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Sample records for exploratory analysis applied

  1. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  2. Graphical and Numerical Descriptive Analysis: Exploratory Tools Applied to Vietnamese Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Dominique; Phong, Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    This case study covers several exploratory data analysis ideas, the histogram and boxplot, kernel density estimates, the recently introduced bagplot--a two-dimensional extension of the boxplot--as well as the violin plot, which combines a boxplot with a density shape plot. We apply these ideas and demonstrate how to interpret the output from these…

  3. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  4. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  5. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  6. The Application of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Applied Psychology: A Critical Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, J. Kevin

    1986-01-01

    Analyzed choices made by researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, interpretation of factors and other issues relevant to factor analysis. Results indicate that choices made by researchers have generally been poor and that reporting practices have not allowed for informed review, cumulation of results, or replicability.…

  7. Confirmatory and exploratory analysis applied to pharmaco-EEG and related study data: contradiction or useful enrichment?

    PubMed

    Ferner, U; Matejcek, M; Neff, G

    1983-01-01

    Besides hypothesis testing, which should be done as sparingly as possible, the measured or observed data should be described as extensively as possible. The traditional reliance on profiles of the mean responses may neglect useful information, and such profiles may also be misleading. With the aid of exploratory data analysis, different aspects of the structure of a data set can be considered. 'Data snooping' may discover coherences, non-trivial structures and peculiarities, which lead to a new hypothesis or to new mathematical-statistical models. It is, in our opinion, a necessity to consider exploratory and confirmatory data analyses in conjunction. This will be illustrated by examples taken from pharmaco-EEG studies.

  8. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  9. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  10. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  11. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  12. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  13. Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis: Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Penelope M.; Fisher, Carolanne

    1994-01-01

    Explains exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA) and outlines ESDA characteristics that could help human-computer interaction investigators using sequential data make better conceptual and methodological choices. Behavioral, cognitive, and social factors are considered, and failures of expertise, time management, and databased problems are…

  14. Multivariate optimization by exploratory analysis applied to the determination of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba

    2009-06-01

    A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.

  15. Crime in Nigeria: An Exploratory Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    crime and exploratory factor analysis (a statistical technique for data reduction), this paper develops models of crimes against persons and property...country in Africa. Using theories of crime and exploratory factor analysis (a statistical technique for data reduction), this paper develops models of...2011, (transcript), accessed 24 October 2012, http://www.africom.mil/getArticle.asp?art= 7103&lang=0. 3 crime . After conducting statistical tests

  16. Exploratory Data Analysis: Past, Present and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5pi 99 . FUNDING NUMBERS Exploratory Data Analysis: Past, Present, and Future DA0-1G03 6. AUTHOR(S) John W. Tukey 7. PERFORMING...Exploratory Data Analysis: Past, Present, and Future John W. Tukey1 AcceýJoio For Princeton University NTIS CRAM 408 Fine Hall DTiC TAB U...Analysis: Past, Present, and Future John W. 2ke9 Technical Report No. 302 Princeton University, 408 Fine Hall, Wauhington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544-1000

  17. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  18. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  19. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  20. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  1. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  2. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Exploratory Data Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to exploratory data analysis. Overview of variable distributions, scatter plots, correlation analysis, GIS datasets. Use of conditional probability to examine stressor levels and impairment. Exploring correlations among multiple stressors.

  3. Exploratory N = 1 Profile Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kevin D.

    1991-01-01

    A method is outlined for analysis of the shape of an individual profile of scores on a standardized test battery. The method uses a simultaneous test procedure allowing for an overall test of profile flatness, with follow-up tests on all contrasts of interest. (SLD)

  4. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial…

  5. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial…

  6. Integrative Exploratory Analysis of Two or More Genomic Datasets.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Culhane, Aedin

    2016-01-01

    Exploratory analysis is an essential step in the analysis of high throughput data. Multivariate approaches such as correspondence analysis (CA), principal component analysis, and multidimensional scaling are widely used in the exploratory analysis of single dataset. Modern biological studies often assay multiple types of biological molecules (e.g., mRNA, protein, phosphoproteins) on a same set of biological samples, thereby creating multiple different types of omics data or multiassay data. Integrative exploratory analysis of these multiple omics data is required to leverage the potential of multiple omics studies. In this chapter, we describe the application of co-inertia analysis (CIA; for analyzing two datasets) and multiple co-inertia analysis (MCIA; for three or more datasets) to address this problem. These methods are powerful yet simple multivariate approaches that represent samples using a lower number of variables, allowing a more easily identification of the correlated structure in and between multiple high dimensional datasets. Graphical representations can be employed to this purpose. In addition, the methods simultaneously project samples and variables (genes, proteins) onto the same lower dimensional space, so the most variant variables from each dataset can be selected and associated with samples, which can be further used to facilitate biological interpretation and pathway analysis. We applied CIA to explore the concordance between mRNA and protein expression in a panel of 60 tumor cell lines from the National Cancer Institute. In the same 60 cell lines, we used MCIA to perform a cross-platform comparison of mRNA gene expression profiles obtained on four different microarray platforms. Last, as an example of integrative analysis of multiassay or multi-omics data we analyzed transcriptomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic data from pluripotent (iPS) and embryonic stem (ES) cell lines.

  7. [Spatial exploratory analysis of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Prepare a tool for the exploratory study of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, that exclusively applies the spatial geographical variable (location). Observational and cross-sectional study that uses a Geographic Information System to explore the spatial nature of 13 305 road accidents recorded during 2008 and 2009 in Ciudad Juarez. Indicators were constructed that approximated the transit flow and included two variables: indices of the level of urbanization and population density. The value of the global spatial autocorrelation was positive, indicating the presence of groupings that were identified through the spatial association indicators. There are road risk clusters located in areas with a high level of urbanization, low population density, and a high transit flow level. The exploratory analysis of spatial data is a phase that precedes the use of multivariate techniques with a broader scope. The application of exploratory analysis techniques in itself makes it possible to standardize spatial groupings, identify global autocorrelation, and indicate the direction of the variables under study.

  8. New Procedure for Extension Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    In exploratory common factor analysis, extension analysis refers to computing the relationship of the common factors to variables that were not included in the factor analysis. A new extension procedure is presented that gives correlations without using estimated factor scores. Advantages of the new method are illustrated. (SLD)

  9. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  10. [Introduction to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carolina Méndez; Sepúlveda, Martín Alonso Rondón

    2012-03-01

    Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) has become one of the most frequently used statistical techniques, especially in the medical and social sciences. Given its popularity, it is essential to understand the basic concepts necessary for its proper application and to take into consideration the main strengths and weaknesses of this technique. To present in a clear and concise manner the main applications of this technique, to determine the basic requirements for its use providing a description step by step of its methodology, and to establish the elements that must be taken into account during its preparation in order to not incur in erroneous results and interpretations. Narrative review. This review identifies the basic concepts and briefly describes the objectives, design, assumptions, and methodology to achieve factor derivation, global adjustment evaluation, and adequate interpretation of results. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  12. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3

  13. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  14. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  15. Exploratory factor analysis: its role in item analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, R L

    1997-06-01

    The special characteristics of items-low reliability, confounds by minor, unwanted covariance, and the likelihood of a general factor-and better understanding of factor analysis means that the default procedure of many statistical packages (Little Jiffy) is no longer adequate for exploratory item factor analysis. It produces too many factors and precludes a general factor even when that means the factors extracted are nonreplicable. More appropriate procedures that reduce these problems are presented, along with how to select the sample, sample size required, and how to select items for scales. Proposed scales can be evaluated by their correlations with the factors; a new procedure for doing so eliminates the biased values produced by correlating them with either total or factor scores. The role of exploratory factor analysis relative to cluster analysis and confirmatory factor analysis is noted.

  16. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base James R. Dominy...contract DASW01-04-C-0003, AH-7-3315, “Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base,” for the Director, Industrial Policy. The...D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-4308 Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base James R. Dominy, Project

  17. Development of the Senior Concerns Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistilli, Matthew D.; Taub, Deborah J.; Bennett, Deborah E.

    2003-01-01

    Created and tested the Senior Concerns Survey. An exploratory factor analysis revealed four areas of concern for college seniors: career related concerns, change and loss related concerns, graduate/professional school related concerns, and support related concerns. (EV)

  18. Analytic standard errors for exploratory process factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W; Ong, Anthony D; Chow, Sy Miin

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory process factor analysis (EPFA) is a data-driven latent variable model for multivariate time series. This article presents analytic standard errors for EPFA. Unlike standard errors for exploratory factor analysis with independent data, the analytic standard errors for EPFA take into account the time dependency in time series data. In addition, factor rotation is treated as the imposition of equality constraints on model parameters. Properties of the analytic standard errors are demonstrated using empirical and simulated data.

  19. Seeing the Forest Despite the Trees: The Benefit of Exploratory Data Analysis to Program Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinacore, James M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that there is a benefit to applying techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) to program evaluation. The evaluation of a rehabilitation program for people with rheumatoid arthritis (20 subjects and 21 comparisons) through EDA supports the argument, indicating outcomes more precisely than conventional analysis of variance. (SLD)

  20. Seeing the Forest Despite the Trees: The Benefit of Exploratory Data Analysis to Program Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinacore, James M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that there is a benefit to applying techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) to program evaluation. The evaluation of a rehabilitation program for people with rheumatoid arthritis (20 subjects and 21 comparisons) through EDA supports the argument, indicating outcomes more precisely than conventional analysis of variance. (SLD)

  1. Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  2. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  3. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  4. Exploratory factor analysis in Rehabilitation Psychology: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Richard B; Elliott, Timothy R; Chang, Jessica E; Hill, Jessica N

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, sample size, factor retention method(s), extraction and rotation method(s), and whether the pattern coefficients, structure coefficients, and the matrix of association were reported. The primary use of the EFAs was scale development, but the most widely used extraction and rotation method was principle component analysis, with varimax rotation. When determining how many factors to retain, multiple methods (e.g., scree plot, parallel analysis) were used most often. Many articles did not report enough information to allow for the duplication of their results. EFA relies on authors' choices (e.g., factor retention rules extraction, rotation methods), and few articles adhered to all of the best practices. The current findings are compared to other empirical investigations into the use of EFA in published research. Recommendations for improving EFA reporting practices in rehabilitation psychology research are provided.

  5. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  6. Factor Loading Estimation Error and Stability Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is commonly employed to evaluate the factor structure of measures with dichotomously scored items. Generally, only the estimated factor loadings are provided with no reference to significance tests, confidence intervals, and/or estimated factor loading standard errors. This simulation study assessed factor loading…

  7. Exploratory Tobit Factor Analysis for Multivariate Censored Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamakura, Wagner A.; Wedel, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a class of multivariate Tobit models with a factor structure on the covariance matrix. Such models are useful in the exploratory analysis of multivariate censored data and the identification of latent variables from behavioral data. The factor structure provides a parsimonious representation of the censored data. Models are estimated with…

  8. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  9. Factor Loading Estimation Error and Stability Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is commonly employed to evaluate the factor structure of measures with dichotomously scored items. Generally, only the estimated factor loadings are provided with no reference to significance tests, confidence intervals, and/or estimated factor loading standard errors. This simulation study assessed factor loading…

  10. Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Theory Generation, and Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the methodological foundations of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and suggests that it is properly construed as a method for generating explanatory theories. In the first half of the article it is argued that EFA should be understood as an abductive method of theory generation that exploits an important precept of…

  12. Performance on the Pharmacy College Admission Test: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Nancy E.; Ethington, Corinna

    1994-01-01

    Median polishing, an exploratory data statistical analysis technique, was used to study achievement patterns for men and women on the Pharmacy College Admission Test over a six-year period. In general, a declining trend in scores was found, and males performed better than females, with the largest differences found in chemistry and biology.…

  13. An Exploratory Analysis of Performance on the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) were used to decompose data tables portraying performance of ethnic groups on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. These analyses indicate the size and structure of differences in performance among groups studied, nature of changes across time, and interactions between group membership and time. (Author/DWH)

  14. Connectivism in Postsecondary Online Courses: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Nanette; Lomicky, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores 465 postsecondary students' experiences in online classes through the lens of connectivism. Downes' 4 properties of connectivism (diversity, autonomy, interactivity, and openness) were used as the study design. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. This study found a 4-factor solution. Subjects indicated that autonomy…

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of History Students' Dissertation Acknowledgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Librarians and archivists can gain insight into the disciplinary culture of historians, and history doctoral students in particular, by examining the acknowledgment sections of these students' doctoral dissertations. This paper is an exploratory analysis of the 219 history dissertations written at the University of Oklahoma between 1930 and 2005.…

  16. Start and Stop Rules for Exploratory Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for choosing rejection probabilities for the tests of independence that are used in constraint-based algorithms of exploratory path analysis. The method consists of generating a Markov or semi-Markov model from the equivalence class represented by a partial ancestral graph and then testing the d-separation implications. (SLD)

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  18. Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

  19. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John O.

    1982-01-01

    Applied behavioral analysis in education is expanding rapidly. This article describes the dimensions of applied behavior analysis and the contributions this technology offers teachers in the area of systematic applications, direct and daily measurement, and experimental methodology. (CJ)

  1. Draftsman Displays, A Graphical Technique for Exploratory Data Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    procedure in exploratory data analysis. The graphs used in this paper were produced by an exper- imental APL package GRAFSTAT, whics the Naval Postgraduate... succesive plots to analyse the influence of other variables. This particular tecanique of arranging the scatter plots is similiar to a draftsman drawing of a...in APL and is designed to be used in conjunction with the experimental IBM graphics software GRAFSTAT. The Draftsman program is interactive and

  2. Twitter Use in Libraries: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a relatively new phenomenon in online social networking that has become increasingly prevalent in the last few years. This study explores the use of Twitter in public and academic libraries to understand microblogging patterns. Analysis of the tweets was conducted in two phases: (1) statistical descriptive analysis and (2) content…

  3. Applied Surface Analysis Workshop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    field of surface analysis attended the Workshop. The list of participants follows. 5! A, I Charles Anderson Albert L. Botkin Case Western Reserve...Louis, MO 63166 University of Dayton 300 College Park Richard Chase Dayton, OH 45469 Case Western Reserve University University Circle Brian E. P...Dayton, OH 45469 300 College Park Dayton, OH 45469 Richard W. Hoffman Case Western Reserve University Martin Kordesch Cleveland, OH 44106 Case Western

  4. HBCU Efficiency and Endowments: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupet, Jason; Barnum, Darold

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of efficiency among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are often missing in academic conversations. This article seeks to assess efficiency of individual HBCUs using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a non-parametric technique that can synthesize multiple inputs and outputs to determine a single efficiency score for…

  5. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of "exercise readiness" is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key pointsAssessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined.Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor analysis

  6. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key points Assessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined. Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor

  7. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  8. Exploratory Causal Analysis in Bivariate Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, James M.

    Many scientific disciplines rely on observational data of systems for which it is difficult (or impossible) to implement controlled experiments and data analysis techniques are required for identifying causal information and relationships directly from observational data. This need has lead to the development of many different time series causality approaches and tools including transfer entropy, convergent cross-mapping (CCM), and Granger causality statistics. In this thesis, the existing time series causality method of CCM is extended by introducing a new method called pairwise asymmetric inference (PAI). It is found that CCM may provide counter-intuitive causal inferences for simple dynamics with strong intuitive notions of causality, and the CCM causal inference can be a function of physical parameters that are seemingly unrelated to the existence of a driving relationship in the system. For example, a CCM causal inference might alternate between ''voltage drives current'' and ''current drives voltage'' as the frequency of the voltage signal is changed in a series circuit with a single resistor and inductor. PAI is introduced to address both of these limitations. Many of the current approaches in the times series causality literature are not computationally straightforward to apply, do not follow directly from assumptions of probabilistic causality, depend on assumed models for the time series generating process, or rely on embedding procedures. A new approach, called causal leaning, is introduced in this work to avoid these issues. The leaning is found to provide causal inferences that agree with intuition for both simple systems and more complicated empirical examples, including space weather data sets. The leaning may provide a clearer interpretation of the results than those from existing time series causality tools. A practicing analyst can explore the literature to find many proposals for identifying drivers and causal connections in times series data

  9. Modeling and evaluating user behavior in exploratory visual analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Khairi; Johnson, Andrew E.; Papka, Michael E.; Leigh, Jason

    2016-10-01

    Empirical evaluation methods for visualizations have traditionally focused on assessing the outcome of the visual analytic process as opposed to characterizing how that process unfolds. There are only a handful of methods that can be used to systematically study how people use visualizations, making it difficult for researchers to capture and characterize the subtlety of cognitive and interaction behaviors users exhibit during visual analysis. To validate and improve visualization design, however, it is important for researchers to be able to assess and understand how users interact with visualization systems under realistic scenarios. This paper presents a methodology for modeling and evaluating the behavior of users in exploratory visual analysis. We model visual exploration using a Markov chain process comprising transitions between mental, interaction, and computational states. These states and the transitions between them can be deduced from a variety of sources, including verbal transcripts, videos and audio recordings, and log files. This model enables the evaluator to characterize the cognitive and computational processes that are essential to insight acquisition in exploratory visual analysis, and reconstruct the dynamics of interaction between the user and the visualization system. We illustrate this model with two exemplar user studies, and demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative analytical tools it affords.

  10. Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What It Is and Why It Makes Your Analysis Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Fitzpatrick, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is a powerful and commonly-used tool for investigating the underlying variable structure of a psychometric instrument. However, there is much controversy in the social sciences with regard to the techniques used in EFA (Ford, MacCallum, & Tait, 1986; Henson & Roberts, 2006) and the reliability of the outcome.…

  11. Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What It Is and Why It Makes Your Analysis Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Fitzpatrick, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is a powerful and commonly-used tool for investigating the underlying variable structure of a psychometric instrument. However, there is much controversy in the social sciences with regard to the techniques used in EFA (Ford, MacCallum, & Tait, 1986; Henson & Roberts, 2006) and the reliability of the outcome.…

  12. An exploratory analysis of Indiana and Illinois biotic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA recognizes the importance of nutrient criteria in protecting designated uses from eutrophication effects associated with elevated phosphorus and nitrogen in streams and has worked with states over the past 12 years to assist them in developing nutrient criteria. Towards that end, EPA has provided states and tribes with technical guidance to assess nutrient impacts and to develop criteria. EPA published recommendations in 2000 on scientifically defensible empirical approaches for setting numeric criteria. EPA also published eco-regional criteria recommendations in 2000-2001 based on a frequency distribution approach meant to approximate reference condition concentrations. In 2010, EPA elaborated on one of these empirical approaches (i.e., stressor-response relationships) for developing nutrient criteria. The purpose of this report was to conduct exploratory analyses of state datasets from Illinois and Indiana to determine threshold values for nutrients and chlorophyll a that could guide Indiana and Illinois criteria development. Box and whisker plots were used to compare nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations between Illinois and Indiana. Stressor response analyses, using piece-wise linear regression and change-point analysis (Illinois only) were conducted to determine thresholds of change in relationships between nutrients and biotic assemblages. Impact stmt: The purpose of this report was to conduct exploratory analyses of state datasets from Illinois

  13. Women in applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Donahoe, Patricia; Swindell, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    The status of women in applied behavior analysis was examined by comparing the participation of women in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) to their participation in three similar journals. For all journals, the percentage of articles with at least one female author, the percentage of authors who are female, and the percentage of articles with a female first author increased from 1978 to 1997. Participation by women in JABA was equal to or greater than participation by women in the comparison journals. However, women appeared as authors on papers in special sections of Behavior Modification substantially more often when the editor was female than when the editor was male. In addition, female membership on the editorial boards of JABA, Behavior Modification, and Behaviour Research and Therapy failed to increase from 1978 to 1997. We conclude that a “glass ceiling” reduces the participation of women at the highest levels of applied behavior analysis and related fields. PMID:22478351

  14. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  15. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  16. Using Horn's Parallel Analysis Method in Exploratory Factor Analysis for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Koçak, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the number of factors obtained from parallel analysis, a method used for determining the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis, was compared to that of the factors obtained from eigenvalue and scree plot--two traditional methods for determining the number of factors--in terms of consistency. Parallel analysis is based on…

  17. Exploratory factor analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C

    2012-03-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly and were labeled "Embracing African Heritage." The second subscale of the two-factor solution was labeled "Refusal to Deny African Heritage." Only the structural validity of the first factor of the two-factor solution was fully consistent with prior findings. Partial evidence of convergent validity was found for all factors, and only the second factor of the two-factor solution received external validity support. Implications for usage of the African Self-Consciousness Scale and recommendations for further investigation are discussed.

  18. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the…

  19. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  20. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Theory Generation, and Scientific Method.

    PubMed

    Haig, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the methodological foundations of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and suggests that it is properly construed as a method for generating explanatory theories. In the first half of the article it is argued that EFA should be understood as an abductive method of theory generation that exploits an important precept of scientific inference known as the principle of the common cause. This characterization of the inferential nature of EFA coheres well with its interpretation as a latent variable method. The second half of the article outlines a broad theory of scientific method in which abductive reasoning figures prominently. It then discusses a number of methodological features of EFA in the light of that method. Specifically, it is argued that EFA helps researchers generate theories with genuine explanatory merit; that factor indeterminacy is a methodological challenge for both EFA and confirmatory factor analysis, but that the challenge can be satisfactorily met in each case; and, that EFA, as a useful method of theory generation, can be profitably employed in tandem with confirmatory factor analysis and other methods of theory evaluation.

  1. Exploratory functional flood frequency analysis and outlier detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebana, Fateh; Dabo-Niang, Sophie; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The prevention of flood risks and the effective planning and management of water resources require river flows to be continuously measured and analyzed at a number of stations. For a given station, a hydrograph can be obtained as a graphical representation of the temporal variation of flow over a period of time. The information provided by the hydrograph is essential to determine the severity of extreme events and their frequencies. A flood hydrograph is commonly characterized by its peak, volume, and duration. Traditional hydrological frequency analysis (FA) approaches focused separately on each of these features in a univariate context. Recent multivariate approaches considered these features jointly in order to take into account their dependence structure. However, all these approaches are based on the analysis of a number of characteristics and do not make use of the full information content of the hydrograph. The objective of the present work is to propose a new framework for FA using the hydrographs as curves: functional data. In this context, the whole hydrograph is considered as one infinite-dimensional observation. This context allows us to provide more effective and efficient estimates of the risk associated with extreme events. The proposed approach contributes to addressing the problem of lack of data commonly encountered in hydrology by fully employing all the information contained in the hydrographs. A number of functional data analysis tools are introduced and adapted to flood FA with a focus on exploratory analysis as a first stage toward a complete functional flood FA. These methods, including data visualization, location and scale measures, principal component analysis, and outlier detection, are illustrated in a real-world flood analysis case study from the province of Quebec, Canada.

  2. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Methods: Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were determined using a Bayesian hierarchical model that combined modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data to create bias-corrected concentrations and matched to residential address at birth. Average air pollution concentrations during the first trimester were calculated. Results: The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations between the air pollutants and birth defects were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O3 and craniosynostosis [adjusted OR 1.28 (95% CI 1.04, 1.58) per 13.3 ppb increase) and observed inverse associations between PM2.5 concentrations and septal heart defects and obstructive heart defects [adjusted ORs 0.79 (95% CI 0.75, 0.82) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.79, 0.97) per 5.0 µg/m3 increase, respectively] in the Texas Birth Defects Registry study. Septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were also examined using the NBDPS but the associations with PM2.5 were null [adj

  3. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile

    PubMed Central

    John, Mike T.; Reißmann, Daniel R.; Feuerstahler, Leah; Waller, Niels; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Larsson, Pernilla; Čelebić, Asja; Szabo, Gyula; Rener-Sitar, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontics patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (N=5,173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5,146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27.0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2.6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Orofacial Pain, Orofacial Appearance, and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  4. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  5. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Donald E.; Flynn, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow’s model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein’s contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs. PMID:26345693

  6. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Eggerth, Donald E; Flynn, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow's model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein's contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs.

  7. A Comparative Investigation of Rotation Criteria Within Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sass, Daniel A; Schmitt, Thomas A

    2010-01-29

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a commonly used statistical technique for examining the relationships between variables (e.g., items) and the factors (e.g., latent traits) they depict. There are several decisions that must be made when using EFA, with one of the more important being choice of the rotation criterion. This selection can be arduous given the numerous rotation criteria available and the lack of research/literature that compares their function and utility. Historically, researchers have chosen rotation criteria based on whether or not factors are correlated and have failed to consider other important aspects of their data. This study reviews several rotation criteria, demonstrates how they may perform with different factor pattern structures, and highlights for researchers subtle but important differences between each rotation criterion. The choice of rotation criterion is critical to ensure researchers make informed decisions as to when different rotation criteria may or may not be appropriate. The results suggest that depending on the rotation criterion selected and the complexity of the factor pattern matrix, the interpretation of the interfactor correlations and factor pattern loadings can vary substantially. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  8. Transition Icons for Time Series Visualization and Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Paul; Baharloo, Raheleh; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Manini, Todd D; Tighe, Patrick J; Rashidi, Parisa

    2017-05-16

    The modern healthcare landscape has seen the rapid emergence of techniques and devices which temporally monitor and record physiological signals. The prevalence of time series data within the healthcare field necessitates the development of methods which can analyze the data in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Time series behavior is notoriously difficult to intuitively understand due to its intrinsic high-dimensionality, which is compounded in the case of analyzing groups of time series collected from different patients. Our framework, which we call Transition Icons, renders common patterns in a visual format useful for understanding the shared behavior within groups of time series. Transition Icons are adept at detecting and displaying subtle differences and similarities e.g. between measurements taken from patients receiving different treatment strategies or stratified by demographics. We introduce various methods which collectively allow for exploratory analysis of groups of time series, while being free of distribution assumptions and including simple heuristics for parameter determination. Our technique extracts discrete transition patterns from Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) representations, and compiles transition frequencies into a Bag of Patterns (BoP) constructed for each group. These transition frequencies are normalized and aligned in icon form to intuitively display the underlying patterns. We demonstrate the Transition Icon technique for two time series data sets - postoperative pain scores, and hip-worn accelerometer activity counts. We believe Transition Icons can be an important tool for researchers approaching time series data, as they give rich and intuitive information about collective time series behaviors.

  9. Exploratory factor analysis: strategies used by patients to promote health.

    PubMed

    Lev, Elise L; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Kolassa, John; Gejerman, Glen; Colella, Joan; Lane, Patricia; Scrofine, Suzanne; Esposito, Michael; Lanteri, Vincent; Scheuch, John; Munver, Ravi; Galli, Bernadette; Watson, Richard A; Sawczuk, Ihor

    2007-03-01

    Strategies used by patients to promote health (SUPPH) was used to measure self-care self-efficacy in patients with cancer. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the extent to which self-efficacy theory explained the factor structure of the SUPPH and (2) to determine the relationship of demographic data with factors of the SUPPH. Subjects were diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) and treated with either: (a) radical prostatectomy, (b) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) + radioactive seed implantation, or (c) IMRT + high dose rate. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire and the SUPPH. Exploratory factor analysis of the SUPPH was performed using a varimax rotation. Subjects (n = 265) were predominately white and averaged 68 years of age. The model explained 81.3% of the total sum of eigenvalues. Two factors of the SUPPH were identified: physiological efficacy information and performance efficacy information. Younger subjects who were fully employed and earning more money had significantly higher performance self-efficacy than older subjects who were working part time and earning less money. Results are congruent with Bandura's (1997) description of self-efficacy. Use of the SUPPH may facilitate research validating Bandura's (1997) assertion that an individual's self-efficacy is related to quality of life (QOL) during chronic illness. Additional research focusing on self-efficacy and PCa patients' QOL may lead to efficacy enhancing interventions that will improve QOL of patients with PCa.

  10. Laterality, sex, and everyday spatial behaviours: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Carol A; Czarnolewski, Mark Y; Eliot, John

    2015-10-06

    Exploratory analyses of a 126-item self-report assessment of difficulty of spatial behaviours (revision of the Everyday Spatial Behavioral Questionnaire, ESBQ) were used to examine principal components and the underlying root structure of perceived spatial competencies. We also examined laterality measures (handedness, footedness, and earedness), sex, and age as predictors of spatial behaviour component scores. 12 principal components were identified that represented facets of spatial behaviour and perception. Canonical analysis revealed 2 underlying dimensions of perceived difficulty in performing spatial behaviours: difficulty with spatial relations in the context of movement and difficulty with judging how things relate to each other or to a larger surround. Sex was more closely related to the former dimension; laterality measures and age were more closely related to the latter. With respect to specific components, women tended to report more difficulty with making judgements in relation to earth-fixed axes but less difficulty in judging relations to nearby objects and how objects fit together or within a surround. Right-handedness was associated with more perceived difficulty in judging spatial relations while driving, overlaying surfaces, and moving in relation to other objects in nearby space. Future confirmatory analyses will be needed to establish subscales of the ESBQ and their usefulness for practical applications.

  11. Exploratory spatial data analysis of global MODIS active fire data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oom, D.; Pereira, J. M. C.

    2013-04-01

    We performed an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) of autocorrelation patterns in the NASA MODIS MCD14ML Collection 5 active fire dataset, for the period 2001-2009, at the global scale. The dataset was screened, resulting in an annual rate of false alarms and non-vegetation fires ranging from a minimum of 3.1% in 2003 to a maximum of 4.4% in 2001. Hot bare soils and gas flares were the major sources of false alarms and non-vegetation fires. The data were aggregated at 0.5° resolution for the global and local spatial autocorrelation Fire counts were found to be positively correlated up to distances of around 200 km, and negatively for larger distances. A value of 0.80 (p = 0.001, α = 0.05) for Moran's I indicates strong spatial autocorrelation between fires at global scale, with 60% of all cells displaying significant positive or negative spatial correlation. Different types of spatial autocorrelation were mapped and regression diagnostics allowed for the identification of spatial outlier cells, with fire counts much higher or lower than expected, considering their spatial context.

  12. Introducing Statistics to Geography Students: The Case for Exploratory Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Christopher R.; Fox, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) gives students a feel for the data being considered. Four applications of EDA are discussed: the use of displays, resistant statistics, transformations, and smoothing. (RM)

  13. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-07-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.

  14. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-01-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results. PMID:6475959

  15. A combined multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering view for the exploratory analysis of multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Paul; Roa-Seïler, Néna

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel information visualization technique that combines multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering to support the exploratory analysis of multidimensional data. The technique displays the results of multidimensional scaling using a scatter plot where the proximity of any two items' representations is approximate to their similarity according to a Euclidean distance metric. The results of hierarchical clustering are overlaid onto this view by drawing smoothed outlines around each nested cluster. The difference in similarity between successive cluster combinations is used to colour code clusters and make stronger natural clusters more prominent in the display. When a cluster or group of items is selected, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering are re-applied to a filtered subset of the data, and animation is used to smooth the transition between successive filtered views. As a case study we demonstrate the technique being used to analyse survey data relating to the appropriateness of different phrases to different emotionally charged situations.

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew T; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Toomey, Jennifer A; Dua, Elissa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor correlated solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for screening purposes. When applying the lowest pre-established cut score (T ≥ 60; minimum indication of clinically significant symptoms/impairments), 85 % of the sample had ratings in that range or higher (more severe). Implications for assessment and future research are provided.

  17. An Exploratory Analysis of Job and Life Satisfaction among Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.; DeCarlo, James F.

    An exploratory study examined the job and life satisfaction of a sample of 32 female entrepreneurs residing in the tri-state area of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. To compare the entrepreneurs' concepts of life and job satisfaction to those of women in more traditional occupations, researchers also studied a sample of 32 female nursing…

  18. Discussing Medicare Physician Productivity and the Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dyckman, Zachary; Harper, Michael; McMenamin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article provides comments of three conference panel members on the analyses of the productivity adjustment used in the Medicare Economic Index (MEI), and on exploratory estimates of physician-specific productivity measures. Each has a different background and perspective. PMID:18435222

  19. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  20. OMERACT-based fibromyalgia symptom subgroups: an exploratory cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Ann; Hoskin, Tanya L; Whipple, Mary O; Clauw, Daniel J; Barton, Debra L; Benzo, Roberto P; Williams, David A

    2014-10-16

    The aim of this study was to identify subsets of patients with fibromyalgia with similar symptom profiles using the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) core symptom domains. Female patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia and currently meeting fibromyalgia research survey criteria completed the Brief Pain Inventory, the 30-item Profile of Mood States, the Medical Outcomes Sleep Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R) and the Short Form-36 between 1 June 2011 and 31 October 2011. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to identify subgroups of patients with similar symptom profiles. To validate the results from this sample, hierarchical agglomerative clustering was repeated in an external sample of female patients with fibromyalgia with similar inclusion criteria. A total of 581 females with a mean age of 55.1 (range, 20.1 to 90.2) years were included. A four-cluster solution best fit the data, and each clustering variable differed significantly (P <0.0001) among the four clusters. The four clusters divided the sample into severity levels: Cluster 1 reflects the lowest average levels across all symptoms, and cluster 4 reflects the highest average levels. Clusters 2 and 3 capture moderate symptoms levels. Clusters 2 and 3 differed mainly in profiles of anxiety and depression, with Cluster 2 having lower levels of depression and anxiety than Cluster 3, despite higher levels of pain. The results of the cluster analysis of the external sample (n = 478) looked very similar to those found in the original cluster analysis, except for a slight difference in sleep problems. This was despite having patients in the validation sample who were significantly younger (P <0.0001) and had more severe symptoms (higher FIQ-R total scores (P = 0.0004)). In our study, we incorporated core OMERACT symptom domains, which allowed for clustering based on a

  1. Exploratory Analysis of Seeding Effects on Rainfall: Illinois 1989.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Ruben Gabriel, K.; Westcott, Nancy E.; Czys, Robert R.

    1995-05-01

    Radar-indicated rainfall characteristics from six experimental units randomly selected for AgI treatment were compared with those from six experimental units treated with sand during the summer of 1989 in an exploratory analysis. No differences were found between AgI and sand cell frequencies before and after treatment. The areal extent of rain in all AgI-treated units grew during treatment, whereas four of the sand units decreased, but the differences were not significant. Rainfall amounts were determined for the units and for the extended areas around them. AgI units had higher median rainfall values by the end of the treatment and thereafter for 90 min than did the sand units, whereas extended area rainfall was less in AgI than sand cases. The unit rainfalls, adjusted to account for the unit-extended area relationships, showed a systematic difference with AgI rain higher at the end of treatment (and statistically significant) and for 90 min thereafter. Comparisons based on 20 relevant meteorological variables showed that seeding appeared to produce an effect on days with high net buoyancy and low initial echo heights. Much of the AgI-sand difference was due to two AgI-treated units with heavier rain conditions across the area. Both were cold-frontal cases, and in general, the results resembled those found at Chicago and St. Louis, where urban influences act to increase summer rain during some frontal cases when moderate to heavy rains occur. Pretreatment conditions on the two AgI cases, found notably different from the sand cases, were compared with conditions on the other AgI cases, showing that the echoes were younger on the two potentially effected days. This study found some weak evidence of augmented rainfall due to seeding but the sample size is too small to draw definitive conclusions of an effect. As in many other seeding experiments, results suggest that if a seeding effect occurred, it was present during only certain atmospheric conditions (some

  2. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  3. Exploratory Study of an Active Landslide in the Adirondacks Using Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, K. W.; Sherrod, L. A.; Kozlowski, A.; Bird, B.; Swiontek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography System. GPR profiles, using a SIR 3000 GSSI radar system with 100MHz antennae, were collected along many of the resistivity lines and through reconnaissance lines in several other locations (e.g. along roads). Surveys identified features such as clay and sand layers as well as depth to the water table. Glacial deposits and bedrock topography were interpreted in three dimensions from the results of these surveys. These techniques were analyzed for their effectiveness in providing exploratory information about the slide. In comparison to other geophysical work on landslides, this study is unique due to the large scale of the slide and the rare opportunity to observe and measure an active landslide. Accordingly, compared to results from studies of other similarly induced inactive landslides that had occurred elsewhere, the conclusions regarding the mechanisms of slope failure on Porter Mountain are more pertinent since the results were obtained from an active slide. Likewise, the conclusions about the mechanisms of this slide can be adapted in studies on currently stable slopes believed to have a high potential for a landslide (particularly other slopes in the Adirondacks region).

  4. Applying HOPSCOTCH as an Exer-Learning Game in English Lessons: Two Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Martina; Heidig, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes HOPSCOTCH, a design concept for an "exer-learning game" to engage elementary school children in learning. Exer-learning is a new genre of digital learning games that combines playing and learning with physical activity (exercise). HOPSCOTCH is a first design concept for exer-learning games that can be applied to…

  5. Applying HOPSCOTCH as an Exer-Learning Game in English Lessons: Two Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Martina; Heidig, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes HOPSCOTCH, a design concept for an "exer-learning game" to engage elementary school children in learning. Exer-learning is a new genre of digital learning games that combines playing and learning with physical activity (exercise). HOPSCOTCH is a first design concept for exer-learning games that can be applied to…

  6. Applying machine learning to identify autistic adults using imitation: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Li, Baihua; Sharma, Arjun; Meng, James; Purushwalkam, Senthil; Gowen, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is primarily diagnosed by behavioural symptoms including social, sensory and motor aspects. Although stereotyped, repetitive motor movements are considered during diagnosis, quantitative measures that identify kinematic characteristics in the movement patterns of autistic individuals are poorly studied, preventing advances in understanding the aetiology of motor impairment, or whether a wider range of motor characteristics could be used for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether data-driven machine learning based methods could be used to address some fundamental problems with regard to identifying discriminative test conditions and kinematic parameters to classify between ASC and neurotypical controls. Data was based on a previous task where 16 ASC participants and 14 age, IQ matched controls observed then imitated a series of hand movements. 40 kinematic parameters extracted from eight imitation conditions were analysed using machine learning based methods. Two optimal imitation conditions and nine most significant kinematic parameters were identified and compared with some standard attribute evaluators. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply machine learning to kinematic movement parameters measured during imitation of hand movements to investigate the identification of ASC. Although based on a small sample, the work demonstrates the feasibility of applying machine learning methods to analyse high-dimensional data and suggest the potential of machine learning for identifying kinematic biomarkers that could contribute to the diagnostic classification of autism.

  7. Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating the Phlegm Pattern Questionnaire for Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunho; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Park, Young-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background. Phlegm pattern questionnaire (PPQ) was developed to evaluate and diagnose phlegm pattern in Korean Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, but it was based on a dataset from patients who visited the hospital to consult with a clinician regarding their health without any strict exclusion or inclusion. In this study, we reinvestigated the construct validity of PPQ with a new dataset and confirmed the feasibility of applying it to a healthy population. Methods. 286 healthy subjects were finally included and their responses to PPQ were acquired. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and the model fit was discussed. We extracted a new factor structure by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and compared the two factor structures. Results. In CFA results, the model fit indices are acceptable (RMSEA = 0.074) or slightly less than the good fit values (CFI = 0.839, TLI = 0.860). Many average variances extracted were smaller than the correlation coefficients of the factors, which shows the somewhat insufficient discriminant validity. Conclusions. Through the results from CFA and EFA, this study shows clinically acceptable model fits and suggests the feasibility of applying PPQ to a healthy population with relatively good construct validity and internal consistency. PMID:27051447

  8. An Exploratory Factor Analysis Examining Traits, Perceived Fit and Job Satisfaction in Employed College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, John R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…

  9. Designing an Exploratory Text Analysis Tool for Humanities and Social Sciences Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrikumar, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new tool for exploratory text analysis that attempts to improve the experience of navigating and exploring text and its metadata. The design of the tool was motivated by the unmet need for text analysis tools in the humanities and social sciences. In these fields, it is common for scholars to have hundreds or thousands…

  10. Designing an Exploratory Text Analysis Tool for Humanities and Social Sciences Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrikumar, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new tool for exploratory text analysis that attempts to improve the experience of navigating and exploring text and its metadata. The design of the tool was motivated by the unmet need for text analysis tools in the humanities and social sciences. In these fields, it is common for scholars to have hundreds or thousands…

  11. Multimedia Exploratory Data Analysis for Geospatial Data Mining: The Case for Augmented Seriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Myke

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the role of exploratory data analysis (EDA) for spatial data mining and presents a case study addressing environmental risk assessments in New York State to illustrate the feasibility and usability of augmenting seriation for spatial data analysis. Describes augmentation with multimedia tools to understand relationships among spatial,…

  12. Investigating the Construct Validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Soundaram; Babo, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the statistical analysis of the responses from an online survey administered to a sample of US superintendents (n=225) in an attempt to explore and authenticate the construct validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through exploratory factor analysis. Using a Principal Axis Factor method, 6 factors were extracted…

  13. Multimedia Exploratory Data Analysis for Geospatial Data Mining: The Case for Augmented Seriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Myke

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the role of exploratory data analysis (EDA) for spatial data mining and presents a case study addressing environmental risk assessments in New York State to illustrate the feasibility and usability of augmenting seriation for spatial data analysis. Describes augmentation with multimedia tools to understand relationships among spatial,…

  14. Exploratory and hierarchical factor analysis of the WJ-IV Cognitive at school age.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Stefan C; McGill, Ryan J; Canivez, Gary L

    2017-04-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic studies were not reported in the Technical Manual for the Woodcock-Johnson, 4th ed. Cognitive (WJ IV Cognitive; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014b) Instead, the internal structure of the WJ IV Cognitive was extrapolated from analyses based on the full WJ IV test battery (Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014b). Even if the veracity of extrapolating from the WJ IV full battery were accepted, there were shortcomings in the choices of analyses used and only limited information regarding those analyses was presented in the WJ IV Technical Manual (McGrew, Laforte, & Shrank, 2014). The present study examined the structure of the WJ IV Cognitive using exploratory factor analysis procedures (principal axis factoring with oblique [promax] rotation followed by application of the Schmid-Leiman, 1957, procedure) applied to standardization sample correlation matrices for 2 school age groups (ages 9-13; 14-19). Four factors emerged for both the 9-13 and 14-19 age groups in contrast to the publisher's proposed 7 factors. Results of these analyses indicated a robust manifestation of general intelligence (g) that exceeded the variance attributed to the lower-order factors. Model-based reliability estimates supported interpretation of the higher-order factor (i.e., g). Additional analyses were conducted by forcing extraction of the 7 theoretically posited factors; however, the resulting solution was only partially aligned (i.e., Gs, Gwm) with the theoretical structure promoted in the Technical Manual and suggested the preeminence of the higher-order factor. Results challenge the hypothesized structure of the WJ IV Cognitive and raise concerns about its alignment with Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Does the Vulnerability Paradox in PTSD Apply to Women and Men? An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Dückers, Michel L A; Olff, Miranda

    2017-04-01

    Recent research suggests that greater country vulnerability is associated with a decreased, rather than increased, risk of mental health problems. Because societal parameters may have gender-specific implications, our objective was to explore whether the "vulnerability paradox" equally applies to women and men. Lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence data for women and men were retrieved from 11 population studies (N = 57,031): conducted in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Lebanon, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. We tested statistical models with vulnerability, gender, and their interaction as predictors. The average lifetime PTSD prevalence in women was at least twice as high as it was in men and the vulnerability paradox existed in the prevalence data for women and men (R(2) = .70). We could not confirm the possibility that gender effects are modified by socioeconomic and cultural country characteristics. Issues of methodology, language, and cultural validity complicate international comparisons. Nevertheless, this international sample points at a parallel paradox: The vulnerability paradox was confirmed for both women and men. The absence of a significant interaction between gender and country vulnerability implies that possible explanations for the paradox at the country-level do not necessarily require gender-driven distinction. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Can forced-use therapy be clinically applied after stroke? An exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, Michelle; Corbett, Dale

    2004-09-01

    To determine the efficacy, safety, and compliance with forced-use therapy (FUT) applied without additional "shaping" therapy during the rehabilitation phase of stroke. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Tertiary mixed rehabilitation center. Consecutive sample of 30 inpatients or outpatients with first stroke showing minimal movement of the arm and hand. Subjects who scored below 26 on the Mini-Mental State Examination were excluded. Seven subjects either did not provide consent or withdrew from the study. The remaining subjects were randomized into the control group (n=13) and the FUT group (n=10). FUT involved wearing a thick constraint mitten on the sound arm for as many as 6 hours a day. The Chedoke McMaster Impairment Inventory for arm, hand, postural control, and shoulder pain; Action Research Arm Test; grip strength; and FIM instrument. FUT subjects experienced 20% more recovery of the arm than did control subjects and more recovery of postural control (P=.04). Men benefited most from the program, and there was a tendency for FUT subjects to have more shoulder pain. Compliance was related to cognitive status. FUT, without shaping therapy, appears to augment arm recovery, but a larger sample is required to confirm these findings. The FUT mitten was safe and well tolerated; however, more research is needed to determine the relation between FUT and hemiplegic shoulder pain.

  17. Exploratory analysis of longitudinal trials with staggered intervention times.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Inês; Chetwynd, Amanda G; Diggle, Peter J

    2005-07-01

    Longitudinal trials involving surgical interventions commonly have subject-specific intervention times, due to constraints on the availability of surgeons and operating theatres. Moreover, the intervention often effects a discontinuous change in the mean response. We propose a nonparametric estimator for the mean response profile of longitudinal data with staggered intervention times and a discontinuity at the times of intervention, as an exploratory tool to assist the formulation of a suitable parametric model. We use an adaptation of the standard generalized additive model algorithm for estimation, with smoothing constants chosen by a cross-validation criterion. We illustrate the method using longitudinal data from a trial to assess the effect of lung resection surgery in the treatment of emphysema patients.

  18. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Air Pollution in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Golay, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution in the city is an important problem influencing environment, well-being of society, economy, management of urban zones, etc. The problem is extremely difficult due to a very complex distribution of the pollution sources, morphology of the city and dispersion processes leading to multivariate nature of the phenomena and high local spatial-temporal variability. The task of understanding, modelling and prediction of spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in urban zones is an interesting and challenging topic having many research axes from science-based modelling to geostatistics and data mining. The present research mainly deals with a comprehensive exploratory analysis of spatial-temporal air pollution data using statistical, geostatistical and machine learning tools. This analysis helps to 1) understand and model spatial-temporal correlations using variography, 2) explore the temporal evolution of spatial correlation matrix; 3) analyse and visualize an interconnection between measurement stations using network science tools; 4) quantify the availability and predictability of structured patterns. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of canton Geneva (2002-2011). Carbon dioxide (NO2) have caught our attention. It has effects on health: nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs, effects on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are reducing the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxides increase the corrosion. Well-defined patterns of spatial-temporal correlations were detected. The analysis and visualization of spatial correlation matrix for 91 stations were carried out using the network science tools and high levels of clustering were revealed. Moving Window Correlation Matrix and Spatio-temporal variography methods were applied to define and explore the dynamic of our data. More than just

  19. Online Education and Contingent Faculty: An Exploratory Analysis of Issues and Challenges for Higher Education Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortagus, Justin C.; Stedrak, Luke J.

    2013-01-01

    Ortagus and Stedrak address in this article the growth, popularity, and accessibility of online courses, and the fact that higher education administrators are under tremendous pressure to keep pace with rapidly evolving conditions related to online learning. Their exploratory analysis addresses the growth of online education and the use of…

  20. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe Systems (MEPS), a space vehicle designed to observe the planet Mars in preparation for manned missions. The options considered for each major element are presented as a trade analysis, and the final vehicle design is defined.

  1. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  2. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  3. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile…

  4. An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

  5. Using Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis to Leverage Social Indicator Databases: The Discovery of Interesting Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anselin, Luc; Sridharan, Sanjeev; Gholston, Susan

    2007-01-01

    With the proliferation of social indicator databases, the need for powerful techniques to study patterns of change has grown. In this paper, the utility of spatial data analytical methods such as exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) is suggested as a means to leverage the information contained in social indicator databases. The principles…

  6. The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    This article details the initial development of the School Counseling Program Implementation Survey and psychometric results including reliability and factor structure. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor model that accounted for 54% of the variance of the intercorrelation matrix and a two-factor model that accounted for 47% of…

  7. Evaluating the Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Developmental Disability Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a widely used but poorly understood statistical procedure. This paper described EFA and its methodological variations. Then, key methodological variations were used to evaluate EFA usage over a 10-year period in five leading developmental disabilities journals. Sixty-six studies were located and evaluated on…

  8. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  9. Multilevel Exploratory Factor Analysis: Illustrating Its Surplus Value in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Haenens, Ellen; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the surplus value of multilevel exploratory factor analysis in educational effectiveness research. Educational researchers often use measures for process variables at the class or school level to explain differences in student outcomes. Recently, van de Vijver and Poortinga (2002) have developed a procedure for multilevel…

  10. Application of Local Linear Embedding to Nonlinear Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haonan; Iyer, Hari

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of a recent dimension reduction technique called Locally Linear Embedding, introduced by Roweis and Saul, for performing an exploratory latent structure analysis. The coordinate variables from the locally linear embedding describing the manifold on which the data reside serve as the latent variable scores. We…

  11. Whatever Happened to Exploratory Data Analysis? An Evaluation of Behavioral Science Statistics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deborah A.; Araki, Cheri J.

    The purpose of this research was to analyze recent statistics textbooks in the behavioral sciences in terms of their coverage of exploratory data analysis (EDA) philosophy and techniques. Twenty popular texts were analyzed. EDA philosophy was not addressed in the vast majority of texts. Only three texts had an entire chapter on EDA. None of the…

  12. A Psychometric Investigation of the Multicultural and Special Education Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory factorial analysis of the Multicultural and Special Education Survey (MSES) evaluated the professional development training needs of general and special educators in a midwestern state. Survey items were selected from the culturally and linguistically diverse multicultural, bilingual and special education literature bases (CLD). The…

  13. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglin, James

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many…

  14. Evaluating Exploratory Factor Analysis: Which Initial-Extraction Techniques Provide the Best Factor Fidelity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buley, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    States that attacks by communication scholars have cast doubt on the validity of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Tests EFA's ability to produce results that replicate known dimensions in a data set. Concludes that EFA should be viewed with cautious optimism and be evaluated according to the findings of this and similar studies. (PA)

  15. Ordinary Least Squares Estimation of Parameters in Exploratory Factor Analysis with Ordinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Zhang, Guangjian; Edwards, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is often conducted with ordinal data (e.g., items with 5-point responses) in the social and behavioral sciences. These ordinal variables are often treated as if they were continuous in practice. An alternative strategy is to assume that a normally distributed continuous variable underlies each ordinal variable.…

  16. Rotation to a Partially Specified Target Matrix in Exploratory Factor Analysis: How Many Targets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon; Jin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of…

  17. An Exploratory Case Study of PBIS Implementation Using Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Woodland, Rebecca H.; Barry, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study is presented in which social network analysis (SNA) was used to explore how school teaming structures influence the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). The authors theorized that PBIS leadership teams that include members with connections to all other information-sharing…

  18. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  19. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  20. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  1. Ordinary Least Squares Estimation of Parameters in Exploratory Factor Analysis with Ordinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Zhang, Guangjian; Edwards, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is often conducted with ordinal data (e.g., items with 5-point responses) in the social and behavioral sciences. These ordinal variables are often treated as if they were continuous in practice. An alternative strategy is to assume that a normally distributed continuous variable underlies each ordinal variable.…

  2. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  3. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  4. Selection of Variables in Exploratory Factor Analysis: An Empirical Comparison of a Stepwise and Traditional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Ferron, John M.; Hines, Constance V.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the performance of a stepwise variable selection algorithm to traditional exploratory factor analysis. The Monte Carlo study included six factors in the design; the number of common factors; the number of variables explained by the common factors; the magnitude of factor loadings; the number…

  5. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  6. An Exploratory Case Study of PBIS Implementation Using Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Woodland, Rebecca H.; Barry, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study is presented in which social network analysis (SNA) was used to explore how school teaming structures influence the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). The authors theorized that PBIS leadership teams that include members with connections to all other information-sharing…

  7. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile…

  8. Cancer symptom clusters: an exploratory analysis of eight statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Aynur; Walsh, Declan; Hu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Statistical methods to identify symptom clusters (SC) have varied between studies. The optimal statistical method to identify SC is unknown. Our primary objective was to explore whether eight different statistical techniques applied to a single data set produced different SC. A secondary objective was to investigate whether SC identified by these techniques resembled those from our original study. We reanalyzed a symptom data set of 1000 patients with advanced cancer. Eight separate cluster analyses were conducted on both prevalence and severity of 38 symptoms. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified clusters at r-values of 0.6, 0.5, and 0.4. For prevalence and severity, the Spearman correlation and Kendall tau-b correlation, respectively, measured the similarity (distance) between symptom pairs. Sensitivity analysis of the prevalence data was done with Cohen kappa coefficient as a similarity measure. The K-means clustering method validated clusters. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified similar cluster configurations from the 38 symptoms using an r-value of 0.6, 0.5, or 0.4. A cutoff point of 0.6 yielded seven clusters. Five of them were identical at all three r-values used: (1) fatigue/anorexia-cachexia: anorexia, dry mouth, early satiety, fatigue, lack of energy, taste changes, weakness, and weight loss (>10%); (2) gastrointestinal: belching, bloating, dyspepsia, and hiccough; (3) nausea/vomiting: nausea and vomiting; (4) aerodigestive: cough, dysphagia, dyspnea, hoarseness, and wheeze; (5) neurologic: confusion, hallucinations, and memory problems. Regardless of the threshold, there were always some symptoms (e.g., pain) that did not cluster with any others. Seven clusters were validated by K-means analysis. Seven SC identified from both prevalence and severity data were consistently present irrespective of the statistical analysis used. There were only minor variations in the number of clusters and their symptom composition between analytical techniques

  9. Investigating the Structure of the WJ-III Cognitive in Early School Age through Two Exploratory Bifactor Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    Two exploratory bifactor methods (e.g., Schmid-Leiman [SL] and exploratory bifactor analysis [EBFA]) were used to investigate the structure of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Cognitive in early school age (age 6-8). The SL procedure is recognized by factor analysts as a preferred method for EBFA. Jennrich and Bentler recently developed an…

  10. Investigating the Structure of the WJ-III Cognitive in Early School Age through Two Exploratory Bifactor Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    Two exploratory bifactor methods (e.g., Schmid-Leiman [SL] and exploratory bifactor analysis [EBFA]) were used to investigate the structure of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Cognitive in early school age (age 6-8). The SL procedure is recognized by factor analysts as a preferred method for EBFA. Jennrich and Bentler recently developed an…

  11. [Location of radiotherapy centers: an exploratory geographic analysis for Belgium].

    PubMed

    Cotteels, C; Peeters, D; Coucke, P A; Thomas, I

    2012-10-01

    The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. RESULTS-CONCLUSION: It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploratory Climate Data Visualization and Analysis Using DV3D and UVCDAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Earth system scientists are being inundated by an explosion of data generated by ever-increasing resolution in both global models and remote sensors. Advanced tools for accessing, analyzing, and visualizing very large and complex climate data are required to maintain rapid progress in Earth system research. To meet this need, NASA, in collaboration with the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UVCOAT) consortium, is developing exploratory climate data analysis and visualization tools which provide data analysis capabilities for the Earth System Grid (ESG). This paper describes DV3D, a UV-COAT package that enables exploratory analysis of climate simulation and observation datasets. OV3D provides user-friendly interfaces for visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. It features workflow inte rfaces, interactive 40 data exploration, hyperwall and stereo visualization, automated provenance generation, and parallel task execution. DV30's integration with CDAT's climate data management system (COMS) and other climate data analysis tools provides a wide range of high performance climate data analysis operations. DV3D expands the scientists' toolbox by incorporating a suite of rich new exploratory visualization and analysis methods for addressing the complexity of climate datasets.

  13. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  14. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students’ visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students’ successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules. PMID:26877625

  15. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirel, Barbara; Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students' visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students' successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules.

  16. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at culturally-important problems, will help to propagate the science of human behavior. Such a science will also be furthered by analogue experiments that model socially important behavior. Analytical-applied studies and analogue experiments are forms of applied behavior analysis that could suggest new environment-behavior relationships. These relationships could lead to basic research and principles that further the prediction, control, and understanding of behavior. PMID:22478650

  18. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  19. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis in Flying Training Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    often referred to as behavior modification ) which promotes improvements in human learning through an analysis of the contingencies surrounding a...Company, in press. Bandura, A. Principles of behavior modification . New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969. Bostow, D.E., & Bailey, J.S. Modification of...tutors for kindergarten children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 223-232. Kazdin, A.E. Behavior modification in applied settings

  1. Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA): Software for Exploratory Analysis of High-Resolution Spectral Reflectance Data on Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This article describes public, free software that provides efficient exploratory analysis of high-resolution spectral reflectance data. Spectral reflectance data can suffer from problems such as poor signal to noise ratios in various wavebands or invalid measurements due to changes in incoming solar radiation or operator fatigue leading to poor orientation of sensors. Thus, exploratory data analysis is essential to identify appropriate data for further analyses. This software overcomes the problem that analysis tools such as Excel are cumbersome to use for the high number of wavelengths and samples typically acquired in these studies. The software, Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA), was initially developed for plant breeding, but it is also suitable for other studies such as precision agriculture, crop protection, ecophysiology plant nutrition, and soil fertility. Various spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) are often used to relate crop characteristics to spectral data and the software is loaded with 255 SRIs which can be applied quickly to the data. This article describes the architecture and functions of SK-UTALCA and the features of the data that led to the development of each of its modules. PMID:28119705

  2. Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA): Software for Exploratory Analysis of High-Resolution Spectral Reflectance Data on Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article describes public, free software that provides efficient exploratory analysis of high-resolution spectral reflectance data. Spectral reflectance data can suffer from problems such as poor signal to noise ratios in various wavebands or invalid measurements due to changes in incoming solar radiation or operator fatigue leading to poor orientation of sensors. Thus, exploratory data analysis is essential to identify appropriate data for further analyses. This software overcomes the problem that analysis tools such as Excel are cumbersome to use for the high number of wavelengths and samples typically acquired in these studies. The software, Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA), was initially developed for plant breeding, but it is also suitable for other studies such as precision agriculture, crop protection, ecophysiology plant nutrition, and soil fertility. Various spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) are often used to relate crop characteristics to spectral data and the software is loaded with 255 SRIs which can be applied quickly to the data. This article describes the architecture and functions of SK-UTALCA and the features of the data that led to the development of each of its modules.

  3. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint.

  4. Applying a Framework for Student Modeling in Exploratory Learning Environments: Comparing Data Representation Granularity to Handle Environment Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fratamico, Lauren; Conati, Cristina; Kardan, Samad; Roll, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Interactive simulations can facilitate inquiry learning. However, similarly to other Exploratory Learning Environments, students may not always learn effectively in these unstructured environments. Thus, providing adaptive support has great potential to help improve student learning with these rich activities. Providing adaptive support requires a…

  5. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  6. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  7. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis.

  8. An exploratory spatial analysis of social vulnerability and smoke plum dispersion in the U.S

    Treesearch

    Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Scott Goodrick; Bryn Elise Murphy; Neelam Poudyal

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the spatial association between social vulnerability and smoke plume dispersion at the census block group level for the 13 southern states in the USDA Forest Service’s Region 8. Using environmental justice as a conceptual basis, we use Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis to identify clusters or “hot spots” for the incidence of both higher than average...

  9. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a Force Concept Inventory Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton's…

  10. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a Force Concept Inventory Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton's…

  11. Exploratory Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Contrasts and Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcikowski, Robert S.; Elliott, Ronald S.

    The contribution of individual variables to overall multivariate significance in a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is investigated using a combination of canonical discriminant analysis and Roy-Bose simultaneous confidence intervals. Difficulties with this procedure are discussed, and its advantages are illustrated using examples based…

  12. Common experiences of pain in children and adolescents--an exploratory factor analysis of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Krekmanova, Larisa; Hakeberg, Magnus; Robertson, Agneta; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reduce everyday and dental treatment pain items included in the extended Children's Pain Inventory (CPI), used in a prior study on Swedish children and adolescents. Another aim was to, by means of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), expose hitherto undiscovered dimensions of the CPI pain variables and thus to improve the psychometric properties of CPI. As some pain items are relevant merely to some individuals, a new and more useful questionnaire construction would enhance the internal validity of the instrument in observational surveys. EFA was applied on the extended CPI instrument. 368 children, 8-19 years old, had answered a questionnaire comprising 10 dental and 28 everyday pain variables. These pain items were analysed using a series of sequentially implemented EFA. Interpretations and decisions on the final number of the extracted factors was based on accepted principles; Kaiser's Eigenvalue >1 criterion, inspection of the scree plot and the interpretability of the items loading. The factors were orthogonally rotated using the Varimax method to maximize the amount of variance. Of all tested EFA models in the analysis, a two, three, four, and five factor model surfaced. The interpretability of the factors and their items loading were stepwise examined; the items were modulated and the factors re-evaluated. A four factor pain model emerged as the most interpretable, explaining 79% of the total variance depicting Eigenvalues > 1.014. The factors were named indicating the profile of the content: Factor I cutting trauma to skin/mucosal pain, Factor II head/neck pain, Factor III tenderness/blunt trauma pain, Factor IV oral/dental treatment pain.

  13. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤ 9, ASPECTS = 10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS > 2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5 ± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability.

  14. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G.

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤9, ASPECTS=10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS>2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability. PMID:25961856

  15. Exploratory Analysis in Time-Varying Data Sets: a Healthcare Network Application.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Narine; Eppstein, Margaret J; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Leahy, Kathleen A; Kenny, Michael J; Mukherjee, Shreya; Rizzo, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a new method for exploratory analysis of large data sets with time-varying features, where the aim is to automatically discover novel relationships between features (over some time period) that are predictive of any of a number of time-varying outcomes (over some other time period). Using a genetic algorithm, we co-evolve (i) a subset of predictive features, (ii) which attribute will be predicted (iii) the time period over which to assess the predictive features, and (iv) the time period over which to assess the predicted attribute. After validating the method on 15 synthetic test problems, we used the approach for exploratory analysis of a large healthcare network data set. We discovered a strong association, with 100% sensitivity, between hospital participation in multi-institutional quality improvement collaboratives during or before 2002, and changes in the risk-adjusted rates of mortality and morbidity observed after a 1-2 year lag. The proposed approach is a potentially powerful and general tool for exploratory analysis of a wide range of time-series data sets.

  16. Exploratory data analysis of the dependencies between skin permeability, molecular weight and log P.

    PubMed

    Kilian, D; Lemmer, H J R; Gerber, M; du Preez, J L; du Plessis, J

    2016-06-01

    Molecular weight and log P remain the most frequently used physicochemical properties in models that predict skin permeability. However, several reports over the past two decades have suggested that predictions made by these models may not be sufficiently accurate. In this study, exploratory data analysis of the probabilistic dependencies between molecular weight, log P and log Kp was performed on a dataset constructed from the combination of several popular datasets. The results suggest that, in general, molecular weight and log P are poorly correlated to log Kp. However, after employing several exploratory data analysis techniques, regions within the dataset of statistically significant dependence were identified. As an example of the applicability of the information extracted from the exploratory data analyses, a multiple linear regression model was constructed, bounded by the ranges of dependence. This model gave reasonable approximations to log Kp values obtained from skin permeability studies of selected non-steroidal ant-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered from a buffer solution and a lipid-based drug delivery system. A method of testing whether a given drug falls within the regions of statistical dependence was also presented. Knowing the ranges within which molecular weight and log P are statistically related to log Kp can supplement existing methods of screening, risk analysis or early drug development decision making to add confidence to predictions made regarding skin permeability.

  17. Gene Identification Algorithms Using Exploratory Statistical Analysis of Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shashi Bajaj; Sen, Pradip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Studying periodic pattern is expected as a standard line of attack for recognizing DNA sequence in identification of gene and similar problems. But peculiarly very little significant work is done in this direction. This paper studies statistical properties of DNA sequences of complete genome using a new technique. A DNA sequence is converted to a numeric sequence using various types of mappings and standard Fourier technique is applied to study the periodicity. Distinct statistical behaviour of periodicity parameters is found in coding and non-coding sequences, which can be used to distinguish between these parts. Here DNA sequences of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed with significant accuracy.

  18. Cladistic analysis applied to the classification of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.

    2007-11-01

    Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic

  19. Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2015-07-01

    EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statistical associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.

  20. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  1. Voyager: Exploratory Analysis via Faceted Browsing of Visualization Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Moritz, Dominik; Anand, Anushka; Mackinlay, Jock; Howe, Bill; Heer, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    General visualization tools typically require manual specification of views: analysts must select data variables and then choose which transformations and visual encodings to apply. These decisions often involve both domain and visualization design expertise, and may impose a tedious specification process that impedes exploration. In this paper, we seek to complement manual chart construction with interactive navigation of a gallery of automatically-generated visualizations. We contribute Voyager, a mixed-initiative system that supports faceted browsing of recommended charts chosen according to statistical and perceptual measures. We describe Voyager's architecture, motivating design principles, and methods for generating and interacting with visualization recommendations. In a study comparing Voyager to a manual visualization specification tool, we find that Voyager facilitates exploration of previously unseen data and leads to increased data variable coverage. We then distill design implications for visualization tools, in particular the need to balance rapid exploration and targeted question-answering.

  2. Research on Internationalisation in Higher Education--Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri; Sagie, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Research on internationalisation in higher education has dramatically expanded over the last several decades. This study aims to provide an overview of the research developments undertaken between 1980 and 2014, on internationalisation in higher education. Explorative, systematic literature screening and analysis were undertaken, encompassing over…

  3. "Library Quarterly," 1956-2004: An Exploratory Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arthur P.

    2006-01-01

    "Library Quarterly's" seventy-fifth anniversary invites an analysis of the journal's bibliometric dimension, including contributor attributes, various author rankings, and citation impact. Eugene Garfield's HistCite software, linked to Thomson Scientific's Web of Science, as made available by Garfield, for the period 1956-2004, was used as the…

  4. Research on Internationalisation in Higher Education--Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri; Sagie, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Research on internationalisation in higher education has dramatically expanded over the last several decades. This study aims to provide an overview of the research developments undertaken between 1980 and 2014, on internationalisation in higher education. Explorative, systematic literature screening and analysis were undertaken, encompassing over…

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Reading, Spelling, and Math Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rebecca; Pan, Xingyu; Courville, Troy; Bray, Melissa A.; Breaux, Kristina; Avitia, Maria; Choi, Dowon

    2017-01-01

    Norm-referenced error analysis is useful for understanding individual differences in students' academic skill development and for identifying areas of skill strength and weakness. The purpose of the present study was to identify underlying connections between error categories across five language and math subtests of the Kaufman Test of…

  6. Exploratory Analysis of Survey Data for Understanding Adoption of Novel Aerospace Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Lauren M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for manned and unmanned flight, the air transportation system must constantly evolve. As new technologies or operational procedures are conceived, we must determine their effect on humans in the system. In this research, we introduce a strategy to assess how individuals or organizations would respond to a novel aerospace system. We employ the most appropriate and sophisticated exploratory analysis techniques on the survey data to generate insight and identify significant variables. We employ three different methods for eliciting views from individuals or organizations who are affected by a system: an opinion survey, a stated preference survey, and structured interviews. We conduct an opinion survey of both the general public and stakeholders in the unmanned aircraft industry to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding unmanned aircraft. We complete a statistical analysis of the multiple-choice questions using multinomial logit and multivariate probit models and conduct qualitative analysis on free-text questions. We next present a stated preference survey of the general public on the use of an unmanned aircraft package delivery service. We complete a statistical analysis of the questions using multinomial logit, ordered probit, linear regression, and negative binomial models. Finally, we discuss structured interviews conducted on stakeholders from ANSPs and airlines operating in the North Atlantic. We describe how these groups may choose to adopt a new technology (space-based ADS-B) or operational procedure (in-trail procedures). We discuss similarities and differences between the stakeholders groups, the benefits and costs of in-trail procedures and space-based ADS-B as reported by the stakeholders, and interdependencies between the groups interviewed. To demonstrate the value of the data we generated, we explore how the findings from the surveys can be used to better characterize uncertainty in the cost

  7. Impact of job insecurity on sexual desire: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, Gianfranco; Tomada, Angelo; Marazzi, Alfio; Abazi, Ornela; Quaglia, Jacqueline

    2009-08-22

    To explore, for the first time, the impact of job insecurity on sexual desire. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 7247 individuals aged 20-64 years working as full or part-time employees in Switzerland. The logistic regression analysis showed that workers aged 20-49 years perceiving high levels of job insecurity are exposed to a significantly higher risk of decrease of sexual desire compared to the reference group. The risk is 53% higher among men (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.16-2.01) and 47% for woman (OR 1.47; 1.13-1.91). No increased risk was found for employees aged 50-64 years old. An increasing fear of job loss is associated with a deterioration in sexual desire. These first preliminary findings should promote further epidemiological and clinical prospective studies on the impact of job insecurity on intimate relationships and sexual dysfunction.

  8. Exploratory analysis of environmental interactions in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, Lee; Falcone, Neil L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its global change research program, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has produced raster data that describe the land cover of the United States using a consistent format. The data consist of elevations, satellite measurements, computed vegetation indices, land cover classes, and ancillary political, topographic and hydrographic information. This open-file report uses some of these data to explore the environment of a (256-km)? region of central California. We present various visualizations of the data, multiscale correlations between topography and vegetation, a path analysis of more complex statistical interactions, and a map that portrays the influence of agriculture on the region's vegetation. An appendix contains C and Mathematica code used to generate the graphics and some of the analysis.

  9. Exploratory factor analysis of the Brazilian OHIP for edentulous subjects.

    PubMed

    Souza, R F; Leles, C R; Guyatt, G H; Pontes, C B; Della Vecchia, M P; Neves, F D

    2010-03-01

    The use of seven domains for the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-EDENT was not supported for its Brazilian version, making data interpretation in clinical settings difficult. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess patients' responses for the translated OHIP-EDENT in a group of edentulous subjects and to develop factor scales for application in future studies. Data from 103 conventional and implant-retained complete denture wearers (36 men, mean age of 69.1 +/- 10.3 years) were assessed using the Brazilian version of the OHIP-EDENT. Oral health-related quality of life domains were identified by factor analysis using principal component analysis as the extraction method, followed by varimax rotation. Factor analysis identified four factors that accounted for 63% of the 19 items total variance, named masticatory discomfort and disability (four items), psychological discomfort and disability (five items), social disability (five items) and oral pain and discomfort (five items). Four factors/domains of the Brazilian OHIP-EDENT version represent patient-important aspects of oral health-related quality of life.

  10. Sparse Superpixel Unmixing for Exploratory Analysis of CRISM Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca; Gilmore, Martha S.

    2009-01-01

    Fast automated analysis of hyperspectral imagery can inform observation planning and tactical decisions during planetary exploration. Products such as mineralogical maps can focus analysts' attention on areas of interest and assist data mining in large hyperspectral catalogs. In this work, sparse spectral unmixing drafts mineral abundance maps with Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We demonstrate a novel "superpixel" segmentation strategy enabling efficient unmixing in an interactive session. Tests correlate automatic unmixing results based on redundant spectral libraries against hand-tuned summary products currently in use by CRISM researchers.

  11. Applied Behavior Analysis as Technological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Brian A.

    1991-01-01

    To the extent that applied behavior analysis represents a scientific and practical approach to the study of behavior, its technological character is essential. The most serious problem evident in the field is not that the research being done is too technical but that more good research of all types is needed. (JDD)

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  13. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  14. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  15. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of total cholesterol measured in five Israeli populations.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T; Carmelli, D; Cameron, E

    1985-07-01

    Three structured exploratory data analysis-functionals are applied to plasma total cholesterol concentrations measured for 2,480 young men and women aged 17-18 years and living in Jerusalem, and for their parents. These triad families are divided into five groups according to whether both parents were born in Asia, North Africa, Europe-America, or Israel or whether they were of mixed "origins." The significances of the functionals were determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffled the trait values across families in order to systematically alter certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. These analyses suggest that generational differences and various distributional effects influence patterns of spouse and parent-offspring interactions within these families and that the nature and forms of these effects and interactions may differ according to the origin of the parents. Results are discussed in relationship to historical and cultural differences among groups.

  16. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  17. Critical care physician cognitive task analysis: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fackler, James C; Watts, Charles; Grome, Anna; Miller, Thomas; Crandall, Beth; Pronovost, Peter

    2009-01-01

    For better or worse, the imposition of work-hour limitations on house-staff has imperiled continuity and/or improved decision-making. Regardless, the workflow of every physician team in every academic medical centre has been irrevocably altered. We explored the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques, most commonly used in other high-stress and time-sensitive environments, to analyse key cognitive activities in critical care medicine. The study objective was to assess the usefulness of CTA as an analytical tool in order that physician cognitive tasks may be understood and redistributed within the work-hour limited medical decision-making teams. After approval from each Institutional Review Board, two intensive care units (ICUs) within major university teaching hospitals served as data collection sites for CTA observations and interviews of critical care providers. Five broad categories of cognitive activities were identified: pattern recognition; uncertainty management; strategic vs. tactical thinking; team coordination and maintenance of common ground; and creation and transfer of meaning through stories. CTA within the framework of Naturalistic Decision Making is a useful tool to understand the critical care process of decision-making and communication. The separation of strategic and tactical thinking has implications for workflow redesign. Given the global push for work-hour limitations, such workflow redesign is occurring. Further work with CTA techniques will provide important insights toward rational, rather than random, workflow changes.

  18. Exploratory analysis of TOF-SIMS data from biological surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Henderson, Alex; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-12-01

    The application of multivariate analytical tools enables simplification of TOF-SIMS datasets so that useful information can be extracted from complex spectra and images, especially those that do not give readily interpretable results. There is however a challenge in understanding the outputs from such analyses. The problem is complicated when analysing images, given the additional dimensions in the dataset. Here we demonstrate how the application of simple pre-processing routines can enable the interpretation of TOF-SIMS spectra and images. For the spectral data, TOF-SIMS spectra used to discriminate bacterial isolates associated with urinary tract infection were studied. Using different criteria for picking peaks before carrying out PC-DFA enabled identification of the discriminatory information with greater certainty. For the image data, an air-dried salt stressed bacterial sample, discussed in another paper by us in this issue, was studied. Exploration of the image datasets with and without normalisation prior to multivariate analysis by PCA or MAF resulted in different regions of the image being highlighted by the techniques.

  19. Critical care physician cognitive task analysis: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, James C; Watts, Charles; Grome, Anna; Miller, Thomas; Crandall, Beth; Pronovost, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction For better or worse, the imposition of work-hour limitations on house-staff has imperiled continuity and/or improved decision-making. Regardless, the workflow of every physician team in every academic medical centre has been irrevocably altered. We explored the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques, most commonly used in other high-stress and time-sensitive environments, to analyse key cognitive activities in critical care medicine. The study objective was to assess the usefulness of CTA as an analytical tool in order that physician cognitive tasks may be understood and redistributed within the work-hour limited medical decision-making teams. Methods After approval from each Institutional Review Board, two intensive care units (ICUs) within major university teaching hospitals served as data collection sites for CTA observations and interviews of critical care providers. Results Five broad categories of cognitive activities were identified: pattern recognition; uncertainty management; strategic vs. tactical thinking; team coordination and maintenance of common ground; and creation and transfer of meaning through stories. Conclusions CTA within the framework of Naturalistic Decision Making is a useful tool to understand the critical care process of decision-making and communication. The separation of strategic and tactical thinking has implications for workflow redesign. Given the global push for work-hour limitations, such workflow redesign is occurring. Further work with CTA techniques will provide important insights toward rational, rather than random, workflow changes. PMID:19265517

  20. Rorschach assessment of traumatized refugees: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one multitraumatized mental health patients with refugee backgrounds completed the Rorschach (Meyer & Viglione, 2008), Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (Mollica, McDonald, Massagli, & Silove, 2004), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL Group, 1998) before the start of treatment. The purpose was to gain more in-depth knowledge of an understudied patient group and to provide a prospective basis for later analyses of treatment outcome. Factor analysis of trauma-related Rorschach variables gave 2 components explaining 60% of the variance; the first was interpreted as trauma-related flooding versus constriction and the second as adequate versus impaired reality testing. Component 1 correlated positively with self-reported reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (r = .32, p < .05). Component 2 correlated positively with self-reported quality of life in the physical, psychological, and social relationships domains (r = .34, .32, and .35, p < .05), and negatively with anxiety (r = -.33, p < .05). Each component also correlated significantly with resources like work experience, education, and language skills.

  1. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (German version)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is a validated, self-report questionnaire which is widely used as an outcome measure. Previous studies supported the multidimensionality of the DHI, but not the original subscale structure. The objectives of this survey were to explore the dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - German version, and to investigate the associations of the retained factors with items assessing functional disability and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondly we aimed to explore the retained factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo, dizziness or balance disorders. They filled in two questionnaires: (1) The DHI assesses precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness/unsteadiness and functional/emotional consequences of symptoms. (2) The HADS assesses non-somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, patients answered the third question of the University of California Los Angeles-Dizziness Questionnaire which covers the impact of dizziness and unsteadiness on everyday activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to explore the dimensions of the DHI. Associations were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results One hundred ninety-four patients with dizziness or unsteadiness associated with a vestibular disorder, mean age (standard deviation) of 50.6 (13.6) years, participated. Based on eigenvalues greater one respectively the scree plot we analysed diverse factor solutions. The 3-factor solution seems to be reliable, clinically relevant and can partly be explained with the ICF. It explains 49.2% of the variance. Factor 1 comprises the effect of dizziness and unsteadiness on emotion and participation, factor 2 informs about specific activities or effort provoking dizziness and unsteadiness, and factor 3 focuses on self-perceived walking

  2. Mission-system planning: an application of multiresolution, multiperspective modeling, and exploratory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul K.

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes mission-system planning (MSP) and mission-system analysis (MSA). It relate their needs to two frontier subjects: multi resolution, multi perspective modeling (MRMPM) and exploratory analysis. After a brief explanation of mission-system planning, I describe an application: the mission of halting a mechanized invasion force with long-range fires such as fighter and bomber aircraft. The application involves defining the relevant system, decomposing it analytically, and assessing overall system effectiveness over a relevant scenario space. The appropriate decomposition depends on one's point of view and responsibilities, and may have both hierarchical and network aspects. The result is a need for multiple levels of resolution in each of several perspectives. Evaluation of system capabilities then requires models. Strategically useful mission-system evaluation requires low-resolution (highly abstracted models), but the validity and credibility of those evaluations depends on deeper work and is enhanced by the ability to zoom in on components of the system problem-to explore underlying mechanisms and related capabilities in more detail. Given success in such matters, the remaining challenge is to find reductionist ways in which to display and explain analysis conclusions and motivate decisions. This also requires abstraction, the soundness of which can be enhanced with appropriate tools for data analysis of results from the exploratory work across scenario space.

  3. Exploratory and structural data analysis of a sandy aquifer at Mol/Dessel, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, Bart; Mallants, Dirk; Batelaan, Okke; Gedeon, Matej; Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel, Belgium, additional extensive site characterization has been performed in 2008. The gathered data now enclose 388 hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples of 8 cored boreholes. Additionally, secondary information as grain size analysis, resistivity, porosity, etc. was gathered. With this dataset, a small-scale probabilistic approach can be used 1) to validate the current existing deterministic groundwater models based on large-scale average hydraulic conductivity values, and 2) to support design for a monitoring network. In preparation for stochastic realizations of the subsurface, an exploratory and structural data analysis was performed and is presented here. The exploratory data analysis allows definition of hydrogeological units, independent from the existing lithostratigraphy. It also shows the presence of three conductivity classes within a strongly heterogeneous unit. Currently, only vertical structural data analysis is performed based on vertical data profiles. Semi-variograms and cross-variograms are calculated to characterize the spatial variance of the different hydrogeological units. Additional sampling and measurements will be performed in the future to provide information of the horizontal spatial variance. Together with the current results, these will serve as the basis for conditional stochastic simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  4. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  5. An exploratory factor analysis of the spontaneous reporting of severe cutaneous adverse reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric; Hsieh, Wen-Yaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are prominent in pharmacovigilance (PhV). They have some commonalities such as nonimmediate nature and T-cell mediation and rare overlap syndromes have been documented, most commonly involving acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and DRESS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). However, they display diverse clinical phenotypes and variations in specific T-cell immune response profiles, plus some specific genotype–phenotype associations. A question is whether causation of a given SCAR by a given drug supports causality of the same drug for other SCARs. If so, we might expect significant intercorrelations between SCARs with respect to overall drug-reporting patterns. SCARs with significant intercorrelations may reflect a unified underlying concept. Methods: We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on data from the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to assess reporting intercorrelations between six SCARs [AGEP, DRESS, erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), TEN, exfoliative dermatitis (ExfolDerm)]. We screened the data using visual inspection of scatterplot matrices for problematic data patterns. We assessed factorability via Bartlett’s test of sphericity, Kaiser-Myer-Olkin (KMO) statistic, initial estimates of communality and the anti-image correlation matrix. We extracted factors via principle axis factoring (PAF). The number of factors was determined by scree plot/Kaiser’s rule. We also examined solutions with an additional factor. We applied various oblique rotations. We assessed the strength of the solution by percentage of variance explained, minimum number of factors loading per major factor, the magnitude of the communalities, loadings and crossloadings, and reproduced- and residual correlations. Results: The data were generally adequate for factor analysis

  6. [Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Valencia Scale on attitudes and beliefs toward hypnosis].

    PubMed

    Capafons, Antonio; Morales, Claudia; Espejo, Begoña; Cabañas, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the valencia scale on attitudes and beliefs toward hypnosis. Therapist version. This investigation examines the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist version. Data from 775 professional psychologists belonging to the Spanish Association of Psychologists were used for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Retest included data from 426 participants who answered to the test. The EFA revealed eight factors (Fear, Memory, Help, Control, Collaboration, Interest, Magic and Marginal). Each factor showed good internal consistency and reliability, similar to the client version of this scale. ANOVA indicate that some variables (having scientific knowledge, having received practical information on hypnosis, to use hypnosis, and to show interest in receiving more theoretical and practical information on hypnosis), tend to reduce inadequate beliefs and negative attitudes toward hypnosis. Our results provide the basis for carrying out confirmatory factor analysis and studies of convergent validity on the scale, and of the sensitivity of the scale to change.

  7. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  8. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J.M; Foxx, Richard M; Jacobson, John W; Green, Gina; Mulick, James A

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We also consider the features of PBS that have facilitated its broad dissemination and how ABA might benefit from emulating certain practices of the PBS movement. PMID:22478452

  9. Validating the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ): An exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navidpour, Fariba; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shishehgar, Sara; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Hashemi, Seyed Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biological, environmental, inter- and intrapersonal changes during the antenatal period can result in anxiety and stress in pregnant women. It is pivotal to identify potential stressors and prevent their foetal and maternal consequences. The present study was conducted to validate and examine the factor structure of the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). Methods In 2015, 502 Iranian healthy pregnant women, referred to selected hospitals in Tehran for prenatal care at 8–39 weeks of pregnancy, were recruited through a randomized cluster sampling. The PWSQ was translated into Farsi, and its validity and reliability were examined using exploratory factor analysis by SPSS version 21. Results The content validity of items on the PWSQ was between 0.63–1. The content validity index for relevance, clarity and simplicity were 0.92, 0.98, and 0.98, respectively, with a mean of 0.94. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.863. Test–retest reliability showed high internal consistency (α=0.89; p<0.0001) Conclusion The psychometric evaluation and exploratory factor analysis showed that the translated questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to identify stress in Iranian pregnant women. Application of the questionnaire can facilitate the diagnosis of stress in pregnant women and assist health care providers in providing timely support and minimizing negative outcomes of stress and anxiety in pregnant women and their infants. PMID:27957315

  10. Sneak analysis applied to process systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetton, Cris

    Traditional safety analyses, such as HAZOP, FMEA, FTA, and MORT, are less than effective at identifying hazards resulting from incorrect 'flow' - whether this be flow of information, actions, electric current, or even the literal flow of process fluids. Sneak Analysis (SA) has existed since the mid nineteen-seventies as a means of identifying such conditions in electric circuits; in which area, it is usually known as Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA). This paper extends the ideas of Sneak Circuit Analysis to a general method of Sneak Analysis applied to process plant. The methods of SA attempt to capitalize on previous work in the electrical field by first producing a pseudo-electrical analog of the process and then analyzing the analog by the existing techniques of SCA, supplemented by some additional rules and clues specific to processes. The SA method is not intended to replace any existing method of safety analysis; instead, it is intended to supplement such techniques as HAZOP and FMEA by providing systematic procedures for the identification of a class of potential problems which are not well covered by any other method.

  11. Cross-country Analysis of ICT and Education Indicators: An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Ahmad R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between world ICT and education indicators by using the latest available data from World Bank and UNESCO in range of 2011-2014 with the help of different exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis, and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. After dealing with all missing values, 119 countries were included in the final dataset. The findings show that most ICT and education indicators are highly associated with income of the respective country and therefore confirm the existence of digital divide in ICT utilization and participation gap in education between rich and poor countries. It also indicates that digital divide and participation gap is highly associated with each other. Finally, the findings also confirm reverse causality in ICT and education; higher participation rate in education increases technology utilization, which in turn helps promote better outcomes of education.

  12. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  14. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in an Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Comparison Data of Known Factorial Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Roche, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for…

  15. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in an Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Comparison Data of Known Factorial Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Roche, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for…

  16. Exploratory data analysis for the interpretation of low template DNA mixtures.

    PubMed

    Haned, H; Slooten, K; Gill, P

    2012-12-01

    The interpretation of DNA mixtures has proven to be a complex problem in forensic genetics. In particular, low template DNA samples, where alleles can be missing (allele drop-out), or where alleles unrelated to the crime-sample are amplified (allele drop-in), cannot be analysed with classical approaches such as random man not excluded or random match probability. Drop-out, drop-in, stutters and other PCR-related stochastic effects, create uncertainty about the composition of the crime-sample, making it difficult to attach a weight of evidence when (a) reference sample(s) is (are) compared to the crime-sample. In this paper, we use a probabilistic model to calculate likelihood ratios when there is uncertainty about the composition of the crime-sample. This model is essentially exploratory in the sense that it allows the exploration of LRs when two key-parameters, drop-out and drop-in are varied within their plausible ranges of variation. We build on the work of Curran et al., and improve their probabilistic model to allow more flexibility in the way the model parameters are applied. Two new main modifications are brought to their model: (i) different drop-out probabilities can be applied to different contributors, and (ii) different parameters can be used under the prosecution and the defence hypotheses. We illustrate how the LRs can be explored when the drop-out and drop-in parameters are varied, and suggest the use of Monte Carlo simulations to derive plausible ranges for the probability of drop-out. Although the model is suited for both high and low template samples, we illustrate the advantages of the exploratory approach through two DNA mixtures (involving two and at least three individuals) with low template components.

  17. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer Concerns (5 items), Personal Concerns (6 items), and School Concerns (4 items). Initial estimates of convergent validity for ACM scores were also reported. The four-factor structure of ACM scores derived from Study 1 was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 using a two-fold cross-validation procedure with a separate sample of 811 adolescents. Support was found for both the multidimensional and hierarchical models of adolescent concerns using the ACM. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates were adequate for research purposes. ACM scores show promise as a reliable and potentially valid measure of Asian adolescents' concerns.

  18. HTSvis: a web app for exploratory data analysis and visualization of arrayed high-throughput screens.

    PubMed

    Scheeder, Christian; Heigwer, Florian; Boutros, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Arrayed high-throughput screens (HTS) cover a broad range of applications using RNAi or small molecules as perturbations and specialized software packages for statistical analysis have become available. However, exploratory data analysis and integration of screening results has remained challenging due to the size of the data sets and the lack of user-friendly tools for interpretation and visualization of screening results. Here we present HTSvis, a web application to interactively visualize raw data, perform quality control and assess screening results from single to multi-channel measurements such as image-based screens. Per well aggregated raw and analyzed data of various assay types and scales can be loaded in a generic tabular format. HTSvis is distributed as an open-source R package, downloadable from https://github.com/boutroslab/HTSvis and can also be accessed at http://htsvis.dkfz.de . m.boutros@dkfz.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online .

  19. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  20. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data.

  1. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2017-01-01

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered. PMID:28051148

  2. On differentiation in applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    Distinct types of activity in the field of applied behavior analysis are noted and discussed. Four metaphorical types of activity are considered: prospecting, farming, building, and guiding. Prospecting consists of time-limited exploration of a variety of beaviors, populations, or settings. Farming consists of producing new behaviors in the same setting using independent variables provided by the researchers or normally available in the setting. Building consists of combining procedural elements to create new programs or systems or to rehabilitate aspects of existing programs. Guiding involves pointing out connections between the principles of human behavior and the problems, populations, settings, and procedures with which researchers are (or could be) working. Advantages of each sphere are noted, and benefits of this division of labor to the field as a whole are discussed. PMID:22478631

  3. Reachability Analysis Applied to Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, M.; Scheeres, D.

    Several existing and emerging applications of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) relate directly to spacecraft Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking (RPOD) and Formation / Cluster Flight (FCF). When multiple Resident Space Ob jects (RSOs) are in vicinity of one another with appreciable periods between observations, correlating new RSO tracks to previously known objects becomes a non-trivial problem. A particularly difficult sub-problem is seen when long breaks in observations are coupled with continuous, low- thrust maneuvers. Reachability theory, directly related to optimal control theory, can compute contiguous reachability sets for known or estimated control authority and can support such RSO search and correlation efforts in both ground and on-board settings. Reachability analysis can also directly estimate the minimum control authority of a given RSO. For RPOD and FCF applications, emerging mission concepts such as fractionation drastically increase system complexity of on-board autonomous fault management systems. Reachability theory, as applied to SSA in RPOD and FCF applications, can involve correlation of nearby RSO observations, control authority estimation, and sensor track re-acquisition. Additional uses of reachability analysis are formation reconfiguration, worst-case passive safety, and propulsion failure modes such as a "stuck" thruster. Existing reachability theory is applied to RPOD and FCF regimes. An optimal control policy is developed to maximize the reachability set and optimal control law discontinuities (switching) are examined. The Clohessy-Wiltshire linearized equations of motion are normalized to accentuate relative control authority for spacecraft propulsion systems at both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Several examples with traditional and low thrust propulsion systems in LEO and GEO are explored to illustrate the effects of relative control authority on the time-varying reachability set surface. Both

  4. An exploratory digital analysis of the early years of G. Stanley Hall's American Journal of Psychology and Pedagogical Seminary.

    PubMed

    Young, Jacy L; Green, Christopher D

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present the results of an exploratory digital analysis of the contents of the two journals founded in the late 19th century by American psychologist G. Stanley Hall. Using the methods of the increasingly popular digital humanities, some key attributes of the American Journal of Psychology (AJP) and the Pedagogical Seminary (PS) are identified. Our analysis reaffirms some of Hall's explicit aims for the two periodicals, while also revealing a number of other features of the journals, as well as of the people who published within their pages, the methodologies they employed, and the institutions at which they worked. Notably, despite Hall's intent that his psychological journal be strictly an outlet for scientific research, the journal-like its sister pedagogically focused publication-included an array of methodologically diverse research. The multiplicity of research styles that characterize the content of Hall's journals in their initial years is, in part, a consequence of individual researchers at times crossing methodological lines and producing a diverse body of research. Along with such variety within each periodical, it is evident that the line between content appropriate to one periodical rather than the other was fluid rather than absolute. The full results of this digitally informed analysis of Hall's two journals suggest a number of novel avenues for future research and demonstrate the utility of digital methods as applied to the history of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Exploratory voxel-based analysis of diffusion indices and hemispheric asymmetry in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Ardekani, Siamak; Kumar, Anand; Bartzokis, George; Sinha, Usha

    2007-02-01

    Age-related microstructural changes in brain white matter can be studied by utilizing indices derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA). The objective of this study is to examine alterations in FA and ADC by employing exploratory voxel-based analysis (VBA) and region(s) of interest (ROI)-based analysis. A highly nonlinear registration algorithm was used to align the ADC and FA image volumes of different subjects to perform accurate voxel-level statistics for two age groups, as well as for hemispheric asymmetry for both age groups. VBA shows significant age-related decline in FA with frontal predominance (frontal white matter, and genu and anterior body of the corpus callosum), superior portions of a splenium and highly oriented fibers of the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the anterior and posterior limbs of the external capsule. Hemispheric asymmetry of FA, as assessed by VBA, showed that for the young-age group, significant right-greater-than-left asymmetry exists in the genu, splenium and body of the corpus callosum and that left-greater-than-right asymmetry exists in the anterior limb of the external capsule and in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, thalamus, cerebral peduncle and temporal-parietal regions. VBA of the hemispheric asymmetry of the middle-age group revealed much less asymmetry. Regions showing age-related changes and hemispheric asymmetry from VBA were, for a majority of the findings, in conformance with ROI analysis and with the known pattern of development and age-related degradation of fiber tracks. The study shows the feasibility of the VBA of DTI indices for exploratory investigations of subtle differences in population cohorts, especially when findings are not localized and/or known a priori.

  6. Tuck Jump Assessment: An Exploratory Factor Analysis in a College Age Population.

    PubMed

    Lininger, Monica R; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Hoog, Philipp; Warren, Meghan

    2017-03-01

    Lininger, MR, Smith, CA, Chimera, NJ, Hoog, P, and Warren, M. Tuck Jump Assessment: An exploratory factor analysis in a college age population. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 653-659, 2017-Due to the high rate of noncontact lower extremity injuries that occur in the collegiate setting, medical personnel are implementing screening mechanisms to identify those athletes that may be at risk for certain injuries before starting a sports season. The tuck jump assessment (TJA) was created as a "clinician friendly" tool to identify lower extremity landing technique flaws during a plyometric activity. There are 10 technique flaws that are assessed as either having the apparent deficit or not during the TJA. Technique flaws are then summed up for an overall score. Through expert consensus, these 10 technique flaws have been grouped into 5 modifiable risk factors: ligament dominance, quadriceps dominance, leg dominance or residual injury deficits, trunk dominance ("core" dysfunction), and technique perfection. Research has not investigated the psychometric properties of the TJA technique flaws or the modifiable risk factors. The present study is a psychometric analysis of the TJA technique flaws to measure the internal structure using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using data from collegiate athletes (n = 90) and a general college cohort (n = 99). The EFA suggested a 3 factor model accounting for 46% of the variance. The 3 factors were defined as fatigue, distal landing pattern, and proximal control. The results differ from the 5 modifiable risk categories as previously suggested. These results may question the use of a single score, a unidimensional construct, of the TJA for injury screening.

  7. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  8. Cluster analysis applied to multiparameter geophysical dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Multi-parameter acquisition is a common geophysical field practice nowadays. Regularly seismic velocity and attenuation, gravity and electromagnetic dataset are acquired in a certain area, to obtain a complete characterization of the some investigate feature of the subsoil. Such a richness of information is often underestimated, although an integration of the analysis could provide a notable improving in the imaging of the investigated structures, mostly because the handling of distinct parameters and their joint inversion still presents several and severe problems. Post-inversion statistical techniques represent a promising approach to these questions, providing a quick, simple and elegant way to obtain this advantageous but complex integration. We present an approach based on the partition of the analyzed multi parameter dataset in a number of different classes, identified as localized regions of high correlation. These classes, or 'Cluster', are structured in such a way that the observations pertaining to a certain group are more similar to each other than the observations belonging to a different one, according to an optimal logical criterion. Regions of the subsoil sharing the same physical characteristic are so identified, without a-priori or empirical relationship linking the distinct measured parameters. The retrieved imaging results highly affordable in a statistical sense, specifically due to this lack of external hypothesis that are, instead, indispensable in a full joint inversion, were works, as matter of fact, just a real constrain for the inversion process, not seldom of relative consistence. We apply our procedure to a certain number of experimental dataset, related to several structures at very different scales presents in the Campanian district (southern Italy). These structures goes from the shallows evidence of the active fault zone originating the M 7.9 Irpinia earthquake to the main feature characterizing the Campi Flegrei Caldera and the Mt

  9. Retrospective analysis of exploratory laparotomies in 192 Andalusian horses and 276 horses of other breeds.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, E; Argüelles, D; Areste, L; Miguel, L San; Prades, M

    2008-03-08

    The medical records of 468 horses that underwent 490 exploratory laparotomies for the correction of gastrointestinal diseases were reviewed to search for differences between Andalusian horses and other breeds. The seasonal distribution of surgical colics and their outcome and complications were also investigated. Bivariant analysis was used to compare the horses' age, gender and breed with the type of surgery, the bowel affected and the type of colic, and all these variables were compared in relation to euthanasia during surgery, complications, short-term survival and seasonal distribution. A total of 405 horses survived the surgery and 329 were discharged from the hospital. Horses less than one year old had better short-term survival than older horses. Andalusian horses suffered more inguinal hernias than the other breeds and were more prone to suffer laminitis as a complication. Colic surgery and inguinal hernias were also more common in the summer.

  10. Six degrees of separation: an exploratory network analysis of mentoring relationships in pediatric psychology.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Brandon S; Odar, Cathleen C; Kessler, Emily D; Canter, Kimberly S; Roberts, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    The present study is an exploratory social network analysis of mentee-mentor relationships in the field of pediatric psychology. An online survey was distributed to members of the Division 54 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) listserv asking them to name up to 10 psychologists from whom they had "received mentoring" and who influenced their careers. Directed network analyses were conducted to examine features of the resulting mentoring network. Participants reported receiving mentoring in a wide variety of relationships and settings. The average "degrees of separation" between individuals in the network was 5.30. : The field of pediatric psychology is interconnected with professionals learning from multiple mentors in multiple settings, extending beyond just graduate student advisors. Overall, many different mentors were listed, and there does not appear to be only one or two individuals providing the majority of mentoring within the field.

  11. Causes of accidents in terrain parks: an exploratory factor analysis of recreational freestylers' views.

    PubMed

    Carús, Luis

    2014-03-01

    This study examines ski and snowboard terrain park users' views on aspects associated with accidents by identifying and assessing variables that may influence the occurrence of accidents and the resulting injuries. The research was conducted in a major resort in the Spanish Pyrenees, using information gathered from freestyle skiers and snowboarders aged 6 or older. To identify interrelationships among variables and to group the variables belonging to unified concepts, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using varimax rotation. The results revealed 5 factors that grouped the measured variables that may influence the occurrence of accidents while freestyling in terrain parks. The park features, conditions of the activity, and the user's personal conditions were found to have the most substantial influence on the freestylers' perceptions. Variables identified as components of the main factors of accident risk in terrain parks should be incorporated into resort management communication and policies. © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society Published by Wilderness Medical Society All rights reserved.

  12. Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the teacher reporting attitude scale for child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. The scale isolated three dimensions: commitment to the reporting role, confidence in the system's response to reports, and concerns about reporting. These three factors accounted for 37.5% of the variance in the 14-item measure. Alpha coefficients for the subscales were 0.769 (commitment), 0.617 (confidence), and 0.661 (concerns). The findings provide insights into the complexity of studying teachers' attitudes toward reporting of child sexual abuse and have implications for future research.

  13. The Quality of Factor Solutions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: The Influence of Sample Size, Communality, and Overdetermination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Hines, Constance V.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Ferron, John M.; Mumford, Karen R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sample size and the quality of factor solutions obtained from exploratory factor analysis. This research expanded upon the range of conditions previously examined, employing a broad selection of criteria for the evaluation of the quality of sample factor solutions. Results…

  14. Quantifying Subpopulation Differences for a Lack of Invariance Using Complex Examinee Profiles: An Exploratory Multigroup Approach Using Functional Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Andre A.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a novel exploratory multigroup approach that quantifies relative group differences within an item response theory framework using tools from functional data analysis. Specifically, examinee groups are formed using different clustering methodologies based on background and attitudinal variable profiles. Item parameters for the…

  15. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Cognitive in Adulthood via the Schmid-Leiman Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-III cognitive in the adult time period (age 20 to 90 plus) was analyzed using exploratory bifactor analysis via the Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization procedure. The results of this study suggested possible overfactoring, a different factor structure from that posited in the Technical Manual and a lack of invariance across both…

  16. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Cognitive in Adulthood via the Schmid-Leiman Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-III cognitive in the adult time period (age 20 to 90 plus) was analyzed using exploratory bifactor analysis via the Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization procedure. The results of this study suggested possible overfactoring, a different factor structure from that posited in the Technical Manual and a lack of invariance across both…

  17. Technical Communications in Aeronautics: Results of an Exploratory Study. An Analysis of Managers' and Nonmanagers' Responses. NASA Technical Memorandum 101625.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five secondary assumptions were established for the analysis: (1) that the…

  18. Exploratory Two-Level Analysis of Individual- and School-Level Factors on Truant Youth Emotional/Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.

    2016-01-01

    Research on samples of truant adolescents is limited, with little known about mental health problems among truant youths. This study provided an exploratory, multilevel examination of mental health problems for a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a single factor of multiple mental health problems at the…

  19. Exploratory Two-Level Analysis of Individual- and School-Level Factors on Truant Youth Emotional/Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.

    2016-01-01

    Research on samples of truant adolescents is limited, with little known about mental health problems among truant youths. This study provided an exploratory, multilevel examination of mental health problems for a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a single factor of multiple mental health problems at the…

  20. FACTOR 9.2: A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.

    2013-01-01

    FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…

  1. FACTOR 9.2: A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.

    2013-01-01

    FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…

  2. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-10-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.

  3. Challenges in Covering Health Disparities in Local News Media: An Exploratory Analysis Assessing Views of Journalists

    PubMed Central

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D.; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduc an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are “less palatable” for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities. PMID:20041281

  4. The trade-off between hospital cost and quality of care. An exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Morey, R C; Fine, D J; Loree, S W; Retzlaff-Roberts, D L; Tsubakitani, S

    1992-08-01

    The debate concerning quality of care in hospitals, its "value" and affordability, is increasingly of concern to providers, consumers, and purchasers in the United States and elsewhere. We undertook an exploratory study to estimate the impact on hospital-wide costs if quality-of-care levels were varied. To do so, we obtained costs and service output data regarding 300 U.S. hospitals, representing approximately a 5% cross section of all hospitals operating in 1983; both inpatient and outpatient services were included. The quality-of-care measure used for the exploratory analysis was the ratio of actual deaths in the hospital for the year in question to the forecasted number of deaths for the hospital; the hospital mortality forecaster had earlier (and elsewhere) been built from analyses of 6 million discharge abstracts, and took into account each hospital's actual individual admissions, including key patient descriptors for each admission. Such adjusted death rates have increasingly been used as potential indicators of quality, with recent research lending support for the viability of that linkage. The authors then utilized the economic construct of allocative efficiency relying on "best practices" concepts and peer groupings, built using the "envelopment" philosophy of Data Envelopment Analysis and Pareto efficiency. These analytical techniques estimated the efficiently delivered costs required to meet prespecified levels of quality of care. The marginal additional cost per each death deferred in 1983 was estimated to be approximately $29,000 (in 1990 dollars) for the average efficient hospital. Also, over a feasible range, a 1% increase in the level of quality of care delivered was estimated to increase hospital cost by an average of 1.34%. This estimated elasticity of quality on cost also increased with the number of beds in the hospital.

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of Work Engagement, Satisfaction, and Depression in Psychiatry Residents.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gaurava; Karpouzian, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study aims to measure work engagement levels in psychiatry residents at three psychiatry residency programs using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). In addition, the study investigates the relationship between total engagement and its subscales, resident satisfaction, and a depression screen. Recruitment of 53/79 residents from three psychiatry residency programs in Illinois was completed. The residents were administered a questionnaire consisting of the UWES, the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (Prime-MD) depression screen, and a residency satisfaction scale. Statistical analysis using independent samples t test and a one-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences on engagement total score and subscales and satisfaction scale. A logistic regression was used with the engagement subscales and the satisfaction scale as predictors of belonging to the depressed or non-depressed group. Psychiatry residents scored in the high range for total engagement and all its subscales except for vigor which was in the moderate range. Residents who screened positive for depression reported lower total engagement than those who were negative on the depression screen. Vigor was the only significant predictor (p = .004) of being in the depressed group after logistic regression. Total engagement and the subscale of dedication significantly predicted overall residency satisfaction (β = .473, p = .016). Higher total UWES-15 and its subscales of vigor and dedication are correlated with a lower rate of screening positive for depression and higher residency satisfaction. This exploratory study lends support for further study of this psychological construct in medical training programs, but replication is needed.

  6. Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA).

    PubMed

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Shitan, Mahendran; Kumar Karmokar, Provash; Najwa, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.

  7. Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

    PubMed Central

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Shitan, Mahendran; Kumar Karmokar, Provash; Najwa, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil. PMID:28060816

  8. Analysis of the interaction between experimental and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Cox, Alison D; Pear, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    To study the influences between basic and applied research in behavior analysis, we analyzed the coauthorship interactions of authors who published in JABA and JEAB from 1980 to 2010. We paid particular attention to authors who published in both JABA and JEAB (dual authors) as potential agents of cross-field interactions. We present a comprehensive analysis of dual authors' coauthorship interactions using social networks methodology and key word analysis. The number of dual authors more than doubled (26 to 67) and their productivity tripled (7% to 26% of JABA and JEAB articles) between 1980 and 2010. Dual authors stood out in terms of number of collaborators, number of publications, and ability to interact with multiple groups within the field. The steady increase in JEAB and JABA interactions through coauthors and the increasing range of topics covered by dual authors provide a basis for optimism regarding the progressive integration of basic and applied behavior analysis. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Finite element analysis applied to cornea reshaping.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fernández, Delia; Niazy, A M; Kurtz, R M; Djotyan, G P; Juhasz, T

    2005-01-01

    A 2-D finite element model of the cornea is developed to simulate corneal reshaping and the resulting deformation induced by refractive surgery. In the numerical simulations, linear and nonlinear elastic models are applied when stiffness inhomogeneities varying with depth are considered. Multiple simulations are created that employ different geometric configurations for the removal of the corneal tissue. Side-by-side comparisons of the different constitutive laws are also performed. To facilitate the comparison, the material property constants are identified from the same experimental data, which are obtained from mechanical tests on corneal strips and membrane inflation experiments. We then validate the resulting models by comparing computed refractive power changes with clinical results. Tissue deformations created by simulated corneal tissue removal using finite elements are consistent with clinically observed postsurgical results. The model developed provides a much more predictable refractive outcome when the stiffness inhomogeneities of the cornea and nonlinearities of the deformations are included in the simulations. Finite element analysis is a useful tool for modeling surgical effects on the cornea and developing a better understanding of the biomechanics of the cornea. The creation of patient-specific simulations would allow surgical outcomes to be predicted based on individualized finite element models.

  10. Magnetic Analysis Techniques Applied to Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidgall, E. R.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Dahlberg, E. D.; Kuhlman, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Desert varnish is a black or reddish coating commonly found on rock samples from arid regions. Typically, the coating is very thin, less than half a millimeter thick. Previous research has shown that the primary components of desert varnish are silicon oxide clay minerals (60%), manganese and iron oxides (20-30%), and trace amounts of other compounds [1]. Desert varnish is thought to originate when windborne particles containing iron and manganese oxides are deposited onto rock surfaces where manganese oxidizing bacteria concentrate the manganese and form the varnish [4,5]. If desert varnish is indeed biogenic, then the presence of desert varnish on rock surfaces could serve as a biomarker, indicating the presence of microorganisms. This idea has considerable appeal, especially for Martian exploration [6]. Magnetic analysis techniques have not been extensively applied to desert varnish. The only previous magnetic study reported that based on room temperature demagnetization experiments, there were noticeable differences in magnetic properties between a sample of desert varnish and the substrate sandstone [7]. Based upon the results of the demagnetization experiments, the authors concluded that the primary magnetic component of desert varnish was either magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite ( Fe2O3).

  11. Multivariate analysis of the modifications induced by an environmental acoustic cue on rat exploratory behavior.

    PubMed

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2008-03-18

    The aim of the present paper is to study by means of a multivariate analysis the modifications induced by an environmental acoustic cue on the structure of rat exploratory behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were observed during the exploration of a soundproof observation box. Each rat was acoustically stimulated after 150 s from the beginning of the experimental session, lasting 300 s, and recorded through a digital videocamera. A frame by frame analysis was thereafter carried out using a professional video-recording system. Thirteen behavioral patterns were selected: immobility, immobile-sniffing, walking, rearing, climbing, chewing, paw-licking, face-grooming, body-grooming, head-turning, tuning, oriented-sniffing, focusing. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses (cluster, stochastic, adjusted residuals) were carried out. Through descriptive statistical analysis, latencies and per cent distribution of each pattern were studied. A multivariate cluster analysis revealed the presence of three main behavioral clusters, an additional one being identified following acoustic stimulation. Multivariate stochastic analysis showed that all the patterns converged on immobile-sniffing which could represent a key component in behavioral switching processes related to environmental exploration. Moreover, through adjusted residuals, the degree of relationship among different patterns was shown according to statistic Z-distribution. Our data assign new ethological meanings to different behavioral patterns. Notably, head-turning is suggested to be considered as a generic directional search and tuning as a subtle activity of stimulus localization.

  12. Robust and exploratory analysis of active mesoscale tectonic zones in Japan utilizing the nationwide GPS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toya, Yuzo; Kasahara, Minoru

    2005-05-01

    A monitoring GPS array recently developed in Japan can yield nationwide maps of active inland tectonic zones (ATZs) on a mesoscale, approximately 70 to several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. But it has been difficult to characterize ATZs in Japan, as they are in fact operational on multiple scales and our efforts are often hindered by various irregularities in the data. The key to overcoming these problems would be to gain an insight into the available data before any precise kinematic modeling is performed with indefinite assumptions. In this study, horizontal velocity fields, deduced from the nationwide GPS array, were treated with a set of techniques in robust smoothing and exploratory data analysis that brought out exceptionally powerful mesoscale ATZs, and made them easier to characterize. The resolved ATZs were then retrospectively monitored to study their regional and temporal variations, using a set of approx. 840 observation stations, about 30 km apart, for a 4-year series of fixed observation time-intervals, 810 days each. The smoothing operation involved three steps: (1) imputation of the velocity fields for the purpose of anti-aliasing, (2) robust smoothing of the velocity fields with the median operative, and (3) visualization of deformation-rate distributions in several coordinate independent parameters, and post-filtering. The geometrical resolvability of mesoscale ATZs was confirmed by calibrating the smoothing scheme against synthetic tectonic boundary models before it was applied to the case study in Japan. ATZs in Japan, which are essentially visible as systematic deviations in the velocity fields on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) and as strain rate anomalies, were highlighted sharply along some known tectonic zones, chains of active volcanoes, and areas above low seismic velocity anomalies in the crust and upper mantle, all of which generally paralleled the offshore trench axes. The geometrical agreements among the

  13. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) normative sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the CTONI-2 "Examiner's Manual". Results…

  14. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) normative sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the CTONI-2 "Examiner's Manual". Results…

  15. Image analysis applied to luminescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Eric; Lelievre-Berna, Eddy; Fafeur, Veronique; Vandenbunder, Bernard

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a novel approach to study luminescent light emission during migration of living cells by low-light imaging techniques. The equipment consists in an anti-vibration table with a hole for a direct output under the frame of an inverted microscope. The image is directly captured by an ultra low- light level photon-counting camera equipped with an image intensifier coupled by an optical fiber to a CCD sensor. This installation is dedicated to measure in a dynamic manner the effect of SF/HGF (Scatter Factor/Hepatocyte Growth Factor) both on activation of gene promoter elements and on cell motility. Epithelial cells were stably transfected with promoter elements containing Ets transcription factor-binding sites driving a luciferase reporter gene. Luminescent light emitted by individual cells was measured by image analysis. Images of luminescent spots were acquired with a high aperture objective and time exposure of 10 - 30 min in photon-counting mode. The sensitivity of the camera was adjusted to a high value which required the use of a segmentation algorithm dedicated to eliminate the background noise. Hence, image segmentation and treatments by mathematical morphology were particularly indicated in these experimental conditions. In order to estimate the orientation of cells during their migration, we used a dedicated skeleton algorithm applied to the oblong spots of variable intensities emitted by the cells. Kinetic changes of luminescent sources, distance and speed of migration were recorded and then correlated with cellular morphological changes for each spot. Our results highlight the usefulness of the mathematical morphology to quantify kinetic changes in luminescence microscopy.

  16. Visualized Exploratory Spatiotemporal Analysis of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ji-Xia; Wang, Jin-Feng; Li, Zhong-Jie; Wang, Yan; Lai, Sheng-Jie; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In epidemiological research, major studies have focused on theoretical models; however, few methods of visual analysis have been used to display the patterns of disease distribution. Design For this study, a method combining the space-time cube (STC) with space-time scan statistics (STSS) was used to analyze the pattern of incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009. In this research, STC was used to display the spatiotemporal pattern of incidence of HFMD, and STSS were used to detect the local aggregations of the disease. Setting The hand-foot-mouth disease data were obtained from Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009, with a total of 68,130 cases. Results The STC analysis revealed a differential pattern of HFMD incidence among different months and cities and also showed that the population density and average precipitation are correlated with the incidence of HFMD. The STSS analysis revealed that the most likely aggregation includes the Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan populations, which are the most developed regions in Guangdong Province. Conclusion Both STC and STSS are efficient tools for the exploratory data analysis of disease transmission. STC clearly displays the spatiotemporal patterns of disease. Using the maximum likelihood ratio, the STSS model precisely locates the most likely aggregation. PMID:26605919

  17. Exploratory Analysis of the Social Network of Researchers in Inductive Logic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrač, Nada; Grčar, Miha; Fortuna, Blaž; Velardi, Paola

    In this chapter, we present selected techniques for social network analysis and text mining and interpret the results of exploratory analysis of the social network of researchers in inductive logic programming (ILP), based on the ILP scientific publications database collected within the ILPnet2 project. Part of the analysis was performed with the Pajek software for large (social) network analyses, where the central entity of the analysis was the author, related to other authors by coauthorship links, weighted by the number of his or her publications registered in the ILPnet2 database. The chapter presents also a novel methodology for topic ontology learning from text documents. The proposed methodology, named OntoTermExtraction (Term Extraction for Ontology learning), is based on OntoGen, a semiautomated tool for topic ontology construction, upgraded by using an advanced terminology extraction tool in an iterative, semiautomated ontology construction process. The approach was successfully used for generating the ontology of topics in Inductive Logic Programming, learned semiautomatically from papers indexed in the ILPnet2 publications database.

  18. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  19. Automatic analysis of cerebral asymmetry: an exploratory study of the relationship between brain torque and planum temporale asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Barrick, Thomas R; Mackay, Clare E; Prima, Sylvain; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Crow, Timothy J; Roberts, Neil

    2005-02-01

    Leftward occipital and rightward frontal lobe asymmetry (brain torque) and leftward planum temporale asymmetry have been consistently reported in postmortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies of the human brain. Here automatic image analysis techniques are applied to quantify global and local asymmetries, and investigate the relationship between brain torque and planum temporale asymmetries on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of 30 right-handed young healthy subjects (15 male, 15 female). Previously described automatic cerebral hemisphere extraction and 3D interhemispheric reflection-based methods for studying brain asymmetry are applied with a new technique, LowD (Low Dimension), which enables automatic quantification of brain torque. LowD integrates extracted left and right cerebral hemispheres in columns orthogonal to the midsagittal plane (2D column maps), and subsequently integrates slices along the brain's anterior-posterior axis (1D slice profiles). A torque index defined as the magnitude of occipital and frontal lobe asymmetry is computed allowing exploratory investigation of relationships between this global asymmetry and local asymmetries found in the planum temporale. LowD detected significant torque in the 30 subjects with occipital and frontal components found to be highly correlated (P<0.02). Significant leftward planum temporale asymmetry was detected (P<0.05), and the torque index correlated with planum temporale asymmetry (P<0.001). However, torque and total brain volume were not correlated. Therefore, although components of cerebral asymmetry may be related, their magnitude is not influenced by total hemisphere volume. LowD provides increased sensitivity for detection and quantification of brain torque on an individual subject basis, and future studies will apply these techniques to investigate the relationship between cerebral asymmetry and functional laterality.

  20. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. Findings MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. Conclusions The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org. PMID:21159174

  1. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zackay, Arie; Steinhoff, Christine

    2010-12-15

    Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org.

  2. The underlying relationships between the observed practices as revealed by an exploratory factor analysis of equip ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Jenesta Rae

    The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) is an instrument to measure the amount and quality of inquiry instruction of science and mathematics classrooms. The EQUIP rubric includes detailed descriptions for the inquiry practices that it measures. This study analyzed a large dataset of Texas science teacher observations using a discriminant factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The discriminant factor analysis found the inquiry instruction practices of primary (1st-5th grade) science teachers and secondary (6th-12th grade) science teachers to differ greatly, with primary science teachers using inquiry practices more often than secondary science teachers. Based on this information the primary and secondary datasets were analyzed separately with the exploratory factor analysis. The resulting factors indicate a variety of differences in the observed practices. The results also, suggest that discourse practices play a divergent but influential role for both datasets. Potential implications for professional development and future research are discussed.

  3. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the PROMIS pain quality item bank.

    PubMed

    Revicki, Dennis A; Cook, Karon F; Amtmann, Dagmar; Harnam, Neesha; Chen, Wen-Hung; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-02-01

    The assessment of pain sensation and quality is a key component in understanding the experience of individuals with chronic pain. This study evaluated the factor structure of the patient-reported outcome measurement information system (PROMIS) pain quality item bank. As part of the PROMIS project, we developed a pool of 37 pain quality items, based on a review of existing pain questionnaires and development of new items. A web-based survey was designed and completed by 845 members of the general population and 967 individuals with different types of chronic pain. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a random split-half sample of the data to examine the factor structure of the 37 PROMIS pain quality items in the general population and in a chronic pain sample. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the holdout sample. The EFA of the pain quality items resulted in comparable six-factor solutions for the general and chronic pain samples: (1) pulling/tugging pain; (2) tingling/numbness pain; (3) sharp/stabbing pain; (4) dull/aching pain; (5) pounding/pulsing pain; and (6) affective pain. The confirmatory factor analysis in the holdout sample supported this factor structure. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the derived scales based on their factor scores.

  4. Exploratory spatial analysis of pilot fatality rates in general aviation crashes using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Jurek G; Curriero, Frank C; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2002-03-01

    Geographic information systems and exploratory spatial analysis were used to describe the geographic characteristics of pilot fatality rates in 1983-1998 general aviation crashes within the continental United States. The authors plotted crash sites on a digital map; rates were computed at regular grid intersections and then interpolated by using geographic information systems. A test for significance was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Further analysis compared low-, medium-, and high-rate areas in relation to pilot characteristics, aircraft type, and crash circumstance. Of the 14,051 general aviation crashes studied, 31% were fatal. Seventy-four geographic areas were categorized as having low fatality rates and 53 as having high fatality rates. High-fatality-rate areas tended to be mountainous, such as the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian region, whereas low-rate areas were relatively flat, such as the Great Plains. Further analysis comparing low-, medium-, and high-fatality-rate areas revealed that crashes in high-fatality-rate areas were more likely than crashes in other areas to have occurred under instrument meteorologic conditions and to involve aircraft fire. This study demonstrates that geographic information systems are a valuable tool for injury prevention and aviation safety research.

  5. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; hide

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  6. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PROMIS Pain Quality Item Bank

    PubMed Central

    Revicki, Dennis A.; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Harnam, Neesha; Chen, Wen-Hung; Keefe, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of pain sensation and quality is a key component in understanding the experience of individuals with chronic pain. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Patient-reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain quality item bank. Methods As part of the PROMIS project, we developed a pool of 37 pain quality items, based on a review of existing pain questionnaires and development of new items. A Web-based survey was designed and completed by 845 members of the general population and 967 individuals with different types of chronic pain. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a random split-half sample of the data to examine the factor structure of the 37 PROMIS pain quality items in the general population and in a chronic pain sample. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the holdout sample. Results The EFA of the pain quality items resulted in comparable six-factor solutions for the general and chronic pain samples: (1) pulling/tugging pain; (2) tingling/numbness pain; (3) sharp/stabbing pain; (4) dull/aching pain; (5) pounding/pulsing pain; and (6) affective pain. The confirmatory factor analysis in the holdout sample supported this factor structure. Conclusions Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the derived scales based on their factor scores. PMID:23836435

  7. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis: The Schmid-Leiman Orthogonalization and Jennrich-Bentler Analytic Rotations

    PubMed Central

    Mansolf, Maxwell; Reise, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Analytic bifactor rotations (Jennrich & Bentler, 2011, 2012) have been recently developed and made generally available, but are not well understood. The Jennrich-Bentler analytic bifactor rotations (bi-quartimin and bi-geomin) are an alternative to, and arguably an improvement upon, the less technically sophisticated Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization (Schmid & Leiman, 1957). We review the technical details that underlie the Schmid-Leiman and Jennrich-Bentler bifactor rotations, using simulated data structures to illustrate important features and limitations. For the Schmid-Leiman, we review the problem of inaccurate parameter estimates caused by the linear dependencies, sometimes called “proportionality constraints,” that are required to expand a p correlated factors solution into a (p+1) (bi)factor space. We also review the complexities involved when the data depart from perfect cluster structure (e.g., item cross-loading on group factors). For the Jennrich-Bentler rotations, we describe problems in parameter estimation caused by departures from perfect cluster structure. In addition, we illustrate the related problems of: (a) solutions that are not invariant under different starting values (i.e., local minima problems); and, (b) group factors collapsing onto the general factor. Recommendations are made for substantive researchers including examining all local minima and applying multiple exploratory techniques in an effort to identify an accurate model. PMID:27612521

  8. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  9. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs.

  10. EcoGenetics: An R package for the management and exploratory analysis of spatial data in landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Roser, Leandro G; Ferreyra, Laura I; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2017-06-27

    The integration of ecology and genetics has become established in recent decades, in hand with the development of new technologies, whose implementation is allowing an improvement of the tools used for data analysis. In a landscape genetics context, integrative management of population information from different sources can make spatial studies involving phenotypic, genotypic and environmental data simpler, more accessible and faster. Tools for exploratory analysis of autocorrelation can help to uncover the spatial genetic structure of populations and generate appropriate hypotheses in searching for possible causes and consequences of their spatial processes. This study presents EcoGenetics, an R package with tools for multisource management and exploratory analysis in landscape genetics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Where do Overweight Women in Ghana Live? Answers from Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Contextual influence on health outcomes is increasingly becoming an important area of research. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis help explain the variations and dynamics in health inequalities across different context and among different population groups. This paper explores spatial clustering in body mass index among Ghanaian women by analysing data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. Overweight was a more common occurrence in urban areas than in rural areas. Close to a quarter of the clusters in Ghana, mostly those in the southern sector contained women who were overweight. Women who lived in clusters where the women were overweight were more likely to live around other clusters where the women were also overweight. The results suggest that the urban environment could be a potential contributing factor to the high levels of obesity in urban areas of Ghana. There is the need for researchers to include a spatial dimension to obesity research in Ghana paying particular attention the urban environment.

  12. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-07-25

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children.

  13. Yoga in adult cancer: an exploratory, qualitative analysis of the patient experience.

    PubMed

    McCall, Marcy; Thorne, Sally; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2015-07-22

    Some patients receiving treatment in conventional health care systems access therapeutic yoga outside their mainstream care to improve cancer symptoms. Given the current knowledge gap around patient preferences and documented experiences of yoga in adult cancer, this study aimed to describe patient-reported benefits, barriers and characteristics of programming for yoga practice during conventional treatment. In depth semi-structured interviews (n=10) were conducted in men and women recruited from cancer care clinics in Vancouver, Canada using a purposive sampling technique. The exploratory interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using Interpretive Description methodology and constant comparative analysis methods. Four themes emerged from the data to address our research objectives: patient-perceived benefits of yoga, reasons and motivations for practising yoga, hurdles and barriers to practising yoga, and advice for effective yoga program delivery in adult cancer. Several patients reported yoga reduced stress and other symptoms associated with cancer treatment. Thematic analysis found the social dimension of group yoga was important, as well as yoga's ability to encourage personal empowerment and awareness of physical body and self. Barriers to yoga adherence from the patient perspective included lack of time, scheduling conflicts and worries about financial burden. This small, diverse sample of patients reported positive experiences and no adverse effects following yoga practice for management of cancer and its symptoms. Results of this qualitative study identified patient-reported preferences, barriers and characteristics of yoga intervention optimal during adult cancer treatment.

  14. BeeSpace Navigator: exploratory analysis of gene function using semantic indexing of biological literature

    PubMed Central

    Sen Sarma, Moushumi; Arcoleo, David; Khetani, Radhika S.; Chee, Brant; Ling, Xu; He, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zhai, ChengXiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid decrease in cost of genome sequencing, the classification of gene function is becoming a primary problem. Such classification has been performed by human curators who read biological literature to extract evidence. BeeSpace Navigator is a prototype software for exploratory analysis of gene function using biological literature. The software supports an automatic analogue of the curator process to extract functions, with a simple interface intended for all biologists. Since extraction is done on selected collections that are semantically indexed into conceptual spaces, the curation can be task specific. Biological literature containing references to gene lists from expression experiments can be analyzed to extract concepts that are computational equivalents of a classification such as Gene Ontology, yielding discriminating concepts that differentiate gene mentions from other mentions. The functions of individual genes can be summarized from sentences in biological literature, to produce results resembling a model organism database entry that is automatically computed. Statistical frequency analysis based on literature phrase extraction generates offline semantic indexes to support these gene function services. The website with BeeSpace Navigator is free and open to all; there is no login requirement at www.beespace.illinois.edu for version 4. Materials from the 2010 BeeSpace Software Training Workshop are available at www.beespace.illinois.edu/bstwmaterials.php. PMID:21558175

  15. BeeSpace Navigator: exploratory analysis of gene function using semantic indexing of biological literature.

    PubMed

    Sen Sarma, Moushumi; Arcoleo, David; Khetani, Radhika S; Chee, Brant; Ling, Xu; He, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zhai, ChengXiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid decrease in cost of genome sequencing, the classification of gene function is becoming a primary problem. Such classification has been performed by human curators who read biological literature to extract evidence. BeeSpace Navigator is a prototype software for exploratory analysis of gene function using biological literature. The software supports an automatic analogue of the curator process to extract functions, with a simple interface intended for all biologists. Since extraction is done on selected collections that are semantically indexed into conceptual spaces, the curation can be task specific. Biological literature containing references to gene lists from expression experiments can be analyzed to extract concepts that are computational equivalents of a classification such as Gene Ontology, yielding discriminating concepts that differentiate gene mentions from other mentions. The functions of individual genes can be summarized from sentences in biological literature, to produce results resembling a model organism database entry that is automatically computed. Statistical frequency analysis based on literature phrase extraction generates offline semantic indexes to support these gene function services. The website with BeeSpace Navigator is free and open to all; there is no login requirement at www.beespace.illinois.edu for version 4. Materials from the 2010 BeeSpace Software Training Workshop are available at www.beespace.illinois.edu/bstwmaterials.php.

  16. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman; Mahdavi, Ali; Moradi, Samad

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed at validating the structure of Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). Methods Five hundred and eleven undergraduate students took part in this research; from these participants, 63 males and 200 females took part in the first study, and 63 males and 185 females completed the survey for the second study. Results The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated strong support for the three-factor structure, consisting of lack of information about the self, inconsistent information, lack of information and lack of readiness factors. A confirmatory factor analysis was run with the second sample using structural equation modeling. As expected, the three-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models. Conclusion CDDQ was recommended to be used for college students in this study due to the fact that this instrument measures all three aspects of the model. Future research is needed to learn whether this model would fit other different samples. PMID:22952549

  17. The underlying factor structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke scale: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Ali; Kahaki, Zahra Zeynali; Sadeghian, Homa; Pourashraf, Maryam; Parviz, Sara; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Ghabaee, Mojdeh

    2012-03-01

    The underlying structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) as the most widely used scale in clinical trials has been the focus of little attention. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the clustering pattern of NIHSS items in ischemic stroke patients. A series of 152 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic strokes admitted to a university affiliated hospital were enrolled. NIHSS score was estimated on admission and correlation coefficients between its items were calculated. Further, exploratory factor analysis was used to study the clustering pattern of NIHSS items. Extinction neglect, visual field, and facial palsy were weakly associated with other NIHSS items. Factor analysis led to a four-factor structure. Factors 1 and 3 were determined by left brain function as items of right arm and leg motor, language and dysarthria loaded on both of them. By contrast, factor 2 reflected right brain involvement. Since visual field and ataxia loaded on factor 4, this factor was primarily associated with posterior strokes. Our study shows that a four-factor structure model is plausible for NIHSS. Further, for the first time, a single distinct factor is identified for posterior strokes.

  18. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children. PMID:28757577

  19. Exploratory analysis of osteoarthritis progression among medication users: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Driban, Jeffrey B.; Lo, Grace H.; Eaton, Charles B.; Lapane, Kate L.; Nevitt, Michael; Harvey, William F.; McCulloch, Charles E.; McAlindon, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We conducted an exploratory analysis of osteoarthritis progression among medication users in the Osteoarthritis Initiative to identify interventions or pathways that may be associated with disease modification and therefore of interest for future clinical trials. Methods: We used participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with annual medication inventory data between the baseline and 36-month follow-up visit (n = 2938). Consistent medication users were defined for each medication classification as a participant reporting at all four annual visits that they were regularly using an oral prescription medication at the time of the visit. The exploratory analysis focused on medication classes with 40 or more users. The primary outcome measures were medial tibiofemoral joint space width change and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) knee pain score change (12–36-month visits). Within each knee, we explored eight comparisons between users and matched or unmatched nonusers (defined two ways). An effect size of each comparison was calculated. Medication classes had potential signals if (a) both knees had less progression among users compared with nonusers, or (b) there was less progression based on structure and symptoms in one knee. Results: We screened 28 medication classes. Six medication classes had signals for fewer structural changes and better knee pain changes: alpha-adrenergic blockers, antilipemic (excluding statins and fibric acid), anticoagulants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antihistamines, and antineoplastic agents. Four medication classes had signals for structural changes alone: anti-estrogen (median effect size = 0.28; range = −0.41–0.64), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (median effect size = 0.13; range = −0.08–0.28), beta-adrenergic blockers (median effect size = 0.09; range = 0.01–0.30), and thyroid agents (median effect size = 0.04; range = −0.05–0.14). Thiazide

  20. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  1. Applying Mechanics to Swimming Performance Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthels, Katharine

    1989-01-01

    Swimming teachers and coaches can improve their feedback to swimmers, when correcting or refining swim movements, by applying some basic biomechanical concepts relevant to swimming. This article focuses on the biomechanical considerations used in analyzing swimming performance. Techniques for spotting and correcting problems that impede…

  2. Exploratory factor analysis of the Research and Development Culture Index among qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bill; Clarke, Charlotte; Swallow, Vera; Forster, Stewart

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the exploratory factor analysis of a rating instrument for assessing the strength of organizational Research and Development (R&D) culture. Despite nursing's limited research capacity, the discipline is capitalizing upon opportunities to become involved in research and is making strong progress. Within the context of the debate on nursing research capacity, the R&D Culture Index was developed as a means of appraising R&D culture within health care organizations. Factor analysis was carried out on data collected from 485 nursing staff. The method of extraction was Principal Components Analysis with oblique rotation. The Index was developed from the findings of qualitative research conducted with NHS staff. Eighteen items, encompassing the main themes from the data, were initially included in the Index. This pilot instrument was distributed to nursing staff within three different types of NHS Trust. Factor analysis resulted in rejection of two items and the analysis was repeated using the remaining 16 items. Three latent factors were extracted accounting for 58.0% of the variance in the data. The factors were: R&D Support, describing the perceived support within the working environment for R&D activity; Personal R&D Skills and Aptitude, describing an individual's perception of their ability towards R&D activity; and Personal R&D Intention, describing an individual's willingness to engage in R&D activity. Each factor had good internal reliability, as did the overall index. The R&D Culture Index provides an efficient means of assessing the strength of an organization's R&D culture in a way that captures the role of the individual practitioner and the organizational environment. These findings suggest that the continuing promotion of R&D within health care organizations is dependent upon a multi-faceted approach that addresses the learning needs of the organization as well as those of the individual practitioners.

  3. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in korean patients with Alzheimer's disease: exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis of the neuropsychiatric inventory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyo Shin; Ahn, Inn Sook; Kim, Ji Hae; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to examine subsyndromes in Korean patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Initial participants were 778 AD patients recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea and assessed via the Korean Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Those with > or =1 neuropsychiatric symptom were randomly divided into groups. Principal axis factoring with oblimin rotation was used to analyze group 1 inventory results, and maximum likelihood estimation extraction with Bollen-Stine bootstrapping was used for group 2. The results of the EFA showed the presence of 4 subsyndromes: hyperactivity, affect, psychosis and apathy/vegetative symptom. The CFA results indicated this model was the best-fitting model for explaining these subsyndromes. Our model showed the best fit and identified 4 subsyndromes. This study might contribute to a clearer understanding of the neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A novel exploratory chemometric approach to environmental monitorring by combining block clustering with Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the serious threats posed to terrestrial ecosystems by industrial contamination, environmental monitoring is a standard procedure used for assessing the current status of an environment or trends in environmental parameters. Measurement of metal concentrations at different trophic levels followed by their statistical analysis using exploratory multivariate methods can provide meaningful information on the status of environmental quality. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel chemometric approach to standard statistical methods by combining the Block clustering with Partial least square (PLS) analysis to investigate the accumulation patterns of metals in anthropized terrestrial ecosystems. The present study focused on copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and lead transfer along a soil-plant-snai food chain, and the hepatopancreas of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was used as a biological end-point of metal accumulation. Results Block clustering deliniates between the areas exposed to industrial and vehicular contamination. The toxic metals have similar distributions in the nettle leaves and snail hepatopancreas. PLS analysis showed that (1) zinc and copper concentrations at the lower trophic levels are the most important latent factors that contribute to metal accumulation in land snails; (2) cadmium and lead are the main determinants of pollution pattern in areas exposed to industrial contamination; (3) at the sites located near roads lead is the most threatfull metal for terrestrial ecosystems. Conclusion There were three major benefits by applying block clustering with PLS for processing the obtained data: firstly, it helped in grouping sites depending on the type of contamination. Secondly, it was valuable for identifying the latent factors that contribute the most to metal accumulation in land snails. Finally, it optimized the number and type of data that are best for monitoring the status of metallic

  5. A novel exploratory chemometric approach to environmental monitorring by combining block clustering with Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis.

    PubMed

    Nica, Dragos V; Bordean, Despina Maria; Pet, Ioan; Pet, Elena; Alda, Simion; Gergen, Iosif

    2013-08-30

    Given the serious threats posed to terrestrial ecosystems by industrial contamination, environmental monitoring is a standard procedure used for assessing the current status of an environment or trends in environmental parameters. Measurement of metal concentrations at different trophic levels followed by their statistical analysis using exploratory multivariate methods can provide meaningful information on the status of environmental quality. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel chemometric approach to standard statistical methods by combining the Block clustering with Partial least square (PLS) analysis to investigate the accumulation patterns of metals in anthropized terrestrial ecosystems. The present study focused on copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and lead transfer along a soil-plant-snai food chain, and the hepatopancreas of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was used as a biological end-point of metal accumulation. Block clustering deliniates between the areas exposed to industrial and vehicular contamination. The toxic metals have similar distributions in the nettle leaves and snail hepatopancreas. PLS analysis showed that (1) zinc and copper concentrations at the lower trophic levels are the most important latent factors that contribute to metal accumulation in land snails; (2) cadmium and lead are the main determinants of pollution pattern in areas exposed to industrial contamination; (3) at the sites located near roads lead is the most threatfull metal for terrestrial ecosystems. There were three major benefits by applying block clustering with PLS for processing the obtained data: firstly, it helped in grouping sites depending on the type of contamination. Secondly, it was valuable for identifying the latent factors that contribute the most to metal accumulation in land snails. Finally, it optimized the number and type of data that are best for monitoring the status of metallic contamination in terrestrial ecosystems

  6. Reachability Analysis Applied to Space Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    12:207-242. [15] L. S. Breger, G. Inalhan, M. Tillerson, J. P. How, “Cooperative spacecraft Formation Flying: Model Predictive Control With Open And...applying them to the nonlinear relative orbit equations of motion, which are appropriate both for general SSA and spacecraft proximity operations... Nonlinear System (RNS). This assumption does not restrict the scope of these results in the context of SSA, as in orbital scenarios control and

  7. Analysis of pressure applied during microlaryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Chen, Hao; Sun, Jingwu

    2012-05-01

    Direct laryngoscopy is the most predominantly used technique in laryngology, with the fulcrum-based laryngoscope serving as the most popular instrument. The purpose of this study was to accurately calculate and measure the pressure acting on the laryngopharynx and the tongue base during microlaryngoscopy. The relationship between postoperative throat pain and the time and pressure applied during microlaryngoscopy were also investigated. Fifty patients undergoing microlaryngeal surgery were included in this prospective study. Parameters that may help predict difficult laryngeal exposure were measured in the patients before microlaryngoscopy. Using static equilibrium and the law of the lever, the pressure acting on the laryngopharynx and the tongue base were calculated and related parameters were then tested for their influence on pressure. The time and pressure applied during microlaryngoscopy of each patient were compared with postoperative throat pain grade. The mean pressure was 292 ± 109 mmHg and was significantly influenced by BMI, neck circumference and full mouth opening, whereas no gender-based differences of any kind were found. The pressure applied during microlaryngoscopy was extremely high in patients with difficult laryngeal exposure (376 ± 62 mmHg), serving as a possible reason for the presence of throat pain or complications present following surgery. However, it was found that the duration of suspension laryngoscopy, not the pressure, had the most significant correlation with postoperative throat pain.

  8. Toward Food Policy for the Dual Burden of Malnutrition: An Exploratory Policy Space Analysis in India.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Khandelwal, Shweta; Menon, Purnima; Downs, Shauna; Reddy, K Srinath

    2016-06-16

    There is global consensus that a strong policy response is essential for addressing the dual burden of malnutrition. However, policy makers in low- and middle-income countries may perceive a conflict between food supply policies to combat persistent undernutrition and more recent recommendations for policies addressing rising rates of diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This article explores the potential to use policy space analysis to identify food supply policy opportunities for addressing both undernutrition and diet-related NCDs and to support improved policy coherence. We conducted an exploratory policy space analysis to identify opportunities and constraints for integrated nutrition policy with respect to the food supply in India, where a dual burden of malnutrition has been well documented. We conducted a review of food supply policies and 27 key informant interviews (16 with stakeholders active in India's national nutrition policy space, and 11 with policy makers and experts in food supply policy). The analysis suggests several opportunities for an integrated food supply policy agenda, including targeting common foods of concern (such as highly processed foods) and foods that present common benefits (such as fruits and vegetables), and scaling up existing small-scale policy initiatives that support the availability of nutrient-rich foods. Challenges include policy inertia and competing priorities within the economic sector. This scoping study indicates that the policy space analysis framework used here can help to identify specific, contextually appropriate policy options and strategies for strengthening public health nutrition policy within sectors responsible for food supply policy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Applied surface analysis in magnetic storage technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windeln, Johannes; Bram, Christian; Eckes, Heinz-Ludwig; Hammel, Dirk; Huth, Johanna; Marien, Jan; Röhl, Holger; Schug, Christoph; Wahl, Michael; Wienss, Andreas

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a synopsis of today's challenges and requirements for a surface analysis and materials science laboratory with a special focus on magnetic recording technology. The critical magnetic recording components, i.e. the protective carbon overcoat (COC), the disk layer structure, the read/write head including the giant-magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, are described and options for their characterization with specific surface and structure analysis techniques are given. For COC investigations, applications of Raman spectroscopy to the structural analysis and determination of thickness, hydrogen and nitrogen content are discussed. Hardness measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) scratching techniques are presented. Surface adsorption phenomena on disk substrates or finished disks are characterized by contact angle analysis or so-called piezo-electric mass adsorption systems (PEMAS), also known as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A quickly growing field of applications is listed for various X-ray analysis techniques, such as disk magnetic layer texture analysis for X-ray diffraction, compositional characterization via X-ray fluorescence, compositional analysis with high lateral resolution via electron microprobe analysis. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) has become a standard method for the absolute measurement of individual layer thicknesses contained in multi-layer stacks and thus, is the successor of ellipsometry for this application. Due to the ongoing reduction of critical feature sizes, the analytical challenges in terms of lateral resolution, sensitivity limits and dedicated nano-preparation have been consistently growing and can only be met by state-of-the-art Auger electron spectrometers (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) characterization, focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and TEM lamella preparation via FIB. The depth profiling of GMR sensor full stacks was significantly

  10. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Mauro H; Magalhães, Fabrício A; Peixoto, Gustavo H C; Pereira, Beatriz M; Andrade, André G P; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K

    2016-03-22

    Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  11. Viewpoints: A High-Performance High-Dimensional Exploratory Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Levit, C.; Way, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific data sets continue to increase in both size and complexity. In the past, dedicated graphics systems at supercomputing centers were required to visualize large data sets, but as the price of commodity graphics hardware has dropped and its capability has increased, it is now possible, in principle, to view large complex data sets on a single workstation. To do this in practice, an investigator will need software that is written to take advantage of the relevant graphics hardware. The Viewpoints visualization package described herein is an example of such software. Viewpoints is an interactive tool for exploratory visual analysis of large high-dimensional (multivariate) data. It leverages the capabilities of modern graphics boards (GPUs) to run on a single workstation or laptop. Viewpoints is minimalist: it attempts to do a small set of useful things very well (or at least very quickly) in comparison with similar packages today. Its basic feature set includes linked scatter plots with brushing, dynamic histograms, normalization, and outlier detection/removal. Viewpoints was originally designed for astrophysicists, but it has since been used in a variety of fields that range from astronomy, quantum chemistry, fluid dynamics, machine learning, bioinformatics, and finance to information technology server log mining. In this article, we describe the Viewpoints package and show examples of its usage.

  12. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  13. Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating Traditional Chinese Syndrome Patterns of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ajian; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Li; Sun, Leilei; Du, Shiyu; Yang, Qiang; Song, Xin; Liang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TCM syndrome characteristics of CAG and its core pathogenesis so as to promote optimization of treatment strategies. Methods. This study was based on a participant survey conducted in 4 hospitals in China. Patients diagnosed with CAG were recruited by simple random sampling. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on syndrome extraction. Results. Common factors extracted were assigned to six syndrome patterns: qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, and yang deficiency. Distribution frequency of all syndrome patterns showed that qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, and heat excess were higher (76.7%–84.2%) compared with yang deficiency (42.5%). Distribution of main syndrome patterns showed that frequencies of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, phlegm turbidity, heat, and yang deficiency were higher (15.8%–20.8%) compared with blood stasis (8.3%). Conclusions. The core pathogenesis of CAG is combination of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, and yang deficiency. Therefore, treatment strategy of herbal prescriptions for CAG should include herbs that regulate qi, activate blood, resolve turbidity, clear heat, remove toxin, and warm yang. PMID:28077948

  14. An Exploratory Framework for Combining CFD Analysis and Evolutionary Optimization into a Single Integrated Computational Environment

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkle, Douglas S.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent reports and workshops have identified integrated computational engineering as an emerging technology with the potential to transform engineering design. The goal is to integrate geometric models, analyses, simulations, optimization and decision-making tools, and all other aspects of the engineering process into a shared, interactive computer-generated environment that facilitates multidisciplinary and collaborative engineering. While integrated computational engineering environments can be constructed from scratch with high-level programming languages, the complexity of these proposed environments makes this type of approach prohibitively slow and expensive. Rather, a high-level software framework is needed to provide the user with the capability to construct an application in an intuitive manner using existing models and engineering tools with minimal programming. In this paper, we present an exploratory open source software framework that can be used to integrate the geometric models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and optimization tools needed for shape optimization of complex systems. This framework is demonstrated using the multiphase flow analysis of a complete coal transport system for an 800 MW pulverized coal power station. The framework uses engineering objects and three-dimensional visualization to enable the user to interactively design and optimize the performance of the coal transport system.

  15. Intercultural comparison of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea: an exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hush, Julia M; Lee, Haejung; Yung, Vivian; Adams, Roger; Mackey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the factors that influence patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea. Methods: Prospective studies were conducted in Australia and Korea. Patient satisfaction data were collected using the MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) from a total of 1666 patients who were attending clinics for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal condition. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors determining patient satisfaction in each cohort. Results: A four-factor solution for the MRPS was found for the Australian and Korean data sets, explaining 61 and 55% of the variance respectively. Communication and respect, convenience and quality time and person-focused care were factors common to both countries. One factor unique to Korea was courtesy and propriety. For both cultures, global patient satisfaction was significantly but weakly correlated with the outcome of treatment. Conclusions: The interpersonal aspect of care, namely effective communication and respect from the therapist, appears to be the predominant and universal factor that influences patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care, although other culturally specific factors were identified. Physiotherapists can maximize patient satisfaction with care by addressing those features that uniquely contribute to patient satisfaction in the cultural context in which they are working. PMID:24421620

  16. Intercultural comparison of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Hush, Julia M; Lee, Haejung; Yung, Vivian; Adams, Roger; Mackey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the factors that influence patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea. Prospective studies were conducted in Australia and Korea. Patient satisfaction data were collected using the MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) from a total of 1666 patients who were attending clinics for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal condition. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors determining patient satisfaction in each cohort. A four-factor solution for the MRPS was found for the Australian and Korean data sets, explaining 61 and 55% of the variance respectively. Communication and respect, convenience and quality time and person-focused care were factors common to both countries. One factor unique to Korea was courtesy and propriety. For both cultures, global patient satisfaction was significantly but weakly correlated with the outcome of treatment. The interpersonal aspect of care, namely effective communication and respect from the therapist, appears to be the predominant and universal factor that influences patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care, although other culturally specific factors were identified. Physiotherapists can maximize patient satisfaction with care by addressing those features that uniquely contribute to patient satisfaction in the cultural context in which they are working.

  17. Acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced leukopenia: exploratory meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Hu, David; Dean-Clower, Elizabeth; Doherty-Gilman, Anne; Legedza, Anna T R; Lee, Hang; Matulonis, Ursula; Rosenthal, David S

    2007-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced leukopenia and neutropenia are common side effects during cancer treatment. Acupuncture has been reported as an adjunct therapy for this complication. The current study reviewed published randomized controlled trials of acupuncture's effect and explored the acupuncture parameters used in these trials. We searched biomedical databases in English and Chinese from 1979 to 2004. The study populations were cancer patients who were undergoing or had just completed chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, randomized to either acupuncture therapy or usual care. The methodologic quality of trials was assessed. From 33 reviewed articles, 682 patients from 11 eligible trials were included in analyses. All trials were published in non-PubMed journals from China. The methodologic quality of these trials was considerably poor. The median sample size of each comparison group was 45, and the median trial duration was 21 days. The frequency of acupuncture treatment was once a day, with a median of 16 sessions in each trial. In the seven trials in which white blood cell (WBC) counts were available, acupuncture use was associated with an increase in leukocytes in patients during chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, with a weighted mean difference of 1,221 WBC/muL on average (95% confidence interval 636-1,807; p < .0001). Acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is an intriguing clinical question. However, the inferior quality and publication bias present in these studies may lead to a false-positive estimation. Meta-analysis based on these published trials should be treated in an exploratory nature only.

  18. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Coercion Inventory.

    PubMed

    French, Bryana H; Suh, Han Na; Arterberry, Brooke

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Sexual Coercion Inventory (SCI; Waldner, Vaden-Goad, & Sikka, 1999), revised by the authors (SCI-R). Overall, 514 high school and college students from a Midwestern state completed the SCI-R. To complete the SCI-R, high school participants completed paper-pencil surveys with those younger than 18 obtaining parental consent; college students older than 18 completed computer-based and paper-pencil surveys. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the validity of score interpretation and reliability of scores for the measure. Results suggested that a 13-item multidimensional measure consisting of two factors, Manipulation and Substance Use and Aggression, provided the best parsimony and theoretical fit. Examination of convergent and discriminant validity of scores provided additional psychometric support for the revised SCI-R, specifically pertaining to other measures of sexual victimization. The SCI-R may be a useful tool for researchers to explore manipulation tactics in more depth while also assessing and differentiating between victimization that meets legal definitions of rape and non-criminal sexual victimization.

  19. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    PubMed

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  20. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  1. Parallel Factor Analysis as an exploratory tool for wavelet transformed event-related EEG.

    PubMed

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Herrmann, Christoph S; Parnas, Josef; Arnfred, Sidse M

    2006-02-01

    both quantitative and qualitative differences. Consequently, PARAFAC is a promising data exploratory tool in the analysis of the wavelets transformed event-related EEG.

  2. Meta-analysis in applied ecology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Gavin

    2010-02-23

    This overview examines research synthesis in applied ecology and conservation. Vote counting and pooling unweighted averages are widespread despite the superiority of syntheses based on weighted combination of effects. Such analyses allow exploration of methodological uncertainty in addition to consistency of effects across species, space and time, but exploring heterogeneity remains controversial. Meta-analyses are required to generalize in ecology, and to inform evidence-based decision-making, but the more sophisticated statistical techniques and registers of research used in other disciplines must be employed in ecology to fully realize their benefits.

  3. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  4. A richly interactive exploratory data analysis and visualization tool using electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Lu, Richard; Iqbal, Usman; Lin, Shen-Hsien; Nguyen, Phung Anh Alex; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Wang, Chun-Fu; Li, Jianping; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan

    2015-11-12

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) contain vast amounts of data that is of great interest to physicians, clinical researchers, and medial policy makers. As the size, complexity, and accessibility of EMRs grow, the ability to extract meaningful information from them has become an increasingly important problem to solve. We develop a standardized data analysis process to support cohort study with a focus on a particular disease. We use an interactive divide-and-conquer approach to classify patients into relatively uniform within each group. It is a repetitive process enabling the user to divide the data into homogeneous subsets that can be visually examined, compared, and refined. The final visualization was driven by the transformed data, and user feedback direct to the corresponding operators which completed the repetitive process. The output results are shown in a Sankey diagram-style timeline, which is a particular kind of flow diagram for showing factors' states and transitions over time. This paper presented a visually rich, interactive web-based application, which could enable researchers to study any cohorts over time by using EMR data. The resulting visualizations help uncover hidden information in the data, compare differences between patient groups, determine critical factors that influence a particular disease, and help direct further analyses. We introduced and demonstrated this tool by using EMRs of 14,567 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. We developed a visual mining system to support exploratory data analysis of multi-dimensional categorical EMR data. By using CKD as a model of disease, it was assembled by automated correlational analysis and human-curated visual evaluation. The visualization methods such as Sankey diagram can reveal useful knowledge about the particular disease cohort and the trajectories of the disease over time.

  5. A Methodological Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Sexuality Research: Used Practices, Best Practices, and Data Analysis Resources.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John K; Short, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality researchers frequently use exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to illuminate the distinguishable theoretical constructs assessed by a set of variables. EFA entails a substantive number of analytic decisions to be made with respect to sample size determination, and how factors are extracted, rotated, and retained. The available analytic options, however, are not all equally empirically rigorous. We discuss the commonly available options for conducting EFA and which options constitute best practices for EFA. We also present the results of a methodological review of the analytic options for EFA used by sexuality researchers in more than 200 EFAs, published in more than 160 articles and chapters from 1974 to 2014, in a sample of sexuality research journals. Our review reveals that best practices for EFA are actually those least frequently used by sexuality researchers. We introduce freely available analytic resources to help make it easier for sexuality researchers to adhere to best practices when conducting EFAs in their own research.

  6. Applied Spectrophotometry: Analysis of a Biochemical Mixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Toni A.; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G.; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the…

  7. Science, skepticism, and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Normand, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice.

  8. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice. PMID:22477687

  9. Applied Spectrophotometry: Analysis of a Biochemical Mixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Toni A.; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G.; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the…

  10. Enrichment analysis applied to disease prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Enrichment analysis is well established in the field of transcriptomics, where it is used to identify relevant biological features that characterize a set of genes obtained in an experiment. This article proposes the application of enrichment analysis as a first step in a disease prognosis methodology, in particular of diseases with a strong genetic component. With this analysis the objective is to identify clinical and biological features that characterize groups of patients with a common disease, and that can be used to distinguish between groups of patients associated with disease-related events. Data mining methodologies can then be used to exploit those features, and assist medical doctors in the evaluation of the patients in respect to their predisposition for a specific event. In this work the disease hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is used as a case-study, as a first test to assess the feasibility of the application of an enrichment analysis to disease prognosis. To perform this assessment, two groups of patients have been considered: patients that have suffered a sudden cardiac death episode and patients that have not. The results presented were obtained with genetic data and the Gene Ontology, in two enrichment analyses: an enrichment profiling aiming at characterizing a group of patients (e.g. that suffered a disease-related event) based on their mutations; and a differential enrichment aiming at identifying differentiating features between a sub-group of patients and all the patients with the disease. These analyses correspond to an adaptation of the standard enrichment analysis, since multiple sets of genes are being considered, one for each patient. The preliminary results are promising, as the sets of terms obtained reflect the current knowledge about the gene functions commonly altered in HCM patients, thus allowing their characterization. Nevertheless, some factors need to be taken into consideration before the full potential of the enrichment

  11. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; del Mastro, Nélida Lucia

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were 60Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600°C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  12. Biomechanics and motion analysis applied to sports.

    PubMed

    Zheng, N; Barrentine, S W

    2000-05-01

    The development of motion analysis and the application of biomechanical analysis techniques to sports has paralleled the exponential growth of computational and videographic technology. Technological developments have provided for advances in the investigation of the human body and the action of the human body during sports believed to be unobtainable a few years ago. Technological advancements have brought biomechanical applications into a wide range of fields from orthopedics to entertainment. An area that has made tremendous gains using biomechanics is sports science. Coaches, therapists, and physicians are using biomechanics to improve performance, rehabilitation, and the prevention of sports related injuries. Functional analyses of athletic movements that were impossible a few years ago are available and used today. With new advancements, the possibilities for investigating the way a human interacts and reacts to environmental conditions are ever expanding.

  13. APPLYING NEW METHODS TO RESEARCH REACTOR ANALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    DIAMOND,D.J.CHENG,L.HANSON,A.XU,J.CAREW,J.F.

    2004-02-05

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses are being performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O-moderated research reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods and will contribute to an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Three-dimensional MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations are performed to determine power and reactivity parameters, including feedback coefficients and control element worths. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions are performed with MONTEBURNS to model the reactor at the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop is determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels. A statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) is performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF are determined with MCNP. Evaluations have been performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. These analyses are significantly more rigorous than those performed previously. They have provided insights into reactor behavior and additional assurance that previous analyses were conservative and the reactor was being operated safely.

  14. Identifying Consistent and Coherent Dimensions of Nursing Home Quality: Exploratory Factor Analysis of Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongjuan; Kane, Robert L; Shippee, Tetyana; Lewis, Teresa M

    2016-12-01

    There is a general belief that the markers of nursing home quality do not aggregate easily. Identifying consistent and coherent dimensions of quality that usefully summarize the multiplicity of nursing home quality measures is an important goal. It would simplify interpretation and help consumers, their families and advocates to choose nursing facilities. This study uses quality indicators (QIs) from a state nursing home report card to explore the dimensionality of quality in nursing homes and to determine whether aggregation at the resident versus facility level yields the same underlying dimensions. Cross-sectional study. 382 Medicare- and/or Medicaid-certified nursing homes in Minnesota. Residents admitted to the nursing homes during 2011-2012. 16 QIs obtained from the Minimum Data Set 3.0 assessment instrument between 2011 and 2012 were used in the exploratory factor analysis. Factor analysis results suggest four main factors or dimensions to characterize facility performance: continence care (including 4 QIs), restraints and behavioral symptoms (including 3 QIs), care for specific conditions (including 6 QIs), and physical functioning (including 3 QIs). The resident-level and facility-level results generally agreed for 11 QIs. Nursing home quality of care can be captured in summary measures, which can be used by consumers, providers and researchers. Reporting at the resident or facility level will depend on the purpose. These summary measures can be used by policy-makers to identify and reward high-performing facilities and by families to choose nursing facilities for care. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of Network Characteristics and Quality of Interactions among Public Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Varda, Danielle M; Retrum, Jessica H

    2012-06-15

    While the benefits of collaboration have become widely accepted and the practice of collaboration is growing within the public health system, a paucity of research exists that examines factors and mechanisms related to effective collaboration between public health and their partner organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the structural and organizational characteristics of public health collaboratives. Design and Methods. Using both social network analysis and traditional statistical methods, we conduct an exploratory secondary data analysis of 11 public health collaboratives chosen from across the United States. All collaboratives are part of the PARTNER (www.partnertool.net) database. We analyze data to identify relational patterns by exploring the structure (the way that organizations connect and exchange relationships), in relation to perceptions of value and trust, explanations for varying reports of success, and factors related to outcomes. We describe the characteristics of the collaboratives, types of resource contributions, outcomes of the collaboratives, perceptions of success, and reasons for success. We found high variation and significant differences within and between these collaboratives including perceptions of success. There were significant relationships among various factors such as resource contributions, reasons cited for success, and trust and value perceived by organizations. We find that although the unique structure of each collaborative makes it challenging to identify a specific set of factors to determine when a collaborative will be successful, the organizational characteristics and interorganizational dynamics do appear to impact outcomes. We recommend a quality improvement process that suggests matching assessment to goals and developing action steps for performance improvement. the authors would like to thank the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Public Health Program for funding for this research.

  16. System Learning via Exploratory Data Analysis: Seeing Both the Forest and the Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.

    2014-12-01

    As the amount of observational Earth and Space Science data grows, so does the need for learning and employing data analysis techniques that can extract meaningful information from those data. Space-based and ground-based data sources from all over the world are used to inform Earth and Space environment models. However, with such a large amount of data comes a need to organize those data in a way such that trends within the data are easily discernible. This can be tricky due to the interaction between physical processes that lead to partial correlation of variables or multiple interacting sources of causality. With the suite of Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) data mining codes available at MSFC, we have the capability to analyze large, complex data sets and quantitatively identify fundamentally independent effects from consequential or derived effects. We have used these techniques to examine the accuracy of ionospheric climate models with respect to trends in ionospheric parameters and space weather effects. In particular, these codes have been used to 1) Provide summary "at-a-glance" surveys of large data sets through categorization and/or evolution over time to identify trends, distribution shapes, and outliers, 2) Discern the underlying "latent" variables which share common sources of causality, and 3) Establish a new set of basis vectors by computing Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) which represent the maximum amount of variance for each principal component. Some of these techniques are easily implemented in the classroom using standard MATLAB functions, some of the more advanced applications require the statistical toolbox, and applications to unique situations require more sophisiticated levels of programming. This paper will present an overview of the range of tools available and how they might be used for a variety of time series Earth and Space Science data sets. Examples of feature recognition from both 1D and 2D (e.g. imagery) time series data

  17. Comparison of peritoneal fluid analysis before and after exploratory celiotomy and omentopexy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D E; Cornwell, D; St-Jean, G; Desrochers, A; Anderson, L S

    1994-12-01

    The effect of right paralumbar fossa exploratory celiotomy and omentopexy on peritoneal fluid constituents was studied in 22 adult dairy cows. Six cows were eliminated on the basis of physical examination findings (n = 2), surgical findings (n = 2), or inability to obtain a sufficient volume of peritoneal fluid (n = 2). Sixteen cattle had normal results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis, and a minimum of 1 ml of peritoneal fluid was obtained by abdominocentesis. Abdominocentesis was repeated on days 1, 2, and 6 after surgery. Statistical analysis for repeated measures was performed, using a significance level of P < 0.05. Stage of gestation was evaluated for interaction with time. Mean total nucleated cell count was 3,200 cells/microliters before surgery, was significantly increased 2 days after surgery (16,336 cells/microliters), and continued to increase through day 6 (20,542 cells/microliters). Mean polymorphonuclear cell count was 1,312 cells/microliters before surgery and was significantly higher at 2 (11,043 cells/microliters) and 6 (10,619 cells/microliters) days after surgery. Mean lymphocyte count was 254 cells/microliters before surgery and was significantly increased 2 days (1,911 cells/microliters) after surgery. By day 6, lymphocyte numbers were similar to preoperative values. Mean mononuclear cell count was 770 cells/microliters before surgery and was significantly increased on days 1 (3,084 cells/microliters), 2 (3,285 cells/microliters), and 6 (2,349 cells/microliters) after surgery. Mean eosinophil numbers were 1,388 cells/microliters before surgery and were significantly increased on day 6 (6,347 cells/microliters) only. Interaction between time and stage of gestation was found only for specific gravity and total protein concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. An exploratory wastewater analysis study of drug use in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; Wilkins, Chris; Thai, Phong; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand is considered to have unusual drug use patterns by international standards. However, this understanding has largely been obtained from social surveys where respondents self-report use. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first wastewater study of drug use in Auckland. Wastewater sampling was completed from 2 May to 18 July 2014 at 2 Auckland wastewater treatment plants which service 1.3 million people. Samples were analysed for 17 drug residues by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Consumption of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine, codeine and methadone (mg/day/1000 people) was estimated by using a back-calculation formula. Methamphetamine, codeine, morphine and methadone were detected with high frequency (80-100%), followed by amphetamine (~60%), MDMA (~7%, i.e. 8 occasions) and methylone (3 occasions). An overall mean of 360 mg of methamphetamine and 60 mg of MDMA was estimated to have been consumed per day per 1000 people. Methamphetamine consumption was found at similar levels in both catchments (377 and 351 mg/day/1000 people). Cocaine was only detected in 1 catchment and on only 8 occasions. JWH-018 was detected in 1 catchment and only on 1 occasion. Methamphetamine, codeine and other opioids were detected at a consistent level throughout the week. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylone were detected only during the weekends. Wastewater analysis confirms that methamphetamine was one of the most commonly detected illegal drugs in Auckland and was detected consistently throughout the week. In contrast, cocaine and MDMA were rarely detected, with detection limited to weekends. [Lai FY, Wilkins C, Thai P, Mueller JF. An exploratory wastewater analysis study of drug use in Auckland, New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. The In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ): an exploratory factorial analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Marano, Giuseppe; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Boracchi, Patrizia; Lanciano, Tiziana; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment – the In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ) – to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009). The IN-OUT DASQ contains two scales of seven items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE) and Other-centric engagement (OCE), as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n = 292) confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n = 300) showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n = 153). The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, though the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience. PMID:25309478

  20. Cardiometabolic Risk Clustering in Spinal Cord Injury: Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests an elevated prevalence of cardiometabolic risks among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, the unique clustering of risk factors in this population has not been fully explored. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe unique clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors differentiated by level of injury. Methods: One hundred twenty-one subjects (mean 37 ± 12 years; range, 18–73) with chronic C5 to T12 motor complete SCI were studied. Assessments included medical histories, anthropometrics and blood pressure, and fasting serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Results: The most common cardiometabolic risk factors were overweight/obesity, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Risk clustering was found in 76.9% of the population. Exploratory principal component factor analysis using varimax rotation revealed a 3–factor model in persons with paraplegia (65.4% variance) and a 4–factor solution in persons with tetraplegia (73.3% variance). The differences between groups were emphasized by the varied composition of the extracted factors: Lipid Profile A (total cholesterol [TC] and LDL-C), Body Mass-Hypertension Profile (body mass index [BMI], systolic blood pressure [SBP], and fasting insulin [FI]); Glycemic Profile (fasting glucose and HbA1c), and Lipid Profile B (TG and HDL-C). BMI and SBP formed a separate factor only in persons with tetraplegia. Conclusions: Although the majority of the population with SCI has risk clustering, the composition of the risk clusters may be dependent on level of injury, based on a factor analysis group comparison. This is clinically plausible and relevant as tetraplegics tend to be hypo- to normotensive and more sedentary, resulting in lower HDL-C and a greater propensity toward impaired carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:23960702

  1. Applying thiouracil tagging to mouse transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Gay, Leslie; Karfilis, Kate V; Miller, Michael R; Doe, Chris Q; Stankunas, Kryn

    2014-02-01

    Transcriptional profiling is a powerful approach for studying mouse development, physiology and disease models. Here we describe a protocol for mouse thiouracil tagging (TU tagging), a transcriptome analysis technology that includes in vivo covalent labeling, purification and analysis of cell type-specific RNA. TU tagging enables the isolation of RNA from a given cell population of a complex tissue, avoiding transcriptional changes induced by cell isolation trauma, as well as the identification of actively transcribed RNAs and not preexisting transcripts. Therefore, in contrast to other cell-specific transcriptional profiling methods based on the purification of tagged ribosomes or nuclei, TU tagging provides a direct examination of transcriptional regulation. We describe how to (i) deliver 4-thiouracil to transgenic mice to thio-label cell lineage-specific transcripts, (ii) purify TU-tagged RNA and prepare libraries for Illumina sequencing and (iii) follow a straightforward bioinformatics workflow to identify cell type-enriched or differentially expressed genes. Tissue containing TU-tagged RNA can be obtained in 1 d, RNA-seq libraries can be generated within 2 d and, after sequencing, an initial bioinformatics analysis can be completed in 1 additional day.

  2. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  3. Subpixels analysis model applied to floodplain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2009-04-01

    The traditional techniques to gauge hydrological events often fail with the extreme events. A particular case is the floods spatial detection. In this work, the remote sensing techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been merged to develop a key tool for monitoring of floods. The low density of gauge stations networks in the development countries becomes remote sensing techniques the most suitable and economic way to delimitate the flood area and compute the damages cost. The common classification techniques of satellite images use "hard methods" in the sense of a pixel is assigned to an unique land cover class. For coarse resolution, the pixels inevitably will be mixed, so "soft methods" can be used in order to assign several land cover classes according to the surface fractions covered by each one. The main objective of this work is the dynamic monitoring of floods in large areas, based on satellite images -with moderate spatial resolution but with high time resolution- and Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Classified maps with finer spatial resolution can be built through the methodology of Subpixels Analysis developed. The procedure is supported on both the Linear Mixture Model (LMM) and Spatial Coherence Analysis (SCA) hypothesis. The LMM builds the land cover fraction maps through an optimization procedure which uses Lagrange Multipliers, while the SCA defines the most likely place for the land cover fractions within the coarse pixel using linear programming. A subsequent procedure improves the flooded area identification using both the drainage direction and flow accumulation raster maps derived from DEM of the study zone. The Subpixels Analysis technique was validated using historical data of floods which were obtained from satellite images. The procedure improves the spatial resolution of classified maps from satellite images with coarse resolution, while the "hard methods" keep the spatial resolution from the input coarse satellite image.

  4. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  5. Scanning methods applied to bitemark analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Peter J.; Bush, Mary A.

    2010-06-01

    The 2009 National Academy of Sciences report on forensics focused criticism on pattern evidence subdisciplines in which statements of unique identity are utilized. One principle of bitemark analysis is that the human dentition is unique to the extent that a perpetrator may be identified based on dental traits in a bitemark. Optical and electron scanning methods were used to measure dental minutia and to investigate replication of detail in human skin. Results indicated that being a visco-elastic substrate, skin effectively reduces the resolution of measurement of dental detail. Conclusions indicate caution in individualization statements.

  6. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  7. Multivariate analysis applied to tomato hybrid production.

    PubMed

    Balasch, S; Nuez, F; Palomares, G; Cuartero, J

    1984-11-01

    Twenty characters were measured on 60 tomato varieties cultivated in the open-air and in polyethylene plastic-house. Data were analyzed by means of principal components, factorial discriminant methods, Mahalanobis D(2) distances and principal coordinate techniques. Factorial discriminant and Mahalanobis D(2) distances methods, both of which require collecting data plant by plant, lead to similar conclusions as the principal components method that only requires taking data by plots. Characters that make up the principal components in both environments studied are the same, although the relative importance of each one of them varies within the principal components. By combining information supplied by multivariate analysis with the inheritance mode of characters, crossings among cultivars can be experimented with that will produce heterotic hybrids showing characters within previously established limits.

  8. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  9. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft.

    PubMed

    Brady, J V

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  10. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis of NRG Oncology's University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire-RTOG Modification.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Stephanie L; Wyatt, Gwen; Wong, Raimond K W; Sagar, Stephen M; Yueh, Bevan; Singh, Anurag K; Yao, Min; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Yom, Sue S; Cardinale, Francis S; Sultanem, Khalil; Hodson, D Ian; Krempl, Greg A; Chavez, Ariel; Yeh, Alexander M; Bruner, Deborah W

    2017-01-01

    The 15-item University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire-Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) modification (UW-QOL-RTOG modification) has been used in several trials of head and neck cancer conducted by NRG Oncology such as RTOG 9709, RTOG 9901, RTOG 0244, and RTOG 0537. This study is an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish validity and reliability of the instrument subscales. EFA on the UW-QOL-RTOG modification was conducted using baseline data from NRG Oncology's RTOG 0537, a trial of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treating radiation-induced xerostomia. Cronbach α coefficient was calculated to measure reliability; correlation with the University of Michigan Xerostomia Related Quality of Life Scale was used to evaluate concurrent validity; and correlations between consecutive time points were used to assess test-retest reliability. The 15-item EFA of the modified tool resulted in 11 items split into four factors: mucus, eating, pain, and activities. Cronbach α ranged from 0.71 to 0.93 for the factors and total score, consisting of all 11 items. There were strong correlations (ρ ≥ 0.60) between consecutive time points and between total score and the Xerostomia Related Quality of Life Scale total score (ρ > 0.65). The UW-QOL-RTOG modification is a valid tool that can be used to assess symptom burden of head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy or those who have recently completed radiation. The modified tool has acceptable reliability, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability in this patient population, as well as the advantage of having being shortened from 15 to 11 items. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploratory spatial analysis of Lyme disease in Texas -what can we learn from the reported cases?

    PubMed

    Szonyi, Barbara; Srinath, Indumathi; Esteve-Gassent, Maria; Lupiani, Blanca; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-09-19

    Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonotic illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Texas is considered a non-endemic state for LD and the spatial distribution of the state's reported LD cases is unknown. We analyzed human LD cases reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services (TX-DSHS) between 2000 and 2011 using exploratory spatial analysis with the objective to investigate the spatial patterns of LD in Texas. Case data were aggregated at the county level, and census data were used as the population at risk. Empirical Bayesian smoothing was performed to stabilize the variance. Global Moran's I was calculated to assess the presence and type of spatial autocorrelation. Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) was used to determine the location of spatial clusters and outliers. There was significant positive spatial autocorrelation of LD incidence in Texas with Moran's I of 0.41 (p = 0.001). LISA revealed significant variation in the spatial distribution of human LD in Texas. First, we identified a high-risk cluster in Central Texas, in a region that is thought to be beyond the geographical range of the main vector, Ixodes scapularis. Second, the eastern part of Texas, which is thought to provide the most suitable habitat for I. scapularis, did not appear to be a high-risk area. Third, LD cases were reported from several counties in western Texas, a region considered unsuitable for the survival of Ixodes ticks. These results emphasize the need for follow-up investigations to determine whether the identified spatial pattern is due to: clustering of misdiagnosed cases, clustering of patients with an out-of state travel history, or presence of a clustered unknown enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi in Texas. This would enable an improved surveillance and reporting of LD in Texas.

  13. Computer analysis of the exploratory behavior of insects and mites in an olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Bakchine, E; Pham-Delegue, M H; Kaiser, L; Masson, C

    1990-07-01

    A method of quantification of the exploratory behavior of small animals stimulated by an odorant in a four-choice olfactometer, taking into account the interindividual variability of responses, was developed: individual tracks were time sampled according to the animal's walking speed and its positions were recorded according to the X-Y coordinates of the grid set underneath the device, the mesh of the grid suiting the animal's body size. A software, written in BASIC APPLESOFT on an APPLE IIe computer, allowed us to analyze the coordinates either of a single individual or of an experimental sample, leading to: a) the quantification of the insect distribution all over the experimental chamber, expressed in a table numbered according to the grid, where the percentage of position per square either for a given time fraction or the total observation period were reported, b) a graphic representation of the data according to several levels of greys, expressing the frequentation for each square for a given duration of observation. An analysis per time fraction allowed the chronological setup of events to appreciate. c) The collection of the positions among each flow field of the olfactometer for each individual of the experimental sample, for a given duration, was translated as the percentage of time spent in each flow field. Data files gathered these percentages for further statistical treatments. This computer method, which requires little equipment and appears to be easily adaptable to the study of biological models of various size and speed such as honeybees, trichogrammas and varroas mites, is a powerful tool for behavioral studies of small organisms tested in restricted areas.

  14. An exploratory analysis of the model for understanding success in quality.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Heather C; Froehle, Craig M; Cassedy, Amy; Provost, Lloyd P; Margolis, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Experience suggests that differences in context produce variability in the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions. However, little is known about which contextual factors affect success or how they exert influence. Using the Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ), we perform exploratory quantitative tests of the role of context in QI success. We used a cross-sectional design to survey individuals participating in QI projects in three settings: a pediatric hospital, hospitals affiliated with a state QI collaborative, and organizations sponsoring participants in an improvement advisor training program. Individuals participating in QI projects completed a questionnaire assessing contextual factors included in MUSIQ and measures of perceived success. Path analysis was used to test the direct, indirect, and total effects of context variables on QI success as hypothesized in MUSIQ. In the 74 projects studied, most contextual factors in MUSIQ were found to be significantly related to at least one QI project performance outcome. Contextual factors exhibiting significant effects on two measures of perceived QI success included resource availability, QI team leadership, team QI skills, microsystem motivation, microsystem QI culture, and microsystem QI capability. There was weaker evidence for effects of senior leader project sponsors, organizational QI culture, QI team decision-making, and microsystem QI leadership. These initial tests add to the validity of MUSIQ as a tool for identifying which contextual factors affect improvement success and understanding how they exert influence. Using MUSIQ, managers and QI practitioners can begin to identify aspects of context that must be addressed before or during the execution of QI projects and plan strategies to modify context for increased success. Additional work by QI researchers to improve the theory, refine measurement approaches, and validate MUSIQ as a predictive tool in a wider range of QI

  15. Does reducing spasticity translate into functional benefit? An exploratory meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Francis, H; Wade, D; Turner-Stokes, L; Kingswell, R; Dott, C; Coxon, E

    2004-01-01

    Background: Spasticity and loss of function in an affected arm are common after stroke. Although botulinum toxin is used to reduce spasticity, its functional benefits are less easily demonstrated. This paper reports an exploratory meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between reduced arm spasticity and improved arm function. Method: Individual data from stroke patients in two randomised controlled trials of intra-muscular botulinum toxin were pooled. The Modified Ashworth Scale (elbow, wrist, fingers) was used to calculate a "Composite Spasticity Index". Data from the arm section of the Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index (dressing, grooming, and feeding) and three subjective measures (putting arm through sleeve, cleaning palm, cutting fingernails) were summed to give a "Composite Functional Index". Change scores and the time of maximum change were also calculated. Results: Maximum changes in both composite measures occurred concurrently in 47 patients. In 26 patients the improvement in spasticity preceded the improvement in function with 18 showing the reverse. There was a definite relationship between the maximum change in spasticity and the maximum change in arm function, independent of treatment (ρ = –0.2822, p = 0.0008, n = 137). There was a clear relationship between the changes in spasticity and in arm function in patients treated with botulinum toxin (Dysport) at 500 or 1000 units (ρ = –0.5679, p = 0.0090, n = 22; ρ = –0.4430, p = 0.0018, n = 47), but not in those treated with placebo or 1500 units. Conclusions: Using a targeted meta-analytic approach, it is possible to demonstrate that reducing spasticity in the arm is associated with a significant improvement in arm function. PMID:15489384

  16. Digital photoelastic analysis applied to implant dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K.; Hariprasad, M. P.; Bhuvanewari, S.

    2016-12-01

    Development of improved designs of implant systems in dentistry have necessitated the study of stress fields in the implant regions of the mandible/maxilla for better understanding of the biomechanics involved. Photoelasticity has been used for various studies related to dental implants in view of whole field visualization of maximum shear stress in the form of isochromatic contours. The potential of digital photoelasticity has not been fully exploited in the field of implant dentistry. In this paper, the fringe field in the vicinity of the connected implants (All-On-Four® concept) is analyzed using recent advances in digital photoelasticity. Initially, a novel 3-D photoelastic model making procedure, to closely mimic all the anatomical features of the human mandible is proposed. By choosing appropriate orientation of the model with respect to the light path, the essential region of interest were sought to be analysed while keeping the model under live loading conditions. Need for a sophisticated software module to carefully identify the model domain has been brought out. For data extraction, five-step method is used and isochromatics are evaluated by twelve fringe photoelasticity. In addition to the isochromatic fringe field, whole field isoclinic data is also obtained for the first time in implant dentistry, which could throw important information in improving the structural stability of the implant systems. Analysis is carried out for the implant in the molar as well as the incisor region. In addition, the interaction effects of loaded molar implant on the incisor area are also studied.

  17. Rotary spectra analysis applied to static stabilometry.

    PubMed

    Chiaramello, E; Knaflitz, M; Agostini, V

    2011-01-01

    Static stabilometry is a technique aimed at quantifying postural sway during quiet standing in the upright position. Many different models and many different techniques to analyze the trajectories of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) have been proposed. Most of the parameters calculated according to these different approaches are affected by a relevant intra- and inter-subject variability or do not have a clear physiological interpretation. In this study we hypothesize that CoP trajectories have rotational characteristics, therefore we decompose them in clockwise and counter-clockwise components, using the rotary spectra analysis. Rotary spectra obtained studying a population of healthy subjects are described through the group average of spectral parameters, i.e., 95% spectral bandwidth, mean frequency, median frequency, and skewness. Results are reported for the clockwise and the counter-clockwise components and refer to the upright position maintained with eyes open or closed. This study demonstrates that the approach is feasible and that some of the spectral parameters are statistically different between the open and closed eyes conditions. More research is needed to demonstrate the clinical applicability of this approach, but results so far obtained are promising.

  18. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  19. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  20. Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Because students learn from each other as well as lecturers, it is important to create opportunities for collaboration in writing classes. Teachers now benefit from access to plagiarism detectors that can also provide feedback. This exploratory study considers the role of four review types, open and anonymous, involving the students themselves,…

  1. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  2. Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Because students learn from each other as well as lecturers, it is important to create opportunities for collaboration in writing classes. Teachers now benefit from access to plagiarism detectors that can also provide feedback. This exploratory study considers the role of four review types, open and anonymous, involving the students themselves,…

  3. Examining Metacognitive Processes in Exploratory Computer-Based Learning Environments Using Activity Log Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yoo Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Metacognition is widely studied for its influence on the effectiveness of learning. With Exploratory Computer-Based Learning Environments (ECBLE), metacognition is found to be especially important because these environments require adaptive metacognitive control by the learners due to their open-ended structure that allows for multiple learning…

  4. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kubu, Cynthia S.; Sinclair, Leslie; Rezai, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithm items was examined using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) factor methods. The ADI-R was completed for 1,170 youths and adults (ages 2-46). Results of EFAs indicated strong support for two-factor structure, with social communication and…

  5. Public Subsidies for Higher Education in California: An Exploratory Analysis of Who Pays and Who Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the racial and ethnic distribution of the costs and benefits of higher education in California. This exploratory work documents the racial and ethnic distribution of these benefits, in the form of enrollments in different sectors and different types of institutions, as well as on the costs, in the form of the share borne by…

  6. Illness Beliefs regarding the Causes of Diabetes among Latino College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Klonoff and Landrine Illness-Belief Scale when applied to Latino college students (n = 156; 34% male, 66% female) at high risk for future diabetes onset. Principal factor analysis yielded four significant factors--emotional, folk beliefs, punitive, gene/hereditary--which accounted for 64.5% of variance and…

  7. Illness Beliefs regarding the Causes of Diabetes among Latino College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Klonoff and Landrine Illness-Belief Scale when applied to Latino college students (n = 156; 34% male, 66% female) at high risk for future diabetes onset. Principal factor analysis yielded four significant factors--emotional, folk beliefs, punitive, gene/hereditary--which accounted for 64.5% of variance and…

  8. Treatment Integrity in Applied Behavior Analysis with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A review of 158 applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects, published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" between 1980 and 1990, found that (1) 16% measured the accuracy of independent variable implementation, and (2) two-thirds did not operationally define components of the independent variable. Specific recommendations…

  9. Exploratory Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization via Integrated Topological and Geometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Maljovec, Dan; Wang, Bei; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Mandelli, Diego; Pernice, Michael; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-10-01

    and 2) topology-based methodologies to interactively visualize multidimensional data and extract risk-informed insights. Regarding item 1) we employ learning algorithms that aim to infer/predict simulation outcome and decide the coordinate in the input space of the next sample that maximize the amount of information that can be gained from it. Such methodologies can be used to both explore and exploit the input space. The later one is especially used for safety analysis scopes to focus samples along the limit surface, i.e. the boundaries in the input space between system failure and system success. Regarding item 2) we present a software tool that is designed to analyze multi-dimensional data. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations.

  10. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  11. Comparison of two exploratory data analysis methods for fMRI: unsupervised clustering versus independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baese, A; Wismueller, Axel; Lange, Oliver

    2004-09-01

    Exploratory data-driven methods such as unsupervised clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) are considered to be hypothesis-generating procedures, and are complementary to the hypothesis-led statistical inferential methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this paper, we present a comparison between unsupervised clustering and ICA in a systematic fMRI study. The comparative results were evaluated by 1) task-related activation maps, 2) associated time-courses, and 3) receiver operating characteristic analysis. For the fMRI data, a comparative quantitative evaluation between the three clustering techniques, self-organizing map, "neural gas" network, and fuzzy clustering based on deterministic annealing, and the three ICA methods, FastICA, Infomax and topographic ICA was performed. The ICA methods proved to extract features relatively well for a small number of independent components but are limited to the linear mixture assumption. The unsupervised Clustering outperforms ICA in terms of classification results but requires a longer processing time than the ICA methods.

  12. Falls in older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD): a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon; Stubbs, Jean; Gnanaraj, Solomon Donald; Soundy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptomology is now widely recognized as a key risk factor for falls. The evidence regarding the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on falls is unclear. A systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis was undertaken to explore the relationship between MDD and falls. Major electronic database were searched from inception till April 2015. Studies that defined MDD and measured falls prospectively in older adults (≥60 years) were included. Studies relying on depressive symptomology alone were excluded. The methodological quality of included articles was assessed and study findings were synthesized using an exploratory meta-analysis. From a potential of 415 articles, only three studies met the inclusion criteria. This included 976 unique older adults with a range of mean age from ≥65 to 83 years. The methodological quality of included studies was satisfactory. None of the included studies' primary aim was to investigate the relationship between MDD and falls. The exploratory meta-analysis demonstrated older adults with MDD are at increased risk of falling compared to non-depressed older adults (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.1, I(2) = 60%, n = 976). There is a paucity of research considering falls in older adults with MDD. Our results demonstrate that the odds of falling appear to be greater among people with MDD (OR 4.0) than in previous meta-analyses that have only considered subthreshold depressive symptoms. Given the distinct nature and challenges with MDD, more research is required to better understand the falls risk in this group.

  13. Determinants of nurse satisfaction using insulin pen devices with safety needles: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Poerio, Carmine S; Braus, Alessandra; Destro, Maurizio; Gilberti, Lavinia; Meroni, Giovanni; Davis, Estella M; Bossi, Antonio C

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of data exists to examine nurses' satisfaction with the use of insulin pens with safety needles in hospitalized patients with diabetes. We investigated major determinants of nurses' preference of the method of insulin administration in the context of a General Hospital in Northern Italy. Consecutive patients admitted to three hospital units of different care intensity requiring insulin received insulin therapy through either the vial/syringe method (October to December 2012) or pen/safety needles with dual-ended protection method (January to March 2013). Before the implementation of insulin pens, floor nurses received a specific training program for proper insulin pen injection technique including individual testing of the devices (pen/safety needles). At the end of the study, nurses completed the Nursing Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Major determinants of satisfaction were investigated through an exploratory factor analysis. The association between each retained factor and time spent to teach patients how to self-inject insulin with pen devices was also investigated. Fifty-three out of 60 nurses (mean age ± SD 36.2 ± 8.5 years, 85 % women, 57 % with 10+ years of working experience) returned the questionnaire. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha > 0.9). Three months after their introduction, about 92 % of nurses considered pen devices an "improvement" over the vial/syringe method. Two factors explained 85 % of nurses' satisfaction, one related to convenience and ease of use, and the other to satisfaction/time spent for dose preparation and administration. The latter factor was inversely correlated with time spent on patients' training tasks. Nurses' satisfaction with pen devices was higher than previously reported, possibly reinforced by safety needles with dual-ended protection. Perceived

  14. Assessment As Exploratory Research: A Theoretical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Nancy W.

    With the view that social scientists conduct too little exploratory research, the author outlines the methods and attitudes of the exploratory analyst and describes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a source of research data. Exploratory analysis, in which no paradigm is used, is contrasted with confirmatory research, which…

  15. An Exploratory Statistical Analysis of a Planet Approach-Phase Guidance Scheme Using Angular Measurements with Significant Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.; Harry, David P., III

    1960-01-01

    An exploratory analysis of vehicle guidance during the approach to a target planet is presented. The objective of the guidance maneuver is to guide the vehicle to a specific perigee distance with a high degree of accuracy and minimum corrective velocity expenditure. The guidance maneuver is simulated by considering the random sampling of real measurements with significant error and reducing this information to prescribe appropriate corrective action. The instrumentation system assumed includes optical and/or infrared devices to indicate range and a reference angle in the trajectory plane. Statistical results are obtained by Monte-Carlo techniques and are shown as the expectation of guidance accuracy and velocity-increment requirements. Results are nondimensional and applicable to any planet within limits of two-body assumptions. The problem of determining how many corrections to make and when to make them is a consequence of the conflicting requirement of accurate trajectory determination and propulsion. Optimum values were found for a vehicle approaching a planet along a parabolic trajectory with an initial perigee distance of 5 radii and a target perigee of 1.02 radii. In this example measurement errors were less than i minute of arc. Results indicate that four corrections applied in the vicinity of 50, 16, 15, and 1.5 radii, respectively, yield minimum velocity-increment requirements. Thrust devices capable of producing a large variation of velocity-increment size are required. For a vehicle approaching the earth, miss distances within 32 miles are obtained with 90-percent probability. Total velocity increments used in guidance are less than 3300 feet per second with 90-percent probability. It is noted that the above representative results are valid only for the particular guidance scheme hypothesized in this analysis. A parametric study is presented which indicates the effects of measurement error size, initial perigee, and initial energy on the guidance

  16. An Exploratory Analysis of Projected Navy Officer Inventory Strength Using Data Farming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    stochastic simulation model that allows for projection of annual future officer inventory and losses across communities by applying various historical...job that is not filled by a competent and qualified person, while on sea rotation. RSCM is a stochastic queuing inventory model that represents the...outbound transfers by community and paygrade. Figure 6. Officer Strategic Analysis Model Promotion Methods 2. Simulation Model Output Once each

  17. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these areas suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement.

  18. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  19. Negative Reinforcement in Applied Behavior Analysis: An Emerging Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. Current research suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement.…

  20. B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew from his science for application, his descriptions of possible applications, and his own applications to nonhuman and human behavior. Second, we found that he explicitly or implicitly addressed all seven dimensions of applied behavior analysis. These contributions and the dimensions notwithstanding, he neither incorporated the field's scientific (e.g., analytic) and social dimensions (e.g., applied) into any program of published research such that he was its originator, nor did he systematically integrate, advance, and promote the dimensions so to have been its founder. As the founder of behavior analysis, however, he was the father of applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478444

  1. Independent component analysis applied to self-paced functional MR imaging paradigms.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chad H; Carew, John D; McMillan, Alan B; Meyerand, M Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    Self-paced functional MR imaging (fMRI) paradigms, in which the task timing is determined by the subject's performance, can offer several advantages over commonly applied paradigms with predetermined stimulus timing. Independent component analysis (ICA) does not require specification of a timed response function, and could be an advantageous method of deriving results from fMRI data sets with varying response timings and durations. In this study normal volunteers (N = 10) each performed two self-paced fMRI motor and arithmetic paradigms. Individual data sets were analyzed with the Infomax spatial ICA algorithm. Conventional regression analysis was performed for comparison purposes. Spatial ICA effectively produced task-related components from each of the self-paced data sets, even in a few cases where regression analysis yielded non-specific functional maps. For the motor paradigm, these components consistently mapped to primary motor areas. ICA of the arithmetic paradigm yielded multiple task-related components that variably mapped to regions of parietal and frontal lobes. Regression analysis generally yielded similar spatial maps. The multiple task-related ICA components that were sometimes produced from each self-paced data set can be challenging to identify and evaluate for significance. These preliminary results indicate that ICA is useful as an exploratory and complementary method to conventional regression analysis for fMRI of self-paced paradigms.

  2. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  3. A Primer on Bootstrap Factor Analysis as Applied to Health Studies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wenhua; Miao, Jingang; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate how the bootstrap method could be conducted in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a syntax written in SPSS. Methods: The data obtained from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project (T-COPPE project) were used for illustration. A 5-step procedure to conduct bootstrap factor analysis (BFA) was…

  4. A Primer on Bootstrap Factor Analysis as Applied to Health Studies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wenhua; Miao, Jingang; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate how the bootstrap method could be conducted in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a syntax written in SPSS. Methods: The data obtained from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project (T-COPPE project) were used for illustration. A 5-step procedure to conduct bootstrap factor analysis (BFA) was…

  5. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Applying Systems Analysis to Program Failure in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Margaret E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Certain systems analysis techniques can be applied to examinations of program failure in continuing education to locate weaknesses in planning and implementing stages. Questions to guide an analysis and various procedures are recommended. Twelve issues that contribute to failures or discontinuations are identified. (Author/MLW)

  7. The Significance of Regional Analysis in Applied Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Lawrence M.

    Regional analysis is central to applied geographic research, contributing to better planning and policy development for a variety of societal problems facing the United States. The development of energy policy serves as an illustration of the capabilities of this type of analysis. The United States has had little success in formulating a national…

  8. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  9. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  10. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  11. Analysis of exploratory wells in the Cerro Prieto Field and the Mexicali Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Cobo R., J.M.; Bermejo M., F.J.

    1982-08-10

    Agricultural development in the Mexicali Valley and in the high cost of electric power required to operate the irrigation wells in the Valley prompted the Mexican government to investigate the possibility of taking advantage of thermal manifestations in the area located 28 km southeast of the city of Mexicali to generate electric power and thereby partially decrease the flight of foreign exchange. In 1958, a geologic study of the southern and southeastern zone of Mexicali was conducted to identify the possibilities of tapping geothermal resources. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the geologic conditions in this area and, if possible, to establish the location of exploratory and production wells and, on the basis of the results of the former, examine the geologic history in order to gain knowledge and understanding of the structural control of the steam. On the basis of this study, it was recommended that 3 exploratory wells should be drilled in order to locate weak zones that would easily allow for steam flow.

  12. Impact of social challenges on gaining employment for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: an exploratory moderator analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lori L; Pilkinton, Patricia; Poddar, Swati; Blansett, Catherine; Toscano, Richard; Parker, Pamela E

    2014-06-01

    To explore whether psychosocial challenges impact effects of vocational rehabilitation in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). A post hoc exploratory analysis of possible moderators of treatment was conducted on outcomes from a randomized, controlled trial of Individual Placement and Support in Veterans with PTSD. When examining groups within each moderator, there was a greater IPS supportive employment benefit in gaining competitive employment for those with inadequate transportation (number needed to treat [NNT] = 1.5) and inadequate housing (NNT = 1.5) compared with the main finding of the pilot study (NNT = 2.07). Compared with the main finding of the pilot study, there was no greater advantage of IPS for those with adequate transportation (NNT = 2.4) or adequate housing (NNT = 2.4). Compared with the main finding in the pilot study, those without a family care burden had a greater benefit from IPS (NNT = 1.4) and those with family care burden had a reduced treatment effect (NNT = 3.3). These results are exploratory and are not intended to guide clinical decision-making, but rather offer a potentially useful strategy in the design of larger trials of IPS.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999–2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  14. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng; Duan, Xiaojun; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999-2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics.

  15. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of the distress tolerance scale (DTS) in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; Byrne, Susan M; Watson, Hunna

    2009-12-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis of the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) created by Corstorphine et al. [Corstorphine, E., Mountford, V., Tomlinson, S., Waller, G., & Meyer, C. (2007). Distress tolerance in the eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 8, 91-97.] was conducted to assess whether the scale's purported three factors emerged in a clinical sample of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosed eating disorder. The original three-factor model was generally considered to be a poor fit for the data. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a better fit emerged using a four-factor structure. Significant associations were observed between behavioral avoidance of positive affect and eating disorder psychopathology. Implications for use of the DTS with eating disorder patients are discussed.

  16. The use of exploratory analyses within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence single technology appraisal process: an evaluation and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Carroll, Christopher; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2016-04-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal (STA) process, independent Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) critically appraise the company submission. During the critical appraisal process the ERG may undertake analyses to explore uncertainties around the company's model and their implications for decision-making. The ERG reports are a central component of the evidence considered by the NICE Technology Appraisal Committees (ACs) in their deliberations. The aim of this research was to develop an understanding of the number and type of exploratory analyses undertaken by the ERGs within the STA process and to understand how these analyses are used by the NICE ACs in their decision-making. The 100 most recently completed STAs with published guidance were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The documents considered were ERG reports, clarification letters, the first appraisal consultation document and the final appraisal determination. Over 400 documents were assessed in this study. The categories of types of exploratory analyses included fixing errors, fixing violations, addressing matters of judgement and the ERG-preferred base case. A content analysis of documents (documentary analysis) was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was then used to rationalise and present these data. The level and type of detail in ERG reports and clarification letters varied considerably. The vast majority (93%) of ERG reports reported one or more exploratory analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category 'matters of judgement', which was reported in 83 (89%) reports. The category 'ERG base-case/preferred analysis' was reported in 45 (48%) reports, the category 'fixing errors' was reported in 33 (35%) reports and the category 'fixing violations' was reported in 17 (18%) reports. The exploratory analyses performed were the result of issues

  17. Exploratory Retrospective Analysis of Power Plant Emissions in Vulnerable Communities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Barreto, J.; Pham, M.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon emissions trading has been implemented in parts of the United States (and elsewhere) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Data from one such program focused on power plant emissions in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), have shown that regionally, power sector carbon dioxide emissions have been reduced since the adoption of the program in 2009. However, it is not known what the spatial distributions of such reductions have been in individual plants, and if emissions reductions have ocurred in plants impacting low-income and ethnic minority communities, arguably the populations most overburdened by health threats from co-pollutants (e.g., fine particulates, nitrous oxides, and sulfurous oxides) emitted along greenhouse gases. In this research, we explore the trajectory of power plant emissions in the RGGI region in vulnerable communities. This is a first, exploratory step in understanding the environmental justice implications of market-based carbon reduction policies.

  18. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety.

  19. Psychosocial Problems Among Truant Youth: A Multi-Group, Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Wareham, Jennifer; Belenko, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Truant youth represent a critical group needing problem-oriented research and involvement in effective services. The limited number of studies on the psychosocial functioning of truant youths have focused on one or a few problem areas, rather than examining co-morbid problem behaviors. The present study addresses the need to examine the interrelationships of multiple domains of psychosocial functioning, including substance involvement, mental health, and delinquency, among truant youth. Exploratory structural equation modeling on baseline data collected on 219 truant youths identified two major factors reflecting psychosocial functioning, and found the factor structure was similar across major sociodemographic subgroups. Further analyses supported the validity of the factor structure. The research and service delivery implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23243383

  20. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  1. [Analysis of knowledge production on the nursing process: exploratory descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Duran, Erika Christiane Marocco; Toledo, Vanessa Pellegrino

    2011-06-01

    This descriptive exploratory study aims to analyze the production of knowledge on the nursing process, based on Master's theses and doctoral dissertations presented in Brazilian graduate programs in Nursing, using the reports of the Nursing Study and Research Center (CEPEn) from 1972 to 2007, and to identify which were published in indexed databases. We found 122 Master's theses, 42 of which were published, and 26 Doctoral dissertations, with 15 publications. From the year 2000 on more publications were found, with a prevalence of qualitative research. The prevalent thematic trend was nursing assistance, with surveys and validation of nursing diagnosis, as well as the other phases of the process, as the most addressed topics. Publications on the theme show gaps, especially in surveying knowledge production. Researches that study this interface may possibly qualify the practice of nursing.

  2. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  3. Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1983-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis began when laboratory based principles were extended to humans inorder to change socially significant behavior. Recent laboratory findings may have applied relevance; however, the majority of basic researchers have not clearly communicated the practical implications of their work. The present paper samples some of the new findings and attempts to demonstrate their applied importance. Schedule-induced behavior which occurs as a by-product of contingencies of reinforcement is discussed. Possible difficulties in treatment and management of induced behaviors are considered. Next, the correlation-based law of effect and the implications of relative reinforcement are explored in terms of applied examples. Relative rate of reinforcement is then extended to the literature dealing with concurrent operants. Concurrent operant models may describe human behavior of applied importance, and several techniques for modification of problem behavior are suggested. As a final concern, the paper discusses several new paradigms. While the practical importance of these models is not clear at the moment, it may be that new practical advantages will soon arise. Thus, it is argued that basic research continues to be of theoretical and practical importance to applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478574

  4. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  5. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  6. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E; Makuch, Renee A; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and (2) identifying predictors of positive normative outcomes and good objective QoL. Findings of an exploratory latent class analysis identified three groups of adults with ASD-Greater Dependence, Good Physical and Mental Health, and Greater Independence. Findings indicate that better daily living skills, better executive function, and more maternal warmth are associated with assignment to better outcome groups. Findings have implications for interventions designed to enhance achievement of normative outcomes and objective QoL.

  7. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  9. The spread of behavior analysis to the applied fields 1

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of applied behavioral science as it exists in the various behavioral fields and considers the role of the Association for Behavior Analysis in serving those fields. The confounding effects of the traditions of psychology are discussed. Relevant issues are exemplified in the fields of law, communications, psychology, and education, but broader generalization is implied. PMID:22478537

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  11. Three Years of Intensive Applied Behavior Analysis: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Olive; O'Connor, Jennifer; Leader, Geraldine; Kenny, Neil

    2008-01-01

    A 2 years and 10 months old child receiving an early intensive teaching program using the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) was taught using evidence-based teaching strategies and curricula based on existing research in both the applied and basic sciences. Progress was measured using behavioral assessment tools…

  12. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  13. Applied Behavior Analysis: Current Myths in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Cheryl; Lowdermilk, John; Lanier, Lauren L.; Fannin, Abigail G.; Schkade, Jennifer L.; Rose, Chad A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    The effective use of behavior management strategies and related policies continues to be a debated issue in public education. Despite overwhelming evidence espousing the benefits of the implementation of procedures derived from principles based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA), educators often indicate many common misconceptions…

  14. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  15. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  16. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  17. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  18. DataHub: Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The DataHub addresses four areas of significant needs: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactives nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc), in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  19. DataHub - Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    DataHub addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactive nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis is on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  20. DataHub - Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    DataHub addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactive nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis is on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  1. Social images of medicine and dentistry in Japan. An exploratory study using correspondence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, N; Nakagaki, H; Ishino, M; Tanaka, D; Toyama, A; Prendergast, M J; Williams, S A

    2000-10-01

    To investigate social images associated with dentistry in comparison with nine other medical disciplines. A questionnaire survey among members of the general public. Subjects were asked to state, in not more than five words, the images which they associated with each of the ten disciplines. Komaki City, Shikatsu Town and Nagoya City in Japan. 261 respondents from a convenience sample of 300 residents, not associated with any branch of medicine. Frequency distribution of word images used on at least five occasions and a correspondence analysis of the responses for the ten disciplines. Of the 163 coded image items, 60 were related to internal medicine, 56 to dentistry, 55 to dermatology, 51 to orthopaedic surgery, 51 to ophthalmology, 50 to surgery, 47 to obstetrics and gynaecology, 43 to otolaryngology, 40 to paediatrics and 33 to psychiatry. Correspondence analysis applied to the 163 items and 10 medical disciplines indicated that three similar paired image groups were found, namely between dermatology and ophthalmology, surgery and orthopaedic surgery, and between dentistry and internal medicine, which were the more commonly encountered disciplines across all age groups. However, compared with the other specialities, dentistry had a significantly greater association with pain, this response being four times more common than for surgery. This group of members of the public in Japan perceived dentistry-associated images in a similar way to internal medicine, but the negative associations with pain need to be addressed by the dental profession and health educators alike.

  2. Inclusive Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Exploratory Analysis of the National Reports Presented at the 2008 International Conference on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadio, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis of inclusive education issues in Latin America and the Caribbean is based on a series of documents produced in the framework of the organization of the 48th session of the International Conference on Education, in particular the National Reports presented at the Conference as well as country reports presented at…

  3. An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis of Graduate Student Learning and Division of Labor Resulting from Student Cofacilitation of an Asynchronous Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Hillarious, Marilyn; Walker, Bryce

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study is an exploratory, retrospective content analysis (Schwandt, 2007) of 81 debrief statements collected over 3 years and written by graduate students in an educational technology graduate program's educational leadership course taught 100% online. Researchers analyzed students' debrief statements of lessons learned and task…

  4. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  5. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  6. Spatial-Spectral EOF analysis of AIRS data: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Yung, Y. L.; Lambrigtsen, B. H.

    2003-12-01

    We apply spatial-spectral EOF analysis to 14 days of AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) calibrated radiance data collected over the tropics and subtropics (32S to 32N) from July 1 to July 14, 2003. We limit our analysis to the nadir-view (scan angle less than 5o) spectra only. After the quality control procedure, we have an average of 1400 spectra over this period for each 4o by 5o grid box. We obtain a 14-day averaged spectrum for each grid box and apply EOF analysis to these averaged spectra to obtain principal components in spectrally resolved radiance and associated spatial patterns. The first principal component (PC1) can explain more than 90% of the total variance. With the second principal component (PC2), these two leading principal components can explain more than 99% of the total variance. The PC1 spectral features are consistent with spectral features due to the change of surface (or cloud deck) emission temperature. A couple of features can be clearly seen in the PC1 spatial map: ITCZ due to the low emission temperature of optically-thick high cloud, Sahara due to the high surface emission temperature and the clear sky. The spatial map of PC1 closely resembles that of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis of outgoing longwave radiation over the same period. It is also highly correlated with the map of high cloud amount. Both the spectral features and spatial map indicate that the PC1 is mainly due to the spatial variation of cloud emission temperature (for grid boxes with the optically thick clouds) and surface temperature. The PC2 shows spectral features similar to those due to the change of the optical depth of low clouds. Moreover, the PC2 spatial map shows maxima near the coasts of Peru, Namibia and California, as well as over the southern ocean west of Australia. All these regions are known for high frequency of marine stratus. Unlike the traditional approach of observing low clouds from the visible reflectance, these results indicate that we can actually see

  7. Using exploratory factor analysis of food frequency questionnaires to identify dietary patterns among Yup’ik People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Austin, Melissa A.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup’ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Design Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of “factors” that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup’ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. Setting Southwest Alaska, US Subjects 358 Yup’ik people, ≥ 18 years Results We identified 3 factors that each accounted for ≥10% of the common variance: the first characterized by “processed foods” (e.g., salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by “fruits and vegetables” (e.g., fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by “subsistence foods” (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the “subsistence” factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the “fruits and vegetables” factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the “subsistence” factor, whereas a biomarker of corn and sugar-cane based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with “processed foods”. Conclusions This exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that appear to reflect dietary patterns among Yup’ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population. PMID:23290469

  8. From bed to bench: bridging from informatics practice to theory: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Haux, R; Lehmann, C U

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Applied Clinical Informatics (ACI)--focused on applications in clinical informatics--was launched as a companion journal to Methods of Information in Medicine (MIM). Both journals are official journals of the International Medical Informatics Association. To explore which congruencies and interdependencies exist in publications from theory to practice and from practice to theory and to determine existing gaps. Major topics discussed in ACI and MIM were analyzed. We explored if the intention of publishing companion journals to provide an information bridge from informatics theory to informatics practice and vice versa could be supported by this model. In this manuscript we will report on congruencies and interdependences from practice to theory and on major topics in MIM. Retrospective, prolective observational study on recent publications of ACI and MIM. All publications of the years 2012 and 2013 were indexed and analyzed. Hundred and ninety-six publications were analyzed (ACI 87, MIM 109). In MIM publications, modelling aspects as well as methodological and evaluation approaches for the analysis of data, information, and knowledge in biomedicine and health care were frequently raised - and often discussed from an interdisciplinary point of view. Important themes were ambient-assisted living, anatomic spatial relations, biomedical informatics as scientific discipline, boosting, coding, computerized physician order entry, data analysis, grid and cloud computing, health care systems and services, health-enabling technologies, health information search, health information systems, imaging, knowledge-based decision support, patient records, signal analysis, and web science. Congruencies between journals could be found in themes, but with a different focus on content. Interdependencies from practice to theory, found in these publications, were only limited. Bridging from informatics theory to practice and vice versa remains a major component of successful

  9. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  10. Recent reinforcement-schedule research and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Neef, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinforcement schedules are considered in relation to applied behavior analysis by examining several recent laboratory experiments with humans and other animals. The experiments are drawn from three areas of contemporary schedule research: behavioral history effects on schedule performance, the role of instructions in schedule performance of humans, and dynamic schedules of reinforcement. All of the experiments are discussed in relation to the role of behavioral history in current schedule performance. The paper concludes by extracting from the experiments some more general issues concerning reinforcement schedules in applied research and practice. PMID:16795888

  11. A comparison of the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) across different patient populations using Rasch analysis and exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Thandi, Gursimran; Fear, Nicola T; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-01-01

    The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is designed to measure patients' perceived functional impairment associated with a health problem. There is a paucity of studies that explore the stability of the item hierarchy in the WSAS across different disease populations. This study investigated the unidimensional structure of the WSAS across different disease populations. Secondary data analysis was conducted on pooled patient data (HIV, breast cancer, and inflammatory conditions) to create a new dataset (n=554). The data were analysed using Rasch analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis of the WSAS showed a good fit as a unidimensional scale, person and item separation indices were >2 suggesting that the WSAS is sensitive enough to distinguish between participants of varying levels of ability. Some differential item functioning was seen by diagnosis and by sex for items 1 and 5 of the WSAS. Overall, a one dimensional structure was identified for the WSAS. However, a small number of differential item functioning (DIF) was identified, suggesting that scores from the WSAS cannot be compared across groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE STRUCTURED CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR COMPLICATED GRIEF: RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Bui, Eric; Mauro, Christine; Robinaugh, Donald J; Skritskaya, Natalia A; Wang, Yuanjia; Gribbin, Colleen; Ghesquiere, Angela; Horenstein, Arielle; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi M; Shear, M Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Complicated grief (CG) has been recently included in the DSM-5, under the term "persistent complex bereavement disorder," as a condition requiring further study. To our knowledge, no psychometric data on any structured clinical interview for CG (SCI-CG) is available to date. In this manuscript, we introduce the SCI-CG, a 31-item "SCID-like" clinician-administered instrument to assess the presence of CG symptoms. Participants were 281 treatment-seeking adults with CG (77.9% [n = 219] women, mean age = 52.4, standard deviation [SD] = 17.8) who were assessed with the SCI-CG and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, functional impairment. The SCI-CG exhibited satisfactory internal consistency (α = .78), good test-retest reliability (interclass correlation [ICC] 0.68, 95% CI [0.60-0.75]), and excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI [0.89-0.98]). Exploratory factor analyses revealed that a five-factor structure, explaining 50.3% of the total variance, was the best fit for the data. The clinician-rated SCI-CG demonstrates good internal consistency, reliability, and convergent validity in treatment-seeking individuals with CG and therefore can be a useful tool to assess CG. Although diagnostic criteria for CG have yet to be adequately validated, the SCI-CG may facilitate this process. The SCI-CG can now be used as a validated instrument in research and clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Female versus male perpetrated femicide: an exploratory analysis of whether offender gender matters.

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Baumann, Miranda L

    2012-09-01

    Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a male victim. When a homicide does involve a female, either as a victim or as an offender, the other party implicated is generally a male. The primary goal of the proposed study is to provide an in-depth, albeit exploratory, examination of female-perpetrated femicide. Using homicide data taken from the Dallas Homicide Unit, 403 cases of femicide will be analyzed, with special attention devoted to comparing female-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 39) against male-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 364). Specifically, the current study will explore the similarities and differences in sociodemographic characteristics of victims and suspects, offense characteristics, and offense circumstances. Contrary to what was expected, results, at first glance, seem to suggest an overwhelming similarity between femicide suspects and victims, irrespective of gender. However, when the relationship between victim and suspect is considered, distinct differences appear. Implications from these findings as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  14. Adolescent athletic participation and nonmedical Adderall use: an exploratory analysis of a performance-enhancing drug.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Philip; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2013-09-01

    A primary motive for adolescents and young adults to nonmedically use prescription stimulants is to help them study. Adolescents and young adults are using prescription stimulants, such as Adderall (amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, dextroamphetamine sulfate), as performance enhancers in certain social domains, including academics and sports. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the nonmedical use of Adderall (a commonly prescribed stimulant used nonmedically) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. The Monitoring the Future survey for 2010 and 2011, a representative sample of 8th- and 10th-grade students, surveyed involvement in competitive sports and nonmedical Adderall use among 21,137 adolescents. Past-year nonmedical use of Adderall served as the main outcome measure. Logistic regression analyses were run to examine whether sports participation in general and involvement in different types of competitive sports participation were associated with past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males and females. The odds of past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males were higher for male respondents who participated in lacrosse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% CI [1.20, 5.29]) and wrestling (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI [1.01, 2.98]). However, no particular sport among females was found to be associated with past-year nonmedical use of Adderall. Certain extracurricular activities, such as high-contact sports, may influence male participants to misuse prescription stimulants as performance enhancers either on or off the playing field.

  15. Validation in principal components analysis applied to EEG data.

    PubMed

    Costa, João Carlos G D; Da-Silva, Paulo José G; Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando C

    2014-01-01

    The well-known multivariate technique Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is usually applied to a sample, and so component scores are subjected to sampling variability. However, few studies address their stability, an important topic when the sample size is small. This work presents three validation procedures applied to PCA, based on confidence regions generated by a variant of a nonparametric bootstrap called the partial bootstrap: (i) the assessment of PC scores variability by the spread and overlapping of "confidence regions" plotted around these scores; (ii) the use of the confidence regions centroids as a validation set; and (iii) the definition of the number of nontrivial axes to be retained for analysis. The methods were applied to EEG data collected during a postural control protocol with twenty-four volunteers. Two axes were retained for analysis, with 91.6% of explained variance. Results showed that the area of the confidence regions provided useful insights on the variability of scores and suggested that some subjects were not distinguishable from others, which was not evident from the principal planes. In addition, potential outliers, initially suggested by an analysis of the first principal plane, could not be confirmed by the confidence regions.

  16. Social Science Exploratory. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This Idaho Social Science Exploratory course of study applies standards-based content knowledge and skills to an enhanced investigation of geography, history, entrepreneurism, and civic engagement at an eighth-grade level. The exploratory course draws upon the disciplines to emphasize concepts and generalizations from the social sciences, promotes…

  17. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists.

  18. Toxicogenomics applied to predictive and exploratory toxicology for the safety assessment of new chemical entities: a long road with deep potholes.

    PubMed

    Pognan, François

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology is the perturbation of metabolism by external factors such as xenobiotics, environmental factors or drugs. As such, toxicology covers a broad range of fields from studies of the whole organism responses to minute biochemical events. Mechanistic toxicogenomics is an attempt to harness genomic tools to understand the physiological basis for a toxic event based on an analysis of transcriptional, translational or metabolomic profiles. These studies are complicated by non-toxic adaptive responses in transcript, protein or metabolite expression levels that have to be distinguished from those that are proximally related to the toxic event. Substantial progress has been made on the identification of biomarkers and the establishment of screens derived from such toxicogenomics studies. The ultimate goal, of course, is predictive toxicogenomics, which is an attempt to infer the likelihood of occurrence of a toxic event with exposure to a new agent based upon comparative responses with large databases of gene, protein or metabolite expression data. Gene expression databases are currently limited by the fact that measurable toxic phenotypes generally precede or at best coincide with the earliest observable changes in transcriptional profiles. Unfortunately, predictive protein databases have been limited by technical difficulties. Metabonomics-based databases, which would probably have the highest predictive value, are limited in turn by the inability to perform high dose studies in humans. This chapter will conclude by reviewing those elements of toxicogenomics that apply specifically to the development of anti-infectives and the potential for accurately modelling the toxicity of future drugs.

  19. Developing an interdisciplinary master's program in applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lowenkron, Barry; Mitchell, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    At many universities, faculty interested in behavior analysis are spread across disciplines. This makes difficult the development of behavior-analytically oriented programs, and impedes regular contact among colleagues who share common interests. However, this separation by disciplines can be a source of strength if it is used to develop interdisciplinary programs. In this article we describe how a bottom-up strategy was used to develop two complementary interdisciplinary MS programs in applied behavior analysis, and conclude with a description of the benefits—some obvious, some surprising—that can emerge from the development of such programs. PMID:22478230

  20. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) methods

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Owens, Chantelle J

    2009-01-01

    Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races) from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS) for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p < 0.05) higher smoothed rates (> 300 cases per 100,000 residents) than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less) in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379). The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than its contiguous neighbors. Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time. PMID:19245686

  1. Epidemiological analysis of the dynamic and diversity of Salmonella spp. in five German pig production clusters using pheno- and genotyping methods: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Niemann, J; Tietze, E; Ruddat, I; Fruth, A; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Blaha, T; Münchhausen, C; Merle, R; Kreienbrock, L

    2015-03-23

    An exploratory study in five conventional pig production clusters was carried out to investigate the dynamic and diversity of Salmonella spp. within different production stages and sample site categories (pooled feces, direct and non-direct environment). Observing two production cycles per production cluster, a total of 1276 samples were collected along the pig production chain. Following a microbiological examination via culture, 2246 subcultures were generated out of 285 Salmonella positive samples and analysed by pheno- and genotyping methods. Based on a combination of serotyping, MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis), PFGE (pulse-field gel electrophoresis) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing), an amount of 22.3% Salmonella positive samples were characterized in clonal lineages and its variants. Within each production cluster, one main clonal lineage could be identified and persisted over both production cycles with a large diversity of variants and a wide distribution in sample site categories and production stages. Results underline the importance of biosecurity with emphasis on the environment to prevent persistence and circulation of Salmonella within herds. Furthermore, the combined implementation of MLVA, PFGE and MLST with conventional culture techniques for isolate classification could be successfully applied as an effective and valuable tool for identifying similar pattern of Salmonella occurrence within pig production clusters.

  2. Online illegal drug use information: an exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk.

  3. The Structured Clinical Interview for Complicated Grief: Reliability, Validity, and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Eric; Mauro, Christine; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Skritskaya, Natalia A.; Wang, Yuanjia; Gribbin, Colleen; Ghesquiere, Angela; Horenstein, Arielle; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi M.; Shear, M. Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Complicated grief (CG) has been recently included in the DSM-5, under the term “Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder”, as a condition requiring further study. To our knowledge, no psychometric data on any structured clinical interview of CG is available to date. In this manuscript, we introduce the Structured Clinical Interview for CG (SCI-CG) a 31-item “SCID-like” clinician-administered instrument to assess the presence of CG symptoms. Methods Participants were 281 treatment-seeking adults with CG (77.9% (n=219) women, mean age = 52.4, SD = 17.8) who were assessed with the SCI-CG and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, functional impairment. Results The SCI-CG exhibited satisfactory internal consistency (α = .78), good test-retest reliability (Inter-class correlation [ICC] 0.68, 95% CI [0.60, 0.75]), and excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.95, 95% CI [0.89, 0.98]). Exploratory factor analyses revealed that a five-factor structure, explaining 50.3% of the total variance, was the best fit for the data. Conclusions The clinician-rated SCI-CG demonstrates good internal consistency, reliability, and convergent validity in treatment-seeking individuals with CG and therefore can be a useful tool to assess CG. Although diagnostic criteria for CG have yet to be adequately validated, the SCI-CG may facilitate this process. The SCI-CG can now be used as a validated instrument in research and clinical practice. PMID:26061724

  4. Measuring Practicing Clinicians' Information Literacy. An Exploratory Analysis in the Context of Panel Management.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Barboza, Katherine; Jensen, Ashley E; Bennett, Katelyn J; Sherman, Scott E; Schwartz, Mark D

    2017-02-15

    As healthcare moves towards technology-driven population health management, clinicians must adopt complex digital platforms to access health information and document care. This study explored information literacy, a set of skills required to effectively navigate population health information systems, among primary care providers in one Veterans' Affairs (VA) medical center. Information literacy was assessed during an 8-month randomized trial that tested a population health (panel) management intervention. Providers were asked about their use and comfort with two VA digital tools for panel management at baseline, 16 weeks, and post-intervention. An 8-item scale (range 0-40) was used to measure information literacy (Cronbach's α=0.84). Scores between study arms and provider types were compared using paired t-tests and ANOVAs. Associations between self-reported digital tool use and information literacy were measured via Pearson's correlations. Providers showed moderate levels of information literacy (M= 27.4, SD 6.5). There were no significant differences in mean information literacy between physicians (M=26.4, SD 6.7) and nurses (M=30.5, SD 5.2, p=0.57 for difference), or between intervention (M=28.4, SD 6.5) and control groups (M=25.1, SD 6.2, p=0.12 for difference). Information literacy was correlated with higher rates of self-reported information system usage (r=0.547, p=0.001). Clinicians identified data access, accuracy, and interpretability as potential information literacy barriers. While exploratory in nature, cautioning generalizability, the study suggests that measuring and improving clinicians' information literacy may play a significant role in the implementation and use of digital information tools, as these tools are rapidly being deployed to enhance communication among care teams, improve health care outcomes, and reduce overall costs.

  5. Exploratory Analysis of Marketing and Non-marketing E-cigarette Themes on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2016-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been gaining popularity and have emerged as a controversial tobacco product since their introduction in 2007 in the U.S. The smoke-free aspect of e-cigs renders them less harmful than conventional cigarettes and is one of the main reasons for their use by people who plan to quit smoking. The US food and drug administration (FDA) has introduced new regulations early May 2016 that went into effect on August 8, 2016. Given this important context, in this paper, we report results of a project to identify current themes in e-cig tweets in terms of semantic interpretations of topics generated with topic modeling. Given marketing/advertising tweets constitute almost half of all e-cig tweets, we first build a classifier that identifies marketing and non-marketing tweets based on a hand-built dataset of 1000 tweets. After applying the classifier to a dataset of over a million tweets (collected during 4/2015 - 6/2016), we conduct a preliminary content analysis and run topic models on the two sets of tweets separately after identifying the appropriate numbers of topics using topic coherence. We interpret the results of the topic modeling process by relating topics generated to specific e-cig themes. We also report on themes identified from e-cig tweets generated at particular places (such as schools and churches) for geo-tagged tweets found in our dataset using the GeoNames API. To our knowledge, this is the first effort that employs topic modeling to identify e-cig themes in general and in the context of geo-tagged tweets tied to specific places of interest.

  6. Exploratory analysis of glyburide as a novel therapy for preventing brain swelling.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor; Elm, Jordan J; Kent, Thomas A; Yoo, Albert J; Thomalla, Götz; Campbell, Bruce; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M; Albers, Gregory W; Jacobson, Sven; del Zoppo, Gregory; Simard, J Marc; Stern, Barney J; Mandava, Pitchaiah

    2014-08-01

    Malignant infarction is characterized by the formation of cerebral edema, and medical treatment is limited. Preclinical data suggest that glyburide, an inhibitor of SUR1-TRPM4, is effective in preventing edema. We previously reported feasibility of the GAMES-Pilot study, a two-center prospective, open label, phase IIa trial of 10 subjects at high risk for malignant infarction based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) threshold of 82 cm(3) treated with RP-1127 (glyburide for injection). In this secondary analysis, we tested the hypothesis that RP-1127 may be efficacious in preventing poor outcome when compared to controls. Controls suffering large hemispheric infarction were obtained from the EPITHET and MMI-MRI studies. We first screened subjects for controls with the same DWI threshold used for enrollment into GAMES-Pilot, 82 cm(3). Next, to address imbalances, we applied a weighted Euclidean matching. Ninety day mRS 0-4, rate of decompressive craniectomy, and mortality were the primary clinical outcomes of interest. The mean age of the GAMES cohort was 51 years and initial DWI volume was 102 ± 23 cm(3). After Euclidean matching, GAMES subjects showed similar NIHSS, higher DWI volume, younger age and had mRS 0-4-90% versus 50% in controls p = 0.049; with a similar trend in mRS 0-3 (40 vs. 25%; p = 0.43) and trend toward lower mortality (10 vs. 35%; p = 0.21). In this pilot study, RP-1127-treated subjects showed better clinical outcomes when compared to historical controls. An adequately powered and randomized phase II trial of patients at risk for malignant infarction is needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of RP-1127.

  7. Exploratory Analysis of Marketing and Non-marketing E-cigarette Themes on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sifei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been gaining popularity and have emerged as a controversial tobacco product since their introduction in 2007 in the U.S. The smoke-free aspect of e-cigs renders them less harmful than conventional cigarettes and is one of the main reasons for their use by people who plan to quit smoking. The US food and drug administration (FDA) has introduced new regulations early May 2016 that went into effect on August 8, 2016. Given this important context, in this paper, we report results of a project to identify current themes in e-cig tweets in terms of semantic interpretations of topics generated with topic modeling. Given marketing/advertising tweets constitute almost half of all e-cig tweets, we first build a classifier that identifies marketing and non-marketing tweets based on a hand-built dataset of 1000 tweets. After applying the classifier to a dataset of over a million tweets (collected during 4/2015 – 6/2016), we conduct a preliminary content analysis and run topic models on the two sets of tweets separately after identifying the appropriate numbers of topics using topic coherence. We interpret the results of the topic modeling process by relating topics generated to specific e-cig themes. We also report on themes identified from e-cig tweets generated at particular places (such as schools and churches) for geo-tagged tweets found in our dataset using the GeoNames API. To our knowledge, this is the first effort that employs topic modeling to identify e-cig themes in general and in the context of geo-tagged tweets tied to specific places of interest. PMID:28782062

  8. Exploratory data analysis as a tool for similarity assessment and clustering of chiral polysaccharide-based systems used to separate pharmaceuticals in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Klerck, Katrijn; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Mangelings, Debby

    2014-01-24

    In the search for appropriate chromatographic conditions to separate enantiomers, screening strategies are often applied because achieving chiral separations is tedious. These screenings aim to find relatively fast suitable separation conditions. However, the definition of these screenings mostly relies on years of expertise or on the labour- and time-intensive investigation of a broad range of chiral stationary- and mobile phases. A large amount of data is generated using either approach. In this study, the obtained data are investigated in a systematic manner and (dis)similar systems are searched for. For this case study, 48 chromatographic systems were characterized by the enantioresolutions of 29 racemates. Exploratory data analysis was performed by means of projection pursuit, revealing the different enantioselective patterns of the chromatographic systems. To quantify the (dis)similarity, correlation coefficients and Euclidean distances were calculated. These results were visualized in colour maps to allow investigating the degree of (dis)similarity between the systems. These maps proved to be a helpful tool in the selection of dissimilar/orthogonal chromatographic conditions. Hierarchical-cluster-analysis dendrograms were constructed next to evaluate the clustering of similar systems, i.e. with an equivalent enantioselectivity. Screening sequences were extracted and compared with the initial, defined by direct data interpretation. In a final section, selection of dissimilar systems was done by means of the Kennard and Stone algorithm. The systems selected by the applied techniques did not necessarily perform better than the selection by direct data interpretation. Nevertheless, high cumulative success rates are achieved for the selected combinations, due to the broad enantioselectivity, the high individual success rates and the complementarity of the chiral selectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modifying the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (6-18 years) to a Chinese Context: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Xuerong; Wu, Lijie; Zou, Xiaobing; Xia, Kun; Wang, Yimin; Xu, Xiu; Ge, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Fombonne, Eric; Yan, Weili; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the autism spectrum rating scale (ASRS). We recruited 1,625 community-based children and 211 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases from 4 sites, and the parents of all participants completed the Chinese version of the ASRS. A robust weighted least squares means and variance adjusted estimator was used for exploratory factor analysis. The 3-factor structure included 59 items suitable for the current sample. The item reliability for the modified Chinese version of the ASRS (MC-ASRS) was excellent. Moreover, with 60 as the cut-off point, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the MC-ASRS had excellent discriminate validity, comparable to that of the unmodified Chinese version (UC-ASRS), with area under the curve values of 0.952 (95% CI: 0.936-0.967) and 0.948 (95% CI: 0.930-0.965), respectively. Meanwhile, the confirm factor analysis revealed that MC-ASRS had a better construct validity than UC-ASRS based on the above factor solution in another children sample. In conclusion, the MC-ASRS shows better efficacy in epidemiological screening for ASD in Chinese children.

  10. An Instrument to Measure Dental Students' Communication Skills With Patients in Six Specific Circumstances: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aalboe, Joanna A; Schumacher, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the internal structure of an instrument assessing dental students' confidence in their ability to communicate with patients in six specific circumstances (anxious, in pain, etc.) using exploratory factor analysis. In a Communication in the Dental Health Care Setting course at a U.S. dental school, second-year dental students in two years (2013 and 2014) responded to the six items on a survey instrument. Of the total 123 students, 122 fully completed the instrument, for a response rate of 99%. Analysis of the results identified a unidimensional scale with regards to patient-specific communication self-efficacy and explained 74% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reflected by high Cronbach's alpha (α=0.929, 95% CI [0.907, 0.947]). These findings suggest the instrument may be a useful tool in assessing the development of patient communication skills in second-year dental students following a course in communication. Further exploration utilizing confirmatory analysis, determining predictive validity, and assessing convergent and discriminant evidence is warranted.

  11. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  12. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  13. Differential item functioning analysis by applying multiple comparison procedures.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Paolo; Kreiner, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Analysis within a Rasch measurement framework aims at development of valid and objective test score. One requirement of both validity and objectivity is that items do not show evidence of differential item functioning (DIF). A number of procedures exist for the assessment of DIF including those based on analysis of contingency tables by Mantel-Haenszel tests and partial gamma coefficients. The aim of this paper is to illustrate Multiple Comparison Procedures (MCP) for analysis of DIF relative to a variable defining a very large number of groups, with an unclear ordering with respect to the DIF effect. We propose a single step procedure controlling the false discovery rate for DIF detection. The procedure applies for both dichotomous and polytomous items. In addition to providing evidence against a hypothesis of no DIF, the procedure also provides information on subset of groups that are homogeneous with respect to the DIF effect. A stepwise MCP procedure for this purpose is also introduced.

  14. Developing educational competencies for dissemination and implementation research training programs: an exploratory analysis using card sorts.

    PubMed

    Padek, Margaret; Colditz, Graham; Dobbins, Maureen; Koscielniak, Nikolas; Proctor, Enola K; Sales, Anne E; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-08-12

    With demand increasing for dissemination and implementation (D&I) training programs in the USA and other countries, more structured, competency-based, and tested curricula are needed to guide training programs. There are many benefits to the use of competencies in practice-based education such as the establishment of rigorous standards as well as providing an additional metrics for development and growth. As the first aim of a D&I training grant, an exploratory study was conducted to establish a new set of D&I competencies to guide training in D&I research. Based upon existing D&I training literature, the leadership team compiled an initial list of competencies. The research team then engaged 16 additional colleagues in the area of D&I science to provide suggestions to the initial list. The competency list was then additionally narrowed to 43 unique competencies following feedback elicited from these D&I researchers. Three hundred additional D&I researchers were then invited via email to complete a card sort in which the list of competencies were sorted into three categories of experience levels. Participants had previous first-hand experience with D&I or knowledge translation training programs in the past. Participants reported their self-identified D&I expertise level as well as the country in which their home institution is located. A mean score was calculated for each competency based on their experience level categorization. From these mean scores, beginner-, intermediate-, and advanced-level tertiles were created for the competencies. The card sort request achieved a 41 % response rate (n = 124). The list of 43 competencies was organized into four broad domains and sorted based on their experience level score. Eleven competencies were classified into the "Beginner" category, 27 into "Intermediate," and 5 into "Advanced." Education and training developers can use this competency list to formalize future trainings in D&I research, create more evidence

  15. Alternate assessment use with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: an exploratory mixed-methods analysis of portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level test formats.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Wurtz, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Drawn from the results of the "Second National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing," this study investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing. Analysis includes descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats, qualitative analyses of teacher perspectives, and an exploratory logistic regression analysis on predictors of alternate assessment use. This exploratory analysis looks at predictors such as state policy, educational setting, grades served, language of instruction, and participant perspectives. Results indicate that predictors at the student, teacher, and system level may influence alternate assessment use for SDHH.

  16. Analysis of the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) in Spanish secondary-school students through exploratory structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Barrada, Juan Ramón; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Almenara, Carlos A; Trepat, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess the factor structure of the SATAQ-3 in Spanish secondary-school students by means of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) models; and (2) to study its invariance by sex and school grade. ESEM is a technique that has been proposed for the analysis of internal structure that overcomes some of the limitations of EFA and CFA. Participants were 1559 boys and girls in grades seventh to tenth. The results support the four-factor solution of the original version, and reveal that the best fit was obtained with ESEM, excluding Item 20 and with correlated uniqueness between reverse-keyed items. Our version shows invariance by sex and grade. The differences between scores of different groups are in the expected direction, and support the validity of the questionnaire. We recommend a version excluding Item 20 and without reverse-keyed items.

  17. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Shedlock, James

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%. PMID:12883578

  18. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (< 0.32). Out of the final 20 items of the PBI-M, there were 10 items for the care factor, five items for the autonomy factor and five items for the overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  19. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Omar, Khairani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (< 0.32). Out of the final 20 items of the PBI-M, there were 10 items for the care factor, five items for the autonomy factor and five items for the overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity.

  20. Exploratory analysis of obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions in children and adolescents: a Prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Richard; Bille, Arnaud; Betancur, Catalina; Mathieu, Flavie; Chabane, Nadia; Mouren-Simeoni, Marie Christine; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent statistical approaches based on factor analysis of obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms in adult patients have identified dimensions that seem more effective in symptom-based taxonomies and appear to be more stable over time. Although a phenotypic continuum from childhood to adulthood has been hypothesized, no factor analytic studies have been performed in juvenile patients, and the stability of OC dimensions in children and adolescents has not been assessed. Methods This study was designed to perform an exploratory factor analysis of OC symptoms in a sample of children and adolescents with OC disorder (OCD) and to investigate the course of factors over time (mean follow-up period: four years). Results We report for the first time that four symptom dimensions, remarkably similar to those previously described in adults, underlined the heterogeneity of OC symptoms in children and adolescents. Moreover, after follow-up, the symptom dimensions identified remained essentially unmodified. The changes observed concerned the intensity of dimensions rather than shifts from one dimension to another. Conclusion These findings reinforce the hypothesis of a phenotypic continuum of OC symptoms from childhood to adulthood. They also strengthen the interest for investigating the clinical, neurobiological and genetic heterogeneity of OCD using a dimension-based approach. PMID:16396684

  1. Prenatal Stress, Fearfulness, and the Epigenome: Exploratory Analysis of Sex Differences in DNA Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund, Brendan D.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68). Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament. PMID:27462209

  2. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark.

    PubMed

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2012-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited.

  3. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2013-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited. PMID:24855322

  4. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  5. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  6. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, W D; Epling, W F; Dews, P B; Estes, W K; Morse, W H; Van Orman, W; Herrnstein, R J

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance.

  7. EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE VARIATION IN PARTITIONING OF NONPOLAR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS TO MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of nonpolar organic contaminants to marine sediments is considered to be controlled by the amount of organic carbon present. However, several studies propose that other characteristics of sediments may affect the partitioning of contaminants. For this exploratory...

  8. Exploratory Analysis of the Comprehensive Application of the Islamic Concept of Zuhd in the Contemporary World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olohunfunmi, Ismail Abdul Fatai

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to present a clear frame work of how to practically apply the concept "Zuhd" to individual Muslim life. It is an empirical research on the Islamic concept of "Zuhd." The method that is employed in the study is qualitative approach, whereby interviews were staged, recorded and transcribed.…

  9. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and bone health outcomes: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Luchini, Claudio; Solmi, Marco; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-02-27

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a common condition in the elderly. A number of studies have investigated the relationship between MGUS and bone health outcomes including bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis and fractures, but no meta-analysis exists. We conducted a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis comparing bone health outcomes in patients with MGUS. Two independent authors searched PubMed and Scopus from inception until 19 October 2016. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies investigating fractures and BMD was conducted. Standardised mean differences (SMD) ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for BMD, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated for prevalent and incident fractures. Of 174 initial hits, 10 studies of moderate methodological quality were eligible, including 8711 individuals with MGUS vs. 52,865 controls. Compared to controls, subjects with MGUS showed significantly lower values for radial cortical volumetric BMD (1 study; SMD = -5.45, 95% CI: -7.24 to -3.66), but not at the lumbar spine, femoral neck or hip. The incidence of fractures was higher in people with MGUS (n = 7466) vs. controls (n = 52,304) (RR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.28-1.44, I (2) = 0%) over a median of 12.5-year follow-up. The incidence of vertebral fractures was particularly elevated (RR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.53-4.06) although limited to two studies. In conclusion, although with limitations, our preliminary meta-analysis suggests that patients with MGUS are at higher risk of fractures despite evidence for differences in BMD being equivocal. Future longitudinal research is required to confirm our findings and determine if fracture prevention interventions are warranted in people with MGUS.

  10. Sensitivity analysis applied to stalled airfoil wake and steady control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Gustavo; Gioria, Rafael; Meneghini, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The sensitivity of an eigenvalue to base flow modifications induced by an external force is applied to the global unstable modes associated to the onset of vortex shedding in the wake of a stalled airfoil. In this work, the flow regime is close to the first instability of the system and its associated eigenvalue/eigenmode is determined. The sensitivity analysis to a general punctual external force allows establishing the regions where control devices must be in order to stabilize the global modes. Different types of steady control devices, passive and active, are used in the regions predicted by the sensitivity analysis to check the vortex shedding suppression, i.e. the primary instability bifurcation is delayed. The new eigenvalue, modified by the action of the device, is also calculated. Finally the spectral finite element method is employed to determine flow characteristics before and after of the bifurcation in order to cross check the results.

  11. Classical mechanics approach applied to analysis of genetic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Vasylchenkova, Anastasiia; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Moskon, Miha

    2016-04-05

    Biological oscillators present a fundamental part of several regulatory mechanisms that control the response of various biological systems. Several analytical approaches for their analysis have been reported recently. They are, however, limited to only specific oscillator topologies and/or to giving only qualitative answers, i.e., is the dynamics of an oscillator given the parameter space oscillatory or not. Here we present a general analytical approach that can be applied to the analysis of biological oscillators. It relies on the projection of biological systems to classical mechanics systems. The approach is able to provide us with relatively accurate results in the meaning of type of behaviour system reflects (i.e. oscillatory or not) and periods of potential oscillations without the necessity to conduct expensive numerical simulations. We demonstrate and verify the proposed approach on three different implementations of amplified negative feedback oscillator.

  12. Compatibility of person-centered planning and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holburn, Steve

    2001-01-01

    In response to Osborne (1999), the aims and practices of person-centered planning (PCP) are compared to the basic principles of applied behavior analysis set forth by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968, 1987). The principal goal of PCP is social integration of people with disabilities; it qualifies as a socially important behavior, and its problems have been displayed sufficiently. However, social integration is a complex social problem whose solution requires access to system contingencies that influence lifestyles. Nearly all of the component goals of PCP proposed by O'Brien (1987b) have been reliably quantified, although concurrent measurement of outcomes such as friendship, autonomy, and respect presents a formidable challenge. Behavioral principles such as contingency and contextual control are operative within PCP, but problems in achieving reliable implementation appear to impede an experimental analysis. PMID:22478371

  13. Exploratory analysis of the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab or triamcinolone on worsening of diabetic retinopathy in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Susan B; Qin, Haijing; Melia, Michele; Bressler, Neil M; Beck, Roy W; Chan, Clement K; Grover, Sandeep; Miller, David G

    2013-08-01

    The standard care for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) usually is panretinal photocoagulation, an inherently destructive treatment that can cause iatrogenic vision loss. Therefore, evaluating the effects of therapies for diabetic macular edema on development or worsening of PDR might lead to new therapies for PDR. To evaluate the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab or triamcinolone acetonide, administered to treat diabetic macular edema, on worsening of diabetic retinopathy. Exploratory analysis was performed on worsening of retinopathy, defined as 1 or more of the following: (1) worsening from no PDR to PDR, (2) worsening of 2 or more severity levels on reading center assessment of fundus photographs in eyes without PDR at baseline, (3) having panretinal photocoagulation, (4) experiencing vitreous hemorrhage, or (5) undergoing vitrectomy for the treatment of PDR. Community- and university-based ophthalmology practices. Individuals with central-involved diabetic macular edema causing visual acuity impairment. Eyes were assigned randomly to sham with prompt focal/grid laser, 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred (≥24 weeks) laser, or 4 mg of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide with prompt laser. Three-year cumulative probabilities for retinopathy worsening. For eyes without PDR at baseline, the 3-year cumulative probabilities for retinopathy worsening (P value comparison with sham with prompt laser) were 23% using sham with prompt laser, 18% with ranibizumab with prompt laser (P = .25), 7% with ranibizumab with deferred laser (P = .001), and 37% with triamcinolone with prompt laser (P = .10). For eyes with PDR at baseline, the 3-year cumulative probabilities for retinopathy worsening were 40%, 21% (P = .05), 18% (P = .02), and 12% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Intravitreal ranibizumab appears to be associated with a reduced risk of diabetic retinopathy worsening in eyes with or without PDR. Intravitreal

  14. Exploratory Higher Order Analysis of the Luria Interpretive Model on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) School-Age Battery.

    PubMed

    McGill, Ryan J; Spurgin, Angelia R

    2015-11-23

    Higher order factor structure of the Luria interpretive scheme on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) for the 7- to 12-year and the 13- to 18-year age groups in the KABC-II normative sample (N = 2,025) is reported. Using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and hierarchical exploratory factor analysis not included in the KABC-II manual, two-, three-, and four-factor extractions were analyzed to assess the hierarchical factor structure by sequentially partitioning variance appropriately to higher order and lower order dimensions as recommended by Carroll. No evidence for a four-factor solution was found. Results showed that the largest portions of total and common variance were accounted for by the second-order general factor and that interpretation should focus primarily, if not exclusively, at that level of measurement.

  15. Exploratory analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence of abnormal white matter structure.

    PubMed

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Doering, Thomas; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer

    2016-06-01

    Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC). For this purpose, 13 drug-naive children with ADHD of both genders underwent MRI using DTI acquisition methodology and tract-based spatial statistics. The results were compared to those of a sample of 14 age- and gender-matched TDC. Lower fractional anisotropy was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left external capsule and posterior thalamic radiation (including right optic radiation). We conclude that white matter tracts in attentional and motor control systems exhibited signs of abnormal microstructure in this sample of drug-naive children with ADHD.

  16. What does cancer treatment look like in consumer cancer magazines? An exploratory analysis of photographic content in consumer cancer magazines.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Selene G; Della, Lindsay J; Sohn, Steve H

    2011-04-01

    In an exploratory analysis of several highly circulated consumer cancer magazines, the authors evaluated congruency between visual images of cancer patients and target audience risk profile. The authors assessed 413 images of cancer patients/potential patients for demographic variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity/race. They compared this profile with actual risk statistics. The images in the magazines are considerably younger, more female, and more White than what is indicated by U.S. cancer risk statistics. The authors also assessed images for visual signs of cancer testing/diagnosis and treatment. Few individuals show obvious signs of cancer treatment (e.g., head scarves, skin/nail abnormalities, thin body types). Most images feature healthier looking people, some actively engaged in construction work, bicycling, and yoga. In contrast, a scan of the editorial content showed that nearly two thirds of the articles focus on treatment issues. To explicate the implications of this imagery-text discontinuity on readers' attention and cognitive processing, the authors used constructs from information processing and social identity theories. On the basis of these models/theories, the authors provide recommendations for consumer cancer magazines, suggesting that the imagery be adjusted to reflect cancer diagnosis realities for enhanced message attention and comprehension.

  17. Exploratory Analysis of Sediment Related Disturbance on Post-Spate Periphyton Retention on the Ste. Marguerite River, Saguenay, Quebec.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, J. J.; Lapointe, M.

    2004-05-01

    Both natural and human induced disturbance can cause significant shifts in the viability and spatial distribution of river organisms. The dominant primary producers in unshaded streams are benthic algae. Algae grow within a biofilm called periphyton and provide the main energy source driving production in higher trophic levels. Literature suggests that periphyton are adapted to a range of both resources (e.g. sunlight and nutrients) and disturbance (e.g. floods and grazing). Site scale studies of flood disturbance effects on periphyton have demonstrated that spatially discrete refuge zones (e.g. gravel clusters, boulders, inside of point bars) exist where periphyton removal after floods is minimal. The purpose of this study is to examine the hypothesis that stable refugia can be found within the drainage basin at larger spatial and temporal scales than previously demonstrated. The intent is to identify refuge zones through the study of geomorphic disturbance processes, resource availability and periphyton resistance. Four sedimentary links, characterized by 30 cross-sections, have been selected on the Ste Marguerite River, each providing a gradient of channel disturbance but limited nutrient variation. A sequence of spates during the 2003 field season were monitored for discharge, temperature, water quality and sediment mobility using fine sediment traps and tracer rocks. The overall approach employs a combination of field work, numerical modeling and statistical analyses. Exploratory data analysis will be presented examining the role of resources and disturbance responsible for sources of variability in post spate algal biomass.

  18. Measurement of Mealtime Behaviors in Rural Overweight Children: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored. Methods EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables). Results The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest. Conclusion Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908

  19. Shape analysis applied in heavy ion reactions near Fermi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Lin, W.; Wang, J.

    2017-03-01

    A new method is proposed to perform shape analyses and to evaluate their validity in heavy ion collisions near the Fermi energy. In order to avoid erroneous values of shape parameters in the calculation, a test particle method is utilized in which each nucleon is represented by n test particles, similar to that used in the Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations. The method is applied to the events simulated by an antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model. The geometrical shape of fragments is reasonably extracted when n = 100 is used. A significant deformation is observed for all fragments created in the multifragmentation process. The method is also applied to the shape of the momentum distribution for event classification. In the momentum case, the errors in the eigenvalue calculation become much smaller than those of the geometrical shape analysis and the results become similar between those with and without the test particle method, indicating that in intermediate heavy ion collisions the shape analysis of momentum distribution can be used for the event classification without the test particle method.

  20. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  1. Thermographic techniques applied to solar collector systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.

    1980-02-01

    The use of thermography to analyze large solar collector array systems under dynamic operating conditions is discussed. The research at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in this area has focused on thermographic techniques and equipment to determine temperature distributions, flow patterns, and air blockages in solar collectors. The results of this extensive study, covering many sites and types of collectors, illustrate the capabilities of infrared (IR) analysis as a qualitative analysis tool and operation and maintenance procedure when applied to large arrays. Thermographic analysis of most collector systems qualitatively showed relative temperature distributions that indicated balanced flow patterns. In three significant cases, blocked or broken collector arrays, which previously had gone undetected, were discovered. Using this analysis, validation studies of large computer codes could examine collector arrays for flow patterns or blockages that could cause disagreement between actual and predicted performance. Initial operation and balancing of large systems could be accomplished without complicated sensor systems not needed for normal operations. Maintenance personnel could quickly check their systems without climbing onto the roof and without complicated sensor systems.

  2. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  3. Web 2.0 in the Professional LIS Literature: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis and a thorough content analysis of descriptors and journal titles extracted from the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, focusing on the subject of Web 2.0 and its main applications: blog, wiki, social network and tags.The primary research questions include: whether the…

  4. Web 2.0 in the Professional LIS Literature: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis and a thorough content analysis of descriptors and journal titles extracted from the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, focusing on the subject of Web 2.0 and its main applications: blog, wiki, social network and tags.The primary research questions include: whether the…

  5. Development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure satisfaction with home care in Greece: an exploratory factor analysis of polychoric correlations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a Greek-language instrument for measuring satisfaction with home care. The first empirical evidence about the level of satisfaction with these services in Greece is also provided. Methods The questionnaire resulted from literature search, on-site observation and cognitive interviews. It was applied in 2006 to a sample of 201 enrollees of five home care programs in the city of Thessaloniki and contains 31 items that measure satisfaction with individual service attributes and are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The latter has been usually considered in practice as an interval scale, although it is in principle ordinal. We thus treated the variable as an ordinal one, but also employed the traditional approach in order to compare the findings. Our analysis was therefore based on ordinal measures such as the polychoric correlation, Kendall's Tau b coefficient and ordinal Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was followed by an assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity. Results Analyses with ordinal and interval scale measures produced in essence very similar results and identified four multi-item scales. Three of these were found to be reliable and valid: socioeconomic change, staff skills and attitudes and service appropriateness. A fourth dimension -service planning- had lower internal consistency reliability and yet very satisfactory test-retest reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. The global satisfaction scale created was also quite reliable. Overall, participants were satisfied -yet not very satisfied- with home care services. More room for improvement seems to exist for the socio-economic and planning aspects of care and less for staff skills and attitudes and appropriateness of provided services. Conclusions The methods developed seem to be a promising tool for the measurement of

  6. Post-marketing of disease modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory analysis of gender effect in interferon beta treatment.

    PubMed

    Trojano, M; Pellegrini, F; Paolicelli, D; Fuiani, A; Zimatore, G B; Tortorella, C; Simone, I L; Patti, F; Ghezzi, A; Portaccio, E; Rossi, P; Pozzilli, C; Salemi, G; Lugaresi, A; Bergamaschi, R; Millefiorini, E; Clerico, M; Lus, G; Vianello, M; Avolio, C; Cavalla, P; Iaffaldano, P; Direnzo, V; D'Onghia, M; Lepore, V; Livrea, P; Comi, G; Amato, M P

    2009-11-15

    There are a few and conflicting results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) pertaining to the influence of gender in response to currently used disease modifying drugs in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Observational studies may be especially valuable for answering effectiveness questions in subgroups not studied in RCTs. To conduct a post-marketing analysis aimed to evaluate the gender effect on Interferon beta (IFNbeta) treatment response in a cohort of relapsing (RR) MS patients. A cohort of 2570 IFNbeta-treated RRMS was prospectively followed for up to 7 years in 15 Italian MS Centers. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess gender differences for risk of reaching 1st relapse and risk of progression by 1 point on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. Gender effects were also explored by a propensity score (PS) matching algorithm, and a tree-growing technique. The multivariate Cox Regression analyses showed that male patients had a significant (p=0.0097) lower risk for 1st relapse and a trend (p=0.0897) for a higher risk to reach 1 point EDSS progression than females. The PS matched multivariate Cox Regression confirmed these results. The RECPAM analysis showed that male sex conferred a significant reduction in the risk for 1st relapse (HR=0.86; 95% CI=0.76-0.98; p=0.0226) in the subgroup with a low pre-treatment number of bouts, and a significant increase in the risk for 1 point EDSS progression (HR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.76; p<0.05) in the subgroup with a delayed treatment, but a still young age at the start of treatment. The results of this exploratory analysis seem to suggest that male patients do not respond to IFNbeta treatment in the same way of females.

  7. Exploratory data analysis on data generated in the DOE subsurface microbiology program

    SciTech Connect

    Meglen, R.R.

    1990-06-01

    The preliminary results from the innovative subsurface microbiology research program indicate that new data on the nature of the link between the geosphere and biosphere have been generated. The diversity of scientific disciplines represented in the subsurface microbiology program reflects the complexity of the system under study. The research carried out by national laboratory and university research scientists is addressing fundamental questions about the abundance of microorganisms and factors controlling microbial activity in the complex subsurface hydrologic and geochemical environment. Long-term implications of this research for mitigating contamination are clear and researchers share the broader objective of linking the basic science with applied work.

  8. An exploratory analysis of the impact of specific interventions: Some clients reveal more than others.

    PubMed

    Boswell, James F; Bugatti, Matteo

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has highlighted that process-outcome relationships are likely to vary depending on the client, yet there is little direct evidence regarding specific intervention effects in individual clients. This study attempted to address the hypothesis that some clients reveal more than others regarding the impact of specific interventions. Intensive case study analyses were applied to 2 clients with principal major depressive disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders receiving transdiagnostic psychotherapy. Clients completed a battery of symptom and psychological assessments of mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal use, and emotion avoidance on many occasions throughout treatment. Time series analyses were applied to symptom and change construct data. Results included: (a) significant decreases in depression, anxiety, and emotion avoidance from baseline to posttreatment were observed, as well as significant increases in mindfulness and reappraisal; and (b) in one case, intervention strategies exerted little influence on changes in key variables; in the other, emotion exposure strategies had the strongest influence on increases in mindfulness and present-focused awareness strategies had the strongest influence on reductions in emotion avoidance. Even when different clients appear to similarly benefit from the same treatment, specific intervention effects on putative change factors may be more prevalent for some clients and less prevalent for others. Regular assessment is needed to determine if a client requires an alternative set of specific intervention strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Exploratory Network Meta Regression Analysis of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Fails to Identify Any Interactions with Treatment Effect

    PubMed Central

    Batson, Sarah; Sutton, Alex; Abrams, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with atrial fibrillation are at a greater risk of stroke and therefore the main goal for treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation is to prevent stroke from occurring. There are a number of different stroke prevention treatments available to include warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants. Previous network meta-analyses of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation acknowledge the limitation of heterogeneity across the included trials but have not explored the impact of potentially important treatment modifying covariates. Objectives To explore potentially important treatment modifying covariates using network meta-regression analyses for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Methods We performed a network meta-analysis for the outcome of ischaemic stroke and conducted an exploratory regression analysis considering potentially important treatment modifying covariates. These covariates included the proportion of patients with a previous stroke, proportion of males, mean age, the duration of study follow-up and the patients underlying risk of ischaemic stroke. Results None of the covariates explored impacted relative treatment effects relative to placebo. Notably, the exploration of ‘study follow-up’ as a covariate supported the assumption that difference in trial durations is unimportant in this indication despite the variation across trials in the network. Conclusion This study is limited by the quantity of data available. Further investigation is warranted, and, as justifying further trials may be difficult, it would be desirable to obtain individual patient level data (IPD) to facilitate an effort to relate treatment effects to IPD covariates in order to investigate heterogeneity. Observational data could also be examined to establish if there are potential trends elsewhere. The approach and methods presented have potentially wide applications within any indication as to highlight the potential benefit

  10. Fall in homicides in the City of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed. PMID:22218669

  11. Fall in homicides in the city of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants.

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-12-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman's correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed.

  12. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    PubMed

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  14. Exploratory Network Meta Regression Analysis of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Fails to Identify Any Interactions with Treatment Effect.

    PubMed

    Batson, Sarah; Sutton, Alex; Abrams, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation are at a greater risk of stroke and therefore the main goal for treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation is to prevent stroke from occurring. There are a number of different stroke prevention treatments available to include warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants. Previous network meta-analyses of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation acknowledge the limitation of heterogeneity across the included trials but have not explored the impact of potentially important treatment modifying covariates. To explore potentially important treatment modifying covariates using network meta-regression analyses for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We performed a network meta-analysis for the outcome of ischaemic stroke and conducted an exploratory regression analysis considering potentially important treatment modifying covariates. These covariates included the proportion of patients with a previous stroke, proportion of males, mean age, the duration of study follow-up and the patients underlying risk of ischaemic stroke. None of the covariates explored impacted relative treatment effects relative to placebo. Notably, the exploration of 'study follow-up' as a covariate supported the assumption that difference in trial durations is unimportant in this indication despite the variation across trials in the network. This study is limited by the quantity of data available. Further investigation is warranted, and, as justifying further trials may be difficult, it would be desirable to obtain individual patient level data (IPD) to facilitate an effort to relate treatment effects to IPD covariates in order to investigate heterogeneity. Observational data could also be examined to establish if there are potential trends elsewhere. The approach and methods presented have potentially wide applications within any indication as to highlight the potential benefit of extending decision problems to include additional

  15. Receiver function analysis applied to refraction survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subaru, T.; Kyosuke, O.; Hitoshi, M.

    2008-12-01

    For the estimation of the thickness of oceanic crust or petrophysical investigation of subsurface material, refraction or reflection seismic exploration is one of the methods frequently practiced. These explorations use four-component (x,y,z component of acceleration and pressure) seismometer, but only compressional wave or vertical component of seismometers tends to be used in the analyses. Hence, it is needed to use shear wave or lateral component of seismograms for more precise investigation to estimate the thickness of oceanic crust. Receiver function is a function at a place that can be used to estimate the depth of velocity interfaces by receiving waves from teleseismic signal including shear wave. Receiver function analysis uses both vertical and horizontal components of seismograms and deconvolves the horizontal with the vertical to estimate the spectral difference of P-S converted waves arriving after the direct P wave. Once the phase information of the receiver function is obtained, then one can estimate the depth of the velocity interface. This analysis has advantage in the estimation of the depth of velocity interface including Mohorovicic discontinuity using two components of seismograms when P-to-S converted waves are generated at the interface. Our study presents results of the preliminary study using synthetic seismograms. First, we use three types of geological models that are composed of a single sediment layer, a crust layer, and a sloped Moho, respectively, for underground sources. The receiver function can estimate the depth and shape of Moho interface precisely for the three models. Second, We applied this method to synthetic refraction survey data generated not by earthquakes but by artificial sources on the ground or sea surface. Compressional seismic waves propagate under the velocity interface and radiate converted shear waves as well as at the other deep underground layer interfaces. However, the receiver function analysis applied to the

  16. An exploratory analysis of treatment completion and client and organizational factors using hierarchical linear modeling.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Albert; Das, Abhik; Raskin, Ira E; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-11-01

    Data from the Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) are used to analyze the structure and operation of the substance abuse treatment industry in the United States. Published literature contains little systematic empirical analysis of the interaction between organizational characteristics and treatment outcomes. This paper addresses that deficit. It develops and tests a hierarchical linear model (HLM) to address questions about the empirical relationship between treatment inputs (industry costs, types and use of counseling and medical personnel, diagnosis mix, patient demographics, and the nature and level of services used in substance abuse treatment), and patient outcomes (retention and treatment completion rates). The paper adds to the literature by demonstrating a direct and statistically significant link between treatment completion and the organizational and staffing structure of the treatment setting. Related reimbursement issues, questions for future analysis, and limitations of the ADSS for this analysis are discussed.

  17. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a domain theory''), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  18. Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science and, Therefore, Progressive.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-02-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful progress for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe this approach as progressive. In a progressive approach to ABA, the therapist employs a structured yet flexible process, which is contingent upon and responsive to child progress. We will describe progressive ABA, contrast it to reductionist ABA, and provide rationales for both the substance and intent of ABA as a progressive scientific method for improving conditions of social relevance for individuals with ASD.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training in Applied Behaviour Analysis.

    PubMed

    Grey, Ian M; Honan, Rita; McClean, Brian; Daly, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Interventions for children with autism based upon Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has been repeatedly shown to be related both to educational gains and to reductions in challenging behaviours. However, to date, comprehensive training in ABA for teachers and others have been limited. Over 7 months, 11 teachers undertook 90 hours of classroom instruction and supervision in ABA. Each teacher conducted a comprehensive functional assessment and designed a behaviour support plan targeting one behaviour for one child with an autistic disorder. Target behaviours included aggression, non-compliance and specific educational skills. Teachers recorded observational data for the target behaviour for both baseline and intervention sessions. Support plans produced an average 80 percent change in frequency of occurrence of target behaviours. Questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at the end of the course indicated a beneficial effect for the children and the educational environment. The potential benefits of teacher implemented behavioural intervention are discussed.

  20. Finite element analysis applied to dentoalveolar trauma: methodology description.

    PubMed

    da Silva, B R; Moreira Neto, J J S; da Silva, F I; de Aguiar, A S W

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated.

  1. Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463

  2. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W. . Dept. of Computer Sciences); Noordewier, M.O. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1992-01-01

    We are primarily developing a machine teaming (ML) system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being teamed. Using this information, our teaming algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, our KBANN algorithm maps inference rules about a given recognition task into a neural network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples to refine these inference rules. We call these rules a domain theory, following the convention in the machine teaming community. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis. In addition, we have been extending the capabilities of our teaming system along several dimensions. We have also been investigating parallel algorithms that perform sequence alignments in the presence of frameshift errors.

  3. Statistical model applied to motor evoked potentials analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Thakor, Nitish V; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) convey information regarding the functional integrity of the descending motor pathways. Absence of the MEP has been used as a neurophysiological marker to suggest cortico-spinal abnormalities in the operating room. Due to their high variability and sensitivity, detailed quantitative studies of MEPs are lacking. This paper applies a statistical method to characterize MEPs by estimating the number of motor units and single motor unit potential amplitudes. A clearly increasing trend of single motor unit potential amplitudes in the MEPs after each pulse of the stimulation pulse train is revealed by this method. This statistical method eliminates the effects of anesthesia, and provides an objective assessment of MEPs. Consequently this statistical method has high potential to be useful in future quantitative MEPs analysis.

  4. The political economy of AIDS leadership in developing countries: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bor, Jacob

    2007-04-01

    The commitment of high-level government leaders is widely recognized as a key factor in curbing national AIDS epidemics. But where does such leadership come from? This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the determinants of AIDS leadership in 54 developing countries, using the 2003 AIDS Program Effort Index "political support" score as an indicator of political commitment. Explanatory variables include measures of political institutions as well as economic development and integration. Models developed in the analysis explain over half of the variation in commitment across the countries in the sample. In particular, press freedoms, income equality, and HIV prevalence stand out as determinants of political commitment.

  5. Pattern of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on indoor air: Exploratory principal component analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. ) Wilson, N.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles in indoor air. Fifteen PAHs were measured in ten different homes in Columbus (Ohio) which had different indoor emission characteristics such as gas utilities, wood-burning fireplaces, and cigarette smokers. Different PAH concentration patterns emerged depending upon the emission sources present in the different homes. Of these, cigarette smoking appeared to have the greatest impact on the indoor PAH concentrations. The PCA allowed convenient displays of the multidimensional data set from which the PAH concentration characteristics could be elucidated. The interrelationship between the different PAHs was also studied by correlation analysis.

  6. Best-fit model of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I clinical decision-making cases.

    PubMed

    Champlain, André F De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the fit of a number of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis models to the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE1) clinical decision-making (CDM) cases. The outcomes of this study have important implications for a range of domains, including scoring and test development. The examinees included all first-time Canadian medical graduates and international medical graduates who took the MCCQE1 in spring or fall 2010. The fit of one- to five-factor exploratory models was assessed for the item response matrix of the 2010 CDM cases. Five confirmatory factor analytic models were also examined with the same CDM response matrix. The structural equation modeling software program Mplus was used for all analyses. Out of the five exploratory factor analytic models that were evaluated, a three-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 loaded on three medicine cases, two obstetrics and gynecology cases, and two orthopedic surgery cases. Factor 2 corresponded to pediatrics, and the third factor loaded on psychiatry cases. Among the five confirmatory factor analysis models examined in this study, three- and four-factor lifespan period models and the five-factor discipline models provided the best fit. The results suggest that knowledge of broad disciplinary domains best account for performance on CDM cases. In test development, particular effort should be placed on developing CDM cases according to broad discipline and patient age domains; CDM testlets should be assembled largely using the criteria of discipline and age.

  7. Community College Student Engagement Patterns: A Typology Revealed through Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Victor B.; Hatch, Deryl; Bukoski, Beth E.; Kim, Suyun; Lee, Kye-hyoung; Valdez, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study employs survey data from the Center for Community College Student Engagement to examine the similarities and differences that exist across student-level domains in terms of student engagement in community colleges. In total, the sample used in the analysis pools data from 663 community colleges and includes more than 320,000 students.…

  8. Emotional Psychological and Related Problems among Truant Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio Aracelis; Gulledge, Laura M.; Karas, Lora M.; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention Project. Results identified two classes of youths: Class 1(n=9) - youths with low levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues; and Class 2(n=37) - youths with high levels of these problems. Comparison of these two classes on their urine analysis test results and parent/guardian reports of traumatic events found…

  9. Student Motivational Profiles in an Introductory MIS Course: An Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study profiles students in an introductory MIS course according to a variety of variables associated with choice of academic major. The data were collected through a survey administered to 12 sections of the course. A two-step cluster analysis was performed with gender as a categorical variable and students' perceptions of task value…

  10. Assessing Model Fit: Caveats and Recommendations for Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John L.; Nicholls, Adam R.; Clough, Peter J.; Crust, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the limitations of overgeneralizing cutoff values for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; e.g., Marsh, Hau, & Wen, 2004), they are still often employed as golden rules for assessing factorial validity in sport and exercise psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness of using the CFA approach with these…

  11. A Second Exploratory Analysis of the Relations Among Institutional Variables. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Charles R.

    This is one of five studies performed in 1976 to examine the characteristics of U.S. medical schools and the interrelationship among variables that describe them. A principal components analysis was performed and interpreted exploring the interrelationships of 33 selected variables that describe the faculty, student, curriculum, and other…

  12. Community College Student Engagement Patterns: A Typology Revealed through Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Victor B.; Hatch, Deryl; Bukoski, Beth E.; Kim, Suyun; Lee, Kye-hyoung; Valdez, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study employs survey data from the Center for Community College Student Engagement to examine the similarities and differences that exist across student-level domains in terms of student engagement in community colleges. In total, the sample used in the analysis pools data from 663 community colleges and includes more than 320,000 students.…

  13. An Exploratory Study Examining the Feasibility of Using Bayesian Networks to Predict Circuit Analysis Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Dionne, Gary B.; Kaiser, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Our research question was whether we could develop a feasible technique, using Bayesian networks, to diagnose gaps in student knowledge. Thirty-four college-age participants completed tasks designed to measure conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and problem-solving skills related to circuit analysis. A Bayesian network was used to model…

  14. Exploratory Mokken Scale Analysis as a Dimensionality Assessment Tool: Why Scalability Does Not Imply Unidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Iris A. M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the number of dimensions and the dimensionality structure of questionnaire data is important in scale evaluation. In this study, the authors evaluate two dimensionality assessment procedures in the context of Mokken scale analysis (MSA), using a so-called fixed lowerbound. The comparative simulation study, covering various…

  15. Role of salivary and candidal proteins in denture stomatitis: an exploratory proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Warren C; Schwartz-Baxter, Sarah; Carlson, Jim; Barros, Silvana; Offenbacher, Steven; Bencharit, Sompop

    2014-07-29

    Denture stomatitis, inflammation and redness beneath a denture, affects nearly half of all denture wearers. Candidal organisms, the presence of a denture, saliva, and host immunity are the key etiological factors for the condition. The role of salivary proteins in denture stomatitis is not clear. In this study 30 edentulous subjects wearing a maxillary complete denture were recruited. Unstimulated whole saliva from each subject was collected and pooled into two groups (n = 15 each), healthy and stomatitis (Newton classification II and III). Label-free multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) proteomics on two mass spectrometry platforms were used to determine peptide mass differences between control and stomatitis groups. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to determine the differential expression among the groups. The two proteomic platforms identified 97 and 176 proteins (ANOVA; p < 0.01) differentially expressed among the healthy, type 2 and 3 stomatitis groups. Three proteins including carbonic anhydrase 6, cystatin C, and cystatin SN were found to be the same as previous study. Salivary proteomic profiles of patients with denture stomatitis were found to be uniquely different from controls. Analysis of protein components suggests that certain salivary proteins may predispose some patients to denture stomatitis while others are believed to be involved in the reaction to fungal infection. Analysis of candidal proteins suggests that multiple species of candidal organisms play a role in denture stomatitis.

  16. Toward exploratory analysis of diversity unified across fields of study: an information visualization approach

    Treesearch

    Tuan Pham; Julia Jones; Ronald Metoyer; Frederick Colwell

    2014-01-01

    The study of the diversity of multivariate objects shares common characteristics and goals across disciplines, including ecology and organizational management. Nevertheless, subject-matter experts have adopted somewhat separate diversity concepts and analysis techniques, limiting the potential for sharing and comparing across disciplines. Moreover, while large and...

  17. Formal Modeling of Diffie-Hellman Derivability for Exploratory Automated Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    model to a weaker one which does not capture exponent addition or group multiplication. This would seem to be a problematic model: it seems to deny the...protocol analysis for Diffie-Hellman. CoRR, abs/1202.2168, 2012. [5] Catherine Meadows and Paliath Narendran. A unification algorithm for the group

  18. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  19. The Representation of Diversity in Marketing Principles Texts: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxman, Ellen; Easterling, Debbie

    1999-01-01

    Content analysis of portrayals of organizations and individuals in 32 marketing textbooks showed that in many respects their depiction of the actual U.S. workplace was not accurate. Women and people with disabilities were underrepresented; results for ethnic minorities were unclear because of difficulties of identification in print. (SK)

  20. Representations of Childcare in the Australian Print Media: An Exploratory Corpus-Assisted Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenech, Marianne; Wilkins, David P.

    2017-01-01

    While an increasing body of Australian and international research has explored the relationship between media and education, few studies have examined this relationship in the context of early childhood education. This paper contributes to this research gap by reporting on a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of how childcare is represented in 801…