to benefit future entry probe missions.

  11. The invention that opened the solar system to exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minovitch, Michael A.

    2010-05-01

    The invention of gravity-propelled interplanetary space travel (also known as "gravity-assist trajectories") in the early 1960s broke the high-energy barrier of classical space travel based on reaction propulsion, and made possible the exploration of the entire solar system with instrumented spacecraft. In this concept, a free-fall spacecraft is launched from a launch planet P 1 to a nearby planet P 2 such that its gravitational field (superimposed on the gravitational field of the Sun) catapults the vehicle to another planet P 3, which in turn is used to repeat the process. Thus, through a series of planetary encounters, a gravity-propelled trajectory P 1-P 2-P 3-P 4-…-P N is generated. This paper describes how the invention was conceived and how the difficult mathematical problem of computing the trajectories was solved in order to numerically investigate and use the invention in actual missions. The crucial roles played by the UCLA Computing Facility and the Departments of Mathematics and Physics are also described.

  12. Explorations of Mariana Arc Volcanoes Reveal New Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Baker, E. T.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Lupton, J. E.; Resing, J. A.; Massoth, G. J.; Nakamura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Some 20,000 km of volcanic arcs, roughly one-third the length of the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system, rim the western Pacific Ocean. Compared to 25 years of hydrothermal investigations along MORs, exploration of similar activity on the estimated ~600 submarine arc volcanoes is only beginning [Ishibashi and Urabe, 1995; De Ronde et al., 2003]. To help alleviate this under-sampling, the R/V T. G. Thompson was used in early 2003 (9 February to 5 March) to conduct the first complete survey of hydrothermal activity along 1200 km of the Mariana intra-oceanic volcanic arc. This region includes both the Territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The expedition mapped over 50 submarine volcanoes with stunning new clarity (Figures 1 and 2) and found active hydrothermal discharge at 12 sites, including the southern back-arc site. This includes eight new sites along the arc (West Rota, Northwest Rota, E. Diamante, Zealandia Bank, Maug Caldera, Ahyi, Daikoku, and Northwest Eifuku) and four sites of previously known hydrothermal activity (Seamount X, Esmeralda, Kasuga 2, and Nikko) (Figures 1 and 2). The mapping also fortuitously provided a ``before'' image of the submarine flanks of Anatahan Island, which had its first historical eruption on 10 May 2003 (Figures 1 and 3).

  13. Nanostructured Thermal Protection Systems for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Chen, Y. K.; Squire, T.; Srivastava, D.; Allen, G., Jr.; Stackpoole, M.; Goldstein, H. E.; Venkatapathy, E.; Loomis, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    Strong research and development programs in nanotechnology and Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) exist at NASA Ames. Conceptual studies have been undertaken to determine if new, nanostructured materials (composites of existing TPS materials and nanostructured composite fibers) could improve the performance of TPS. To this end, we have studied various candidate heatshields, some composed of existing TPS materials (with known material properties), to provide a baseline for comparison with others that are admixtures of such materials and a nanostructured material. In the latter case, some assumptions were made about the thermal conductivity and strength of the admixture, relative to the baseline TPS material. For the purposes of this study, we have made the conservative assumption that only a small fraction of the remarkable properties of carbon nanotubes (for example) will be realized in the material properties of the admixtures employing them. The heatshields studied included those for Sharp leading edges (appropriate to out-of-orbit entry and aero-maneuvering), probes, an out-of-orbit Apollo Command Module (as a surrogate for NASA's new Crew Exploration Vehicle [CEV]), a Mars Sample Return Vehicle and a large heat shield for Mars aerocapture missions. We report on these conceptual studies, which show that in some cases (not all), significant improvements in the TPS can be achieved through the use of nanostructured materials.

  14. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part I—Method of Transportation Codes 10Vessel 11Vessel Containerized 12Vessel (Barge) 20Rail...

  15. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part 30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part...

  16. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part 30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part...

  17. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part 30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part...

  18. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part 30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part...

  19. Nuclear electric power and propulsion system for earth orbital and solar system exploration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system, selection of thrusters and propellant. Outer planet exploration requirements are compared to earth orbital power requirements and a nuclear electric power system with a power level of 200 to 250 kWe is recommended. Current technology appears capable of accomplishing the early missions and growth potential exists for accomplishing more difficult later missions without significant changes in the basic system.

  20. The Epidemic Dynamics of Four Major Lineages of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Strains After Their Introduction into China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haiyan; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-05-01

    The epidemic of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China was driven by multiple lineages of HIV-1 viruses introduced in the 1990s and increasing; it is important to investigate their epidemic status in China. In this study, we download all available CRF01_AE sequences (n = 2,931) from China and their associated epidemiological information in the Los Alamos HIV database for our analysis to explore their epidemic status in China. The results showed there were 11 distinct clusters of CRF01_AE strains in China, and 4 major clusters that accounted for 80.0% (1,793/2,241) of Chinese CRF01_AE strains in total had led a real epidemic. Clusters 1 and 2 were epidemic among heterosexuals and injecting drug users in southern and southwestern China, while Clusters 3 and 4 were predominant among homosexuals in eastern and central China and northeastern China, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains detected in heterosexuals had the most complex characteristic, underscoring its important role in the occurrence of multiple CRF01_AE lineages. Furthermore, epidemic history reconstruction analysis using the birth-death susceptible-infected-removed package revealed that the four clusters had gone through varying epidemic stages. Clusters 2 and 3 were near the peak of the local epidemic, while Clusters 1 and 4 were just in the very early stage of their epidemic. The epidemic status of CRF01_AE clusters in the future is mainly determined by the effect of prevention and control. Our study provides new insights into the understanding of the epidemic dynamics of CRF01_AE in China.

  1. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

  2. NASA Langley Research Center Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate Participation in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, Jennifer; Troutman, Patrick A.; Saucillo, Rudolph; Cirillo, William M.; Cavanaugh, Steve; Stromgren, Chel

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate (SACD) began studying human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) in the year 1999. This included participation in NASA s Decadal Planning Team (DPT), the NASA Exploration Team (NExT), Space Architect studies and Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) architecture studies that were used in formulating the new Vision for Space Exploration. In May of 2005, NASA initiated the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The primary outputs of the ESAS activity were concepts and functional requirements for the Crewed Exploration Vehicle (CEV), its supporting launch vehicle infrastructure and identification of supporting technology requirements and investments. An exploration systems analysis capability has evolved to support these functions in the past and continues to evolve to support anticipated future needs. SACD had significant roles in supporting the ESAS study team. SACD personnel performed the liaison function between the ESAS team and the Shuttle/Station Configuration Options Team (S/SCOT), an agency-wide team charged with using the Space Shuttle to complete the International Space Station (ISS) by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The most significant of the identified issues involved the ability of the Space Shuttle system to achieve the desired number of flights in the proposed time frame. SACD with support from the Kennedy Space Center performed analysis showing that, without significant investments in improving the shuttle processing flow, that there was almost no possibility of completing the 28-flight sequence by the end of 2010. SACD performed numerous Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) trades to define top level element requirements and establish architecture propellant needs. Configuration trades were conducted to determine the impact of varying degrees of segmentation of the living capabilities of the combined descent stage, ascent stage, and other

  3. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  4. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Garry, W. B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K. V.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  5. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  6. Some aspects of AE application in tool condition monitoring

    PubMed

    Jemielniak

    2000-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is rather a well-known form of non-destructive testing. In the last few years the technology of the AE measurement has been expanded to cover the area of tool condition monitoring. The paper presents some experience of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) in such applications of AE. It provides an interpretation of common AE signal distortions and possible solutions to avoid them. Furthermore, a characteristic study of several different AE and ultrasonic sensors being used in WUT is furnished. Evaluation of the applicability of some basic measures of acoustic emission for tool condition monitoring is also presented in the paper. Finally paper presents a method of the catastrophic tool failure detection in turning, which uses symptoms other than the direct magnitude AERMS signal. The method is based on the statistical analysis of the distributions of the AERMS signal.

  7. AE-941 (Neovastat): a novel multifunctional antiangiogenic compound.

    PubMed

    Gingras, D; Batist, G; Béliveau, R

    2001-10-01

    AE-941 (Neovastat) is a naturally occurring product extracted from cartilage and has antiangiogenic properties. It has reached Phase III clinical trial evaluation for the treatment of solid tumors (non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and a pivotal Phase II clinical trial in multiple myeloma is ongoing. AE-941 inhibits several steps of the angiogenesis process, including matrix metalloproteinase activities and VEGF signaling pathways. Moreover, AE-941 induces endothelial cell apoptosis and tissue-type plasminogen activator activity, thus suggesting that it is a multifunctional antiangiogenic drug. Results from Phase I/II clinical trials indicate that AE-941, given orally, is well tolerated. Moreover, the median survival time in patients with renal cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer was significantly longer in patients receiving high doses of AE-941 compared to low doses.

  8. Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that

  9. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson,Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  10. NASA'S Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: An international approach toward bringing science and human exploration together for mutual benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and explora-tion, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. The institute is a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdis-ciplinary, research-focused collaborations. Its relative-ly large domestic teams work together along with in-ternational partners in both traditional and virtual set-tings to bring disparate approaches together for mutual benefit. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. com-plement of the Institute and how it is engaging the in-ternational science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. The Institute is centered on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. It focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science cen-tered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Mar-tian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environ-ments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. The technical focus ranges from investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. SSERVI enhances the widening knowledgebase of planetary research by acting as a bridge between several differ-ent groups and bringing together researchers from the scientific and exploration communities, multiple disci-plines across the full range of planetary sciences, and domestic and

  11. How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

  12. Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

  13. Future NASA solar system exploration activities: A framework for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Bevan M.; Ramlose, Terri; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primary missions comprising the program are described.

  14. OPTICAL MASS FLOW DIAGNOSTICS IN HERBIG AE/BE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Johns-Krull, Christopher M. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2015-09-01

    We examine a broad range of mass flow diagnostics in a large sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES) using high resolution optical spectra. The Hβ and He i 5876 Å lines show the highest incidence of P Cygni (30%) and inverse P Cygni (14%) morphologies, respectively. The Fe ii 4924 Å line also shows a large incidence of P Cygni profiles (11%). We find support for many of the conclusions reached in a study based on the analysis of the He i λ10830 line in a large sample of HAEBES. Namely, HAEBES exhibit smaller fractions of both blueshifted absorption (i.e., mass outflow) and redshifted absorption (i.e., mass infall or accretion) than their lower mass cousins, the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). In particular, the optical data supports the conclusion that HAEBES displaying redshifted absorption, in general, show maximum redshifted absorption velocities that are smaller fractions of their stellar escape velocities than is found for CTTSs. This suggests that HAEBE accretion flows are originating deeper in the gravitational potentials of their stars than in CTTS systems. In addition, we find a lack of inner disk wind signatures in the blueshifted absorption objects; only stellar wind signatures are clearly observed. These findings, along with the lack of detected magnetic fields around HAEBES, support the idea that large magnetospheres are not prevalent around HAEBES and that accretion flows are instead mediated by significantly smaller magnetospheres with relatively smaller truncation radii (e.g., 1–2 R{sub *}). Redshifted absorption is much more common around Herbig Ae stars than Be stars, suggesting that Herbig Be stars may accrete via a boundary layer rather than along magnetic field lines.

  15. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2009-05-27

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25,000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature.

  16. Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops. PMID:25568015

  17. Exploring Planetary System Evolution Through High-Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging of circumstellar disks provides unique information about planetary system construction and evolution. Several hundred nearby main-sequence stars are known to host debris disks, which are produced by mutual collisions of orbiting planetesimals during a phase thought to coincide with terrestrial planet formation. Therefore, detection of the dust in such systems through scattered near-infrared starlight offers a view of the circumstellar environment during the epoch of planet assembly. We have used ground-based coronagraphic angular differential imaging (ADI) with Keck NIRC2 and Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to investigate disk structures that may act as signposts of planets. ADI and its associated image processing algorithms (e.g., LOCI) are powerful tools for suppressing the stellar PSF and quasistatic speckles that can contaminate disk signal. However, ADI PSF-subtraction also attenuates disk surface brightness in a spatially- and parameter-dependent manner, thereby biasing photometry and compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To account for this disk "self-subtraction," we developed a novel technique to forward model the disk structure and compute a self-subtraction map for a given ADI-processed image. Applying this method to NIRC2 near-IR imaging of the HD 32297 debris disk, we combined the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ADI data with unbiased photometry to measure midplane curvature in the edge-on disk and a break in the disk's radial brightness profile. Such a break may indicate the location of a planetesimal ring that is a source of the light-scattering micron-sized grains. For the HD 61005 debris disk, we examined similar data together with GPI 1.6-micron polarization data and detected the dust ring's swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetry, stellocentric offset, and inner clearing. To study the physical mechanism behind these features, we explored how eccentricity and mutual

  18. Acoustic emission (AE) health monitoring of diaphragm type couplings using neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Shu, Fong; Finlayson, Richard D.; O'Donnell, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the latest results obtained from Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and detection of cracks and/or damage in diaphragm couplings, which are used in some aircraft and engine drive systems. Early detection of mechanical failure in aircraft drive train components is a key safety and economical issue with both military and civil sectors of aviation. One of these components is the diaphragm-type coupling, which has been evaluated as the ideal drive coupling for many application requirements such as high speed, high torque, and non-lubrication. Its flexible axial and angular displacement capabilities have made it indispensable for aircraft drive systems. However, diaphragm-type couplings may develop cracks during their operation. The ability to monitor, detect, identify, and isolate coupling cracks on an operational aircraft system is required in order to provide sufficient advance warning to preclude catastrophic failure. It is known that metallic structures generate characteristic Acoustic Emission (AE) during crack growth/propagation cycles. This phenomenon makes AE very attractive among various monitoring techniques for fault detection in diaphragm-type couplings. However, commercially available systems capable of automatic discrimination between signals from crack growth and normal mechanical noise are not readily available. Positive classification of signals requires experienced personnel and post-test data analysis, which tend to be a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. With further development of automated classifiers, AE can become a fully autonomous fault detection technique requiring no human intervention after implementation. AE has the potential to be fully integrated with automated query and response mechanisms for system/process monitoring and control.

  19. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  20. Cause of the exceptionally high AE average for 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestes, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we focus on the year of 2003 when the AE index was extremely high (AE=341nT, with peak intensity more than 2200nT), this value is almost 100 nT higher when compared with others years of the cycle 23. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data are compared with geomagnetic AE and Dst indices to determine the causes of exceptionally high AE average value. Analyzing the solar wind parameters we found that the annual average speed value was extremely high, approximately 542 km/s (peak value ~1074 km/s). These values were due to recurrent high-speed solar streams from large coronal holes, which stretch to the solar equator, and low-latitude coronal holes, which exist for many solar rotations. AE was found to increase with increasing solar wind speed and decrease when solar wind speed decrease. The cause of the high AE activity during 2003 is the presence of the high-speed corotating streams that contain large-amplitude Alfvén waves throughout the streams, which resulted in a large number of HILDCAAs events. When plasma and field of solar wind impinge on Earth's magnetosphere, the southward field turnings associated with the wave fluctuations cause magnetic reconnection and consequential high levels of AE activity and very long recovery phases on Dst, sometimes lasting until the next stream arrives.

  1. Exploring the Early Bombardment of the Inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W.

    2014-04-01

    The early bombardment history of the Inner Solar System is recorded in a number of interesting places (e.g., the surprisingly high abundance of highly siderophile abundances found in the Earth, Moon, and Mars, the observed impact basins found on Mercury, the Moon and Mars, various properties of main belt asteroids and meteorites, etc.). To date, two dominant scenarios have been used to explain these constraints: (i) most impacts came from the tail end of a monotonically-decreasing impactor population created by planet formation processes, and (ii) most impacts were produced by a terminal cataclysm that caused a spike in the impactor flux starting ~4 Gy ago. Interestingly, using numerical studies linked to the available constraints, we find that both scenarios are needed to explain observations. For (i), we will show that leftover planetesimals from the terrestrial planet region were long-lived enough to hit various worlds long after the end of core formation. The record left behind can be used in interesting ways to probe the nature of terrestrial planet formation. For (ii), we will explore new applications of the so-called Nice model, which provides a plausible dynamical mechanism capable of creating a spike of comets/asteroid impactors. Our results suggest that many "late heavy bombardment" impactors came from an unexpected source, and that they possibly continued to hit Earth, Venus, and Mars well after basin formation terminated on the Moon. Interestingly, the history of the Hadean Earth (ca. 4.0-4.5 billion years ago) may be closely linked to this bombardment. With few known rocks older than ~3.8 Ga, the main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimeter zircon grains. Using our bombardment model, we will argue that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and heating of its uppermost layers. This model not only may explains the Pb-Pb age distribution of ancient zircons but also the absence of most early

  2. In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf

  3. Varied skill set needed for AE (D) role.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    IHEEM's AE (D) Panel plays an important role in managing and administering the UK's only official register of such specialist personnel, and indeed it is the Panel that selects qualified candidates for registration, interviews those considered "the right material", and confers registered AE (D) status on those that Panel members feel have the right combination of professional experience and expertise, academic qualifications, and knowledge, to fulfil the role. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie examines the history of the AE (D) register and Panel, and talks to the latter's chairman, Eric Thomas, to find out more.

  4. The global joule heat production rate and the AE index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, S.; Ahn, B.-H.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-01-01

    The degree of accuracy with which the AE index may be used as a measure of the joule heat production rate is evaluated for a typical substorm event on March 18, 1978, by estimating the global joule heat production rate as a function of time on the basis of data obtained from the IMS's six meridian chains. It is found that, although the AE index is statistically linearly related to the global joule heat production rate, caution is required when one assumes that details of AE index time variations during individual events are representative of those of the joule heat production rate.

  5. Solar Mesosphere Explorer optical-mechanical systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, K. A.; Stuart, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission overview of the Solar Mesosphere Explorer is presented along with design analysis and summaries of results. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer is a spin stabilized satellite carrying a complement of four Ebert-Fastie spectrometers and a four-channel Mersenne radiometer. Description of the spectrometer is given including a telescope and its aberrations. The radiometer is also described with consideration given to isothermal and thermal design, a Winston paraboloid, and optical tolerances. These five instruments are for measuring the earth's ozone density and distribution and providing quantitative data about those processes which govern the formation and destruction of ozone.

  6. Tradespace Exploration for the Engineering of Resilient Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    explored Are there size (i.e., memory , row, column, etc.) limitations to the tool’s capability? Although this question was dropped from the 2010 OR...back (i.e., instant replay ) as well as rewinding, playing back, and entering into the process to take a new TSE path? TSE exploration is performed...are there demo videos or tutorials that can aid in learning how to better and more fully use the tool? Are there size (i.e., memory , row, column

  7. New techniques in astrodynamics for moon systems exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, Stefano

    ESA and NASA scientific missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems will answer fundamental questions on the habitability of icy worlds. The missions include unprecedented challenges, as the spacecraft will be placed in closed, stable orbits near the surface of the moons. This thesis presents methods to design trajectories that tour the moons and ultimately insert the spacecraft into orbits around them, while mitigating the mission costs and/or risks. A first technique is the endgame, a sequence of moon flyby preceding the orbit insertion. Historically, the endgame is designed with two approaches with different results: the vinfinity-leveraging transfer (VILT) approach leads to high-Deltav (hundreds of m/s), short time-of-flight (months) endgames, while the multi-body approach leads to low-Deltav (tens of m/s), long time-of-flight (years) endgames. This work analyzes and develops both approaches. We introduce a fast design method to automatically compute VILT endgames, which were previously designed in an ad-hoc manner. We also derive an important simple quadrature formula for the minimum Deltav attainable with this approach. This formula is the first important result of this work, as it provides a lower bound for assessment studies. We explain and develop the complex multi-body approach introducing the Tisserand-Poincare (T-P) graph, which is the second important result of this work. It provides a link between the two approaches, and shows the intersections between low-energy trajectories around different moons. With the T-P graph we design a five-month transfer between low-altitude orbits at Europa and Ganymede, using almost half the Deltav of the Hohmann transfer. We then focus on missions to low-mass moons, like Enceladus. We show that nontangent VILT (an extension of the traditional VILT) significantly reduce the Deltav while maintaining a satisfactory transfer time (< 4 years in the Saturn system). With a new design method we compute a 52 gravity

  8. An alternative approach to solar system exploration planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Daniel H.; Niehoff, John C.; Spadoni, Daniel J.

    Planning for the future exploration of the solar system has involved the structuring of a series of missions that address major scientific objectives at a minimum runout cost for the entire endeavor. In many cases, however, the optimal structuring of a program that would minimize the runout cost would entail an unacceptable high annual funding. Our actual planning must consider the planning wedge imposed on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It is vital that a plan be structured that copes with the annual restraint. If we do not recognize this, our plan will not be realized and a queing problem will result, thus negating all of our planning efforts. This paper presents ideas as to how planetary initiatives can be structured, wherein the peak annual funding is minimized. One vital aspect in the plan is to have a transportation capability that can launch a mission in any planetary opportunity. Solar electric propulsion can provide this capability. Another cost reduction approach would be to structure a mission set in a time sequenced fashion that could utilize essentially the same spacecraft for the implementation of several missions. This opportunity does exist. A third technique would be to fulfill a scientific objective in several sequential missions rather than attempt to accomplish all of the objectives with one mission. This approach might be applied to a mission currently in the planning stage designated the Saturn Orbiter Dual Probe mission. The current concept involves the delivery of a Saturn probe, a Titan probe, and a Saturn Orbiter by a one Shuttle launch. In this case, the orbiter must serve as a relay station for both probes; map the magnetosphere of Saturn; conduct a survey of Saturn's major satellites; and perform the planetological observation of Saturn itself. This mission entails the development of a complex spacecraft that would be required to have a fairly long life due to the extended mission operations at the benefit of

  9. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

  10. Fission Technology for Exploring and Utilizing the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbub, Ivana; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost,

  11. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

  12. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  13. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. V.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars are reported. Problem areas include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. These tasks are summarized: vehicle model design, mathematical model of vehicle dynamics, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electrochemical controls, remote control, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, and chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  14. Pulsational stability of the SX Phe star AE UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, J. H.; Renteria, A.; Villarreal, C.; Pina, D. S.; Soni, A. A.; Guillen, J.; Vargas, K.; Trejo, O.

    2016-11-01

    From newly determined times of maxima of the SX Phe star AE UMa and a compilation of previous times of maxima, we were able to determine the nature of this star. With uv photometry we determined its physical parameters.

  15. Continuous AE crack monitoring of a dissimilar metal weldment at Limerick Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1993-12-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technology for continuous surveillance of a reactor component(s) to detect crack initiation and/or crack growth has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The technology was validated off-reactor in several major tests, but it had not been validated by monitoring crack growth on an operating reactor system. A flaw indication was identified during normal inservice inspection of piping at Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) Limerick Unit 1 reactor during the 1989 refueling outage. Evaluation of the flaw indication showed that it could remain in place during the subsequent fuel cycle without compromising safety. The existence of this flaw indication offered a long sought opportunity to validate AE surveillance to detect and evaluate crack growth during reactor operation. AE instrumentation was installed by PNL and PECO to monitor the flaw indication during two complete fuel cycles. This report discusses the results obtained from the AE monitoring over the period May 1989 to March 1992 (two fuel cycles).

  16. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-01-01

    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection. PMID:27065209

  17. Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rafael Elias; Marques, Pedro Elias; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-01-01

    Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

  18. Producing Military Commanders: A Systemic Exploration of the Development Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    stewardship. Units practicing doctrinaire approaches do not reinforce or nest with higher concepts, which are 5Major General (R) Robert H. Scales , “Too...Evaluation Reporting System. The ability for an officer to measure the scale of the system in which they are making decisions is possible through...in the unit system. The distinction of these systems is in their purpose and scale . The individual system is set at a scale that facilitates reason

  19. Generating Lookup Tables from the AE9/AP9 Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-16

    21 iv Figures Figure 1. Visualization of AE9 integral 1 MeV...by The Aerospace Corporation. SOAP allows for a visualization of the 3D data table in 2D slices, as shown in Figure 1, and also allows for analysis of...and solar cycle. 2 Figure 1. Visualization of AE9 integral 1 MeV electrons using SOAP and a static 3D table containing data generated from

  20. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  1. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Riehl, John P.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The successes of the Cassini/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The discovery of active water vapor plumes erupting from the tiger stripes on the moon Enceladus has drawn the attention of the space science community. The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system is well suited to future missions to the Saturn system. NEXT is used within the inner solar system, in combination with a Venus or Earth gravity assist, to establish a fast transfer to the Saturn system. The NEXT system elements are accommodated in a separable Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) module, or are integrated into the main spacecraft bus, depending on the mission architecture and performance requirements. This paper defines a range of NEXT system configurations, from two to four thrusters, and the Saturn system performance capability provided. Delivered mass is assessed parametrically over total trip time to Saturn. Launch vehicle options, gravity assist options, and input power level are addressed to determine performance sensitivities. A simple two-thruster NEXT system, launched on an Atlas 551, can deliver a spacecraft mass of over 2400 kg on a transfer to Saturn. Similarly, a four-thruster system, launched on a Delta 4050 Heavy, delivers more than 4000 kg spacecraft mass. A SEP module conceptual design, for a two thruster string, 17 kW solar array, configuration is characterized.

  2. Exploration Planetary Surface Structural Systems: Design Requirements and Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Project developed system concepts that would be necessary to establish and maintain a permanent human presence on the Lunar surface. A variety of specific system implementations were generated as a part of the scenarios, some level of system definition was completed, and masses estimated for each system. Because the architecture studies generally spawned a large number of system concepts and the studies were executed in a short amount of time, the resulting system definitions had very low design fidelity. This paper describes the development sequence required to field a particular structural system: 1) Define Requirements, 2) Develop the Design and 3) Demonstrate Compliance of the Design to all Requirements. This paper also outlines and describes in detail the information and data that are required to establish structural design requirements and outlines the information that would comprise a planetary surface system Structures Requirements document.

  3. Role of NBCe1 and AE2 in Secretory Ameloblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Michael L.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Wang, HongJun; Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Liu, Weixin; Kao, Li Yo; Wall, Susan M.; Kim, Young-Hee; Kurtz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The H+/base transport processes that control the pH of the microenvironment adjacent to ameloblasts are not currently well understood. Mice null for the AE2 anion exchanger have abnormal enamel. In addition, patients with mutations in the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 and mice lacking NBCe1 have enamel abnormalities. These observations suggest that AE2 and NBCe1 play important roles in amelogenesis. The present study aimed to understand the roles of AE2 and NBC1 in ameloblasts. The data showed that NBCe1 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of secretory ameloblasts, whereas AE2 is expressed at the apical membrane. Transcripts for AE2a and NBCe1-B were detected in RNA isolated from cultured ameloblast-like LS8 cells. Our data are the first evidence that AE2 and NBCe1 are expressed in ameloblasts in vivo in a polarized fashion thereby providing a mechanism for ameloblast transcellular bicarbonate secretion in the process of enamel formation and maturation. PMID:18362326

  4. Oligomeric structure of bAE3 protein.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A V; Tsuprun, V L; Abuladze, N K; Newman, D; Kurtz, I

    2000-12-01

    The "brain" form of the anion exchanger protein 3 (bAE3) has been purified to homogeneity from the rabbit kidney by differential centrifugation and immunoaffinity chromatography. A single protein band of approximately 165 kDa was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. Monomers, dimers (a major component), and a higher oligomeric form (apparently tetramers) were found after oxidative cross-linking of purified bAE3. The largest form of bAE3 was separated from dimers and monomers by sucrose gradient centrifugation and was studied by transmission electron microscopy to confirm a tetrameric structure. Two main types of bAE3 images were detected, round (approximately 11-14 nm) and square-shaped (approximately 12 x 12 nm). Image analysis revealed fourfold rotational symmetry of both the round and square-shaped images, indicating that bAE3 consists of multiples of 4 subunits. We conclude that bAE3 in Triton X-100 solution is predominantly a mixture of dimers and tetramers with a smaller amount of monomers.

  5. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  6. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  7. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  8. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for LOx/Methane Propulsion Systems for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Whitley, Ryan; Klem, Mark D.; Johnson, Wesley; Alexander, Leslie; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Manfletti, Chiara; Caruana, Jean-Noel; Ueno, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two technology gap assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. The participating agencies were ASI, CNES, DLR, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion. LOx/Methane propulsion systems are enabling for future human missions Mars by significantly reducing the landed mass of the Mars ascent stage through the use of in-situ propellant production, for improving common fluids for life support, power and propulion thus allowing for diverse redundancy, for eliminating the corrosive and toxic propellants thereby improving surface operations and resusabilty, and for inceasing the performance of propulsion systems. The goals and objectives of the international team are to determine the gaps in technology that must be closed for LOx/Methane to be used in human exploration missions in cis-lunar, lunar, and Mars mission applications. An emphasis is placed on near term lunar lander applications with extensibility to Mars. Each agency provided a status of the substantial amount of Lox/Methane propulsion system development to date and their inputs on the gaps in the technology that are remaining. The gaps, which are now opportunities for collaboration, are then discussed.

  9. Toward a mobile autonomous robotic system for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; Di Giamberardino, P.; Fortuna, L.; La Gala, F.; Monaco, S.; Muscato, G.; Rizzo, A.; Ronchini, R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the results obtained up to now in the design and realization of mobile platforms, wheeled and legged ones, for autonomous deployment in unknown and hostile environments: a work developed in the framework of a project supported by the Italian Space Agency. The paper is focused on the description of the hierarchical architecture adopted for the planning, the supervision and the control of their mobility. Experimental results validate the solutions proposed, evidencing the capabilities of the platforms to explore environments in presence of irregular ground shape and obstacles of different dimensions.

  10. Meeting the Challenges of Exploration Systems: Health Management Technologies for Aerospace Systems With Emphasis on Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Sowers, T. Shane; Maul, William A.

    2005-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays all require an ISHM system that can span distinct yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation, and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and applied health management system technologies to aerospace propulsion systems for almost two decades. Lessons learned from past activities help define the approach to proper ISHM development: sensor selection- identifies sensor sets required for accurate health assessment; data qualification and validation-ensures the integrity of measurement data from sensor to data system; fault detection and isolation-uses measurements in a component/subsystem context to detect faults and identify their point of origin; information fusion and diagnostic decision criteria-aligns data from similar and disparate sources in time and use that data to perform higher-level system diagnosis; and verification and validation-uses data, real or simulated, to provide variable exposure to the diagnostic system for faults that may only manifest themselves in actual implementation, as well as faults that are detectable via hardware testing. This presentation describes a framework for developing health management systems and highlights the health management research activities performed by the Controls and Dynamics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It illustrates how those activities contribute to the development of solutions for Integrated System Health Management.

  11. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  12. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  13. Drugging the undruggables: exploring the ubiquitin system for drug development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaodong; Dixit, Vishva M

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic modulation of protein levels is tightly controlled in response to physiological cues. In mammalian cells, much of the protein degradation is carried out by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Similar to kinases, components of the ubiquitin system are often dysregulated, leading to a variety of diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration, making them attractive drug targets. However, so far there are only a handful of drugs targeting the ubiquitin system that have been approved by the FDA. Here, we review possible therapeutic intervention nodes in the ubiquitin system, analyze the challenges, and highlight the most promising strategies to target the UPS. PMID:27002218

  14. Explorations in Cooperative Systems: Thinking Collectively to Learn, Learning Individually to Think

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    D71I FILE COPY AAMRL-TR-90-004 EXPLORATIONS IN COOPERATIVE ’ SYSTEMS : THINKING COLLECTIVELYLfl rO LEARN, LEARNING INDIVIDUALLY 0 ,- rO THINK c...Include Security Classlfcation) Explorations in Cooperative Systems : Thinking Collectively to Learn, Learning Individually to Think 12 PERSONAL

  15. Exploration System Mission Directorate and Constellation Program Support for Analogue Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Gerty, Christopher E.

    2008-01-01

    Vision: To create a cross-cutting Earth-based program to minimize cost and risk while maximizing the productivity of planetary exploration missions, by supporting precursor system development and carrying out system integration, testing, training, and public engagement as an integral part of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  16. Storyboard for the Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, Eric; Hailey, Melinda; Reyes, David; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This storyboard conceptualizes one scenario of an integrated medical system during a Mars exploration mission. All content is for illustrative purposes only and neither defines nor implies system design requirement.

  17. Sampling the Solar System. A Critical Exploration Component for Future Planetary Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sample return is a critical component for understanding our solar system (and other solar systems), and advancing human exploration activities. Here I will examine potential pathways for evolving sample return technologies needed to carry out increasingly complex missions.

  18. Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

  19. Exploring Motivational System Theory within the Context of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Debra Jean

    2013-01-01

    Adult Basic Education (ABE) and the General Equivalency Diploma (GED) programs serve those students who, for whatever reason, have left the educational system without attaining a regular high school diploma. Because of the manner in which they may have left the school system, many have negative emotions and personal agency beliefs hindering their…

  20. Cradle-to-Grave Logistic Technologies for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L.; Ewert, Michael K.; Shull, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of exiting and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA is Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing four logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion supply gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description, benefits, and challenges of the four technologies under development and a status of progress at the mid ]point of the three year AES project.

  1. Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heather, Paul; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Conger, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.

  2. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  3. Small Portable PEM Fuel Cell Systems for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen-Hydrogen PEM-based fuel cell systems are being examined as a portable power source alternative in addition to advanced battery technology. Fuel cell power systems have been used by the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle programs. These systems have not been portable, but have been integral parts of their spacecraft, and have used reactants from a separate cryogenic supply. These systems typically have been higher in power. They also have had significant ancillary equipment sections that perform the pumping of reactants and coolant through the fuel cell stack and the separation of the product water from the unused reactant streams. The design of small portable fuel cell systems will be a significant departure from these previous designs. These smaller designs will have very limited ancillary equipment, relying on passive techniques for reactant and thermal management, and the reactant storage will be an integral part of the fuel cell system. An analysis of the mass and volume for small portable fuel cell systems was done to evaluate and quantify areas of technological improvement. A review of current fuel cell technology as well as reactant storage and management technology was completed to validate the analysis and to identify technology challenges

  4. Exploring Planet Migration and Early Solar System Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Nesvorny, D.; Marchi, S.; Levison, H.; Canup, R.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding planet migration and early bombardment are key Decadal Survey goals because they define the nature of many solar system worlds. Both can be constrained by dating ancient terrains, basins, and craters found on the Moon and Mars.

  5. A robust activity marking system for exploring active neuronal ensembles.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Cooper, Yonatan A; Baratta, Michael V; Weng, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Yuxiang; Ramamoorthi, Kartik; Fropf, Robin; LaVerriere, Emily; Xue, Jian; Young, Andrew; Schneider, Colleen; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Hemberg, Martin; Yin, Jerry Cp; Maier, Steven F; Lin, Yingxi

    2016-09-23

    Understanding how the brain captures transient experience and converts it into long lasting changes in neural circuits requires the identification and investigation of the specific ensembles of neurons that are responsible for the encoding of each experience. We have developed a Robust Activity Marking (RAM) system that allows for the identification and interrogation of ensembles of neurons. The RAM system provides unprecedented high sensitivity and selectivity through the use of an optimized synthetic activity-regulated promoter that is strongly induced by neuronal activity and a modified Tet-Off system that achieves improved temporal control. Due to its compact design, RAM can be packaged into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV), providing great versatility and ease of use, including application to mice, rats, flies, and potentially many other species. Cre-dependent RAM, CRAM, allows for the study of active ensembles of a specific cell type and anatomical connectivity, further expanding the RAM system's versatility.

  6. Exploring Synthetic and Systems Biology at the University of Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Liz; Rosser, Susan; Elfick, Alistair

    2016-06-15

    The Centre for Synthetic and Systems Biology ('SynthSys') was originally established in 2007 as the Centre for Integrative Systems Biology, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Today, SynthSys embraces an extensive multidisciplinary community of more than 200 researchers from across the University with a common interest in synthetic and systems biology. Our research is broad and deep, addressing a diversity of scientific questions, with wide ranging impact. We bring together the power of synthetic biology and systems approaches to focus on three core thematic areas: industrial biotechnology, agriculture and the environment, and medicine and healthcare. In October 2015, we opened a newly refurbished building as a physical hub for our new U.K. Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology funded by the BBSRC/EPSRC/MRC as part of the U.K. Research Councils' Synthetic Biology for Growth programme.

  7. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  8. Family System of Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, William M.; Curry, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Ablators Program Objectives: 1) Flight-ready(TRL-6) ablative heat shields for deep-space missions; 2) Diversity of selection from family-system approach; 3) Minimum weight systems with high reliability; 4) Optimized formulations and processing; 5) Fully characterized properties; and 6) Low-cost manufacturing. Definition and integration of candidate lightweight structures. Test and analysis database to support flight-vehicle engineering. Results from production scale-up studies and production-cost analyses.

  9. AE Ursae Majoris - a δ Scuti Star in the Hertzsprung Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jia-Shu; Fu, Jian-Ning; Li, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Zong, Weikai; Xue, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Nian; Du, Bing; Zuo, Fang

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the photometric data and spectroscopic data that collect on the δ Scuti star AE UMa. The fundamental and the first overtone frequencies are confirmed as f0 = 11.62560 c d-1 and f1 = 15.03124 c d-1, respectively, from the frequency content by analyzing of the 40 nights light curve spanning from 2009 to 2012. Additionally, another 37 frequencies are identified as either the harmonics or the linear combinations of the fundamental and the first overtone frequencies, among which 25 are newly detected. The rate of period change of the fundamental mode is determined as (1/P0)(dP0/dt) = 5.4( ± 1.9) × 10-9 yr-1 as revealed from the O - C diagram based on the 84 newly determined times of maximum light combined with those derived from the literature. The spectroscopic data suggests that AE UMa is a population I δ Scuti star. With these physical properties, we perform theoretical explorations based on the stellar evolution code MESA on this target, considering that the variation of pulsation period is caused by secular evolutionary effects. We finally constraint the AE UMa with the physical parameters as: the mass of 1.805 ± 0.055 M⊙, the radius of 1.647 ± 0.032 × 1011 cm, the luminosity of 1.381 ± 0.048 (log L/L⊙) and the age of 1.055 ± 0.095 × 109 yr. AE UMa can be the (Pop. I) δ Scuti star that locates just after the second turn-off of its evolutional track leaving the main sequence, a star in the phase of the Hertzsprung Gap with a helium core and a hydrogen-burning shell.

  10. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: Concepts for Lightweight & Low Volume EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Calle, Carlos; Mantovani, James

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment. The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics & Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 5/6 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  11. A scaling relationship between AE and natural earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, N.; Kawakata, H.; Takahashi, N.

    2013-12-01

    Micro fracture which occurs during rock fracture experiments are called acoustic emission (AE), and it help us to understand detailed processes of fault growth. However, it was unclear whether AE can be considered as a small earthquake or not. Usually, the seismic moment and the corner frequency are used for characterizing source property. It has been reported that the seismic moment is inversely proportional to the cube of corner frequency for natural earthquakes (with magnitude higher than ~ -4). In this study, we examine continuity of this relationship toward smaller magnitude of AE (around magnitude -8), estimating the source parameters of AE. Previously, it was impossible to record AE waveforms by broadband transducers under tri-axial conditions due to lack of pressure seal mechanism. Here we achieved protection of broadband transducers to use them under high pressure environments. This achievement enabled us to do spectral analysis of AE. At the same time, we also achieved multi-channel continuous recording with a high sampling rate, so as not to miss some events smaller than threshold or hide some events behind the mask times by triggered recording. We prepared a cylindrical Westerly granite sample, 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. Sealed nine broadband transducers (sensitive range; 100 kHz - 2000 kHz) were attached on the sample surface. High sampling recording as 20 MS/s per channel was continued, during tri-axial loading (confining pressure: 10 MPa) which was continued to be controlled even after the peak strength. More than 6000 hypocenters were estimated from all pick data during the experiment. We clustered events around the peak strength, so that their differences of hypocenter locations were shorter than 2 mm and their cross correlation values for more than four channels were higher than 0.8. Then, we analyzed two of the largest clusters. After calibrating transducer response, we obtained displacement spectra for S waves, and estimated their

  12. Phase-Space Density Analysis of the AE-8 Traped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Cayton

    2005-08-01

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.

  13. Phase-Space Density Analyses of the AE-8 Trapped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    SciTech Connect

    T.E. Cayton

    2005-08-12

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.

  14. An Integrated Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spycher, N. F.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a reliable and improved methodology to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures from full and integrated chemical analyses of spring and shallow well water samples, to see through near surface processes, such as dilution, gas loss, etc., that mask or hide the chemical signatures of deep reservoir fluids in near surface waters. The system builds on a multicomponent chemical geothermometry method developed previously for single point sources relying on computed saturation indices of multiple minerals. Taking advantage of recent advances in optimization and geochemical/reactive transport modeling, the system integrates the multicomponent geothermometry method into an optimization system that allows simultaneous processing of multiple water analyses to estimate reservoir temperatures. In doing so, the system will also be able to solve for amounts and compositions of potential mixing end-members diluting the reservoir fluids and/or composition and amounts of gas phase lost as deep geothermal fluids ascend to ground surface. This integrated approach is expected to allow estimations of reservoir temperatures with better reliability and consistency than currently possible using standard chemical geothermometers. The proposed approach is being implemented and tested using an extensive set of water and gas compositions from springs and wells at the geothermal system in Dixie Valley, Nevada, where standard chemical geothermometers yield temperatures inconsistent with measured reservoir temperatures.

  15. Exploring creative activity: a software environment for multimedia systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrett, Peter W.; Jardine, David A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper examines various issues related to the theory, design, and implementation of a system that supports creative activity for a multimedia environment. The system incorporates artificial intelligence notions to acquire concepts of the problem domain. This paper investigates this environment by considering a model that is a basis for a system, which supports a history of user interaction. A multimedia system that supports creative activity is problematic. It must function as a tool allowing users to experiment dynamically with their own creative reasoning process--a very nebulous task environment. It should also support the acquisition of domain knowledge so that empirical observation can be further evaluated. This paper aims to illustrate that via the reuse of domain-specific knowledge, closely related ideas can be quickly developed. This approach is useful in the following sense: Multimedia navigational systems hardcode referential links with respect to a web or network. Although users can access or control navigation in a nonlinear (static) manner, these referential links are 'frozen' and can not capture their creative actions, which are essential in tutoring or learning applications. This paper describes a multimedia assistant based on the notion of knowledge- links, which allows users to navigate through creative information in a nonlinear (dynamic) fashion. A selection of prototype code based on object-oriented techniques and logic programming partially demonstrates this.

  16. Exploring Phylogeographic Congruence in a Continental Island System.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Julia; Trewick, Steven A

    2011-08-03

    A prediction in phylogeographic studies is that patterns of lineage diversity and timing will be similar within the same landscape under the assumption that these lineages have responded to past environmental changes in comparable ways. Eight invertebrate taxa from four different orders were included in this study of mainland New Zealand and Chatham Islands lineages to explore outcomes of island colonization. These comprised two orthopteran genera, one an endemic forest-dwelling genus of cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae, Talitropsis) and the other a grasshopper (Acrididae, Phaulacridum) that inhabits open grassland; four genera of Coleoptera including carabid beetles (Mecodema), stag beetles (Geodorcus), weevils (Hadramphus) and clickbeetles (Amychus); the widespread earwig genus Anisolabis (Dermaptera) that is common on beaches in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and an endemic and widespread cockroach genus Celatoblatta (Blattodea). Mitochondrial DNA data were used to reconstruct phylogeographic hypotheses to compare among these taxa. Strikingly, despite a maximum age of the Chathams of ~4 million years there is no concordance among these taxa, in the extent of genetic divergence and partitioning between Chatham and Mainland populations. Some Chatham lineages are represented by insular endemics and others by haplotypes shared with mainland populations. These diverse patterns suggest that combinations of intrinsic (taxon ecology) and extrinsic (extinction and dispersal) factors can result in apparently very different biogeographic outcomes.

  17. Exploring Phylogeographic Congruence in a Continental Island System

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Julia; Trewick, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    A prediction in phylogeographic studies is that patterns of lineage diversity and timing will be similar within the same landscape under the assumption that these lineages have responded to past environmental changes in comparable ways. Eight invertebrate taxa from four different orders were included in this study of mainland New Zealand and Chatham Islands lineages to explore outcomes of island colonization. These comprised two orthopteran genera, one an endemic forest-dwelling genus of cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae, Talitropsis) and the other a grasshopper (Acrididae, Phaulacridum) that inhabits open grassland; four genera of Coleoptera including carabid beetles (Mecodema), stag beetles (Geodorcus), weevils (Hadramphus) and clickbeetles (Amychus); the widespread earwig genus Anisolabis (Dermaptera) that is common on beaches in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and an endemic and widespread cockroach genus Celatoblatta (Blattodea). Mitochondrial DNA data were used to reconstruct phylogeographic hypotheses to compare among these taxa. Strikingly, despite a maximum age of the Chathams of ∼4 million years there is no concordance among these taxa, in the extent of genetic divergence and partitioning between Chatham and Mainland populations. Some Chatham lineages are represented by insular endemics and others by haplotypes shared with mainland populations. These diverse patterns suggest that combinations of intrinsic (taxon ecology) and extrinsic (extinction and dispersal) factors can result in apparently very different biogeographic outcomes. PMID:26467734

  18. Light Activated Serotonin for Exploring Its Action in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Adam C.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Ball, Rebecca E.; Snouffer, Ashley A.; Hudson, Alicia G.; Zhu, Yue; McLain, Duncan E.; Johnston, Lindsey L.; Lauderdale, James D.; Levin, Michael; Dore, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in regulating mood, appetite, memory, learning, pain, and establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development. To explore the role of 5-HT in a variety of physiological contexts, we have created two forms of “caged” 5-HT, BHQ-O-5HT and BHQ-N-5HT. When exposed to 365- or 740-nm light, BHQ-O-5HT releases 5-HT through 1- or 2-photon excitation, respectively. BHQ-O-5HT mediated changes in neural activity in cultured primary sensory neurons from mouse and the trigeminal ganglion and optic tectum of intact zebrafish larvae in the form of high amplitude spiking in response to light. In Xenopus laevis embryos, 5-HT released from BHQ-O-5HT upon exposure to light increased the occurrence of LR patterning defects. Maximal rates of LR defects were observed when 5-HT was released at stage 5 compared to stage 8. These experiments show the potential for BHQ-caged serotonins in studying 5-HT-regulated physiological processes. PMID:24333002

  19. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  20. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    A number of problems related to unmanned exploration of planets or other extraterrestrial bodies with Mars as a case in point were investigated. The design and evaluation of a prototype rover concept with emphasis on mobility, maneuverability, stability, control and propulsion is described along with the development of terrain sensor concepts and associated software for the autonomous control of any planetary rover. Results are applicable not only to the design of a mission rover but the vehicle is used as a test bed for the rigorous evaluation of alternative autonomous control systems.

  1. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP-AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-03-30

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP-AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP-AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP-AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP-AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP-AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP-AES and PXRF analysis data.

  2. Mapping Copper and Lead Concentrations at Abandoned Mine Areas Using Element Analysis Data from ICP–AES and Portable XRF Instruments: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in soil is necessary to identify the proper measures for preventing soil contamination at both operating and abandoned mining areas. Many studies have been conducted worldwide to explore the spatial variation of PTEs and to create soil contamination maps using geostatistical methods. However, they generally depend only on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analysis data, therefore such studies are limited by insufficient input data owing to the disadvantages of ICP–AES analysis such as its costly operation and lengthy period required for analysis. To overcome this limitation, this study used both ICP–AES and portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis data, with relatively low accuracy, for mapping copper and lead concentrations at a section of the Busan abandoned mine in Korea and compared the prediction performances of four different approaches: the application of ordinary kriging to ICP–AES analysis data, PXRF analysis data, both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data by considering the correlation between the ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data, and co-kriging to both the ICP–AES (primary variable) and PXRF analysis data (secondary variable). Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The results obtained in this case study showed that the application of ordinary kriging to both ICP–AES and transformed PXRF analysis data is the most accurate approach when considers the spatial distribution of copper and lead contaminants in the soil and the estimation errors at 11 sampling points for validation. Therefore, when generating soil contamination maps for an abandoned mine, it is beneficial to use the proposed approach that incorporates the advantageous aspects of both ICP–AES and PXRF analysis data. PMID:27043594

  3. 77 FR 15098 - AES Hawaii, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Temporary Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AES Hawaii, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Temporary Waiver Take notice that... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 292.205(c), AES Hawaii, Inc. (AES Hawaii) filed a Request... on the island of Oauh, Hawaii. AES Hawaii makes such a request because of a forced boiler outage...

  4. Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Peter

    2010-01-01

    One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper or across a school grounds or campus. Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often…

  5. Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

  6. Exploration into technical procedures for vertical integration. [information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, R. J.; Maw, K. D.

    1979-01-01

    Issues in the design and use of a digital geographic information system incorporating landuse, zoning, hazard, LANDSAT, and other data are discussed. An eleven layer database was generated. Issues in spatial resolution, registration, grid versus polygonal structures, and comparison of photointerpreted landuse to LANDSAT land cover are examined.

  7. Exploration of Career Information Delivery Systems Via Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rod; And Others

    Based on research conducted by Southwest Virginia Community College, this monograph presents information in a variety of formats on seven computerized career information systems: (1) microcomputers, which have the advantage of low cost, amenability to the production of locally generated databases, and portability; (2) the Coordinated Occupational…

  8. Exploring the Architecture of Ultra Large Scale Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    rather than business goals): • ICANN for internet •US Department of Energy for US energy grid •Zoning board for our analogy Policy board has expert...systems goals - 2 Broad policy objectives • ICANN first objective • Preserve and enhance the operational stability, reliability, security, and global

  9. A Visualization System for Interactive Exploration of the Cardiac Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Kuanquan; Yang, Fei; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Kechao; Zhang, Yue; Liang, Xiaoqing; Han, Dongchen; Zhu, Ying Julie

    2016-06-01

    Because of the complex and fine structure, visualization of the heart still remains a challenging task, which makes it an active research topic. In this paper, we present a visualization system for medical data, which takes advantage of the recent graphics processing unit (GPU) and can provide real-time cardiac visualization. This work focuses on investigating the anatomical structure visualization of the human heart, which is fundamental to the cardiac visualization, medical training and diagnosis assistance. Several state-of-the-art cardiac visualization methods are integrated into the proposed system and a task specified visualization method is proposed. In addition, auxiliary tools are provided to generate user specified visualization results. The contributions of our work lie in two-fold: for doctors and medical staff, the system can provide task specified visualization with interactive visualization tools; for researchers, the proposed platform can serve as a baseline for comparing different rendering methods and can easily incorporate new rendering methods. Experimental results show that the proposed system can provide favorable cardiac visualization results in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.

  10. The roles of humans and robots in exploring the solar system.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    2004-07-01

    Historically, advocates of solar system exploration have disagreed over whether program goals could be entirely satisfied by robotic missions. Scientists tend to argue that robotic exploration is most cost-effective. However, the human space program has a great deal of support in the general public, thereby enabling the scientific element of exploration to be larger than it might be as a stand-alone activity. A comprehensive strategy of exploration needs a strong robotic component complementing and supporting human missions. Robots are needed for precursor missions, for crew support on planetary surfaces, and for probing dangerous environments. Robotic field assistants can provide mobility, access to scientific sites, data acquisition, visualization of the environment, precision operations, sample acquisition and analysis, and expertise to human explorers. As long as space exploration depends on public funds, space exploration must include an appropriate mix of human and robotic activity.

  11. The roles of humans and robots in exploring the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, W. W.

    2004-07-01

    Historically, advocates of solar system exploration have disagreed over whether program goals could be entirely satisfied by robotic missions. Scientists tend to argue that robotic exploration is most cost-effective. However, the human space program has a great deal of support in the general public, thereby enabling the scientific element of exploration to be larger than it might be as a stand-alone activity. A comprehensive strategy of exploration needs a strong robotic component complementing and supporting human missions. Robots are needed for precursor missions, for crew support on planetary surfaces, and for probing dangerous environments. Robotic field assistants can provide mobility, access to scientific sites, data acquisition, visualization of the environment, precision operations, sample acquisition and analysis, and expertise to human explorers. As long as space exploration depends on public funds, space exploration must include an appropriate mix of human and robotic activity.

  12. Using C to build a satellite scheduling expert system: Examples from the Explorer platform planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.; Tuchman, Alan; Potter, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, many expert systems were developed in a LISP environment and then ported to the real world C environment before the final system is delivered. This situation may require that the entire system be completely rewritten in C and may actually result in a system which is put together as quickly as possible with little regard for maintainability and further evolution. With the introduction of high performance UNIX and X-windows based workstations, a great deal of the advantages of developing a first system in the LISP environment have become questionable. A C-based AI development effort is described which is based on a software tools approach with emphasis on reusability and maintainability of code. The discussion starts with simple examples of how list processing can easily be implemented in C and then proceeds to the implementations of frames and objects which use dynamic memory allocation. The implementation of procedures which use depth first search, constraint propagation, context switching and a blackboard-like simulation environment are described. Techniques for managing the complexity of C-based AI software are noted, especially the object-oriented techniques of data encapsulation and incremental development. Finally, all these concepts are put together by describing the components of planning software called the Planning And Resource Reasoning (PARR) shell. This shell was successfully utilized for scheduling services of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite since May 1987 and will be used for operations scheduling of the Explorer Platform in November 1991.

  13. Application of a SNTP-Based Propulsion/Power System to Solar System Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.; Nelson, Caroline V.; Gustafson, Eric R.

    1994-07-01

    A ``bi-modal'' nuclear propulsion and power system based on the United States Air Force's (USAF's)* Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) technology is applied to a set of high energy Solar system exploration missions. Performance comparisons are made to a baseline mission set developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory utilizing a nuclear electric propulsion system based on the SP-100 space power system. Orbiters and probes of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, a Grand Tour of the Galilean moons of Jupiter, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, and a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous mission are analyzed. The first five missions utilizing SP- 100 required a Shuttle-C or equivalent heavy lift launcher. With the bi-modal PBR system, the payload goals are deliverable in the same transit times, but on the smaller, existing Titan IV launcher. Furthermore, all optional payloads originally available only at increased transit time are accommodated. Available mass margins for these missions are 20%-85% of the power/propulsion system mass, providing significant robustness. The same missions were analyzed on a Titan III launcher in order to pursue further cost reductions. Substantial payload masses (1000 kg or more) were found to be available in all cases with reasonable transit times, coinciding well with the current ``lighter, faster, cheaper'' NASA philosophy.

  14. The Role of Astrobiology in Solar System Exploration: Report from the NASA Astrobiology Institute to the NRC Solar-System Exploration Steering Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Des Marais, D. J.; NASA Astrobiology Institute Executive Council

    2001-11-01

    Astrobiology as related to solar-system exploration addresses far more than just the search for life in our solar system. It is about understanding the planets in our solar system as representing different outcomes in their formation, the nature of processes that affected those outcomes, and how those same processes might have operated elsewhere. It is about understanding planetary evolution and its connection to habitability as well as the actual distribution of life. It is about looking at the solar system as an integrated system, and seeing the connections between the evolution of the inner solar system, the outer solar system, and small bodies, as viewed through the connecting perspective of habitability and biology. In this context, finding no life on Mars or Europa is not a failure but is an important scientific result; it allows us to better understand the conditions required for a planet to support life and the relationship between biology and planetary processes. The strength of the connections between planetary exploration and astrobiology is clear if one examines a list of spacecraft missions currently operating or under development; most, if not all, are addressing questions and themes that are linked strongly to astrobiology. Astrobiology is an integrating theme that brings together a substantial fraction of the issues in solar-system exploration under a common thread of understanding planetary habitability. This theme allows us to explain to the non-expert the connections between the component disciplines within planetary science, and to do so in a way that most people will appreciate as addressing core issues in human thought. Astrobiology is certainly one of the several highest-level themes that unites and integrates solar-system exploration and, as such, will need to be strongly integrated into the solar system strategy. The full text of the report from the NAI to the NRC is available at the DPS decadal strategy web site.

  15. Active thermal control systems for lunar and Martian exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Petete, Patricia A.; Dzenitis, John

    1990-01-01

    Several ATCS options including heat pumps, radiator shading devices, and single-phase flow loops were considered. The ATCS chosen for both lunar and Martian habitats consists of a heat pump integral with a nontoxic fluid acquisition and transport loop, and vertically oriented modular reflux-boiler radiators. The heat pump operates only during the lunar day. The lunar and Martian transfer vehicles have an internal single-phase water-acquisition loop and an external two-phase ammonia rejection system with rotating inflatable radiators. The lunar and Martian excursion vehicles incorporate internal single-phase water acquisition, which is connected via heat exchangers to external body-mounted single-phase radiators. A water evaporation system is used for the transfer vehicles during periods of high heating.

  16. Conceptual design of a communications system for Mars exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badi, Deborah M.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Martin, Gary L.; Garn, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will require a communications system to link activities on the Martian surface with each other and with mission controllers on earth. This paper documents the preliminary design of an areosynchronous communications satellite to provide such links. As designed, the satellite will provide almost continuous communication between Mars and earth, as well as continuous Mars surface-to-surface links. The capacity will exist for voice, data/command, and video transmission. The mission scenario assumed for this design is described, followed by the configuration design. The communications systems conceptual design and its impact on the overall spacecraft requirements are then presented. Supporting subsystems including electrical power; thermal control; guidance, navigation, and control; propulsion; structures; and configuration are reviewed. A description of the operating orbit and the assumed method of orbit acquisition are discussed.

  17. Finite Element Modeling and Exploration of Double Hearing Protection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-10

    broad frequency range were determined from this method. The elastomeric rubber material was cut into small wafers of 2 to 5mm thickness. A mass was... material (being 0.1 for soft elastomeric foams), G and E are the shear and elastic moduli of the material , respectively, D is the diameter of the...and to investigate the behavior of the modeled system. The foam earplug material properties for the finite element model are required in the same shear

  18. A robust activity marking system for exploring active neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Cooper, Yonatan A; Baratta, Michael V; Weng, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Yuxiang; Ramamoorthi, Kartik; Fropf, Robin; LaVerriere, Emily; Xue, Jian; Young, Andrew; Schneider, Colleen; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Hemberg, Martin; Yin, Jerry CP; Maier, Steven F; Lin, Yingxi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the brain captures transient experience and converts it into long lasting changes in neural circuits requires the identification and investigation of the specific ensembles of neurons that are responsible for the encoding of each experience. We have developed a Robust Activity Marking (RAM) system that allows for the identification and interrogation of ensembles of neurons. The RAM system provides unprecedented high sensitivity and selectivity through the use of an optimized synthetic activity-regulated promoter that is strongly induced by neuronal activity and a modified Tet-Off system that achieves improved temporal control. Due to its compact design, RAM can be packaged into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV), providing great versatility and ease of use, including application to mice, rats, flies, and potentially many other species. Cre-dependent RAM, CRAM, allows for the study of active ensembles of a specific cell type and anatomical connectivity, further expanding the RAM system’s versatility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13918.001 PMID:27661450

  19. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, A.C.; Arraki, K.; Kaib, N.A.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aguilera, C.; Blackman, J.W.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Damke, G.; Davis, T.M.; Filippenko, A.V.; Foley, R.J.; Garg, A.; Garnavich, P.M.; Hicken, M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  20. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  1. Visualization and exploration for recommender systems in enterprise organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karni, Z.; Shapira, L.

    2013-03-01

    Recommender systems seek to predict the interest a user would find in an item, person or social element they had not yet considered, based upon the properties of the item, the user's past experience and similar users. However, recommended items are often presented to the user with no context and no ability to influence the results. We present a novel visualization technique for recommender systems in which, a user can see the items recommended for him, and understand why they were recommended. Focusing on a user, we render a planar visualization listing a set of recommended items. The items are organized such that similar items reside nearby on the screen, centered around realtime generated categories. We use a combination of iconography, text and tag clouds, with maximal use of screen real estate, and keep items from overlapping to produce our results. We apply our visualization to expert relevance maps in the enterprise and a book recommendation system for consumers. The latter is based on Shelfari, a social network for reading and books.

  2. Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

  3. PLAN-IT: Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.

    1987-01-01

    A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.

  4. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing five logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description and the challenges of the five technologies under development and the estimated overall mission benefits of each technology.

  5. Probing Potential Energy Surface Exploration Strategies for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    N'Tsouaglo, Gawonou Kokou; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-François; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal

    2015-04-14

    The efficiency of minimum-energy configuration searching algorithms is closely linked to the energy landscape structure of complex systems, yet these algorithms often include a number of steps of which the effect is not always clear. Decoupling these steps and their impacts can allow us to better understand both their role and the nature of complex energy landscape. Here, we consider a family of minimum-energy algorithms based, directly or indirectly, on the well-known Bell-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principle. Comparing trajectories generated with BEP-based algorithms to kinetically correct off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo schemes allow us to confirm that the BEP principle does not hold for complex systems since forward and reverse energy barriers are completely uncorrelated. As would be expected, following the lowest available energy barrier leads to rapid trapping. This is why BEP-based methods require also a direct handling of visited basins or barriers. Comparing the efficiency of these methods with a thermodynamical handling of low-energy barriers, we show that most of the efficiency of the BEP-like methods lie first and foremost in the basin management rather than in the BEP-like step.

  6. Exploration of the Saturnian System with Cassini Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliore, Arvydas J.

    1999-01-01

    The ongoing Galileo mission has provided many new insights into the Jovian system. Among them are new discoveries from the Radio Science investigations , including multiple measurements of the Jovian ionosphere, the ionospheres and plasma environments of Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, and the internal structure of the Galilean satellites. The Cassini spacecraft, which will be placed in orbit about Saturn in 2004, will conduct Radio Science investigations of many aspects of the Saturnian system with a radio instrument of unprecedented stability and versatility. It will use radio links at three wavelengths : S-band(13 cm), X-band (3.5 cm), and Ka-band (1 cm) to probe the atmospheres and ionospheres of Saturn and Titan and Saturn's rings by means of radio occultations, and to measure the masses and gravity fields of Saturn, Titan, and selected icy satellites by precision tracking. In addition, the stability of the radio instrument will be utilized to conduct a search for gravitational waves during solar oppositions, and to precisely measure general relativistic effects during solar conjunctions during the interplanetary cruise prior to arrival at Saturn.

  7. Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM): Exploration Of The Jovian System And Its Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, Olivier; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Dougherty, M.; Bunce, E.; Lebreton, J.; Prockter, L.; Senske, D.; EJSM Joint Science Definition Team

    2009-09-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) Determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes that are operating within the Jupiter system. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede, and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA (future contributions by JAXA and Russia are also possible). The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. EJSM would directly address themes concerning the origin and evolution of satellite systems and water-rich environments in icy satellites. The potential habitability of the ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede would be investigated, by characterizing the geophysical, compositional, geological, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also investigate Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites would be better known. Most important, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM architecture provides opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft would conduct both synergistic dual-spacecraft investigations and "stand-alone” measurements.

  8. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems: a horizon sensor/attitude reference system based on the dragonfly Ocelli for Mars exploration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Stange, G.

    2002-01-01

    The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological oganisms.

  9. PDLIM5 links kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to ILK and is required for membrane targeting of kAE1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya; Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Yan, Yahui; Li, Juan; Karet, Hannah I.; Rosen, Lawrence; Moreno, Pablo; Frankl, Fiona E. Karet

    2017-01-01

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) mediates Cl−/HCO3− exchange in erythrocytes and kidney intercalated cells where it functions to maintain normal bodily acid-base homeostasis. AE1’s C-terminal tail (AE1C) contains multiple potential membrane targeting/retention determinants, including a predicted PDZ binding motif, which are critical for its normal membrane residency. Here we identify PDLIM5 as a direct binding partner for AE1 in human kidney, via PDLIM5’s PDZ domain and the PDZ binding motif in AE1C. Kidney AE1 (kAE1), PDLIM5 and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) form a multiprotein complex in which PDLIM5 provides a bridge between ILK and AE1C. Depletion of PDLIM5 resulted in significant reduction in kAE1 at the cell membrane, whereas over-expression of kAE1 was accompanied by increased PDLIM5 levels, underscoring the functional importance of PDLIM5 for proper kAE1 membrane residency, as a crucial linker between kAE1 and actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins in polarized cells. PMID:28045035

  10. A New Counselee Assessment-Occupational Exploration System and Its Interest and Aptitude Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droege, Robert C.; Padgett, Adaline

    1982-01-01

    Describes construction of an occupational classification structure and development of interest and aptitude measures for assessing counselees in relation to these two primary dimensions of the structure. Details uses of the Guide for Occupational Exploration, the keystone of the new counselee assessment-occupational exploration system. (RC)

  11. AE analysis in developing the Hot Fractured Rock geothermal power in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Y.; Kaieda, H.; Asanuma, H.; Wyborn, D.

    2004-12-01

    The hot fractured rock (HFR) geothermal power is being developed in Cooper Basin, South Australia since 2002. HFR geothermal power is one of natural energy acquiring systems, in which water is pumped into hot, crystalline rock via an injection well, becomes superheated as it flows through open joints in the hot rock reservoir, and is returned through production wells. At the surface, the useful heat is extracted by conventional processes, and the same water is re-circulated to mine more heat. Such hot granites are buried beneath 3.7 km of insulating sedimentary rocks at the site. The temperature of the granites reaches 250_E#381; or more. The first injection well Habanero#1 was drilled 720m into the granite, and a reservoir was made by the hydraulic fracturing in the vicinity of the well bottom (4421m in depth) in 2003. During the hydraulic fracturing many acoustic emissions (AE) were generated. We observed the AE activity using seismic network deployed in 8 wells around Habanero#1 to evaluate the reservoir. Total of 12000 or more AE were observed during the fracturing period from November to December, 2003. Although the AE hypocenters were located in the south side of the well at the initial stage, they finally distributed N-S to NE-SW direction at about 3km in diameter. The magnitude of the AE ranges M-2 to M1 for most events, but several felt earthquakes as maximum size of M3.7 were also generated. The hypocenters of the larger 12 events (> M2.5) were located by the seismic network of Geoscience Australia. The mechanism solution of these large events is basically E-W compression type, and it almost agrees to the regional stress estimated by borehole breakout in wells in the area. The AE generation property will help to understand earthquake dynamics and mechanics since it is controlled by hydraulic pressure. We will mainly discuss the relation between the generated regional energy and the mechanism solution of the events.

  12. Engineering microbial systems to explore ecological and evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tanouchi, Yu; Smith, Robert P; You, Lingchong

    2012-10-01

    A major goal of biological research is to provide a mechanistic understanding of diverse biological processes. To this end, synthetic biology offers a powerful approach, whereby biological questions can be addressed in a well-defined framework. By constructing simple gene circuits, such studies have generated new insights into the design principles of gene regulatory networks. Recently, this strategy has been applied to analyze ecological and evolutionary questions, where population-level interactions are critical. Here, we highlight recent development of such systems and discuss how they were used to address problems in ecology and evolutionary biology. As illustrated by these examples, synthetic ecosystems provide a unique platform to study ecological and evolutionary phenomena that are challenging to study in their natural contexts.

  13. The liquid annular reactor system (LARS) for deep space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Powell, James R.; Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael

    1999-05-01

    A new propulsion concept for high Δ V space missions, termed LARS (Liquid Annular Reactor System), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (-6000 K). The molten fuel is contained in a lower-temperature solid container which rotates to stabilize and hold in the liquid layer by centripetal force. Containment of ultra high temperature molten refractories, using this method, has been experimentally demonstrated by A.V. Grosse. The specific impulse of a rocket exhausting hydrogen at 6000 K is 2000 seconds, approximately double that of solid-core nuclear rockets. A LARS-powered space probe could accomplish extra-solar missions to 550 A.U. in approximately 35 years.

  14. Unmanned solar systems exploration - An arena for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D. H.; Pacault, R.

    1974-01-01

    Mission profiles for a Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) mission are considered. A profile using separate launches for a lander/ascent module and an orbiter/return system could use present technology and is appropriate for international cooperation. The achievement of clean interfaces between major building blocks and ease of controlling back contamination are advantages offered by the concept. A spatially distributed surface sample could be obtained by using multiple landers delivering samples to a common orbiter. The Pioneer Venus program, originally planned as a cooperative NASA-ESRO project, resulted in development of a standardized spacecraft bus yielding benefits at minimized cost. The first joint US-European planetary mission now planned is the launch of a Pioneer class orbiter to Jupiter in 1980. Feasibility studies are being conducted.

  15. Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-04-29

    We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantage from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.

  16. Exploring the Outer Neptune Resonances: Constraints on Solar System Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, JJ; Shankman, Cory J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Brett, Gladman; Volk, Kat; Alexandersen, Mike

    2015-11-01

    The long-term evolution of objects in the outer n:1 resonances with Neptune provide clues to the evolutionary history of the Solar System. Based on 4 objects with semi-major axes near the 5:1 resonance, we estimate a substantial and previously unrecognized population of objects, perhaps more significant than the population in the 3:2 (Plutino) resonance. These external resonances are largely unexplored in both observations and dynamical simulations. However, understanding the characteristics and trapping history for objects in these populations is critical for constraining the dynamical history of the solar system. The 4 objects detected in the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) were classified using dynamical integrations. Three are resonant, and the fourth appears to be a resonance diffusion object, part of a population which exited the resonance through chaotic diffusion. The 3 resonant objects are taken to be representative of the resonant population, so by using these detections and the CFEPS characterization (pointings and detection limits) we calculate a population estimate for this resonance at ~1900(+3300 -1400) objects with Hg<8 [Pike et al. 2015]. This is at least as large as the Plutinos (3:2 resonance) at 90% confidence. The small number of detected objects results in such a large population estimate due to the numerous biases against detecting objects with semimajor axes at ~88AU. The dynamical behavior of the known objects, suggests that the trapping mechanism for the 5:1 resonance is resonance sticking from the scattering objects. Based on our results from the 5:1 resonance, we have begun a project to examine the long term evolution of the other n:1 resonances to determine the importance of resonance diffusion and transfer between libration islands among the scattering-captured members of those populations.

  17. A simian-human immunodeficiency virus carrying the rt gene from Chinese CRF01_AE strain of HIV is sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and has a highly genetic stability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Nan; Ju, Bin; Dong, Zhihui; Cong, Zhe; Jiang, Hong; Qin, Chuan; Wei, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtype CRF01_AE is one of the major HIV-1 subtypes that dominate the global epidemic. However, its drug resistance, associated mutations, and viral fitness have not been systemically studied, because available chimeric simian-HIVs (SHIVs) usually express the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (rt) gene of subtype B HIV-1, which is different from subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1. In this study, a recombinant plasmid, pRT-SHIV/AE, was constructed to generate a chimeric RT-SHIV/AE by replacing the rt gene of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239) with the counterpart of Chinese HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE. The infectivity, replication capacity, co-receptor tropism, drug sensitivity, and genetic stability of RT-SHIV/AE were characterized. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE effectively infected and replicated in human T cell line and rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (rhPBMC). The rt gene of RT-SHIV/AE lacked the common mutation (T215I) associated with drug resistance. RT-SHIV-AE retained infectivity and immunogenicity, similar to that of its counterpart RT-SHIV/TC virus following intravenous inoculation in Chinese rhesus macaque. RT-SHIV-AE was more sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) than the RT-SHIV/TC. RT-SHIV/AE was genetically stable in Chinese rhesus macaque. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE may be a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of the rt-based antiviral drugs against the subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1.

  18. ICP-AES determination of minor- and major elements in apples after microwave assisted digestion.

    PubMed

    Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Krizman, Ivona; Zeiner, Michaela; Kampić, Štefica; Medunić, Gordana; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this paper was to determine the content of minor and major elements in apples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Prior to ICP-AES measurement, dried apples were digested in a microwave assisted digestion system. The differences in the measured element concentrations after application of open and closed microwave system as sample preparation procedures are discussed. In whole apples, flesh and peel Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were analysed after optimisation and validating the analytical method using ICP-AES. The accuracy of the method determined by spiking experiments was very good (recoveries 88-115%) and the limits of detection of elements of interest were from 0.01 up to 14.7 μg g(-1). The reference ranges determined in all apple samples are 39-47 mg g(-1) for K, 9-14 mg g(-1) for Na, 3-7 mg g(-1) for Mg, 3-7 μg g(-1) for Zn, 0.7-2.8 μg g(-1) for Sr. The range of Mn in peel 4-6 μg g(-1) is higher compared to whole apple from 0.7 to 1.7 μg g(-1). Cd is found only in peel, in the concentration range of 0.4-1.1 μg g(-1).

  19. Characterization of AE from fatigue crack growth in steel bridge components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Felipe; Nemati, Navid; Nanni, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Early detection of fatigue crack-growth in steel structures is an ongoing challenge. Furthermore, characterization of the different stages of the fatigue lifecycle using NDE techniques is particularly difficult. AE systems have been shown to serve as early damage detection mechanisms in bridge structures. This technology, however, is fraught with noise problems and complex datasets that are difficult to interpret. This paper attempts to design and implement a data mining scheme that can classify raw AE datasets into discrete clusters using an improved variant of the popular k-means clustering algorithm. The datasets are then augmented with the class label found during clustering, and a series of rules are inferred using a C4.5 decision tree classification algorithm. An implementation of the data mining scheme is coded in MATLAB®, with data from PAC® AE systems as the input. In order to validate this procedure, data from a pencil lead break test with a concurrent noise source is fed into the data mining program. Classification using the decision tree is compared to manual classification of the pencil lead break hits. The resulting decision tree is then applied to a similar dataset in order to evaluate the generality of the resulting rule sets. Once validated, the data mining program is applied to data belonging to a steel fatigue crack-growth test. Results of this classification are discussed, and possible improvements to the data mining scheme are suggested.

  20. Performance evaluation of the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing device and comparison with piezoelectric sensors for AE detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang; Bond, Leonard J.

    2017-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of engineering structures in service has assumed a significant role in assessing their safety and integrity. Several sensing modalities have been developed to monitor cracking, using acoustic emission (AE). Piezoelectric sensors are commonly used in AE systems, however, for some applications there are limitations and challenges. One alternative approach that is being investigated is using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors which have emerged as a reliable, in situ and nondestructive tool in some applications for monitoring and diagnostics in large-scale structure. The main objective of this work is to evaluate and compare the AE sensing characteristics for FBG and piezoelectric sensors. A ball drop impact is used as the source for generating waves in an Aluminum plate. The source repeatability was verified and a 4-channel FBG AE detection device was used to compare with the response of PZT sensors, investigating amplitude and frequency response which can indicate sensitivity. The low sensitivity and slow sampling rate are identified, for the unit investigated, as the main factors limiting FBG engineering AE applications.

  1. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  2. Exploring Science Applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Aboard UNOLS Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R.; Lachenmeier, T.; Hatfield, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks has been expanding the use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for science support from a variety of ships for several years. The ease and safety of flying from research vessels offers the science community lower cost access to overhead surveys of marine mammals without impact on sensitive populations, monitoring of AUV operations and collection of transmitted data, extensive surveys of sea ice during formation, melt, and sea temperatures through multiple seasons. As FAA expands access to the Arctic airspace over the Chukchi, Beaufort, and Bering Seas, the opportunities to employ UAS in science applications will become easier to exploit. This presentation describes the changes coming through new FAA rules, through the Alaska FAA Test Site, the Pan-Pacific UAS Test Range Complex which includes Oregon and Hawaii, and even Iceland. Airspace access advances associated with recent operations including the NASA-sponsored MIZOPEX, whale detection, and forming sea ice work in October will be presented, as well as a glider UAS connected to very high altitude balloons collecting atmospheric data. Development of safety procedures for use of UAS on UNOLS ships will be discussed.

  3. Exploring information systems outsourcing in U.S. hospital-based health care delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Diana, Mark L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors associated with outsourcing of information systems (IS) in hospital-based health care delivery systems, and to determine if there is a difference in IS outsourcing activity based on the strategic value of the outsourced functions. IS sourcing behavior is conceptualized as a case of vertical integration. A synthesis of strategic management theory (SMT) and transaction cost economics (TCE) serves as the theoretical framework. The sample consists of 1,365 hospital-based health care delivery systems that own 3,452 hospitals operating in 2004. The findings indicate that neither TCE nor SMT predicted outsourcing better than the other did. The findings also suggest that health care delivery system managers may not be considering significant factors when making sourcing decisions, including the relative strategic value of the functions they are outsourcing. It is consistent with previous literature to suggest that the high cost of IS may be the main factor driving the outsourcing decision.

  4. U.S. Army Workshop on Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, System, and Software Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    systems are connected to inter- agency networks, and change management is even more critical. 6 | CMU/SEI-2009-TR-008 Enterprise architects must... agency enterprises, which complicate the topology; the representation is not simply concentric circles. 7 | CMU/SEI-2009-TR-008 2.1.4 The Role of...largely determined by its architecture. Many large system and software failures point to inadequate soft- ware architecture education and practices and/or

  5. Future Mercury Exploration: Unique Science Opportunities from Our Solar System's Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, N. L.; McNutt, R. L.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Mazarico, E.; Jozwiak, L. M.

    2017-02-01

    Mercury is one of only five inner solar system terrestrial bodies, each of which is unique. What properties and processes made these bodies so diverse? Future planetary exploration must include Mercury to make advances on this fundamental question.

  6. Solar system exploration from the Moon: Synoptic and comparative study of bodies in our Planetary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruston, P.; Mumma, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.

  7. The Exploration of the Pluto System by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Harold; Stern, S. Alan

    2016-07-01

    The New Horizons (NH) mission was selected by NASA in November 2001 to conduct the first in situ reconnaissance of Pluto and the Kuiper belt. The NH spacecraft was launched on 2006 January 19, received a gravity assist from Jupiter during closest approach on 2007 February 28, and flew 12,500 km above Pluto's surface on 2015 July 14. NH carried a sophisticated suite of seven scientific instruments, altogether weighing less than 30 kg and drawing less than 30 W of power, that includes panchromatic and color imagers, ultraviolet and infrared spectral imagers, a radio science package, plasma and charged particle sensors, and a dust counting experiment. The NH flyby of the Pluto system executed flawlessly, providing unprecedented detail on the Pluto-Charon binary and Pluto's four small moons (Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra, in order of their orbital distance from Pluto). Pluto's surface displays diverse landforms, terrain ages, albedos, colors, and composition gradients. Evidence is found for a water-ice crust, geologically young surface units, surface ice convection, wind streaks, volatile transport, and glacial flow. NH discovered trace hydrocarbons in Pluto's atmosphere, multiple global haze layers, and a surface pressure near 10 microbars. Pluto's diverse surface geology and long term activity raise fundamental questions about how small planets remain active many billions of years (Gyr) after formation. Charon displays tectonics, evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition, and a puzzling giant hood of dark material covering its North Pole. Crater density statistics for Charon's surface give a crater retention age of 4-4.5 Ga, indicating that Charon's geological evolution largely ceased early in its history. Nix and Hydra have high albedos suggestive of H2O-ice covered surfaces. Crater densities on Nix and Hydra indicate surface ages > 4 Ga. All the small satellites have highly elongated shapes and are rotating much faster then synchronous with their orbital

  8. Inefficient Chronic Activation of Parietal Cells in Ae2a,b−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Recalde, Sergio; Muruzábal, Francisco; Looije, Norbert; Kunne, Cindy; Burrell, María A.; Sáez, Elena; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo; Salas, January T.; Mardones, Pablo; Prieto, Jesús; Medina, Juan F.; Elferink, Ronald P.J. Oude

    2006-01-01

    In parietal cells, basolateral Ae2 Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (Slc4a2) appears to compensate for luminal H+ pumping while providing Cl− for apical secretion. In mouse and rat, mRNA variants Ae2a, Ae2b1, Ae2b2, and Ae2c2 are all found in most tissues (although the latter at very low levels), whereas Ae2c1 is restricted to the stomach. We studied the acid secretory function of gastric mucosa in mice with targeted disruption of Ae2a, Ae2b1, and Ae2b2 (but not Ae2c) isoforms. In the oxyntic mucosa of Ae2a,b−/− mice, total Ae2 protein was nearly undetectable, indicating low gastric expression of the Ae2c isoforms. In Ae2a,b−/− mice basal acid secretion was normal, whereas carbachol/histamine-stimulated acid secretion was impaired by 70%. These animals showed increased serum gastrin levels and hyperplasia of G cells. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed baseline activation of parietal cells with fusion of intracellular H+/K+-ATPase-containing vesicles with the apical membrane and degenerative changes (but not substantial apoptosis) in a subpopulation of these cells. Increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the oxyntic glands suggested enhanced Ae2a,b−/− parietal cell turnover. These data reveal a critical role of Ae2a-Ae2b1-Ae2b2 isoforms in stimulated gastric acid secretion whereas residual Ae2c isoforms could account to a limited extent for basal acid secretion. PMID:16816370

  9. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  10. Shipboard Electrical System Modeling for Early-Stage Design Space Exploration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Shipboard Electrical System Modeling for Early -Stage Design Space Exploration Aaron M. Cramer, Hanling Chen Department of Electrical and Computer...Department United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD, USA Email: zivi@usna.edu Abstract—In early -stage design exploration, it has been found that...involved the use of linear programming to model the action of the power system [6]. In this approach, the mechanical dynamics associated with prime movers

  11. Machine Systems for Exploration and Manipulation a Conceptual Framework and Method of Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    MACHINE SYSTEMS FOR EXPLORATION AND MANIPULATION A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND METHOD OF EVALUATION Ruzena Bajcsy, Susan Lederman and Roberta L. Klatzky MS...Corporation, IBM Corporation and LORD Corporation. Machine Systems for Exploration and Manipulation: A Conceptual Framework and Method of Evaluation Abstract A...Manipulation A Conceptual Framework and Method of Evaluation1 Ruzena Bajcsy Susan Lederman Roberta L. Klatzky University of Pennsylvania Queen’s

  12. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  13. Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Andrew Mark

    At present, the majority of the world's energy demand is met by the consumption of exhaustible fuel supplies. Consequently, it is urgent to research and develop viable alternatives. In this dissertation, I present research that addresses fundamental questions concerning how water interacts with surfaces and solutes, with the goal of identifying novel systems for energy production and storage. Electrokinetic currents are created when moving fluid entrains charge from the diffuse portion of an electric double layer and carries that charge downstream. The potential difference that develops on either end of the channel is known as the streaming potential. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on electrokinetic energy production and conversion efficiency of liquid microjets. Section 1 of Chapter 2 presents proof-of-principle research demonstrating that molecular hydrogen is generated from electrokinetic currents in liquid water microjets. Hydrogen is generated when hydrated protons are preferentially carried downstream and recombine with electrons at a grounded target electrode. Both the current and hydrogen production scale nearly quadratically with flow rate, as predicted by equations derived from simple double layer theory and fluid mechanics. The efficiency is currently very low (ca 10-6) and is limited by the low electrokinetic current (˜nA). Designs to improve this efficiency are considered. Rather than chemical conversion efficiency, Section 2 of Chapter 2 investigates the electrical conversion efficiency of liquid water microjets. Typical electrokinetic energy conversion schemes measure current or voltage via electrodes in the fluid reservoirs on either side of a channel. With this design, the streaming potential drives a current against the flow of the fluid and, consequently, limits the conversion efficiency. In contrast, liquid microjets break up into droplets before reaching the downstream electrode and this eliminates the possibility for back conduction

  14. 19 CFR 192.11 - Description of the AES.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Description of the AES. 192.11 Section 192.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... 30 of the Census Regulations (15 CFR part 30, subpart E), denominated Electronic Filing...

  15. The phenotype Ae1B: a probable result of chimerism.

    PubMed Central

    Longster, G H; Robinson, E A; North, D I

    1978-01-01

    An apparently normal healthy adult with the blood group phenotype Ae1B is described. The unusual ABO group is apparently the result of chimerism, the proportion of the minor population of cells being so small as to be only detectable by absorption and elution techniques. PMID:739532

  16. An AES study of surface oxidation of zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, M.; Tanabe, T.; Imoto, S.

    1989-02-01

    A clean Zr surface, prepared by several cycles of heating and Ar ion sputtering, is exposed to oxygen gas under 10 -5-10 -6 Pa at room temperature (RT), and surface oxidation behavior is examined by in-situ AES measurements. Subsequent depth profiling of the oxidized sample is carried out and the oxygen diffusion coefficient in α-Zr is evaluated. All AES peaks of Zr and O are modified with increasing oxygen exposure. The changes of the AES peaks show three stages of oxidation which are attributed to (1) oxygen solution in α-Zr, (2) nucleation and growth of ZrO 2 on the surface and (3) growth of the ZrO 2 layer. Above 9000 L, the surface is completely covered with ZrO 2 and the present AES study shows no evidence of the appearance of suboxide suggested by Sen et al. and de Gonzalez et al. The depth profiling of the oxidized sample indicates coexistence of ZrO 2 and α-Zr(O) with an oxygen content of around 30 at% over a depth of several nm without any clear-cut boundary of ZrO 2 and α-Zr(O). The apparent oxygen diffusion coefficient at RT estimated using a simple model, 10 -21 m 2 s -1, is much larger than the extrapolated value, around 10 -40 m 2 s -1, from the literature at high temperatures.

  17. A case of bleomycin-induced acral erythema (AE) with eccrine squamous syringometaplasia (ESS) and summary of reports of AE with ESS in the literature.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hiromi; Yonemoto, Kohzoh; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2005-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema (AE) is primarily induced by hydroxyurea, methotrexate, and cytarabine, although there are rare reports of AE induced by combination chemotherapy containing bleomycin. It is thought that the accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs in eccrine glands may cause eccrine squamous syringometaplasia (ESS), which is characterized by metaplasia and focal necrosis of the epithelium of the eccrine duct. ESS is occasionally detected in conjunction with AE, but such occurrences are relatively uncommon. This is the first report of AE with ESS induced by the administration of bleomycin alone. We also provide a summary of past cases of AE with ESS in the literature.

  18. Radioisotope Power Systems for In-situ Exploration of Titan and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the timeline for the robotic in situ investigation of Titan and Venus, and the use of radioisotope power systems in this exploration. The atmospheric and surface conditions of both sites are reviewed. The presentation also examines the conceptual design of the Venus Mobile Explorer and the Titan orbiter and in situ explorer. After this the presentation reviews the radioisotope power systems for each of the vehicles, with some explanation of the different requirements based on the vastly different environments that they would be investigating

  19. Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

  20. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  1. 2010 NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate: Lunabotics Mining Competition Systems Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A fast growing approach in determining the best design concept for a problem is to hold a competition in which the rules are based on requirements similar to the actual problem. By going public with such competitions, sponsoring entities receive some of the most innovative engineering solutions in a fraction of the time and cost it would have taken to develop such concepts internally. Space exploration is a large benefactor of such design competitions as seen by the results of X-Prize Foundation and NASA lunar excavation competitions [1]. The results of NASA's past lunar excavator challenges has led to the need for an effective means of collecting lunar regolith in the absence of human beings. The 2010 Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Lunar Excavation Challenge was created "to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM, in a competitive environment that may result in innovative ideas and solutions, which could be applied to actual lunar excavation for NASA." [2]. The ESMD Challenge calls for "teams to use telerobotics or autonomous operations to excavate at least 10kg of lunar regolith simulant in a 15 minute time limit" [2]. The Systems Engineering approach was used in accordance with Auburn University's mechanical engineering senior design course (MECH 4240-50) to develop a telerobotic lunar excavator, seen in Fig. 1, that fulfilled requirements imposed by the NASA ESMD Competition Rules. The goal of the senior design project was to have a validated lunar excavator that would be used in the NASA ESMD lunar excavation challenge.

  2. Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

    1991-01-01

    A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

  3. Low-dimensional chaos in magnetospheric activity from AE time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassiliadis, D. V.; Sharma, A. S.; Eastman, T. E.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetospheric response to the solar-wind input, as represented by the time-series measurements of the auroral electrojet (AE) index, has been examined using phase-space reconstruction techniques. The system was found to behave as a low-dimensional chaotic system with a fractal dimension of 3.6 and has Kolmogorov entropy less than 0.2/min. These indicate that the dynamics of the system can be adequately described by four independent variables, and that the corresponding intrinsic time scale is of the order of 5 min. The relevance of the results to magnetospheric modeling is discussed.

  4. Supraphysiologic levels of the AML1-ETO isoform AE9a are essential for transformation

    PubMed Central

    Link, Kevin A.; Lin, Shan; Shrestha, Mahesh; Bowman, Melissa; Wunderlich, Mark; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Huang, Gang; Mulloy, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation 8;21 is found in 40% of the FAB M2 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The resultant in-frame fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) acts as an initiating oncogene for leukemia development. AE immortalizes human CD34+ cord blood cells in long-term culture. We assessed the transforming properties of the alternatively spliced AE isoform AE9a (or alternative splicing at exon 9), which is fully transforming in a murine retroviral model, in human cord blood cells. Full activity was realized only upon increased fusion protein expression. This effect was recapitulated in the AE9a murine AML model. Cotransduction of AE and AE9a resulted in a strong selective pressure for AE-expressing cells. In the context of AE, AE9a did not show selection for increased expression, affirming observations of human t(8;21) patient samples where full-length AE is the dominant protein detected. Mechanistically, AE9a showed defective transcriptional regulation of AE target genes that was partially corrected at high expression. Together, these results bring an additional perspective to our understanding of AE function and highlight the contribution of oncogene expression level in t(8;21) experimental models. PMID:27457952

  5. Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space.

    PubMed

    Connors, M M; Harrison, A A; Summit, J

    1994-07-01

    Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

  6. Electric Propulsion Concepts Enabled by High Power Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James; Fiehler, Douglas; Lyons, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the latest development in electric propulsion systems being planned for the new Space Exploration initiative. Missions to the Moon and Mars will require these new thrusters to deliver the large quantities of supplies that would be needed to support permanent bases on other worlds. The new thrusters are also being used for unmanned exploration missions that will go to the far reaches of the solar system. This paper is intended to give the reader some insight into several electric propulsion concepts their operating principles and capabilities, as well as an overview of some mission applications that would benefit from these propulsion systems, and their accompanying advanced power systems.

  7. Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

    1994-01-01

    Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

  8. GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

  9. AeSPoe HARD ROCK LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Svemar, C; Pettersson, S.; Hedman, T.

    2003-02-27

    Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AEHRL) has been constructed in virgin bedrock as part of the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden, the role being to provide input to the performance assessment, to test engineered barrier systems and to develop and refine full scale methods and machines for construction and operation of the real repository. The AEHRL extends down to 460 m depth with access via both ramp and shaft. Work in the laboratory has been separated into 4 different stage goals: (1) Verification of site investigation methods. (2) Development of detailed investigation methodology. (3) Testing of models for description of the barrier function of the host rock. (4) Demonstration of technology for and function of important parts of the repository system Stage goals 1 and 2 were in focus during the period 1986-95 and are now completed. Stage goal 1 concerns investigations carried out from ground surface and stage goal 2 investigations carried out underground, in this case during excavation of the ramp. The present work is focused on the two operative stage goals 3 and 4. The activities on barrier function of the host rock comprises primarily in-situ tests with tracer migration in natural fractures and migration of actinides in small samples of rock or bentonite inside a chemical laboratory probe installed in a borehole. The data collected from the tests are used for model development and verification. The demonstration of technology includes studies of engineered barriers and comprises tests of copper stability, bentonite buffer, backfill, plugging and practical development of the main disposal sequences. Up today five full scale deposition holes with buffer and canister, and one full-scale test of backfill and plugging have been installed. The prototype for the deposition machine is in operation. The work is conducted in an international environment and altogether eight organizations from seven countries besides Sweden take

  10. Architecting the Communication and Navigation Networks for NASA's Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhassin, Kul B.; Putt, Chuck; Hayden, Jeffrey; Tseng, Shirley; Biswas, Abi; Kennedy, Brian; Jennings, Esther H.; Miller, Ron A.; Hudiburg, John; Miller, Dave; Jeffries, Alan; Sartwell, Tom

    2007-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. A key objective of the missions is to grow, through a series of launches, a system of systems communication, navigation, and timing infrastructure at minimum cost while providing a network-centric infrastructure that maximizes the exploration capabilities and science return. There is a strong need to use architecting processes in the mission pre-formulation stage to describe the systems, interfaces, and interoperability needed to implement multiple space communication systems that are deployed over time, yet support interoperability with each deployment phase and with 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper we present a process for defining the architecture of the communications, navigation, and networks needed to support future space explorers with the best adaptable and evolable network-centric space exploration infrastructure. The process steps presented are: 1) Architecture decomposition, 2) Defining mission systems and their interfaces, 3) Developing the communication, navigation, networking architecture, and 4) Integrating systems, operational and technical views and viewpoints. We demonstrate the process through the architecture development of the communication network for upcoming NASA space exploration missions.

  11. 19 CFR 192.13 - Revocation of participants' AES post-departure (Option 4) filing privileges; appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXPORT CONTROL Filing of Export Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.13 Revocation of... Option 4 filer would pose a threat to national security, such that continued participation in Option...

  12. Moving Towards a Common Ground and Flight Data Systems Architecture for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader. Steve; Kearney, Mike; McVittie, Thom; Smith, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has embarked on an ambitious effort to return man to the moon and then on to Mars. The Exploration Vision requires development of major new space and ground assets and poses challenges well beyond those faced by many of NASA's recent programs. New crewed vehicles must be developed. Compatible supply vehicles, surface mobility modules and robotic exploration capabilities will supplement the manned exploration vehicle. New launch systems will be developed as well as a new ground communications and control infrastructure. The development must take place in a cost-constrained environment and must advance along an aggressive schedule. Common solutions and system interoperability and will be critical to the successful development of the Exploration data systems for this wide variety of flight and ground elements. To this end, NASA has assembled a team of engineers from across the agency to identify the key challenges for Exploration data systems and to establish the most beneficial strategic approach to be followed. Key challenges and the planned NASA approach for flight and ground systems will be discussed in the paper. The described approaches will capitalize on new technologies, and will result in cross-program interoperability between spacecraft and ground systems, from multiple suppliers and agencies.

  13. Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

  14. Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

  15. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  16. The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

  17. OEXP exploration studies technical report. Volume 3: Special reports, studies, and indepth systems assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Bland, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Exploration (OEXP) at NASA has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the Solar System. The Mission analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report, produced by the MASE, describes the process used to conduct exploration studies and discusses the mission developed in a case study approach. The four case studies developed in FY88 include: (1) a manned expedition to PHOBOS; (2) a manned expedition to MARS; (3) a lunar surface observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work.

  18. Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Caruso, Pamela W.; Jones, Carl P.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews systems engineering innovations for Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. The contents include: 1) NASA's Exploratoin Roadmap; 2) Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 3) Designing the Ares I and Ares V in House; 4) Exploring the Moon; and 5) Systems Engineering Adds Value Throughout the Project Lifecycle.

  19. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  20. Doing more with less - The new way of exploring the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridenoure, Rex

    1992-01-01

    Exploration of the solar system is considered in the light of existing economic factors and scientific priorities, and a general blueprint for an exploration strategy is set forth. Attention is given to mission costs, typical schedules, and the scientific findings of typical projects which create the need for collaboration and diversification in mission development. The combined technologies and cooperative efforts of several small organizations can lead to missions with short schedules and low costs.